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AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN

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Bianca
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« Reply #960 on: October 19, 2008, 10:29:06 pm »









Annexe 58

<> Wig (round and long) type (9)




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Annexe 59

<> Round wig type (10)



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Annexe 60

<> type (11)
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« Reply #961 on: October 19, 2008, 10:30:42 pm »









Annexe 60

<> type (11)



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Annexe 61

<> type (12)

<> `The 3tf-crown' (of Osiris) Gardiner, Eg. Gram, 492, 532
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« Reply #962 on: October 19, 2008, 10:31:39 pm »








Annexe 63

<> Type (14)

<> 'wreath' Gardiner, Eg. Gram. 492
<> 'fillet' " " " .
<> 'head-band' " " " 558


<>
<> `fillet' (or diadem) Lacau, Sarcophs, pl. LIV., 491, 28037 (43)



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Annexe 64

<> Type (15)
<> Lacau, Sarcophs., pl. LIV, 485, 28037 (41).



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(April 9, 2008)



http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/4ann.html
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« Reply #963 on: October 24, 2008, 06:55:28 pm »









                  For a minor ruler, Tut boasts a major legacy thanks to his treasure-filled tomb






September 21, 2008
By CHRISTOPHER SANDLIN /
Special Contributor to
The Dallas Morning News

His tomb is not the largest in Egypt – far from it – nor was he a strong ruler.

Pyramids were not built in his honor, nor were any monuments.

King Tutankhamun's legacy, though, is eternal and undeniable.


"You find nothing if you look for this name before the tomb was discovered," said Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities. "He gave us a new perception of the New Kingdom, the Golden Age of Pharaohs."

It was the height of ancient Egyptian wealth and of relations with foreign countries, and a time of great change in religion and art.

"It makes us speculate, if so much wealth was in the tomb of a minor ruler, what did the robbers take from the tombs of more prominent rulers such as Ramses II?" said Dr. Hawass.

The discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb is the stuff of legends, its contents among the world's best preserved and most well-traveled treasures. It's one of history's great ironies, then, that such a renowned figure lived a short, rather uneventful life.

Some people find their fame and fortune with a stroke of good luck, but for archaeologist Howard Carter, it was a lucky stair step. In November 1922, Carter was in the Valley of the Kings eagerly searching for the tomb of a mysterious king named Tutankhamun.

Legend has it that a boy employed to fetch water spotted the first step of a set of stairs descending to an underground tomb.

On Nov. 26, 1922, Carter got his first glimpse through a small hole cut into the tomb. Standing behind him, the financier of the dig asked if anything could be seen. "Yes, wonderful things," Carter famously replied.
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« Reply #964 on: October 24, 2008, 06:56:42 pm »










Little is known about Tut's life, and much of that information is still debated.



He was probably born around 1341 B.C. as the son of Akhenaten, the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh who radically changed Egypt by disavowing the pantheon of gods, creating his own capital and establishing a cult devoted to the "Aten" sun-disc symbol, representing the sun god. Atenism is now considered the world's first monotheistic religion.

Tut became king at age 9. By then, his parents were dead, his father denounced as a heretic. The capital had returned to Memphis, outside of modern Cairo, and the Egyptian pantheon had been restored.

There's little dispute that the real power during Tut's reign was held by his trusty advisers – Aye, his father's chief official, and perhaps Tut's uncle; and Horemheb, general of Egypt's armies. To strengthen his claim to the throne, Tutankhamun was married to his sister Ankhesenamun.

The rest of Tutankhamun's life is murky, largely because later Pharaohs removed his and his father's names from official records. What is known is that he died around age 19 and was hastily buried in a small tomb.
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« Reply #965 on: October 24, 2008, 06:58:23 pm »










Questions swirl around the boy king.

Did a jealous adviser deal the fatal blow that modern X-rays indicate on his skull? Tut was known to enjoy hunting and riding chariots. Did he have a fatal fall? Or, was it someone even closer to Tut who murdered him, perhaps his wife or his personal aide?

As far as Dr. Hawass is concerned, "The case of King Tut's murder is closed."

In January 2005, with the world eagerly watching, Dr. Hawass and his team removed Tut's fragile mummified body from the tomb for the first time in decades and performed an unprecedented series of computed tomography (CT) scans on it. Never before had such research been performed on a royal Egyptian mummy.

"We've now dismissed the murder theory," he said. "Now I can say we know accurate information about his age, health and cause of death."

Fifteen minutes of CT scanning yielded nearly 2,000 images, but Dr. Hawass' research found no evidence of a blow to the head. Dr. Hawass said earlier X-rays showed possible skull trauma due to Carter's careless handling of the mummy.

Instead, Dr. Hawass found a severe fracture on the king's left leg, leading him and international experts to believe Tut succumbed to gangrene a few days after having an accident. "I cannot say that the fracture on his leg was fatal, but the subsequent infection could have been," Dr. Hawass said.

Christopher Sandlin is a freelance writer in Euless.






Suggested media

Books

The Complete Tutankhamun by Nicholas Reeves

Howard Carter: The Path to Tutankhamun by T.G.H. James

Tutankhamun: The Mystery of the Boy King by Zahi Hawass, for younger readers



DVDs

King Tut – The Face of Tutankhamun

National Geographic: King Tut's Final Secrets
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« Reply #966 on: October 26, 2008, 04:59:18 pm »


             

             EA 161,

             letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru,
            (stating his case to pharaoh), one
            of the Amarna letters in cuneiform
            writing on a clay tablet.









                                                T H E   A M A R N A   L E T T E R S






A Thousand Miles up the Nile



One Hundred and twenty years ago, in 1887 AD, a peasant woman of Tell el-Amarna, now a small village on the
Nile and midway between Cairo and Luxor, was digging for sebakh (a form of natural, domestic fertiliser).

Instead, what she came up with were 380 clay tablets from beneath the floor of a ruined mudbrick house.

These were the "Amarna" letters - a treasure trove of clay tablets.

These clay tablets, that survived, are now divided between the British Museum, the Berlin Museum, and Cairo Museum.



http://2ndrelook.blogspot.com/2007/12/3-that-changed-history.html



**************************************************************************************



The Amarna letters (sometimes "Amarna correspondence" or "Amarna tablets") are an archive of correspondence on clay tablets, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.

The letters were found in Upper Egypt at Amarna, the modern name for the Egyptian capital founded by pharaoh Akhenaten (1350s – 1330s BC) during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt.

The Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, being mostly written in Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia rather than ancient Egypt.

The known tablets currently total 382 in number, 24 further tablets having been recovered since the Norwegian Assyriologist Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon's landmark edition of the Amarna correspondence,
Die El-Amarna-Tafeln in two volumes (1907 and 1915).
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« Reply #967 on: October 26, 2008, 05:09:50 pm »



Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period:

Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red).

Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence.

The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.
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« Reply #968 on: October 26, 2008, 05:13:01 pm »











These letters, consisting of cuneiform tablets mostly written in Akkadian – the regional language of diplomacy for this period – were first discovered by local Egyptians around 1887, who secretly dug most of them from the ruined city (they were originally stored in an ancient building archaeologists have since called the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh) and then sold them on the antiquities market.

Once the location where they were found was determined, the ruins were explored for more.

The first archaeologist who successfully recovered more tablets was William Flinders Petrie in 1891-92, who found 21 fragments. Émile Chassinat, then director of the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, acquired two more tablets in 1903. Since Knudtzon's edition, some 24 more tablets, or fragments of tablets, have been found, either in Egypt, or identified in the collections of various museums.

The tablets originally recovered by local Egyptians have been scattered among museums in Cairo, Europe and the United States: 202 or 203 are at the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin; 49 or 50 at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo; seven at the Louvre; three at the Pushkin Museum; and one is currently in the collection of the Oriental Institute in Chicago.
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« Reply #969 on: October 26, 2008, 05:14:24 pm »











The full archive, which includes correspondence from the preceding reign of Amenhotep III as well, contained over three hundred diplomatic letters; the remainder are a miscellany of literary or educational materials.

These tablets shed much light on Egyptian relations with Babylonia, Assyria, the Mitanni, the Hittites, Syria, Canaan, and Alashiya (Cyprus).

They are important for establishing both the history and chronology of the period. Letters from the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I anchor the timeframe of Akhenaten's reign to the mid-14th century BC.

Here was also found the first mention of a Near Eastern group known as the Habiru, whose possible connection with the Hebrews remains debated.

Other rulers include Tushratta of Mittani, Lib'ayu of Shehchem, Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem and the quarrelsome king Rib-Hadda of Byblos, who in over 58 letters continuously pleads for Egyptian military help.
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« Reply #970 on: October 26, 2008, 05:16:17 pm »











                                                         Letter Summary





Amarna Letters are arranged politically roughly counterclockwise:



001-014 Babylonia

015-016 Assyria

017-030 Mittani

031-032 Arzawa

033-040 Alasia

041-044 Hatti

045-380+ Syria/Lebanon/Canaan





Amarna Letters from Syria/Lebanon/Canaan are distributed roughly:



045-067 Syria

068-227 Lebanon (where 68-140 are from Gubla aka Byblos)

227-380 Canaan
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« Reply #971 on: October 26, 2008, 05:18:45 pm »











                                                          Amarna Letters List






Note: Many assignments are tentative;

spellings vary widely.

This is just a guide.



EA# letter author to recipient summary notes
EA# 1 Amenhotep III to Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil   
EA# 2 Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 3 Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 4 Babylon king Kadashman-Enlil to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 5 Amenhotep 3 to Babylon king KadashmanEnlil   
EA# 6 Babylon king Burna-Buriash II to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 7 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep IV   
EA# 8 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 9 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 10 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 11 Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 12 princess to her lord   
EA# 13 Babylon   
EA# 14 Amenhotep 4 to Babylon king Burna-Buriash 2   
EA# 15 Assyria king Ashur-Uballit I to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 16 Assyria king Ashur-Uballit 1 to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 17 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 18 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 19 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 20 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 21 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 22 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 23 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 24 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3   
EA# 25 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 26 Mitanni king Tushratta to widow Tiy   
EA# 27 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 28 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 29 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4   
EA# 30 Mitanni king to Palestine kings   
EA# 31 Amenhotep 3 to Arzawa king Tarhundaraba   
EA# 32 Arzawa king Tarhundaraba to Amenhotep 3(?)   
EA# 33 Alashiya king to pharaoh #1   
EA# 34 Alashiya king to pharaoh #2   
EA# 35 Alashiya king to pharaoh #3   
EA# 36 Alashiya king to pharaoh #4   
EA# 37 Alashiya king to pharaoh #5   
EA# 38 Alashiya king to pharaoh #6   
EA# 39 Alashiya king to pharaoh #7   
EA# 40 Alashiya minister to Egypt minister   
EA# 41 Hittite king Suppiluliuma to Huri[a]   
EA# 42 Hittite king to pharaoh   
EA# 43 Hittite king to pharaoh   
EA# 44 Hittite prince Zi[k]ar to pharaoh   
EA# 45 Ugarit king [M]istu ... to pharaoh   
EA# 46 Ugarit king ... to king   
EA# 47 Ugarit king ... to king   
EA# 48 Ugarit queen ..[h]epa to pharaohs queen   
EA# 49 Ugarit king Niqm-Adda II to pharaoh   
EA# 50 woman to her mistress B...   
EA#051 Nuhasse king Addunirari to pharaoh   
EA#052 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #1   
EA#053 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #2   
EA#054 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #3   
EA#055 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #4   
EA#056 ... to king   
EA#057 ...   
EA#058   
EA#058 [Qat]ihutisupa to king(?) obverse   
EA#059 Tunip peoples to pharaoh   
EA#060 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #1   
EA#061 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #2   
EA#062 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to Pahanate   
EA#063 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #3   
EA#064 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #4   
EA#065 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta to pharaoh #5   
EA#066 --- to king   
EA#067 --- to king   
EA#068 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #1   
EA#069 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official   
EA#070 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #1   
EA#071 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Haia(?)   
EA#072 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #3   
EA#073 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #1   
EA#074 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #4   
EA#075 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #5   
EA#076 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #6   
EA#077 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #2   
EA#078 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #7   
EA#079 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #8   
EA#080 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #9   
EA#081 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #10   
EA#082 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #3   
EA#083 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #11   
EA#084 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #12   
EA#085 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #13   
EA#086 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #4   
EA#087 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #5   
EA#088 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #14   
EA#089 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #15   
EA#090 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #16   
EA#091 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #17   
EA#092 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #18   
EA#093 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Amanappa #6   
EA#094 Gubla man to pharaoh   
EA#095 Gubal king Rib-Addi to chief   
EA#096 chief to Rib-Addi   
EA#097 Iapah-Addi to Sumu-Hadi   
EA#098 Iapah-Addi to Ianhamu   
EA#099 pharaoh to Ammia prince(?)   
EA#100 Irqata peoples   
EA#1001 Tagi to Lab-Aya   
EA#101 Gubla man to Egypt official   
EA#102 Gubal king Rib-Addi to [Ianha]m   
EA#103 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #19   
EA#104 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #20   
EA#105 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #21   
EA#106 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #22   
EA#107 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #23   
EA#108 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #24   
EA#109 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #25   
EA#110 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #26   
EA#111 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #27   
EA#112 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #28   
EA#113 Gubal king Rib-Addi to Egypt official   
EA#114 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #29   
EA#115 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #30   
EA#116 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #31   
EA#117 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #32   
EA#118 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #33   
EA#119 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #34   
EA#120 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #35   
EA#121 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #36   
EA#122 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #37   
EA#123 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #38   
EA#124 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #39   
EA#125 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #40   
EA#126 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #41   
EA#127 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #42   
EA#128 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #43   
EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #44   
EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #45   
EA#130 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #46   
EA#131 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #47   
EA#132 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #48   
EA#133 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #49   
EA#134 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #50   
EA#135 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #51   
EA#136 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #52   
EA#137 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #53   
EA#138 Gubal king Rib-Addi to pharaoh #54   
EA#139 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #1   
EA#140 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #2   
EA#141 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #1   
EA#142 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #2   
EA#143 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #3   
EA#144 Zidon king Zimriddi to pharaoh   
EA#145 [Z]imrid[a] to an official   
EA#146 Tyre king Abi-Milki to pharaoh #1   
EA#147 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #2   
EA#148 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #3   
EA#149 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #4   
EA#150 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #5   
EA#151 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #6   
EA#152 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #7   
EA#153 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #8   
EA#154 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #9   
EA#155 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #10   
EA#156 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #1   
EA#157 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #2   
EA#158 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #1   
EA#159 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #3   
EA#160 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #4   
EA#161 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #5   
EA#162 pharaoh to Amurra prince   
EA#163 pharaoh to ...   
EA#164 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #2   
EA#165 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #6   
EA#166 Amurru king Aziri to Hai   
EA#167 Amurru king Aziri to (Hai #2?)   
EA#168 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #7   
EA#169 Amurru son of Aziri to a Egypt official   
EA#170 Ba-Aluia & Battiilu   
EA#171 Amurru son of Aziri to pharaoh   
EA#172 ---   
EA#173 ... to king   
EA#174 Bieri of Hasabu   
EA#175 Ildaja of Hazi to king   
EA#176 Abdi-Risa   
EA#177 Guddasuna king Jamiuta   
EA#178 Hibija to a chief   
EA#179 ... to king   
EA#180 ... to king   
EA#181 ... to king   
EA#182 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #1   
EA#183 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #2   
EA#184 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #3   
EA#185 Hazi king Majarzana to king   
EA#186 Majarzana of Hazi to king #2   
EA#187 Satija of ... to king   
EA#188 ... to king   
EA#189 Qadesh mayor Etakkama   
EA#190 pharaoh to Qadesh mayor Etakkama(?)   
EA#191 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king   
EA#192 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king #2   
EA#193 Dijate to king   
EA#194 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #1   
EA#195 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #2   
EA#196 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #3   
EA#197 Damascus mayor Biryawaza to king #4   
EA#198 Ara[ha]ttu of Kumidi to king   
EA#199 ... the king   
EA#200 servant to king   
EA#2001 Sealants   
EA#2002 Sealants   
EA#201 Artemanja of Ziribasani to king   
EA#202 Amajase to king   
EA#203 Abdi-Milki of Sashimi   
EA#204 prince of Qanu to king   
EA#205 Gubbu prince to king   
EA#206 prince of Naziba to king   
EA#207 Ipteh ... to king   
EA#208 ... to Egypt official or king   
EA#209 Zisamimi to king   
EA#210 Zisami[mi] to Amenhotep VI   
EA#2100 Carchemish king to Ugarit king Asukwari   
EA#211 Zitrijara to king #1   
EA#2110 Ewiri-Shar to Plsy   
