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F E M I N I S M

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Author Topic: F E M I N I S M  (Read 1820 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #15 on: May 18, 2008, 11:35:31 am »










                                                     Feminism and society





Feminist movement
 




The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including



women's suffrage;

the right to initiate divorce proceedings and "no fault" divorce; and

the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion);

and the right to own property.








Civil rights




Feminism has effected many changes in Western society, including


women's suffrage,

broad employment for women at more equitable wages,

the right to initiate divorce proceedings and the introduction of "no fault" divorce,

the right to obtain contraception and safe abortions, and access to university education.



The United Nations Human Development Report 2004 estimated that when both paid employment and unpaid household tasks are accounted for, on average women work more than men.

In rural areas of selected developing countries women performed an average of 20% more work than men, or an additional 102 minutes per day.

In the OECD countries surveyed, on average women performed 5% more work than men, or 20 minutes per day.

At the UN's Pan Pacific Southeast Asia Women's Association 21st International Conference in 2001 it was stated that



"in the world as a whole, women comprise 51 percent of the population, do 66 percent of the work,

 receive 10 percent of the income and own less than one percent of the property".







Language



For more details on this topic, see Gender-neutral language in English.

Gender-neutral language is a description of language usages which are aimed at minimizing assumptions regarding the biological sex of human referents.

The advocacy of gender-neutral language reflects, at least, two different agendas: one aims to clarify the inclusion of both sexes or genders (gender-inclusive language); the other proposes that gender, as a category, is rarely worth marking in language (gender-neutral language).

Gender-neutral language is sometimes described as non-sexist language by advocates and politically-correct language by opponents.







Heterosexual relationships





The increased entry of women into the workplace beginning in the twentieth century has affected gender roles and the division of labor within households.

Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in 'The Second Shift and The Time Bind' presents evidence that
in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working,
but women still spend more time on housework.

Feminist criticisms of men's contributions to child care and domestic labor in the Western middle class are typically centered around the idea that it is unfair for women to be expected to perform more than half of a household's domestic work and child care when both members of the relationship also work outside the home.

Several studies provide statistical evidence that the financial income of married men does not affect their rate of attending to household duties.

'In Dubious Conceptions', Kristin Luker discusses the effect of feminism on teenage women's choices to bear children, both in and out of wedlock.

She says that as childbearing out of wedlock has become more socially acceptable, young women, especially poor young women, while not bearing children at a higher rate than in the 1950s, now see less of a reason to get married before having a child. Her explanation for this is that the economic prospects for poor men are slim, hence poor women have a low chance of finding a husband who will be able to provide reliable financial support.

Although research suggests that to an extent, both women and men perceive feminism to be in conflict with romance, studies of undergraduates and older adults have shown that feminism has positive impacts on relationship health for women and sexual satisfaction for men, and found no support for negative stereotypes of feminists.
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