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Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex

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Author Topic: Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex  (Read 747 times)
Veronica Poe
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« Reply #15 on: September 21, 2007, 12:55:37 am »


With the beginning of puberty the changes set in which transform the infantile sexual life into its definite normal form. Hitherto the sexual impulse has been preponderantly autoerotic; it now finds the sexual object. Thus far it has manifested itself in single impulses and in erogenous zones seeking a certain pleasure as a single sexual aim. A new sexual aim now appears for the production of which all partial impulses co枚perate, while the erogenous zones subordinate themselves to the primacy of the genital zone.[3a] As the new sexual aim assigns very different functions to the two sexes their sexual developments now part company. The sexual development of the man is more consistent and easier to understand, while in the woman there even appears a form of regression. The normality of the sexual life is guaranteed only by the exact concurrence of the two streams directed to the sexual object and sexual aim. It is like the piercing of a tunnel from opposite sides.

The new sexual aim in the man consists in the discharging of the sexual products; it is not contradictory to the former sexual aim, that of obtaining pleasure; on the contrary, the highest amount of pleasure is connected with this final act in the sexual process. The sexual impulse now enters into the service of the function of propagation; it becomes, so to say, altruistic. If this transformation is to succeed its process must be adjusted to the original dispositions and all the peculiarities of the impulses.

Just as on every other occasion where new connections and compositions are to be formed in complicated mechanisms, here, too, there is a possibility for morbid disturbance if the new order of things does not get itself established. All morbid disturbances of the sexual life may justly be considered as inhibitions of development.

From the course of development as described we can clearly see the issue and the end aim. The intermediary transitions are still quite obscure and many a riddle will have to be solved in them.

The most striking process of puberty has been selected as its most characteristic; it is the manifest growth of the external genitals which have shown a relative inhibition of growth during the latency period of childhood. Simultaneously the inner genitals develop to such an extent as to be able to furnish sexual products or to receive them for the purpose of forming a new living being. A most complicated apparatus is thus formed which waits to be claimed.

This apparatus can be set in motion by stimuli, and observation teaches that the stimuli can affect it in three ways: from the outer world through the familiar erogenous zones; from the inner organic world by ways still to be investigated; and from the psychic life, which merely represents a depository of external impressions and a receptacle of inner excitations. The same result follows in all three cases, namely, a state which can be designated as "sexual excitation" and which manifests itself in psychic and somatic signs. The psychic sign consists in a peculiar feeling of tension of a most urgent character, and among the manifold somatic signs the many changes in the genitals stand first. They have a definite meaning, that of readiness; they constitute a preparation for the sexual act (the **** of the **** and the glandular activity of the ****).

The Sexual Tension桾he character of the tension of sexual excitation is connected with a problem the solution of which is as difficult as it would be important for the conception of the sexual process. Despite all divergence of opinion regarding it in psychology, I must firmly maintain that a feeling of tension must carry with it the character of displeasure. For me it is conclusive that such a feeling carries with it the impulse to alter the psychic situation, and acts incitingly, which is quite contrary to the nature of perceived pleasure. But if we ascribe the tension of the sexual excitation to the feelings of displeasure we encounter the fact that it is undoubtedly pleasurably perceived. The tension produced by sexual excitation is everywhere accompanied by pleasure; even in the preparatory changes of the genitals there is a distinct feeling of satisfaction. What relation is there between this unpleasant tension and this feeling of pleasure?

Everything relating to the problem of pleasure and pain touches one of the weakest spots of present-day psychology. We shall try if possible to learn something from the determinations of the case in question and to avoid encroaching on the problem as a whole. Let us first glance at the manner in which the erogenous zones adjust themselves to the new order of things. An important r么le devolves upon them in the preparation of the sexual excitation. The eye which is very remote from the sexual object is most often in position, during the relations of object wooing, to become attracted by that particular quality of excitation, the motive of which we designate as beauty in the sexual object. The excellencies of the sexual object are therefore also called "attractions." This attraction is on the one hand already connected with pleasure, and on the other hand it either results in an increase of the sexual excitation or in an evocation of the same where it is still wanting. The effect is the same if the excitation of another erogenous zone, e.g., the touching hand, is added to it. There is on the one hand the feeling of pleasure which soon becomes enhanced by the pleasure from the preparatory changes, and on the other hand there is a further increase of the sexual tension which soon changes into a most distinct feeling of displeasure if it cannot proceed to more pleasure. Another case will perhaps be clearer; let us, for example, take the case where an erogenous zone, like a woman's breast, is excited by touching in a person who is not sexually excited at the time. This touching in itself evokes a feeling of pleasure, but it is also best adapted to awaken sexual excitement which demands still more pleasure. How it happens that the perceived pleasure evokes the desire for greater pleasure, that is the real problem.

Fore-pleasure Mechanism.桞ut the r么le which devolves upon the erogenous zones is clear. What applies to one applies to all. They are all utilized to furnish a certain amount of pleasure through their own proper excitation, which increases the tension, and which is in turn destined to produce the necessary motor energy in order to bring to a conclusion the sexual act. The last part but one of this act is again a suitable excitation of an erogenous zone; i.e., the genital zone proper of the glans **** is excited by the object most fit for it, the mucous membrane of the ****, and through the pleasure furnished by this excitation it now produces reflexly the motor energy which conveys to the surface the sexual substance. This last pleasure is highest in its intensity, and differs from the earliest ones in its mechanism. It is altogether produced through discharge, it is altogether gratification pleasure and the tension of the libido temporarily dies away with it.

It does not seem to me unjustified to fix by name the distinction in the nature of these pleasures, the one through the excitation of the erogenous zones, and the other through the discharge of the sexual substance. In contradistinction to the end-pleasure, or pleasure of gratification of sexual activity, we can properly designate the first as fore-pleasure. The fore-pleasure is then the same as that furnished by the infantile sexual impulse, though on a reduced scale; while the end-pleasure is new and is probably connected with determinations which first appear at puberty. The formula for the new function of the erogenous zones reads as follows: they are utilized for the purpose of making possible the production of the greater pleasure of gratification by means of the fore-pleasure which is gained from them as in infantile life.

I have recently been able to elucidate another example from a quite different realm of the psychic life, in which likewise a greater feeling of pleasure is achieved by means of a lesser feeling of pleasure which thereby acts as an alluring premium. We had there also the opportunity of entering more deeply into the nature of pleasure.[3b]

Dangers of the Fore-pleasure.桯owever the connection of fore-pleasure with the infantile life is strengthened by the pathogenic r么le which may devolve upon it. In the mechanism through which the fore-pleasure is expressed there exists an obvious danger to the attainment of the normal sexual aim. This occurs if it happens that there is too much fore-pleasure and too little tension in any part of the preparatory sexual process. The motive power for the further continuation of the sexual process then escapes, the whole road becomes shortened, and the preparatory action in question takes the place of the normal sexual aim. Experience shows that such a hurtful condition is determined by the fact that the erogenous zone concerned or the corresponding partial impulse has already contributed an unusual amount of pleasure in infantile life. If other factors favoring fixation are added a compulsion readily results for the later life which prevents the fore-pleasure from arranging itself into a new combination. Indeed, the mechanism of many perversions is of such a nature; they merely represent a lingering at a preparatory act of the sexual process.

The failure of the function of the sexual mechanism through the fault of the fore-pleasure is generally avoided if the primacy of the genital zones has also already been sketched out in infantile life. The preparations of the second half of childhood (from the eighth year to puberty) really seem to favor this. During these years the genital zones behave almost as at the age of maturity; they are the seat of exciting sensations and of preparatory changes if any kind of pleasure is experienced through the gratification of other erogenous zones; although this effect remains aimless, i.e., it contributes nothing towards the continuation of the sexual process. Besides the pleasure of gratification a certain amount of sexual tension appears even in infancy, though it is less constant and less abundant. We can now understand also why in the discussion of the sources of sexuality we had a perfectly good reason for saying that the process in question acts as sexual gratification as well as sexual excitement. We note that on our way towards the truth we have at first enormously exaggerated the distinctions between the infantile and the mature sexual life, and we therefore supplement what has been said with a correction. The infantile manifestations of sexuality determine not only the deviations from the normal sexual life but also the normal formations of the same.

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Veronica Poe
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« Reply #16 on: September 21, 2007, 12:56:20 am »


It remains entirely unexplained whence the sexual tension comes which originates simultaneously with the gratification of erogenous zones and what is its nature. The obvious supposition that this tension originates in some way from the pleasure itself is not only improbable in itself but untenable, inasmuch as during the greatest pleasure which is connected with the voiding of sexual substance there is no production of tension but rather a removal of all tension. Hence, pleasure and sexual tension can be only indirectly connected.

The R么le of the Sexual Substance.桝side from the fact that only the discharge of the sexual substance can normally put an end to the sexual excitement, there are other essential facts which bring the sexual tension into relation with the sexual products. In a life of continence the sexual activity is wont to discharge the sexual substance at night during pleasurable dream hallucinations of a sexual act, this discharge coming at changing but not at entirely capricious intervals; and the following interpretation of this process梩he nocturnal pollution梒an hardly be rejected, viz., that the sexual tension which brings about a substitute for the sexual act by the short hallucinatory road is a function of the accumulated semen in the reservoirs for the sexual products. Experiences with the exhaustibility of the sexual mechanism speak for the same thing. Where there is no stock of semen it is not only impossible to accomplish the sexual act, but there is also a lack of excitability in the erogenous zones, the suitable excitation of which can evoke no pleasure. We thus discover incidentally that a certain amount of sexual tension is itself necessary for the excitability of the erogenous zones.

One would thus be forced to the assumption, which if I am not mistaken is quite generally adopted, that the accumulation of sexual substance produces and maintains the sexual tension. The pressure of these products on the walls of their receptacles acts as an excitant on the spinal center, the state of which is then perceived by the higher centers which then produce in consciousness the familiar feeling of tension. If the excitation of erogenous zones increases the sexual tension, it can only be due to the fact that the erogenous zones are connected with these centers by previously formed anatomical connections. They increase there the tone of the excitation, and with sufficient sexual tension they set in motion the sexual act, and with insufficient tension they merely stimulate a production of the sexual substance.

The weakness of the theory which one finds adopted, e.g., in v. Krafft-Ebing's description of the sexual process, lies in the fact that it has been formed for the sexual activity of the mature man and pays too little heed to three kinds of relations which should also have been elucidated. We refer to the relations as found in the child, in the woman, and in the castrated male. In none of the three cases can we speak of an accumulation of sexual products in the same sense as in the man, which naturally renders difficult the general application of this scheme; still it may be admitted without any further ado that ways can be found to justify the subordination of even these cases. Nevertheless one should be cautious about burdening the factor of accumulation of sexual products with actions which it seems incapable of supporting.

Overestimation of the Internal Genitals.桾hat sexual excitement can be independent to a considerable extent of the production of sexual substance seems to be shown by observations on castrated males, in whom the libido sometimes escapes the injury caused by the operation, although the opposite behavior, which is really the motive for the operation, is usually the rule. It is therefore not at all surprising, as C. Rieger puts it, that the loss of the male germ glands in maturer age should exert no new influence on the psychic life of the individual. The germ glands are really not the sexuality, and the experience with castrated males only verifies what we had long before learned from the removal of the ovaries, namely that it is impossible to do away with the sexual character by removing the germ glands. To be sure, castration performed at a tender age, before puberty, comes nearer to this aim, but it would seem in this case that besides the loss of the sexual glands we must also consider the inhibition of development and other factors which are connected with that loss.

Chemical Theories.桾he truth remains, however, that we are unable to give any information about the nature of the sexual excitement for the reason that we do not know with what organ or organs sexuality is connected, since we have seen that the sexual glands have been overestimated in this significance. Since surprising discoveries have taught us the important r么le of the thyroid gland in sexuality, we may assume that the knowledge of the essential factors of sexuality are still withheld from us. One who feels the need of filling up the large gap in our knowledge with a preliminary assumption may formulate for himself the following theory based on the active substances found in the thyroid. Through the appropriate excitement of erogenous zones, as well as through other conditions under which sexual excitement originates, a material which is universally distributed in the organism becomes disintegrated, the decomposing products of which supply a specific stimulus to the organs of reproduction or to the spinal center connected with them. Such a transformation of a toxic stimulus in a particular organic stimulus we are already familiar with from other toxic products introduced into the body from without. To treat, if only hypothetically, the complexities of the pure toxic and the physiologic stimulations which result in the sexual processes is not now our appropriate task. To be sure, I attach no value to this special assumption and I shall be quite ready to give it up in favor of another, provided its original character, the emphasis on the sexual chemism, were preserved. For this apparently arbitrary statement is supported by a fact which, though little heeded, is most noteworthy. The neuroses which can be traced only to disturbances of the sexual life show the greatest clinical resemblance to the phenomena of intoxication and abstinence which result from the habitual introduction of pleasure-producing poisonous substances (alkaloids.)

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Veronica Poe
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« Reply #17 on: September 21, 2007, 12:57:03 am »


These assumptions concerning the chemical basis of the sexual excitement are in full accord with the auxiliary conception which we formed for the purpose of mastering the psychic manifestations of the sexual life. We have determined the concept of libido as that of a force of variable quantity which has the capacity of measuring processes and transformations in the spheres of sexual excitement. This libido we distinguished from the energy which is to be generally adjudged to the psychic processes with reference to its special origin and thus we attribute to it also a qualitative character. In separating libidinous from other psychic energy we give expression to the assumption that the sexual processes of the organism are differentiated from the nutritional processes through a special chemism. The analyses of perversions and psychoneuroses have taught us that this sexual excitement is furnished not only from the so-called sexual parts alone but from all organs of the body. We thus formulate for ourselves the concept of a libido-quantum whose psychic representative we designate as the ego-libido; the production, increase, distribution and displacement of this ego-libido will offer the possible explanation for the observed psycho-sexual phenomena.

But this ego-libido becomes conveniently accessible to psychoanalytic study only when the psychic energy is employed on sexual objects, that is when it becomes object libido. Then we see it as it concentrates and fixes itself on objects, or as it leaves those objects and passes over to others from which positions it directs the individual's sexual activity, that is, it leads to partial and temporary extinction of the libido. Psychoanalysis of the so-called transference neuroses (hysteria and compulsion neurosis) offers us here a reliable insight.

Concerning the fates of the object libido we also state that it is withdrawn from the object, that it is preserved floating in special states of tension and is finally taken back into the ego, so that it again becomes ego-libido. In contradistinction to the object-libido we also call the ego-libido narcissistic libido. From psychoanalysis we look over the boundary which we are not permitted to pass into the activity of the narcissistic libido and thus form an idea of the relations between the two. The narcissistic or ego-libido appears to us as the great reservoir from which the energy for the investment of the object is sent out and into which it is drawn back again, while the narcissistic libido investment of the ego appears to us as the realized primitive state in the first childhood, which only becomes hidden by the later emissions of the libido, and is retained at the bottom behind them.

The task of a theory of libido of neurotic and psychotic disturbances would have for its object to express in terms of the libido-economy all observed phenomena and disclosed processes. It is easy to divine that the greater significance would attach thereby to the destinies of the ego-libido, especially where it would be the question of explaining the deeper psychotic disturbances. The difficulty then lies in the fact that the means of our investigation, psychoanalysis, at present gives us definite information only concerning the transformation of the object-libido, but cannot distinguish without further study the ego-libido from the other effective energies in the ego.[3c]

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Veronica Poe
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« Reply #18 on: September 21, 2007, 12:57:48 am »


It is known that the sharp differentiation of the male and female character originates at puberty, and it is the resulting difference which, more than any other factor, decisively influences the later development of personality. To be sure, the male and female dispositions are easily recognizable even in infantile life; thus the development of sexual inhibitions (shame, loathing, sympathy, etc.) ensues earlier and with less resistance in the little girl than in the little boy. The tendency to sexual repression certainly seems much greater, and where partial impulses of sexuality are noticed they show a preference for the passive form. But, the autoerotic activity of the erogenous zones is the same in both sexes, and it is this agreement that removes the possibility of a sex differentiation in childhood as it appears after puberty. In respect to the autoerotic and masturbatic sexual manifestations, it may be asserted that the sexuality of the little girl has entirely a male character. Indeed, if one could give a more definite content to the terms "masculine and feminine," one might advance the opinion that the libido is regularly and lawfully of a masculine nature, whether in the man or in the woman; and if we consider its object, this may be either the man or the woman.[3d]

Since becoming acquainted with the aspect of bisexuality I hold this factor as here decisive, and I believe that without taking into account the factor of bisexuality it will hardly be possible to understand the actually observed sexual manifestations in man and woman.

The Leading Zones in Man and Woman.桭urther than this I can only add the following. The chief erogenous zone in the female child is the clitoris, which is homologous to the male ****. All I have been able to discover concerning **** in little girls concerned the clitoris and not those other external genitals which are so important for the later sexual functions. With few exceptions I myself doubt whether the female child can be seduced to anything but clitoris ****. The frequent spontaneous discharges of sexual excitement in little girls manifest themselves in a twitching of the clitoris, and its frequent erections enable the girl to understand correctly even without any instruction the sexual manifestations of the other sex; they simply transfer to the boys the sensations of their own sexual processes.

If one wishes to understand how the little girl becomes a woman, he must follow up the further destinies of this clitoris excitation. Puberty, which brings to the boy a great advance of libido, distinguishes itself in the girl by a new wave of repression which especially concerns the clitoris sexuality. It is a part of the male sexual life that sinks into repression. The re毛nforcement of the sexual inhibitions produced in the woman by the repression of puberty causes a stimulus in the libido of the man and forces it to increase its capacity; with the height of the libido there is a rise in the overestimation of the sexual, which can be present in its full force only when the woman refuses and denies her sexuality. If the sexual act is finally submitted to and the clitoris becomes excited its r么le is then to conduct the excitement to the adjacent female parts, and in this it acts like a chip of pine wood which is utilized to set fire to the harder wood. It often takes some time for this transference to be accomplished; during which the young wife remains anesthetic. This anesthesia may become permanent if the clitoris zone refuses to give up its excitability; a condition brought on by abundant activities in infantile life. It is known that anesthesia in women is often only apparent and local. They are anesthetic at the vaginal entrance but not at all unexcitable through the clitoris or even through other zones. Besides these erogenous causes of anesthesia there are also psychic causes likewise determined by the repression.

If the transference of the erogenous excitability from the clitoris to the **** has succeeded, the woman has thus changed her leading zone for the future sexual activity; the man on the other hand retains his from childhood. The main determinants for the woman's preference for the neuroses, especially for hysteria, lie in this change of the leading zone as well as in the repression of puberty. These determinants are therefore most intimately connected with the nature of femininity.

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Veronica Poe
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« Reply #19 on: September 21, 2007, 12:58:42 am »


While the primacy of the genital zones is being established through the processes of puberty, and the erected **** in the man imperiously points towards the new sexual aim, i.e., towards the penetration of a cavity which excites the genital zone, the object-finding, for which also preparations have been made since early childhood, becomes consummated on the psychic side. While the very incipient sexual gratifications are still connected with the taking of nourishment, the sexual impulse has a sexual object outside its own body in his mother's breast. This object it loses later, perhaps at the very time when it becomes possible for the child to form a general picture of the person to whom the organ granting him the gratification belongs. The sexual impulse later regularly becomes autoerotic, and only after overcoming the latency period is there a resumption of the original relation. It is not without good reason that the suckling of the child at its mother's breast has become a model for every amour. The object-finding is really a re-finding.[3e]

The Sexual Object of the Nursing Period.桯owever, even after the separation of the sexual activity from the taking of nourishment, there still remains from this first and most important of all sexual relations an important share, which prepares the object selection and assists in reestablishing the lost happiness. Throughout the latency period the child learns to love other persons who assist it in its helplessness and gratify its wants; all this follows the model and is a continuation of the child's infantile relations to his wet nurse. One may perhaps hesitate to identify the tender feelings and esteem of the child for his foster-parents with sexual love; I believe, however, that a more thorough psychological investigation will establish this identity beyond any doubt. The intercourse between the child and its foster-parents is for the former an inexhaustible source of sexual excitation and gratification of erogenous zones, especially since the parents梠r as a rule the mother梥upplies the child with feelings which originate from her own sexual life; she pats it, kisses it, and rocks it, plainly taking it as a substitute for a full-valued sexual object.[3f] The mother would probably be terrified if it were explained to her that all her tenderness awakens the sexual impulse of her child and prepares its future intensity. She considers her actions as asexually "pure" love, for she carefully avoids causing more irritation to the genitals of the child than is indispensable in caring for the body. But as we know the sexual impulse is not awakened by the excitation of genital zones alone. What we call tenderness will some day surely manifest its influence on the genital zones also. If the mother better understood the high significance of the sexual impulse for the whole psychic life and for all ethical and psychic activities, the enlightenment would spare her all reproaches. By teaching the child to love she only fulfills her function; for the child should become a fit man with energetic sexual needs, and accomplish in life all that the impulse urges the man to do. Of course, too much parental tenderness becomes harmful because it accelerates the sexual maturity, and also because it "spoils" the child and makes it unfit to temporarily renounce love or be satisfied with a smaller amount of love in later life. One of the surest premonitions of later nervousness is the fact that the child shows itself insatiable in its demands for parental tenderness; on the other hand, neuropathic parents, who usually display a boundless tenderness, often with their caressing awaken in the child a disposition for neurotic diseases. This example at least shows that neuropathic parents have nearer ways than inheritance by which they can transfer their disturbances to their children.

Infantile Fear.桾he children themselves behave from their early childhood as if their attachment to their foster-parents were of the nature of sexual love. The fear of children is originally nothing but an expression for the fact that they miss the beloved person. They therefore meet every stranger with fear, they are afraid of the dark because they cannot see the beloved person, and are calmed if they can grasp that person's hand. The effect of childish fears and of the terrifying stories told by nurses is overestimated if one blames the latter for producing the fear in children. Children who are predisposed to fear absorb these stories, which make no impression whatever upon others; and only such children are predisposed to fear whose sexual impulse is excessive or prematurely developed, or has become exigent through pampering. The child behaves here like the adult, that is, it changes its libido into fear when it cannot bring it to gratification, and the grown-up who becomes neurotic on account of ungratified libido behaves in his anxiety like a child; he fears when he is alone, i.e., without a person of whose love he believes himself sure, and who can calm his fears by means of the most childish measures.[3g]

Incest Barriers.桰f the tenderness of the parents for the child has luckily failed to awaken the sexual impulse of the child prematurely, i.e., before the physical determinations for puberty appear, and if that awakening has not gone so far as to cause an unmistakable breaking through of the psychic excitement into the genital system, it can then fulfill its task and direct the child at the age of maturity in the selection of the sexual object. It would, of course, be most natural for the child to select as the sexual object that person whom it has loved since childhood with, so to speak, a suppressed libido.[3h] But owing to the delay of sexual maturity time has been gained for the **** beside the sexual inhibitions of the incest barrier, that moral prescription which explicitly excludes from the object selection the beloved person of infancy or blood relation. The observance of this barrier is above all a demand of cultural society which must guard against the absorption by the family of those interests which it needs for the production of higher social units. Society, therefore, uses every means to loosen those family ties in every individual, especially in the boy, which are authoritative in childhood only.[3i]

The object selection, however, is first accomplished in the imagination, and the sexual life of the maturing youth has hardly any escape except indulgence in phantasies or ideas which are not destined to be brought to execution. In the phantasies of all persons the infantile inclinations, now re毛nforced by somatic emphasis, reappear, and among them one finds in regular frequency and in the first place the sexual feeling of the child for the parents. This has usually already been differentiated by the sexual attraction, the attraction of the son for the mother and of the daughter for the father.[3j] Simultaneously with the overcoming and rejection of these distinctly incestuous phantasies there occurs one of the most important as well as one of the most painful psychic accomplishments of puberty; it is the breaking away from the parental authority, through which alone is formed that opposition between the new and old generations which is so important for cultural progress. Many persons are detained at each of the stations in the course of development through which the individual must pass; and accordingly there are persons who never overcome the parental authority and never, or very imperfectly, withdraw their affection from their parents. They are mostly girls, who, to the delight of their parents, retain their full infantile love far beyond puberty, and it is instructive to find that in their married life these girls are incapable of fulfilling their duties to their husbands. They make cold wives and remain sexually anesthetic. This shows that the apparently non-sexual love for the parents and the sexual love are nourished from the same source, i.e., that the first merely corresponds to an infantile fixation of the libido.

The nearer we come to the deeper disturbances of the psychosexual development the more easily we can recognize the evident significance of the incestuous object-selection. As a result of sexual rejection there remains in the unconscious of the psychoneurotic a great part or the whole of the psychosexual activity for object finding. Girls with an excessive need for affection and an equal horror for the real demands of the sexual life experience an uncontrollable temptation on the one hand to realize in life the ideal of the asexual love and on the other hand to conceal their libido under an affection which they may manifest without self reproach; this they do by clinging for life to the infantile attraction for their parents or brothers or sisters which has been repressed in puberty. With the help of the symptoms and other morbid manifestations, psychoanalysis can trace their unconscious thoughts and translate them into the conscious, and thus easily show to such persons that they are in love with their consanguinous relations in the popular meaning of the term. Likewise when a once healthy person falls sick after an unhappy love affair, the mechanism of the disease can distinctly be explained as a return of his libido to the persons preferred in his infancy.

The After Effects of the Infantile Object Selection.桬ven those who have happily eluded the incestuous fixation of their libido have not completely escaped its influence. It is a distinct echo of this phase of development that the first serious love of the young man is often for a mature woman and that of the girl for an older man equipped with authority梚.e., for persons who can revive in them the picture of the mother and father. Generally speaking object selection unquestionably takes place by following more freely these prototypes. The man seeks above all the memory picture of his mother as it has dominated him since the beginning of childhood; this is quite consistent with the fact that the mother, if still living, strives against this, her renewal, and meets it with hostility. In view of this significance of the infantile relation to the parents for the later selection of the sexual object, it is easy to understand that every disturbance of this infantile relation brings to a head the most serious results for the sexual life after puberty. Jealousy of the lover, too, never lacks the infantile sources or at least the infantile reinforcement. Quarrels between parents and unhappy marital relations between the same determine the severest predispositions for disturbed sexual development or neurotic diseases in the children.

The infantile desire for the parents is, to be sure, the most important, but not the only trace revived in puberty which points the way to the object selection. Other dispositions of the same origin permit the man, still supported by his infancy, to develop more than one single sexual series and to form different determinations for the object selection.[3k]

Prevention of Inversion.桹ne of the tasks imposed in the object selection consists in not missing the opposite sex. This, as we know, is not solved without some difficulty. The first feelings after puberty often enough go astray, though not with any permanent injury. Dessoir has called attention to the normality of the enthusiastic friendships formed by boys and girls with their own sex. The greatest force which guards against a permanent inversion of the sexual object is surely the attraction exerted by the opposite sex characters on each other. For this we can give no explanation in connection with this discussion. This factor, however, does not in itself suffice to exclude the inversion; besides this there are surely many other supporting factors. Above all, there is the authoritative inhibition of society; experience shows that where the inversion is not considered a crime it fully corresponds to the sexual inclinations of many persons. Moreover, it may be assumed that in the man the infantile memories of the mother's tenderness, as well as that of other females who cared for him as a child, energetically assist in directing his selection to the woman, while the early sexual intimidation experienced through the father and the attitude of rivalry existing between them deflects the boy from the same sex. Both factors also hold true in the case of the girl whose sexual activity is under the special care of the mother. This results in a hostile relation to the same sex which decisively influences the object selection in the normal sense. The bringing up of boys by male persons (slaves in the ancient times) seems to favor homosexuality; the frequency of inversion in the present day nobility is probably explained by their employment of male servants, and by the scant care that mothers of that class give to their children. It happens in some hysterics that one of the parents has disappeared (through death, divorce, or estrangement), thus permitting the remaining parent to absorb all the love of the child, and in this way establishing the determinations for the sex of the person to be selected later as the sexual object; thus a permanent inversion is made possible.

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Veronica Poe
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« Reply #20 on: September 21, 2007, 01:00:55 am »


It is now time to attempt a summing-up. We have started from the aberrations of the sexual impulse in reference to its object and aim and have encountered the question whether these originate from a congenital predisposition, or whether they are acquired in consequence of influences from life. The answer to this question was reached through an examination of the relations of the sexual life of psychoneurotics, a numerous group not very remote from the normal. This examination has been made through psychoanalytic investigations. We have thus found that a tendency to all perversions might be demonstrated in these persons in the form of unconscious forces revealing themselves as symptom creators and we could say that the neurosis is, as it were, the negative of the perversion. In view of the now recognized great diffusion of tendencies to perversion the idea forced itself upon us that the disposition to perversions is the primitive and universal disposition of the human sexual impulse, from which the normal sexual behavior develops in consequence of organic changes and psychic inhibitions in the course of maturity. We hoped to be able to demonstrate the original disposition in the infantile life; among the forces restraining the direction of the sexual impulse we have mentioned shame, loathing and sympathy, and the social constructions of morality and authority. We have thus been forced to perceive in every fixed aberration from the normal sexual life a fragment of inhibited development and infantilism. The significance of the variations of the original dispositions had to be put into the foreground, but between them and the influences of life we had to assume a relation of co枚peration and not of opposition. On the other hand, as the original disposition must have been a complex one, the sexual impulse itself appeared to us as something composed of many factors, which in the perversions becomes separated, as it were, into its components. The perversions, thus prove themselves to be on the one hand inhibitions, and on the other dissociations from the normal development. Both conceptions became united in the assumption that the sexual impulse of the adult due to the composition of the diverse feelings of the infantile life became formed into one unit, one striving, with one single aim.

We also added an explanation for the preponderance of perversive tendencies in the psychoneurotics by recognizing in these tendencies collateral fillings of side branches caused by the shifting of the main river bed through repression, and we then turned our examination to the sexual life of the infantile period.[3l] We found it regrettable that the existence of a sexual life in infancy has been disputed, and that the sexual manifestations which have been often observed in children have been described as abnormal occurrences. It rather seemed to us that the child brings along into the world germs of sexual activity and that even while taking nourishment it at the same time also enjoys a sexual gratification which it then seeks again to procure for itself through the familiar activity of "thumbsucking." The sexual activity of the child, however, does not develop in the same measure as its other functions, but merges first into the so-called latency period from the age of three to the age of five years. The production of sexual excitation by no means ceases at this period but continues and furnishes a stock of energy, the greater part of which is utilized for aims other than sexual; namely, on the one hand for the delivery of sexual components for social feelings, and on the other hand (by means of repression and reaction formation) for the **** of the future sexual barriers. Accordingly, the forces which are destined to hold the sexual impulse in certain tracks are built up in infancy at the expense of the greater part of the perverse sexual feelings and with the assistance of education. Another part of the infantile sexual manifestations escapes this utilization and may manifest itself as sexual activity. It can then be discovered that the sexual excitation of the child flows from diverse sources. Above all gratifications originate through the adapted sensible excitation of so-called erogenous zones. For these probably any skin region or sensory organ may serve; but there are certain distinguished erogenous zones the excitation of which by certain organic mechanisms is assured from the beginning. Moreover, sexual excitation originates in the organism, as it were, as a by-product in a great number of processes, as soon as they attain a certain intensity; this especially takes place in all strong emotional excitements even if they be of a painful nature. The excitations from all these sources do not yet unite, but they pursue their aim individually梩his aim consisting merely in the gaining of a certain pleasure. The sexual impulse of childhood is therefore objectless or autoerotic.

Still during infancy the erogenous zone of the genitals begins to make itself noticeable, either by the fact that like any other erogenous zone it furnishes gratification through a suitable sensible stimulus, or because in some incomprehensible way the gratification from other sources causes at the same time the sexual excitement which has a special connection with the genital zone. We found cause to regret that a sufficient explanation of the relations between sexual gratification and sexual excitement, as well as between the activity of the genital zone and the remaining sources of sexuality, was not to be attained.

We were unable to state what amount of sexual activity in childhood might be designated as normal to the extent of being incapable of further development. The character of the sexual manifestation showed itself to be preponderantly masturbatic. We, moreover, verified from experience the belief that the external influences of seduction, might produce premature breaches in the latency period leading as far as the suppression of the same, and that the sexual impulse of the child really shows itself to be polymorphous-perverse; furthermore, that every such premature sexual activity impairs the educability of the child.

Despite the incompleteness of our examinations of the infantile sexual life we were subsequently forced to attempt to study the serious changes produced by the appearance of puberty. We selected two of the same as criteria, namely, the subordination of all other sources of the sexual feeling to the primacy of the genital zones, and the process of object finding. Both of them are already developed in childhood. The first is accomplished through the mechanism of utilizing the fore-pleasure, whereby all other independent sexual acts which are connected with pleasure and excitement become preparatory acts for the new sexual aim, the voiding of the sexual products, the attainment of which under enormous pleasure puts an end to the sexual feeling. At the same time we had to consider the differentiation of the sexual nature of man and woman, and we found that in order to become a woman a new repression is required which abolishes a piece of infantile masculinity, and prepares the woman for the change of the leading genital zones. Lastly, we found the object selection, tracing it through infancy to its revival in puberty; we also found indications of sexual inclinations on the part of the child for the parents and foster-parents, which, however, were turned away from these persons to others resembling them by the incest barriers which had been erected in the meantime. Let us finally add that during the transition period of puberty the somatic and psychic processes of development proceed side by side, but separately, until with the breaking through of an intense psychic love-stimulus for the innervation of the genitals, the normally demanded unification of the erotic function is established.

The Factors Disturbing the Development.桝s we have already shown by different examples, every step on this long road of development may become a point of fixation and every joint in this complicated structure may afford opportunity for a dissociation of the sexual impulse. It still remains for us to review the various inner and outer factors which disturb the development, and to mention the part of the mechanism affected by the disturbance emanating from them. The factors which we mention here in a series cannot, of course, all be in themselves of equal validity and we must expect to meet with difficulties in the assigning to the individual factors their due importance.

Constitution and Heredity.桰n the first place, we must mention here the congenital variation of the sexual constitution, upon which the greatest weight probably falls, but the existence of which, as may be easily understood, can be established only through its later manifestations and even then not always with great certainty. We understand by it a preponderance of one or another of the manifold sources of the sexual excitement, and we believe that such a difference of disposition must always come to expression in the final result, even if it should remain within normal limits. Of course, we can also imagine certain variations of the original disposition that even without further aid must necessarily lead to the formation of an abnormal sexual life. One can call these "degenerative" and consider them as an expression of hereditary deterioration. In this connection I have to report a remarkable fact. In more than half of the severe cases of hysteria, compulsion neuroses, etc., which I have treated by psychotherapy, I have succeeded in positively demonstrating that their fathers have gone through an attack of syphilis before marriage; they have either suffered from tabes or general paresis, or there was a definite history of lues. I expressly add that the children who were later neurotic showed absolutely no signs of hereditary lues, so that the abnormal sexual constitution was to be considered as the last off-shoot of the luetic heredity. As far as it is now from my thoughts to put down a descent from syphilitic parents as a regular and indispensable etiological determination of the neuropathic constitution, I nevertheless maintain that the coincidence observed by me is not accidental and not without significance.

The hereditary relations of the positive perverts are not so well known because they know how to avoid inquiry. Still there is reason to believe that the same holds true in the perversions as in the neuroses. We often find perversions and psychoneuroses in the different sexes of the same family, so distributed that the male members, or one of them, is a positive pervert, while the females, following the repressive tendencies of their sex, are negative perverts or hysterics. This is a good example of the substantial relations between the two disturbances which I have discovered.

Further Elaboration.桰t cannot, however, be maintained that the structure of the sexual life is rendered finally complete by the addition of the diverse components of the sexual constitution. On the contrary, qualifications continue to appear and new possibilities result, depending upon the fate experienced by the sexual streams originating from the individual sources. This further elaboration is evidently the final and decisive one while the constitution described as uniform may lead to three final issues. If all the dispositions assumed to be abnormal retain their relative proportion, and are strengthened with maturity, the ultimate result can only be a perverse sexual life. The analysis of such abnormally constituted dispositions has not yet been thoroughly undertaken, but we already know cases that can be readily explained in the light of these theories. Authors believe, for example, that a whole series of fixation perversions must necessarily have had as their basis a congenital weakness of the sexual impulse. The statement seems to me untenable in this form, but it becomes ingenious if it refers to a constitutional weakness of one factor in the sexual impulse, namely, the genital zone, which later in the interests of propagation accepts as a function the sum of the individual sexual activities. In this case the summation which is demanded in puberty must fail and the strongest of the other sexual components continues its activity as a perversion.[3m]

Repression.桝nother issue results if in the course of development certain powerful components experience a repression梬hich we must carefully note is not a suspension. The excitations in question are produced as usual but are prevented from attaining their aim by psychic hindrances, and are driven off into many other paths until they express themselves in a symptom. The result can be an almost normal sexual life梪sually a limited one梑ut supplemented by psychoneurotic disease. It is these cases that become so familiar to us through the psychoanalytic investigation of neurotics. The sexual life of such persons begins like that of perverts, a considerable part of their childhood is filled up with perverse sexual activity which occasionally extends far beyond the period of maturity, but owing to inner reasons a repressive change then results梪sually before puberty, but now and then even much later梐nd from this point on without any extinction of the old feelings there appears a neurosis instead of a perversion. One may recall here the saying, "Junge Hure, alte Betschwester,"梠nly here youth has turned out to be much too short. The relieving of the perversion by the neurosis in the life of the same person, as well as the above mentioned distribution of perversion and hysteria in different persons of the same family, must be placed side by side with the fact that the neurosis is the negative of the perversion.

Sublimation.桾he third issue in abnormal constitutional dispositions is made possible by the process of "sublimation," through which the powerful excitations from individual sources of sexuality are discharged and utilized in other spheres, so that a considerable increase of psychic capacity results from an, in itself dangerous, predisposition. This forms one the sources of artistic activity, and, according as such sublimation is complete or incomplete, the analysis of the character of highly gifted, especially of artistically disposed persons, will show any proportionate, blending between productive ability, perversion, and neurosis. A sub-species of sublimation is the suppression through reaction-formation, which, as we have found, begins even in the latency period of infancy, only to continue throughout life in favorable cases. What we call the character of a person is built up to a great extent from the material of sexual excitations; it is composed of impulses fixed since infancy and won through sublimation, and of such constructions as are destined to suppress effectually those perverse feelings which are recognized as useless. The general perverse sexual disposition of childhood can therefore be esteemed as a source of a number of our virtues, insofar as it incites their creation through the formation of reactions.[3n]

Accidental Experiences.桝ll other influences lose in significance when compared with the sexual discharges, shifts of repressions, and sublimations; the inner determinations for the last two processes are totally unknown to us. He who includes repressions and sublimations among constitutional predispositions, and considers them as the living manifestations of the same, has surely the right to maintain that the final structure of the sexual life is above all the result of the congenital constitution. No intelligent person, however, will dispute that in such a co枚peration of factors there is also room for the modifying influences of occasional factors derived from experience in childhood and later on.

It is not easy to estimate the effectiveness of the constitutional and of the occasional factors in their relation to each other. Theory is always inclined to overestimate the first while therapeutic practice renders prominent the significance of the latter. By no means should it be forgotten that between the two there exists a relation of co枚peration and not of exclusion. The constitutional factor must wait for experiences which bring it to the surface, while the occasional needs the support of the constitutional factor in order to become effective. For the majority of cases one can imagine a so-called "etiological group" in which the declining intensities of one factor become balanced by the rise in the others, but there is no reason to deny the existence of extremes at the ends of the group.

It would be still more in harmony with psychoanalytic investigation if the experiences of early childhood would get a place of preference among the occasional factors. The one etiological group then becomes split up into two which may be designated as the dispositional and the definitive groups. Constitution and occasional infantile experiences are just as co枚perative in the first as disposition and later traumatic experiences in the second group. All the factors which injure the sexual development show their effect in that they produce a regression, or a return to a former phase of development.

We may now continue with our task of enumerating the factors which have become known to us as influential for the sexual development, whether they be active forces or merely manifestations of the same.

Prematurity.桽uch a factor is the spontaneous sexual prematurity which can be definitely demonstrated at least in the etiology of the neuroses, though in itself it is as little adequate for causation as the other factors. It manifests itself in a breaking through, shortening, or suspending of the infantile latency period and becomes a cause of disturbances inasmuch as it provokes sexual manifestations which, either on account of the unready state of the sexual inhibitions or because of the undeveloped state of the genital system, can only carry along the character of perversions. These tendencies to perversion may either remain as such, or after the repression sets in they may become motive powers for neurotic symptoms; at all events, the sexual prematurity renders difficult the desirable later control of the sexual impulse by the higher psychic influences, and enhances the compulsive-like character which even without this prematurity would be claimed by the psychic representatives of the impulse. Sexual prematurity often runs parallel with premature intellectual development; it is found as such in the infantile history of the most distinguished and most productive individuals, and in such connection it does not seem to act as pathogenically as when appearing isolated.

Temporal Factors.桱ust like prematurity, other factors, which under the designation of temporal can be added to prematurity, also demand consideration. It seems to be phylogenetically established in what sequence the individual impulsive feelings become active, and how long they can manifest themselves before they succumb to the influence of a newly appearing active impulse or to a typical repression. But both in this temporal succession as well as in the duration of the same, variations seem to occur, which must exercise a definite influence on the experience. It cannot be a matter of indifference whether a certain stream appears earlier or later than its counterstream, for the effect of a repression cannot be made retrogressive; a temporal deviation in the composition of the components regularly produces a change in the result. On the other hand impulsive feelings which appear with special intensity often come to a surprisingly rapid end, as in the case of the heterosexual attachment of the later manifest homosexuals. The strivings of childhood which manifest themselves most impetuously do not justify the fear that they will lastingly dominate the character of the grown-up; one has as much right to expect that they will disappear in order to make room for their counterparts. (Harsh masters do not rule long.) To what one may attribute such temporal confusions of the processes of development we are hardly able to suggest. A view is opened here to a deeper phalanx of biological, and perhaps also historical problems, which we have not yet approached within fighting distance.

Adhesion.桾he significance of all premature sexual manifestations is enhanced by a psychic factor of unknown origin which at present can be put down only as a psychological preliminary. I believe that it is the heightened adhesion or fixedness of these impressions of the sexual life which in later neurotics, as well as in perverts, must be added for the completion of the other facts; for the same premature sexual manifestations in other persons cannot impress themselves deeply enough to repeat themselves compulsively and to succeed in prescribing the way for the sexual impulse throughout later life. Perhaps a part of the explanation for this adhesion lies in another psychic factor which we cannot miss in the causation of the neuroses, namely, in the preponderance which in the psychic life falls to the share of memory traces as compared with recent impressions. This factor is apparently dependent on the intellectual development and grows with the growth of personal culture. In contrast to this the savage has been characterized as "the unfortunate child of the moment."[3o] Owing to the oppositional relation existing between culture and the free development of sexuality, the results of which may be traced far into the formation of our life, the problem how the sexual life of the child evolves is of very little importance for the later life in the lower stages of culture and civilization, and of very great importance in the higher.

Fixation.桾he influence of the psychic factors just mentioned favored the development of the accidentally experienced impulses of the infantile sexuality. The latter (especially in the form of seductions through other children or through adults) produce the material which, with the help of the former, may become fixed as a permanent disturbance. A considerable number of the deviations from the normal sexual life observed later have been thus established in neurotics and perverts from the beginning through the impressions received during the alleged sexually free period of childhood. The causation is produced by the responsiveness of the constitution, the prematurity, the quality of heightened adhesion, and the accidental excitement of the sexual impulse through outside influence.

The unsatisfactory conclusions which have resulted from this investigation of the disturbances of the sexual life is due to the fact that we as yet know too little concerning the biological processes in which the nature of sexuality consists to form from our isolated examinations a satisfactory theory for the explanation of either the normal or the pathological.

^ : The differences will be emphasized in the schematic representation given in the text. To what extent the infantile sexuality approaches the definitive sexual organization through its object selection has been discussed before ({{Note|p. 60]).

^ : See my work, Wit and its Relation to the Unconscious, translated by A.A. Brill, Moffat Yard Pub. Co., New York: "The fore-pleasure gained by the technique of wit is utilized for the purpose of setting free a greater pleasure by the removal of inner inhibitions."

^ : Cf. Zur Einf眉hrung des Narzismus, Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse, VI, 1913.

^ : It is necessary to make clear that the conceptions "masculine" and "feminine," whose content seems so unequivocal to the ordinary meaning, belong to the most confused terms in science and can be cut up into at least three paths. One uses masculine and feminine at times in the sense of activity and passivity, again, in the biological sense, and then also in the sociological sense. The first of these three meanings is the essential one and the only one utilizable in psychoanalysis. It agrees with the masculine designation of the libido in the text above, for the libido is always active even when it is directed to a passive aim. The second, the biological significance of masculine and feminine, is the one which permits the clearest determination. Masculine and feminine are here characterized by the presence of semen or ovum and through the functions emanating from them. The activity and its secondary manifestations, like stronger developed muscles, aggression, a greater intensity of libido, are as a rule soldered to the biological masculinity but not necessarily connected with it, for there are species of animals in whom these qualities are attributed to the female. The third, the sociological meaning, receives its content through the observation of the actual existing male and female individuals. The result of this in man is that there is no pure masculinity or feminity either in the biological or psychological sense. On the contrary every individual person shows a mixture of his own biological sex characteristics with the biological traits of the other sex and a union of activity and passivity; this is the case whether these psychological characteristic features depend on the biological or whether they are independent of it.

^ : Psychoanalysis teaches that there are two paths of object-finding; the first is the one discussed in the text which is guided by the early infantile prototypes. The second is the narcissistic which seeks its own ego and finds it in the other. The latter is of particularly great significance for the pathological outcomes, but does not fit into the connection treated here.

^ : Those to whom this conception appears "wicked" may read Havelock Ellis's treatise on the relations between mother and child which expresses almost the same ideas (The Sexual Impulse, p. 16).

^ : For the explanation of the origin of the infantile fear I am indebted to a three-year-old boy whom I once heard calling from a dark room: "Aunt, talk to me, I am afraid because it is dark." "How will that help you," answered the aunt; "you cannot see anyhow." "That's nothing," answered the child; "if some one talks then it becomes light."桯e was, as we see, not afraid of the darkness but he was afraid because he missed the person he loved, and he could promise to calm down as soon as he was assured of her presence.

^ : Cf. here what was said on page 83 concerning the object selection of the child; the "tender stream."

^ : The incest barrier probably belongs to the historical acquisitions of humanity and like other moral taboos it must be fixed in many individuals through organic heredity. (Cf. my work, Totem and Taboo, 1913.) Psychoanalytic studies show, however, how intensively the individual struggles with the incest temptations during his development and how frequently he puts them into phantasies and even into reality.

^ : Compare the description concerning the inevitable relation in the Oedipus legend (The Interpretation of Dreams, p. 222, translated by A.A. Brill, The Macmillan Co., New York, and Allen & Unwin, London).

^ : Innumerable peculiarities of the human love-life as well as the compulsiveness of being in love itself can surely only be understood through a reference to childhood or as an effective remnant of the same.

^ : This was true not only of the "negative" tendencies to perversion appearing in the neurosis, but also of the so-called positive perversions. The latter are not only to be attributed to the fixation of the infantile tendencies, but also to regression to these tendencies owing to the misplacement of other paths of the sexual stream. Hence the positive perversions are also accessible to psychoanalytic therapy. (Cf. the works of Sadger, Ferenczi, and Brill.)

^ : Here one often sees that at first a normal sexual stream begins at the age of puberty, but owing to its inner weakness it breaks down at the first outer hindrance and then changes from regression, to perverse fixation.

^ : That keen observer of human nature, E. Zola, describes a girl in his book, La Joie de vivre, who in cheerful self renunciation offers all she has in possession or expectation, her fortune and her life's hopes to those she loves without thought of return. The childhood of this girl was dominated by an insatiable desire for love which whenever she was depreciated caused her to merge into a fit of cruelty.

^ : It is possible that the heightened adhesion is only the result of a special intensive somatic sexual manifestation of former years.

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Veronica Poe
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« Reply #21 on: September 21, 2007, 01:01:50 am »

Aberrations (see (ref. Perversions))
  a fragment of inhibited development, (ref. 89)
  Sexual, (ref. 1), (ref. 13), (ref. 14)
  shown by the psychoneurotic, (ref. 29)
  with animals, (ref. 13)

Absolute Inversion (sexual object of the same sex), (page2)

Activity and Passivity in sexual aim in exhibitionism, (page21)
  of Sadism and Masochism, (page23)
  precursors and masculine and feminine, (page59)

Activity, Muscular, (page63)

Adhesion, heightened, or fixedness of impressions of sexual life, (page99)
  may be only result of a special intensive somatic sexual manifestation of former years, (page99)

Affective Processes, (page64)
  pathogenic action of, (page64)
  value of unconscious thought formation, (page27)

Aggression, Sadism and Masochism not attributable to mixture of, (page24)
  taint of, shown by sexuality of most men, (page22)

Agoraphobia and neurotic disturbances of walking, (ref. 64, note 22)

Aims of impulses distinguish them from one another, (page31)

Algolagnia, (page22)

Alkaloids, introduction of, analogous in neuroses and phenomena of intoxication and abstinence, (page76)

Ambivalence, (page59)

Amnesia, Infantile, (page37)
  connected with infantile sexual activity, (page51)
  and hysterical compared, (page39)

Amphigenous inversion, (page2)

Anal Erotic, (ref. 10, note 11)
  Zone, activity of, (page47)
    erogenous significance of, (page48)
    masturbatic irritation of, (page49)

Androgyny, (page8)

Anesthesia, causes of, are partly psychic, (page81)
  continuance of, caused by retention of clitoris excitability, (page81)
  of newly married women, (page80)
  of wives due to parent complex, (page85)
  of women often only apparent and local, (page81)
  of women only at vaginal entrance, (page81)

Animals as sexual objects, (page13)

Anus (see also (ref. Anal))
  as aim of inverts, (page12); (page17)
  especially frequent example of transgression, (page29)
  part played by erogenous zone in, (page32)

Anxiety on railroads, (page63)

Archaic constitution, (ref. 10, note 11)

Arduin, Dr., (ref. 9, note 11)

Attractions connected with pleasure, (page70)

Autoerotism, the gratification of sexual impulse on own body, (page43)
  separation of, from object love, not temporal, (ref. 55, note 19)
  essential, of infantile sexuality, (page58)
  of erogenous zones, same in boy and girl, (page79)
  regular, of sexual impulse, (page81)

Baths, warm, therapeutic effects of, (page62)

Bayer, (ref. 40, note 6)

Beautiful, concept of, (page21)
  a quality of excitation, (page70)

Bell, S., (ref. 37, note 2); (ref. 55, note 19)

Binet; (page19); (page34)

Birth theories, (page57)

Bisexuality, Relation of, (page7)
  as explanation of inversion, (ref. 9, note 11)
    Sadism and Masochism, (page24)
  necessary to understanding of sexual in man and woman, (page80)

Bladder, disturbances of childhood sexual in nature, (page51)

Bleuler, (ref. 37, note 2); (page60)

Bloch, I., (ref. 1, note 1); (page5); (page16)

Breast, rubbing of, (page43)
  woman's, as erogenous zone, (page71)

Cadavers, (page25)

Cannibalistic pregenital phase, (page59)

Castration complex, (page22); (page56)
  of males does not always injure sexual libido, (page75)

Catarrh, intestinal, produces irritations in anal zone, (page48)

Cathartic treatment, (page26)

Character built up from the material of sexual excitations, (page96)
  composed of impulses fixed since infancy and won through sublimation, (page96)
  of individual determined by infantile sexual activity, (page50)

Chemical theories of sexual excitement, (page76)

Chevalier, (page7); (ref. 9, note 11)

Childish, see (ref. Infantile)

Children and neurotics compared, (page38)
  as sexual objects, (page13)
  cruelty especially characteristic of, (page30)
  educability of, impaired by premature sexual activity, (page91)
  impressionability of, (page38)
  in school, behavior of and germinating sexuality, (page64)
  sexual life of, (page40)

Clitoris, chief erogenous zone in female child, (page80)
  **** of, in little girls, (page80)
  excitability retained causes continuance of anesthesia, (page81)
  excitation, destinies of, (page80)
    conducts excitement to adjacent female parts, (page80)
    transfer of, to other parts, takes time, (page80)
  sexuality is a part of male sexual life, (page80)
  sexuality repressed in girl at puberty, (page80)

Coitus, (page36)

Colin, (page23)

Complex, castration, (page22); (page56)
  Oedipus, (page85)
  parent, (ref. 15, note 14)
    strongest in girls, (page85)

Compulsion emanating from unconscious psychic material, (page51)
  inversion is perceived as a morbid, (page3)
  neurosis, (page32)
  psychoanalysis enlightens ego libido, (page77)
  from fixation on erogenous zones in infancy, (page77)

Congeniality in inversions, (page4)
  of perversions in all persons, (page34)

Conscience, (page22)

Constitutional factor, relation of, to occasional (page96)

Contrary Sexuals, (page2)

Conversion, (page27)

Coprophilic smell desire, (ref. 20, note 19)

Copulation, (page14)

Courting, (page22)

Craving, best English word for libido, (ref. 1, note 2)

Cruelty and sexual impulse most intimately connected, (page23)
  as component of infantile sexual life regarding others as sexual objects, (page53)
  especially near the childish character, (page54)
  partial desires as carriers of impulses of, (page30)

Culture and sex, (page41)

Dangers of fore-pleasure, (page72)

Degeneration, nervous, (page4)
  high ethical culture in, (page5)

Dementia pr忙cox, (page26)

Desire, coprophilic smell, (ref. 20, note 19)
  for knowledge, (page55)
  immense sexual, in hysteria, (page28)
  partial, (page29)

Dessoir, (page87)

Donation, idea of, (page48); (page49)

Drinking, desire for, in former thumbsuckers, (page44)

Ear lobe pulling, (page42)

Eating, sexuality of, (page66)

Ego-Libido (see (ref. Libido))

Ellis, H., (ref. 1, note 1); (page6); (page8); (page23); (page43); (ref. 52, note 18)

End Pleasure (see (ref. Gratification), (ref. Orgasm), (ref. Pleasure))
  new to age after puberty, (page72)

Enuresis nocturna corresponds to a pollution, (page51)

**** of clitoris in little girls, (page80)
  of ****, a somatic sign of sexual excitation, (page69)

Erogenous action of pain, (page65)
  functions, disturbance of, in lip zone, (page66)
  significance of anal zone, (page48)
  zones, partial impulses and, (page31)
    significance of in psychoneuroses, (page32)
    preponderance of special, in psychoneuroses, (page34)
    source of sexual feelings of infantile years, (page41)
    lips as, (page44)
    characters of, (page45)
    predestined, (page46)
    show same characters as hysterogenous, (page46)
    any part of body may become, (ref. 46, note 12)
    significance of anal zone, (page48)
    premature activity in, indicated by cruelty, (page54)
    parts of skin called, (page65)
    one of three ways of stimulation of sexual apparatus, (page69)
    their manner of adjustment to new order, (page70)
    r么le of, in preparing sexual excitation, (page70)
    increase tension, (page71)
    make possible the gratification pleasure, (page72)
    contribute unusual pleasure in infantile life, (page72)
    connected anatomically with centers producing tension, (page74)
    autoerotism of, same in boy and girl, (page79)
    chief, in female child is the clitoris, (page80)
    changed from clitoris to ****, mark of womanhood, (page81)
    change of leading, determines woman's preference for neuroses, (page81)
    gratified by intercourse between child and foster parents, (page82)

Etiological group, (page97)
  composed of dispositional and definitive groups, (page97)

Eulenberg, (ref. 1, note 1)

Excitement enhanced by preliminary activities, (page14)
    hunger, (page16)
  influences, three kinds of, (page62)
  sexual, nature of, entirely unfamiliar, (page66)
    prepared by erogenous zones, (page70)
    result of any of three kinds of stimuli, (page69)

Exhibitionism (see (ref. Looking), (ref. Peeping), (ref. Voyeur))
  as a perversion, (page21)
  partial desires as carriers of, (page30)
  the eye as erogenous zone in, (page32)
  as component of infantile sexual life, (page53)

Eye as erogenous zone, (page32); (page70)

Faith, (page15)

Father, sexual intimidation experienced through, averts inversion, (page88)

Fear, infantile, (page83)
    only expresses child's missing beloved person, (page83)
  influence of, sexually exciting, (page64)
  of being alone alike in child and neurotic, (page84)
  of dark, infantile, (page83)
  of grown up neurotic like that of children, (page84)
  only children with excessive sexual impulse disposed to, (page83)
  sought as sexual excitement, (page64)

Feces, licking of, (page25)
  retention of, a source of pleasure, (page48)
    a cause of constipation, (page49)

Feelings, perverted, (page34)

Female (see (ref. Masculine and Feminine))

Female child, entirely made character of in autoerotism and ****, (page79)

F茅r茅, (page23)

Ferenczi, (ref. 15, note 14)

Fetichism, (page18)
  Binet's findings in, (page34)
  nothing in unconscious streams of thought inclining to, (page30)
  of foot, (ref. 20, note 19)

Fixation, (page99)
  of impulses accidentally experienced, (page99)

Fliess, W., (ref. 10, note 11); (ref. 29, note 26); (ref. 41, note 7)

Foot, as unfit substitute for sexual object, (page18)
  fetichism of, (ref. 20, note 19)

Fore-Pleasure, connection of, with infantile life strengthened by pathogenic r么le, (page72)
  dangers of, (page72)
  is that of excitation of erogenous zones, (page72)
  mechanism contains danger to attainment of normal sexual aim, (page72)
  primacy of genital zones and the, (page69)
  same as that furnished by infantile sexual impulse, (page72)
  too much endangers attainment of normal sexual aim, (page72)

Fur, (page19)

Fusions, (page26)
  activity of, (page49)

Genital zone, primacy of, (page69)
  external, in woman, so important for later sexual functions, (page80)
  overestimation of internal, (page75)
  gratification of, (page52)

Genitals, erogenous zones behave like real, in hysteria, (page32)
  looking only at, becomes a perversion, (page21)
  male, in all persons, the infantile sexual theory, (page56)
  mouth and anus playing r么le of, (page29)
  opening of female, unknown to children, (page58)
  primacy of, intended by nature, (page50)
  rubbed by children while pleasure sucking, (page43)
  sexual impulse of reawakens, (page50)
  touching of, caused by strong excitements in children, (page64)

Gley, E., (ref. 9, note 11)

Globus, hysterical, in former thumbsuckers, (page45)

Gratification pleasure of orgasm, (page71)
  sexual, (page3); (page14)
  picture of, in suckling, (page44)
  relation of, to sexual excitement not explained, (page91)
  the best hypnotic, (page43)

Groos, K., (ref. 37, note 2)

Hair, (page18)

Halban, (page8)

Hall, G.S., (ref. 37, note 2)

Hemorrhoids and neurotic states, (page48)

Heredity, (page36)

Herman, G., (ref. 10, note 11)

Hermaphrodites, psychosexual, (page2); (page7)
  anatomical, (page7)

Hetero-sexual feelings, (ref. 3, note 5); (ref. 29, note 26)
  intercourse, dangers of, fix inversions, (page6)

Hirschfeld, M., (ref. 1, note 1); (ref. 9, note 11)

Hoche, (page16)

Homosexual, (page2)
  among Greeks, (page11)
  favored by bringing up of boys by men, (page88)
  inclination resulting in inversion, (page6)
  in men, (page11)
  in women, (page12)
  object selection accomplished by all men in the unconscious, (ref. 10, note 11)

Hug-Hellmuth, Mrs. Dr. H., (ref. 37, note 2)

Hunger and sex compared, (page1)
  excitement, (page16)

Hypnosis (suggestion), (ref. 3, note 4)
  obedience in, shows nature of, to be fixation on hypnotizer, (ref. 15, note 14)
  removes inversion, (page6)

Hysteria, immense sexual desire in, (page28)
  male, explained by propensity to inversion, (page29)
  many cases of have syphilitic fathers, (page93)
  preference for, in women determined by change of leading erogenous zone, (page81)
    determined by repression of puberty, (page81)
  psychoanalysis in, (page26)
  of, enlightens the ego-libido, (page77)
    removes symptoms of, (page27)
  seduction as frequent cause of, (page52)
  some cases of, conditioned by disappearance of one parent, (page88)
  symptomatology of, tendency to displacement in, (page46)

Hysterical globus, (page45)
  vomiting, (page44); (page45)

Hysterogenous zones show same characteristics as erogenous, (page46)

Ideal of sexual life, the union of all desires in one object, (page61)

Identification as development out of oral pregenital sexual organization, (page59)

Immature as sexual objects, (page13)

Impotence, (page20)

Impulse development, (page9)
  partial, (page31)
    independent of each other, strive for pleasure, (page58)
  sexual, (page1)
    acquired, (page5)
  to mastery, foreshadowed in boys' ****, (page50)

Incest barriers, (page84)
  object selection significant in psychosexual disturbances, (page86)
  phantasies rejected, (page85)
  temptations, struggle of the individual with, (ref. 85, note 9)

Infantile amnesia, (page37)
    and infantile sexual activity, (page51)
  attraction for parents, etc., repressed in puberty, (page86)
  desire for parents, (page87)
  factor for sexuality, (page39)
  fear, (page83); (ref. 84, note 7)
  fixation of libido, (page86)
  in sexuality, (page34)
    conserved by neurotics, (page35)
  ****, (page51)
  neglect of the, (page36)
  object selection, after effects of, (page86)
  onanism almost universal, (page50)
  relations to parents, produces serious results to sexual life, (page87)
      cause of jealousy of lover, (page87)
    wet nurse, (page82)
  reminiscences in neurotics, (page40)
  sexual activity, (page50)
    aim, (page45); (page46)
    excitement generously provided for, (page65)
    impulse same as adult fore-pleasure, (page72)
    investigation, failure of, (page57)
  sexuality, (page36)
    manifestations of, (page42)
    determines normal, (page73)
    source of, (page61)
  sexual life, (page53)

Influences, opposite, paths of, (page66)

Inhibitions (see (ref. Shame), (ref. Loathing), Sympathy) (ref. 26, note 23)
  sexual, (page40)
    develop earlier in girl, (page78)
  study of, (page58)

Innateness, (page5)

Inner organic world, one of three stimulants of sexual apparatus, (page69)

Inquisitiveness, (page55)
  of children attracted to sexual problems, (page56)

Intentions, Appearance of New, (page20)

Intellectual work, (page65)

Intensity of stimulus, a factor in sexual excitement, (page65)

Intestinal catarrh in neurosis, (page48)

Inversion, amphigenous, (page2)
  influence of climate and race on, (page5)
  conception of, (page4)
  congeniality of, (page4)
  corresponds to sexual inclinations of many persons, (page88)
  effect of father on, (ref. 11, note 11)
  explanation of, (page6); (ref. 10, note 11)
  extreme cases of, (page3)
  feelings of, in all neurotics, (page29)
  frequent in ancient times, (page5)
  permanent, made possible by a disappearance of one parent, (page88)
  prevention of, (page87)
  time of, (page3)

Inverts, behavior of, (page2); (page3)
  psychic manliness in, (page8)
  sexual object of, (page10)
  aim of, (page12)

Investigation, infantile sexual, (page55)
  conducted alone, (page58)
  is first step at independent orientation, (page58)
  causes estrangement from persons, (page58)

Itching, feeling of, projected into peripheral erogenous zone, (page47)

Kiernan, (page7)

Kinderfehler, Die (periodical), (ref. 37, note 2)

Kissing (see (ref. Mouth), (ref. Oral))
  as perversion, (page15)
  habitual, in former thumbsuckers, (page44)
  in female inverts, (page12)

Knowledge, desire for, co枚perates with energy of desire for looking, (page56)
  not wholly sexual, (page55)
  relations to sexual life of particular importance to, (page56)

Krafft-Ebing, (ref. 1, note 1); (page9), and (ref. note 11); (page22); (page23)
  weakness of his description of sexual process, (page75)

Latency Period, Sexual in Childhood, (page39); (page40)
  interruptions of, (page41)

Leading Zone in man and woman, (page80)
  in female child is the clitoris, (page80)

Libido as term for sexual feeling corresponding to hunger, (page1)
  of inverts, (page3)
  direction of, determined by experience in early childhood, (page6)
  attachment of, to persons of same sex, (ref. 10, note 11)
  fixation of, on hypnotizer, (ref. 15, note 14)
  amount of directed to artistic aim, (page21)
  aggressive factor of, in sadism, (page23)
  strivings of, transformed into symptoms, (page28)
  fixation of, on persons of same sex, (page29)
  union of cruelty with, in neurotics and paranoiacs, (page30)
  of psychoneurotics unable to obtain normal sexual gratification, (page33)
  of children in corporal punishment, (page55)
  tension of, dies away at orgasm, (page71)
  sometimes escapes injury in castration, (page75)
  Theory of, (page77)
  a force of variable quantity capable of measuring sexual processes, (page77)
  a concept auxiliary to chemical theory, (page77)
  energy has a qualitative character, (page77)
    has special chemism different from nutritional processes, (page77)
  quantum psychically represented by ego-libido, (page77)
  production, increase, distribution and displacement of the Ego-, explains psychosexual phenomena, (page77)
  accessibility of the Ego- to psychoanalysis, (page77)
  the Ego- becomes Object-Libido, (page77)
  fate of the Object- is to be withdrawn from the object, (page77)
    is to be preserved floating in special states of tension, (page77)
    is to be finally taken back into the Ego, (page77)
  The Ego- is called the narcissistic Libido, (page78)
    greater significance of, in psychotic disturbances, (page78)
  is regularly of a masculine character in man and woman, (page79)
  the object of may be either man or woman, (page79)
  of child, when ungratified is changed into fear, (page84)
  suppressed, of love of child to parents, (page84)
  infantile fixation of, causes sexual love for parents, (page86)
  girls conceal, under affection for family, (page86)
  return of, to persons preferred in infancy, (page86)
  incestuous fixation of, not completely escaped, (page86)

Lindner, (page42); (page43)

Lingering at intermediary relations, (page15); (page20)
  at preparatory act of sexual process is mechanism of many perversions, (page73)

Lip as erogenous zone, (page44)
  sexual utilization of mucous membrane of, (page16)
  sucking of, (page42)
  zone is responsible for sexual gratification during eating, (page66)

Loathing, feeling of, protects individual from improper sexual aims, (page16); (page17)
  overcoming of, at sight of excretion, produces voyeurs, (page21)
  and Shame in Masochism, (page23)
    in Inversions, (page25)
  as psychic force inhibiting sexual life, (page40)

Looking (see (ref. Peeping), (ref. Voyeurs))
  as addition to normal sexual process, (page14)
  Lingering at Touching and, (page20)
  as a perversion, (page21)
  and exhibition mania, the eye an erogenous zone in, (page32)
  as component of infantile sexual life with others as object, (page53)

Love, omnipotence of, (page25)
  and hate, (page30)
  temporary renouncement of, in child, (page83)
  smaller amount of, than mother love to satisfy individual in later life, (page83)
  non-sexual and sexual, for parents, nourished from same source, (page86)
  sexual, corresponds to an infantile fixation of the Libido, (page86)
  -life, peculiarities of, understood only through childhood, (ref. 87, note 11)

L枚wenfeld, (ref. 1, note 1)

Lydston, F., (page7)

Magnan's classification, (page4)

Man (see (ref. Bisexuality), (ref. Masculine and Feminine))
  sexual development of, more consistent and easier to understand, (page68)
  differentiation between, and woman, (page78)

Masculine and feminine, (page79)
  as activity and passivity, (ref. 79, note 4)
  biological significance of, permits clearest determination, (ref. 79 note 4)
  in sociological sense, (ref. 79 note 4)
    no pure, in either biological or sociological sense, (ref. 79 note 4)

Masochism, in relation between hypnotized and hypnotist, (ref. 15, note 14)
  and Sadism, (page21)
  originates through transformation from Sadism, (page22)
  and Sadism occupy special place among perversions, (page23)
  reinforced by Sadism in exhibitionism, (page30)
  source of, in painful irritation of gluteal region, (page55)
  -Sadism impulse rooted in erogenous action of pain, (page65)

Mastery, impulse to, foreshadowed in boys' ****, (page50)
  source of cruelty in children, (page54)
  supplies activity, (page59)

Masturbatic sexual manifestations, (page47)
  excitation of anal zone, (page49)
  irritation of anal zone, (page49)
  sexual manifestations have same male character in boy and girl, (page79)

**** frequently the exclusive aim in inversion, (page12)
  in small children, (page36)
  thumb-sucking and, (page43)
  infantile, has three phases, (page50)
    return of, (page51)
  in little girls concerns clitoris only, (page80)

Mechanical excitation, (page62)

Memory traces preponderate over recent impressions in causation of neuroses, (page99)

Moebius, (ref. 1, note 1); (ref. 4, note 6); (page34)

Moll, (ref. 1, note 1); (page32); (ref. 37, note 1)

Morality as a psychic dam, (page41)

Mother, fixation on, in inverts, (ref. 11, note 12)
  image helps males avert inversions, (page88)
  image helps females avert inversions, (page88)

Motion, pleasure of, sexual in nature, (ref. 64, note 22)

Mouth (see (ref. Lip), (ref. Oral))
  Sexual Utilization of Mucous Membrane of Lips and, (page16)
  as a frequent example of transgression, (page29)
  as an erogenous zone, (page31)

Muscular activity, pleasure from, (page63)

Narcissism in object selection, (ref. 10, note 11)
  as identification with mother, (ref. 12, note 12)

Narcissistic Libido a name for Ego-Libido, (page78)
  a reservoir of energy for investment of object, (page78)
  investment of ego a realized primitive state, (page78)

Nausea on railroads, (page63)

Neurosis and perversion, (page28)
  the negative of a perversion, (page29); (page89)
  intestinal catarrh in, (page48)
  symptomatology of, traced to disturbance of sexual processes, (page67)
  a factor in the causation of, is preponderance of memory traces, (page99)

Neurotics and children compared, (page38)
  infantile reminiscences in, (page40)
  scatologic customs of, (page49)
  diseases, disposition for, awakened by over tender parents, (page83)
  have nearer ways than tenderness to transfer their disturbances to their children, (page38)
  fixedness of impressions of sexual life in, (page99)

Nursing Period, Sexual Object of, (page82)

Object finding, (page81)
    is consummated on psychic side at anatomical puberty, (page81)
    is really a re-finding (of the mother), (page82)
    two paths of, shown by psychoanalysis, (ref. 82, note 5)
  selection must avoid beloved person of infancy, (page84)
    first accomplished in imagination, (page85)
    incestuous, significant in psychosexual disturbances, (page86)
    after effects of infantile, (page86)
    follows prototypes of parents, (page86)

Obsessions explained only through psychoanalysis, (page26)

Occasional inversion, (page2)

Oedipus Complex, (page85)

Onanism (see (ref. ****))
  mutual, not producing inversion, (page6)
  infantile, almost universal, (page50)
  unusual techniques in, show prohibition overcome, (ref. 50, note 15)
  infantile, disappears soon, (page50)
  connected by conscience-stricken neurotics with their neurosis, (ref. 51, note 16)
  gratification in infantile ****, (page51)
  early active, as determinant of pollution-like process, (page51)

Opposite Influences, Paths of, (page66)

Oral (see (ref. Lip), (ref. Mouth))
  pregenital sexual organization, (page59)

Organizations, Pregenital, (page54); (page58)

Orgasm, thumb-sucking leading to, (page43)

Overestimation of the Sexual Object, (page15)

Overwork, nervous disturbances of mental, caused by simultaneous sexual excitement, (page65)

Pain ranks with loathing and shame, (page23)

Pain sought by many persons, (page64)
  toned down has erogenous action, (page65)
  a factor in sexual excitement, (page65)

Paranoia, knowledge of sexual impulse in, gained only through psychoanalysis, (page26)
  delusional fears in, based on perversions, (ref. 29, note 25)
  union of cruelty with libido in, (page30)
  significance of erogenous zones in, (page32)

Parent complex, (ref. 15, note 14)
  strongest in girls, (page85)
  result of boundless tenderness of parents, (page83)

Partial desires, (page29)
  impulses and erogenous zones, (page31); (page34); (page53); (page59)
    show passive form in girls, (page79)

Passivity (see (ref. Activity))
  sexual aim present in exhibitionism in active and passive form, (page21)
  active and passive forms of Sadism-Masochism, (page23)

Pedicatio, (page17)

Peeping (see (ref. Exhibitionism), (ref. Looking), (ref. Voyeurs))
  as perversion, (page21)
  force opposed to, is shame, (page21)
  mania, partial desires as carriers of, (page30)
  as strongest motive power for formation of neurotic symptoms, (page54)

****, envy of in girls, (page37)
  **** of, the somatic sign of sexual excitation, (page69)

P茅rez, (ref. 37, note 2)

Perversions, as additions to normal sexual processes, (page14)
  brought into relation with normal sexual life, (page15)
  mouth as sexual organ in, (page16)
  Sadism-Masochism the most significant of, (page22)
  general statements applicable to, (page24)
  exclusiveness and fixation of, (page25)
  psychic participation in, (page25)
  and neurosis, (page28); (page29)
  fetichisms as, (page30)
  positive, (page31)
  preponderance of sexual, in psychoneuroses, (page32)
  sexual impulse of psychoneurotics possesses unusual tendency to, (page33)
  relation of predisposition to, and morbid picture, (page34)
  formation of, (page52)
  of prostitutes, (page53)
  part played in, by castration complex, (page22)
  mechanism of many, represents a lingering at a preparatory act, (page73)
  the neuroses the negative of the, (page89)
  disposition to, universal, (page89)
  as inhibitions and dissociations from normal development, (page89)
  negative appearing in neurosis, (ref. 89, note 12)
  positive and negative in the same family, (page94)
  resulting from the strongest of other sexual components, (page94)
  of childhood as source of some virtues, (page96)

Phantasies the only escape of the maturing youth, (page85)
  of the individual in struggle with incest temptation, (ref. 85, note 9)
  of all persons contain infantile inclinations, (page85)
  distinctly incestuous, rejected, (page85)

Pleasure sucking, (page42); (page43)
  relation of feeling of, to unpleasant tension, (page70)
  relations of, the weakest spot in present day psychology, (page70)
  the last, of sexual acts differs earlier pleasures, (page71)
    produced through discharge, (page71)
    is altogether gratification pleasure, (page71)
  nature of, more deeply entered into in the study of wit, (page72)

Pollution, process similar to, in infancy, (page51)
    caused by strong excitements in children, (page64)
  nocturnal, due to accumulation of semen, (page74)

Polymorphous-perverse disposition, (page52)

Precursory Sexual Aims, (page20)

Predisposition, bisexual, (page9)

Pregenital organization as phase of sexual life, (page54); (page58)
  phase of organization of sexual life, (page59)
    sadistic-anal, (page59)
  organizations, assumption of, based on analysis of neuroses, (page60)

Prematurity, spontaneous sexual, a factor influential for sexual development, (page97)
  shown in breaking through, shortening or suspending of infantile latency period, (page97)
  becomes cause of disturbances in provoking sexual manifestations having character of perversions, (page97)
  sexual, runs parallel with intellectual prematurity, (page98)

Prevention of inversion, (page87)

Primacy of the Genitals, (page50); (page69)
  attained at puberty, (page68)
  already sketched out in infantile life, (page73)
  for propagation, the last phase of sexual organization, (page60)

Primitive Psychic Mechanisms, (ref. 10, note 11)

Prostitute fitted for her activity by polymorphous-perverse disposition, (page53)

Psychic participation in perversions, (page25)
  life one of three stimuli of sexual apparatus, (page69)
  sign of sexual excitation a feeling of tension, (page69)
  accomplishment of puberty is breaking away from parental authority, (page85)

Psychoanalysis, cures by, (page3)
  of homosexuals, (ref. 10, note 11)
  reveals psychic mechanism of genesis of inversion, (ref. 11, note 12)

Psychoanalysis, (page26)
  shows early intimidation from normal sexual aims, (ref. 18, note 17)
  explains fetichism, (ref. 20, note 19)
  reduces bisexuality to activity and passivity, (page24)
  reduces symptoms of hysteria, (page27)
  unconscious phantasies revealed by, (ref. 29, note 25)
  of thumb-sucking, (page43)
  of anal zone, (page47)
  brings forgotten material to consciousness, (page51)
  of infantile sexuality, (ref. 55, note 19)
  and inquisitiveness of children, (page56)
  and pregenital organizations, (page58)
  and tenderness of sexual life, (page61)
  novelty of, (page66)
  of transference psychoses, (page77)
  gives at present definite information only about transformations of object-libido, (page78)
  cannot distinguish ego-libido from other effective energies, (page78)
  shows two paths of object finding, (ref. 82, note 5)
  shows individual struggle with incest temptations, (ref. 85, note 9)
  positive perversions accessible to therapy of, (ref. 90, note 12)

Psychoneuroses based on sexual motive powers, (page26)
  associated with manifest inversions, (ref. 29, note 26)
  traces of all perversions in, (page30)
  significance of erogenous zones in, (page32)
  preponderance of special erogenous zones in, (page34)

Psychoneurotics, sexual life of, explained only through psychoanalysis, (page26)
  Sexual Activities of, (page27)
  disease of, appears after puberty, (page33)
  constitution of, tendency to inversions in, (page34)
  sexuality of preserves infantile character, (page39)

Psychosexual hermaphrodites show indifference to which sex their object belongs, (page2)
  not paralleled by other psychic qualities, (page8)
  phenomena explained by nature of ego-libido, (page77)
  development, disturbances of, show incestuous object selection, (page86)

Puberty not the time of the beginning of the sexual impulse, (page1); (page36)
  relation of, to inversion, (page3)
  definite sexual behavior not determined till after, (ref. 10, note 11)
  Transformations of, (page68)
  most striking process of, the growth of the genitals, (page69)

Railroad activities, sexual element in, (page62)

Reaction formation, (page40)
    and sublimation two diverse processes, (page41)
  feelings of, (page41)
  formation begins in latency period, (page95)

Reading as source of sexual excitement through fear, (page64)

Regression appears in sex development of woman, (page68)
  produced by factors injuring sexual development, (page97)

Repression of certain powerful components, (page94)
  not a suspension, (page95)
  result of, an almost normal sexual life, (page95)

Repression, inner determinations of, unknown, (page96)
  effect of, cannot be made retrogressive, (page98)
  a special process cutting off conscious discharge of wishes, (page27)

Repression of heterosexual feeling in psychoneurosis, (ref. 29, note 26)
  Sadism resulting from shows masochistic tendencies, (page30)
  immense amount, in inverts, (page33)
  congenital roots of sexual impulse undergo insufficient, (page35)
  of impressions of childhood, (page38)
  sexual, greater in girl, (page79)
  new wave of, distinguishes puberty of girl, (page80)
  determines psychic causes of anesthesia, (page81)
  of puberty determines woman's preference for neuroses, (page81)
  a new, required, abolishing a piece of infantile masculinity, (page92)

Resistances, shame, loathing, fear and pain as, (page25)

Rhythm in sucking analogous to tickling, (page45)
  of mechanical shaking of the body produces sexual excitation, (page62)

Riddle of the Sphinx, (page56)

Rieger, C., (page75)

Rohleder, (ref. 47, note 13)

Rousseau, J.J., (page55)

Sadger, J., (page1)

Sadism (see (ref. Masochism))
  and Masochism, (page21)
    occupy special place among perversions, (page23)
  conception of, fluctuates, (page22)
  attributable to bisexuality, (page24)
  resulting from repression paralleled by Masochism, (page30)
  attributed by children to sexual act, (page57)
  prevalence of, (page60)
  -Masochism impulse, rooted in erogenous action of pain, (page65)

Sadistic-anal pregenital sexual organization, (page59)

Sadistic impulse from muscular activity, (page64)

Scatologic customs of neurotics, (page49)

Schrenk-Notzing, (ref. 1, note 1)

Scott, (page23)

Secondary sex characteristics, (page8)

Seduction does not necessarily produce inverts, (page6)
  treating child as a sexual object, (page51)
  as outer cause of return of sexual activity in childhood, (page51)
  not necessary to awaken sexual life of child, (page52)
  does not explain original relations of sexual impulse, (page53)

Semen, r么le of, unknown to children, (page58)

Sex characteristics, Secondary and Tertiary, (page8)
  culture and, (page41)

Sexual Aberrations, (page1)
    a transition of variations of sexual impulse to the pathological, (page19)
  act, theories of children as to, (page57)
  activities, of psychoneurotics, (page27)
    premature, of children, impair educability, (page91)
  activities, infantile leave profoundest impressions, (page50)
  aim abandoned in childhood, (page40)
    at puberty different in the two sexes, (page68)
    Deviation in Reference to, (page14)
    distinction between, and sexual object, (page1)
    Fixation of Precursory, (page20)
    in man the discharge of the sexual products, (page68)
    of infantile impulse, (page46)
    of infantile sexuality, (page45)
    of Inverts, (page12)
    perversion may be substituted for, by normal person, (page24)
    should be restricted to union of genitals, (page16)
  apparatus, weakness of, (page18)
  constitutions, diverse, (page66)
    variation of, (page93)
  contrary, (page2)
  development of man easier to understand, than woman's, (page68)
  disturbances, paths of, a means of sublimation, (page67)
    serviceable in health, (page67)
  excitation of nursing period, (page51)
    is one result of three ways of stimulation of the sexual apparatus, (page69)
  excitement originates
    (a) as imitation of a previous gratification, (page61)
    (b) as a stimulation of erogenous zones, (page61)
    (c) as the expression of some impulse, (page61)
    sources of, tested by quality of stimulus, (page65)
    inner sources of, (page65)
    nature of, unfamiliar to us, (page66)
    indirect source of, not equally strong in all persons, (page66)
    influences availability of voluntary attention, (page67)
    problem of, (page73)
    normally ended only by discharge of semen, (page74)
    independent of an accumulation of sexual substance, (page75)
    furnished not only from so-called sexual parts, (page77)
    intercourse between parents and child an inexhaustible source of, (page82)
  gratification found by inverts in object of same sex, (page3)
  impression, (page5)
  Impulse, (page1)
    acquired, (page5)
    too close connection of, with object assumed, (page12)
    entirely independent of its object, (page13)
    most poorly controlled of all by higher psychic activities, (page14)
    alone was extolled by the ancients, (ref. 14, note 13)
    Masochism in, causes unconscious fixation of libido on the hypnotist, (ref. 15, note 14)
    closely connected with cruelty, (page23)
    the source of symptoms of neuroses, (page27)
    perverse, converted expression of, (page29)
    in psychoneuroses, (page33)
    ignorance of essential features of, (page36)
    becomes altruistic, (page68)
    regularly becomes autoerotic, (page81)
    not awakened, (page82)
    of genitals reawakens, (page50)
    primitive formation of, (page42)
  inhibition, (page40)
  inversion, (page2)
    presupposes that sexual object is reverse of normal, (page10)
  inverts, (ref. 1, note 1)
  investigation, infantile, (page55)
  latency period, in childhood, (page39)
  life of children, (page40)
    shows components regarding others as sexual objects, (page53)
    tender streams of, (page61)
    normality of guaranteed by concurrence of two streams, (page68)
    all disturbances of, as inhibitions of development, (page69)
    development of, of children unimportant in lower stages of culture and important in higher, (page99)
  love shown by children towards parents at an early date, (page83)
  manifestations in childhood, exceptional, (page39)
    the masturbatic, (page47)
  object is the person from whom the sexual attraction emanates, (page1)
    Deviation in Reference to the, (page2)
    inaccessibility of, leads to occasional inversion, (page3)
    of inverts, (page10)
    male inverts look for real feminine psychic features in, (page11)
    female active inverts look for femininity in, (page12)
    the sexually immature and animals as, (page13)
    emphasis placed by moderns on the, (ref. 14, note 13)
    lingering at intermediary relations to, one of the perversions, (page15)
  object, overestimation of the, (page15)
    unfit substitutes for, (page18)
    selection in very young children, (ref. 55, note 19)
    found at puberty, (page68)
    and aim concurrent in normal sexual life, (page68)
    in mother's breast, (page81)
    lost when infant forms general picture of person, (page81)
    of nursing period, (page82)
  organization, pregenital oral, (page59)
  overestimation of, rises only when woman refuses, (page80)
  process, motive power for, escapes in fore-pleasure, (page72)
  rejection leaves in unconscious of neurotic the psychosexual activity for object finding, (page86)
  satisfaction from muscular activity, (page63)
  substance, r么le of, (page74)
  symbolism of forms of motion, (page63)
  tension loosened by copulation, (page14)
    implies feeling of displeasure, (page70)
    carries impulse to alter psychic situation, (page70)
    appears even in infancy, (page73)
    does not originate in pleasure, (page74)
    and pleasure only indirectly connected, (page74)
    a certain amount of, necessary for the excitability of the erogenous zones, (page74)
  theories, infantile, are reproductions of child's sexual constitution, (page57)

Sexuality as the weak point of the otherwise normal, (page14)
  infantilism of, (page34)
  infantile factor in, (page39)
  infantile, manifestations of, (page42)
  sexual aim of infantile, (page45)
  germinating, affecting children's behavior in school, (page64)
  encroached upon by all intensive affective processes, (page64)
  partial impulses of, (page65)
  of eating, (page66)
  ways between, and other functions traversible in both directions, (page66)
  does not consist entirely in male germ glands, (page75)
  of clitoris repressed in girl at puberty, (page80)

Sexuals, Contrary, (page2)

Shame is a force opposed to the peeping mania, (page21)
  as a resistance opposed to the libido, (page23), (page25)
  as force acting as an inhibition on sexual life, (page40)

Shoe as a symbol of female genital, (ref. 19, note 18)

Skin as erogenous zone, (page32)
  as factor of sexual excitement, (page65)

Sleep caused by pleasure-sucking, (page43)

Smell desire, coprophilic, (ref. 20, note 19)

Smoking, desire for in former thumb-suckers, (page44)

Sphinx, Riddle of, (page56)

Sports turn youth away from sexual activity, (page64)

Stimulus produced by isolated excitements coming from without, (page31)
  outer, removing sensitiveness with gratification, (page47)
  quality of, as criterion of sources of sexual excitement, (page65)
  can set in motion complicated sexual apparatus, (page69)
  affects the sexual apparatus in three ways, (page69)

Sublimation, artistic, (page21)
  Reaction Formation and, (page40)
  a deviation of sexual motive powers from sexual aims, (page41)
  and reaction formation two diverse processes, (ref. 41, note Cool
  desire for knowledge corresponds to, (page55)
  effected on paths by which sexual disturbances encroach upon other functions of the body, (page67)
  makes possible a third issue in abnormal constitutional dispositions, (page95)
  inner processes of, totally unknown, (page96)

Sucking, see (ref. Thumb-sucking),

Symbolism of fetichism, (page19), (page20)
  sexual, of early childhood, (ref. 55, note 19)

Symptomatology of neurotic determined by infantile sexual activity, (page50)
  of pollution-like process, (page51)
  of neuroses traced to disturbance of the sexual processes, (page67)
    manifested in disturbances of other non-sexual bodily functions, (page67)

Symptoms, creators of, are unconscious forces, (page89)
  of psychoneuroses are the sexual activities of the patient, (page27)

Syphilis in fathers of more than half the cases of hysteria, compulsion-neurosis, etc., treated by Freud, (page93)

Temperature sensitiveness, as result of distinct erogenous action, (page62)

Temporal Factors, (page98)

Tension, sexual, loosened by copulation, (page14), (page70)
    feeling of, (page46)
      the psychic sign of sexual excitation, (page69)
  unpleasant, relation of, to feeling of pleasure, (page70)
  increase in changing to displeasure, (page71)
  increased by functions of erogenous zones, (page71)
  of libido dies away at orgasm, (page71)
  too little, endangers attainment of sexual aim, (page72)

Tertiary sex characteristics, (page8)

Theatre as source of sexual excitement through fear, (page64)

Thumb-sucking as model of infantile sexual manifestations, (page42)
  a sexual activity, (page43)
  as remnant of oral phase of pregenital sexual organization, (page59)

Thyroid gland, r么le of, in sexuality, (page76)

Tickling analogous to rhythmic sucking, (page45)
  demanding onanistic gratification, (page51)

Toe, sucking of, (page42)

Tongue, sucking of, (page42)

Touching as preliminary to sexual aim, (page14)
  and looking, (page20)
  hand as addition to attraction of sexual object, (page70)

Transference neuroses, (page77)
  of erogenous excitability from clitoris to ****, (page81)

Transformation of puberty, (page68)
  success of, dependent on adjustment to dispositions and impulses, (page68)

Transgressions, anatomical, (page15)
  especially frequent, are those to mouth and anus, (page29)

Ulrich, (page9)

Unconscious, all neurotics have feelings of inversion in, (page29)
  nothing in, corresponds to fetichism, (page30)
  psychic material is the source of compulsions, (page51)
  forces revealing themselves as symptom creators, (page89)

Uranism, (ref. 5, note 7)

Urinary apparatus, the guardian of the genital, (page51)

****, glandular activity of, the somatic sign of sexual excitation, (page69)

Vomiting, hysterical, evinced after repression of thumb-sucking, (page44)

Voyeurs (see (ref. Looking), (ref. Peeping), (ref. Exhibitionism))
  as examples of overcoming of loathing, (page21)
  exhibitionists are at the same time, (page30)
  children become, (page54)

Wishes, symptoms of hysteria are substitutes for, (page27)

Wit as source of greater knowledge of pleasure, (page72)

Woman (see (ref. Masculine and feminine))
  regression in sex development of, (page68)
  differentiation between man and, (page78)

Work, intellectual, as sexual excitement, (page65)

Zola, (page96)

Zone, chief erogenous, in female child is the clitoris, (page80)

Zones, erogenous, (page31)
    characters of, (page45)
    predestined, (page46)
  lips as erogenous, (page44)
  all parts of body may become erogenous, (page46)
  genital, gratification of, taught by seduction, (page52)
  erogenous, premature activity of, indicated by cruelty, (page54)
    parts of skin called, (page65)
  lip, responsible for sexual gratification during eating, (page66)
  primacy of genital, (page69)
  erogenous, prepare sexual excitement, (page70)
  leading, in man and woman, (page80)

Volume VII July, 1920 Number 3

[edit] The Psychoanalytic Review
[edit] A Journal Devoted to an Understanding of Human Conduct



Freud's Concept of the "Censorship". W.H.R. RIVERS.
Psychology of War and Schizophrenia. E.W. LAZELL.
The Paraphrenic's Inaccessibility. M.K. ISHAM.

Psychological Psychiatry. H.F. DELGADO.
ABSTRACTS. Book Reviews


[edit] Publishers of
[edit] The Psychoanalytic Review
[edit] A Journal Devoted to the Understanding of Human Conduct
Edited by
Leading Articles Which Have Appeared in Previous Volumes

VOL. I. (Beginning November, 1913.)

The Theory of Psychoanalysis. C.G. Jung.
Psychoanalysis of Self-Mutilation. L.E. Emerson.
Blindness as a Wish. T.H. Ames.
The Technique of Psychoanalysis. S.E. Jelliffe.
Wishfulfillment and Symbolism in Fairy Tales. Riklin.
Character and the Neuroses. Trigant Burrow.
The Wildisbush Crucified Saint. Theodore Schroeder.
The Pragmatic Advantage of Freudo-Analysis. Knight Dunlap.
Moon Myth in Medicine. William A. White.
The Sadism of Oscar Wilde's "Salome." Isador H. Coriat.
Psychoanalysis and Hospitals. L.E. Emerson.
The Dream as a Simple Wishfulfillment in the Negro. John E. Lind.
VOL. II. (Beginning January, 1915.)

The Principles of Pain-Pleasure and Reality. Paul Federn.
The Unconscious. William A. White.
A Plea for a Broader Standpoint in Psychoanalysis. Meyer Solomon.
Contributions to the Pathology of Everyday Life; Their Relation to Abnormal Mental Phenomena. Robert Stewart Miller.
The Integrative Functions of the Nervous System Applied to Some Reactions in Human Behavior and their Attending Psychic Functions. Edward J. Kempf.
A Manic-Depressive Upset Presenting Frank Wish-Realization Construction. Ralph Reed.
Psychoanalytic Parallels. William A. White.
R么le of Sexual Complex in Dementia Pr忙cox. James C. Hassall.
Psycho-Genetics of Androcratic Evolution. Theodore Schroeder.
Significance of Psychoanalysis for the Mental Sciences. Otto Rank and Hans Sachs.
Some Studies in the Psychopathology of Acute Dissociation of the Personality. Edward J. Kempf.
Psychoanalysis. Arthur H. Ring.
A Philosophy for Psychoanalysis. L.E. Emerson.
VOL. III. (Beginning January, 1916.)

Symbolism. William A. White.
The Work of Alfred Adler, Considered with Especial Reference to that of Freud. James J. Putnam.
Art in the Insane. L. Grimberg.
Retaliation Dreams. Hansell Crenshaw.
History of the Psychoanalytic Movement. Sigmund Freud.
Clinical Cases Exhibiting Unconscious Defence Reactions. Francis H. Shockley.
Processes of Recovery in Schizophrenics. H. Bertschinger.
Freud and Sociology. Ernest R. Groves.
The Ontogenetic Against the Phylogenetic Elements in the Psychoses of the Colored Race. Arrah B. Evarts.
Discomfiture and Evil Spirits. Elsie Clews Parsons.
Two Very Definite Wish-Fulfillment Dreams. C.B. Burr.
VOL. IV. (Beginning January, 1917.)

Individuality and Introversion. William A. White.
A Study of a Severe Case of Compulsion Neurosis. H.W. Frink.
A Summary of Material on the Topical Community of Primitive and Pathological Symbols ("Archeopathic" Symbols), F.L. Wells.
A Literary Forerunner of Freud. Helen Williston Brown.
The Technique of Dream Interpretation. Wilhelm Steckel.
The Social and Sexual Behavior of Infrahuman Primates with some Comparable Facts in Human Behavior. Edw. J. Kempf.
Pain as a Reaction of Defence. H.B. Moyle.
Some Statistical Results of the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychoneuroses. Isador H. Coriat. The R么le of Animals in the Unconscious. S.E. Jelliffe and L. Brink.
The Genesis and Meaning of Homosexuality. Trigant Burrow.
Phylogenetic Elements in the Psychoses of the Negro. John E. Lind.
Freudian Elements in the Animism of the Niger Delta. E.R. Groves.
The Mechanism of Transference. William A. White.
The Future of Psychoanalysis. Isador H. Coriat.
Hermaphroditic Dreams. Isador H. Coriat.
The Psychology of "The Yellow Jacket." E.J. Kempf.
Heredity and Self-Conceit. Mabel Stevens.
The Long Handicap. Helen R. Hull.
VOL. V. (Beginning January, 1918.)

Analysis of a Case of Manic-Depressive Psychosis Showing well-marked Regressive Stages. Lucile Dooley.
Reactions to Personal Names. C.P. Oberndorf.
A Study of the Mental Life of the Child. H. von Hug-Hellmuth.
An Interpretation of Certain Symbolisms. J.J. Putnam.
Charles Darwin桾he Affective Source of His Inspiration and Anxiety Neurosis. Edw. J. Kempf.
The Origin of the Incest-Awe. Trigant Burrow.
Compulsion and Freedom: The Fantasy of the Willow Tree. S.E. Jelliffe and L. Brink.
A Case of Childhood Conflicts with Prominent Reference to the Urinary System: with some General Considerations on Urinary Symptoms in the Psychoneuroses and Psychoses. C. Macfie Campbell.
The Hound of Heaven. Thomas Vernon Moore.
A Lace Creation Revealing an Incest Fantasy. Arrah B. Evarts.
Nephew and Maternal Uncle: A Motive of Early Literature in the Light of Freudian Psychology. Albert K. Weinberg.
All the leading foreign psychoanalytic journals are regularly abstracted, and all books dealing with psychoanalysis are reviewed.

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