EA#212 Zitrijara to king #2   
EA#213 Zitrijara to king #3   
EA#214 ... to king   
EA#215 Baiawa to king #1   
EA#216 Baiawa to king #2   
EA#217 A[h]... to king   
EA#218 ... to king   
EA#219 ... to king   
EA#220 Nukurtuwa of (?) [Z]unu to king   
EA#221 Wiktazu to king #1   
EA#222 pharaoh to Intaruda   
EA#222 Wik[tazu] to king #2   
EA#223 En[g]u[t]a to king   
EA#224 Sum-Add[a] to king   
EA#225 Sum-Adda of Samhuna to king   
EA#226 Sipturi_ to king   
EA#227 Hazor king   
EA#228 Hazor king Abdi-Tirsi   
EA#229 Abdi-na-... to king   
EA#230 Iama to king   
EA#231 ... to king   
EA#232 Acco king Zurata to pharaoh   
EA#233 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #1   
EA#234 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #2   
EA#235 Zitatna/(Zatatna) to king   
EA#236 ... to king   
EA#237 Bajadi to king   
EA#238 Bajadi   
EA#239 Baduzana   
EA#240 ... to king   
EA#241 Rusmania to king   
EA#242 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #1   
EA#243 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #2   
EA#244 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #3   
EA#245 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #4   
EA#246 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #5   
EA#247 Megiddo king Biridija or Jasdata   
EA#248 Ja[sd]ata to king   
EA#248 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh   
EA#249   
EA#249 Addu-Ur-sag to king   
EA#250 Addu-Ur-sag to king   
EA#2500 Shechem   
EA#251 ... to Egypt official   
EA#252 Labaja to king   
EA#253 Labaja to king   
EA#254 Labaja to king   
EA#255 Mut-Balu or Mut-Bahlum to king   
EA#256 Mut-Balu to Ianhamu   
EA#257 Balu-Mihir to king #1   
EA#258 Balu-Mihir to king #2   
EA#259 Balu-Mihir to king #3   
EA#260 Balu-Mihir to king #4   
EA#261 Dasru to king #1   
EA#262 Dasru to king #2   
EA#263 ... to lord   
EA#264 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #1   
EA#265 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #2   
EA#266 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #3   
EA#267 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #1   
EA#268 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #2   
EA#269 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #3   
EA#270 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #4   
EA#271 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #5   
EA#272 Sum. .. to king   
EA#273 [Ba-Lat-Nese]] to king   
EA#274 Ba-Lat-Nese to king #2   
EA#275 Iahazibada to king #1   
EA#276 Iahazibada to king #2   
EA#277 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #1   
EA#278 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #2   
EA#279 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3   
EA#280 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3   
EA#281 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #4   
EA#282 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #5   
EA#283 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #6   
EA#284 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #7   
EA#285 Jerusalem king Abdi-Hiba to pharaoh   
EA#286 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh   
EA#287 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh   
EA#288 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh   
EA#289 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh   
EA#290 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh   
EA#290 Qiltu king Suwardata to king   
EA#291 ... to ...   
EA#292 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #1   
EA#293 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #2   
EA#294 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #3   
EA#295   
EA#295 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #4   
EA#296 Gaza king Iahtiri   
EA#297 Gezer mayor Iapah to pharaoh #1   
EA#298 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #2   
EA#299 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #3   
EA#300 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #4   
EA#301 Subandu to king #1   
EA#302 Subandu to king #2   
EA#303 Subandu to king #3   
EA#304 Subandu to king #4   
EA#305 Subandu to king #5   
EA#306 Subandu to king #6   
EA#307 ... to king   
EA#308 ... to king   
EA#309 ... to king   
EA#310 ... to king   
EA#311 ... to king   
EA#312 ... to king   
EA#313 ... to king   
EA#314 Jursa king Pu-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1   
EA#315 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #2   
EA#316 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh   
EA#317 Dagantakala to king #1   
EA#318 Dagantakala to king #2   
EA#319 A[h]tirumna king Zurasar to king   
EA#320 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #1   
EA#321 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #2   
EA#322 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #3   
EA#323 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #4   
EA#324 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #5   
EA#325 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #6   
EA#326 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #7   
EA#327 ... the king   
EA#328 Lakis mayor Iabniilu to pharaoh   
EA#329 Lakis king Zimridi to pharaoh   
EA#330 Lakis mayor Sipti-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1   
EA#331 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #2   
EA#332 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #3   
EA#333 Ebi to a prince   
EA#334 ---dih of Zuhra [-?] to king   
EA#335 --- [of Z]uhr to king   
EA#336 Hiziri to king #1   
EA#337 Hiziri to king #2   
EA#338 Zi. .. to king   
EA#339 ... to king   
EA#340 ...   
EA#341 ...   
EA#342 ...   
EA#356 myth of Adapa and the South Wind   
EA#357 myth the Ereskigal and Nergal   
EA#358 myth fragments   
EA#359 myth Epic of king of Battle   
EA#360 ...   
EA#361 ...   
EA#364 Aiab to king   
EA#365 Megiddo king Biridiya to pharaoh   
EA#367 pharaoh to Endaruta of Akshapa   
EA#xxx Amenhotep III to Milkili   
H#3100 Tell el-Hesi   
P#3200 Pella prince Mut-Balu to Yanhamu   
P#3210 Lion Woman to king   
T#3002 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa   
T#3005 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa   
T#3006 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa   
U#4001 Ugarit king Niqmaddu
« Last Edit: November 16, 2008, 09:36:10 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #972 on: October 26, 2008, 05:20:58 pm »










                                                          Chronology






William L. Moran summarizes the state of the chronology of these tablets as follows:



Despite a long history of inquiry, the chronology of the Amarna letters, both relative and absolute, presents many problems, some of bewildering complexity, that still elude definitive solution.

Consensus obtains only about what is obvious, certain established facts, and these provide only a
broad framework within which many and often quite different reconstructions of the course of events reflected in the Amarna letters are possible and have been defended. ...The Amarna archive, it is now generally agreed, spans at most about thirty years, perhaps only fifteen or so.

From the internal evidence, the earliest possible date for this correspondence is the final decade of the reign of Amenhotep III, who ruled from 1388 (or 1391) BC to 1351 (or 1353) BC, possibly as early as this king's 30th regnal year; the latest date any of these letters were written is the desertion of the city of Amarna, commonly believed to have happened in the second year of the reign of Tutankhamun later in the same century in 1332 BC.

Moran notes that some scholars believe one tablet, EA 16, may have been addressed to Tutankhamun's successor Ay.

However, this speculation appears improbable because the Amarna archives were closed by Year 2 of Tutankhamun, when this king transferred Egypt's capital from Amarna to Thebes.
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« Reply #973 on: October 26, 2008, 05:25:32 pm »









                                                           Bibliography





References



Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


Category:



Amarna letters^ Moran, William L. (1992). The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, p.xiv. ISBN 0-8018-4251-4. 


^ Moran, op. cit., p.xv

^ Moran, op. cit., p.xiii-xiv

^ Moran, op. cit., p.xxxiv

^ Moran, op. cit., p.xxxv, n.123




Research and Analysis


Goren, Y., Finkelstein, I. & Na'aman, N., Inscribed in Clay - Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets and Other Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Tel Aviv: Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 2004. ISBN 965-266-020-5




External links


Encyclopedia of el-Amarna Contains summaries of the letters.

Mineralogical and Chemical Study of the Amarna Tablets - Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets – University of Tel Aviv web page

All 6 views on 1--Sample letter(Mesopotamian)



Article explanation of 6 views of a Tablet-letter.


"The Tell el-Amarna Tablets". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 




Retrieved from

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amarna_letters
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« Reply #974 on: October 26, 2008, 05:28:53 pm »

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