Atlantis Online
December 01, 2021, 12:45:49 pm
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: Giant crater may lie under Antarctic ice
http://space.newscientist.com/article/dn9268
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

Hadrian's Wall

Pages: 1 [2]   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Hadrian's Wall  (Read 249 times)
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #15 on: March 18, 2008, 12:42:40 am »



The Romans Cause a Wall to be Built for the Protection of the South; Oil on Canvas Completed in 1857; Original dimensions: 182.0cm x 182.0cm (71.7in x 71.7in); Original Painting held in Wallington House, Northumberland, England
The Painting shows a centurion supervising the building of Hadrian's Wall. The centurion has been given the face of John Clayton, who was responsible for saving parts of the Wall from loss. The painting is in the collection at Wallington Hall, near Morpeth, England.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #16 on: March 18, 2008, 12:44:16 am »

World Heritage Site

Hadrian's Wall was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and in 2005 it became part of the larger "Frontiers of the Roman Empire" World Heritage Site which also includes sites in Germany.

Roman-period names

No sources survive to confirm what the wall was called in antiquity, and no historical literary source gives it a name. However, the discovery of a small enamelled bronze Roman cup in Staffordshire in 2003 has provided a clue. The cup is inscribed with a series of names of Roman forts along the western sector of the wall, together with a personal name and a phrase:

MAIS COGGABATA VXELODVNVM CAMBOGLANNA RIGORE VALI AELI DRACONIS
Bowness (MAIS) is followed by Drumburgh-by-Sands (COGGABATA) until now known only as CONGAVATA from the late Roman document, the Notitia Dignitatum. Next comes Stanwix (VXELODVNVM), then Castlesteads (CAMBOGLANNA).

RIGORE is the ablative form of the Latin word rigor. This can mean several things, but one of its less-known meanings is ‘straight line’, ‘course’ or ‘direction’. This sense was used by Roman surveyors and appears on several inscriptions to indicate a line between places. So the meaning could be ‘from the course’, or better in English 'according to the course'.
There is no known word as vali, but vallum was the Latin word for a frontier; today vallum is applied to the ditch and berm dug by the Roman army just south of the wall. The genitive form of vallum is valli, so one of the most likely meanings is VAL[L]I, ‘of the frontier’. Omitting one of a pair of double consonants is common on Roman inscriptions; moreover, an error in the transcription of a written note could be the reason: another similar bronze vessel, known as the Rudge Cup (found in Wiltshire in the 18th century) has VN missing from the name VXELODVNVM, for example, although the letters appear on the Staffordshire Moorlands cup. The Rudge Cup only bears fort names.

The name AELI was Hadrian's nomen, his main family name, the gens Aelia. The Roman bridge at Newcastle-upon-Tyne was called Pons Aelius.

DRACONIS can be translated as ‘[by the hand – or property] of Draco’. It was normal for Roman manufacturers to give their names in the genitive (‘of’), and ‘by the hand’ would be understood. The form is common, for example, on Samian ware.

The translation, therefore, could be:

‘Mais, Coggabata, Uxelodunum, Camboglanna, according to the line of the Aelian frontier. [By the hand or The property] of Draco’.

This would mean the Romans knew Hadrian's Wall as the line demarcating Vallum Aelium, 'the Aelian frontier'.


Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #17 on: March 18, 2008, 12:45:33 am »



The remains of milecastle 39, near Steel Rigg, between Housesteads and Once Brewed National Park.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #18 on: March 18, 2008, 12:46:45 am »



The remains of a fort near Housesteads.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #19 on: March 18, 2008, 12:48:09 am »



The Staffordshire Moorlands cup, an enamelled Roman bronze vessel (diameter 89.5mm) which lists the names of several Roman forts on the western sector of Hadrian's Wall and also the ancient name of the Wall in the form Val[l]i Aeli, the 'Aelian frontier', using part of Hadrian's name which in full was Publius Aelius Hadrianus. Picture: Guy de la Bédoyère.


Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #20 on: March 18, 2008, 01:01:59 am »



Hadrian's wall viewed from near Greenhead.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #21 on: March 18, 2008, 01:02:58 am »



Part of Hadrian's wall near Housesteads. Photo taken July 2005
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #22 on: March 18, 2008, 01:09:39 am »


Part of Hardian's wall near Housesteads. Photo taken July 2005.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #23 on: March 18, 2008, 01:10:55 am »



Robin Hood Tree aka Sycamore Gap, Hadrian's Wall, UK.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #24 on: March 18, 2008, 01:11:46 am »

Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #25 on: March 18, 2008, 01:12:20 am »



A tree on Hadrian's Wall in Northumberland, UK
« Last Edit: March 18, 2008, 01:20:10 am by Krystal Coenen » Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #26 on: March 18, 2008, 01:24:02 am »



Milecastle 39 on Hadrian's Wall, near Steel Rigg, looking east from a ridge along the Hadrian's Wall Path.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #27 on: March 18, 2008, 01:25:24 am »

Milecastle 39 on Hadrian's Wall, near Steel Rigg, looking east from a ridge along the Hadrian's Wall Path.




Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #28 on: March 18, 2008, 01:26:44 am »



The Hadrian's Wall between Housesteads and Once Brewed National Park, a so-called milecastle can be seen at the bottom of the picture. / Der Hadrianswall zwischen Housesteads und dem Once Brewed Nationalpark. Vorne: ein sogenanntes milecastle.



Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4754



« Reply #29 on: March 18, 2008, 01:27:40 am »



Vallum at Hadrian's Wall, looking west. The wall can be seen on the ridge to the right.
Report Spam   Logged
Pages: 1 [2]   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy