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AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN

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Author Topic: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN  (Read 65559 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #870 on: June 08, 2008, 10:13:30 pm »



A view of the chambers in the north court,
showing the remains of a staircase.

The scale marks the location of a groove,
once the location of a wooden beam,
as illustrated above
« Last Edit: June 08, 2008, 10:14:57 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #871 on: June 08, 2008, 10:16:09 pm »



A section across a wall at the North Palace
showing where, on either side, timber beams
had originally been inserted in place of a
course of bricks.

The timbers have long since been eaten away,
leaving the brickwork above unstable



« Last Edit: June 08, 2008, 10:18:40 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #872 on: June 08, 2008, 10:24:30 pm »








The expedition’s approach is to:



replace badly eroded bricks where they form the face of the wall especially towards the base where erosion creates a danger of collapse

cap the tops of walls with new bricks where the existing top is soft

recreate in a few new courses walls and brick columns which are either entirely missing or are represented by only a low mound of decomposed bricks

The replacement bricks are newly made at the site, on a patch of flat desert outside the enclosure
wall.

The new bricks are made from locally available materials using a formula which is the result both of analysis of the old bricks and of testing alternative formulae.





The ingredients are:



local soil from the fields mixed with plant material
 
small stones

fire ash

animal dung

slaked (burnt) lime






Two important stages in manufacture are:



dissolving the slaked lime in water and soaking the soil in it in order to impregnate the mud mixture with the lime, to add to the hardness and, in effect, to simulate the build-up of calcium carbonate which occurs naturally in the course of time

making the bricks from a relatively dry mud mix which can be compressed through manual hammering in very strongly made moulds (specially made in England to the correct ancient dimensions).



The resulting bricks are quite hard and dense and relatively free from the organic content which attracts termite attack.


http://www.amarnaproject.com/pages/preservation/north_palace.shtml
« Last Edit: June 08, 2008, 10:25:39 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #873 on: October 09, 2008, 09:19:08 pm »




             

              Mixing the lime in which the mud mix is soaked
              prior to using it for making the bricks





                                                         

                                                          The making of new mud bricks

« Last Edit: October 09, 2008, 09:22:37 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #874 on: October 09, 2008, 09:26:17 pm »






                   






Each of the brick moulds has a wooden lid which is pressed on to the newly made brick as the mould itself is pulled up to free it.

Where a timber slot exists it is filled with mud to just below the wall surface so that it remains visible as a separate structural feature. In the ‘garden court’ part of the palace (which occupies the north-east corner of the palace), a wood-coloured compound has been applied experimentally to the mud filler and coated with dust before drying, in order to convey more clearly the significance of this feature.

The plan has been to carry out repairs along the rooms of the rear part of the palace. These are the best preserved and also the part most visible to visitors. The work has proceeded since 1997 from north to south, taking in the central columned hall in 2004.
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« Reply #875 on: October 09, 2008, 09:30:01 pm »




               






One of the dividing walls in the row of chambers on the west side of the garden court. The horizontal groove where the original timber had been inserted has been filled with mud, and the surface coated with a wood-coloured compound. When first discovered in 1923 the wall was covered with a layer of mud plaster on which was painted a scene of geese feeding. The lower part of the wall plaster had been painted black, small patches of which still adhere to the surface of the wall.





                                                               
 
Reconstruction of the painted wall plaster on the wall shown above. The scene of the geese is an original water-colour made at the time of discovery by F. Newton. The coloured bands and deep black dado have been reconstructed from archive material

« Last Edit: October 09, 2008, 09:35:38 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #876 on: October 09, 2008, 09:40:51 pm »











Column bases


Column bases. The rear part of the palace originally possessed many columns set on stone column bases. Several of them survive. The positions of the missing ones are visible from traces left in the mud-brick floors, often as patches of gypsum plaster. For the garden court at the north end of the site, in 2000 the missing column bases were replaced with new ones. These were made from a mixture of white cement and white sand poured into a special mould and strengthened internally with iron rods. In 2004 the positions of the missing columns in the central hall were marked not by replacement column bases but by plain circular white-concrete pads laid flush with the floor itself. The mud-brick floor had eroded for much of its depth. To protect what was left and also to bring the floor back to its original level, a layer of mud-brick dust was spread over it.


               


 The repairs to the garden court of the North Palace. The row of column bases has been completed by the insertion of casts into the gaps left by the loss of some of the original bases
« Last Edit: October 09, 2008, 09:42:46 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #877 on: October 09, 2008, 09:45:43 pm »











Stonework


In places the builders of the North Palace used limestone blocks, all of which were removed after the end of the Amarna Period, although their positions often remained marked in an underlying layer of gypsum concrete. One of these places lies in the front part of the central columned hall. The shape of the foundation layer points to a broad staircase leading to an external platform originally made from limestone blocks. The gypsum underlay has survived well and still bears clear imprints of the lowest layer of blocks. A detailed plan of this has been made and it is now protected beneath a thick layer of clean sand. Over the top of the sand-bed the shape of the staircase and external platform has been reproduced in new limestone blocks. These have been cut to approximately the dimensions of the original blocks (which were one cubit in length, that is, 52 cm).

Stone was also used for door thresholds. We have replaced several of these with new stonework.




 
View of the central columned hall. The positions of the missing column bases are represented by circular pads made from a mixture of white stone chippings and white cement. The stonework in the background marks the outline of a staircase or ramp which led up to a platform. The orignal stone blocks had been removed at the end of the Amarna Period, but their impressions remained in layer of gypsum concrete





Aerial photograph from a tethered balloon of the centre-rear part of the North Palace. The photograph was taken prior to the start of the repairs. In the middle is the columned hall, the positions of the column bases clearly visible. Note their unusual layout which suggests that the outer rows of columns were smaller (they are more closely set together), and supported a slightly lower roof than that which covered the central part. The extent of the ancient gypsum-concrete foundation layer is also clear
« Last Edit: October 09, 2008, 09:49:06 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #878 on: October 09, 2008, 09:50:54 pm »









The garden court with the central columned hall beyond, at the end of the 2004 season.
View to the south








Aerial photograph from a tethered balloon
of the rear (eastern) part of the North Palace
« Last Edit: October 09, 2008, 09:54:20 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #879 on: October 09, 2008, 09:55:51 pm »












The central columned hall after the completion of repairs








Masons at work laying the new stone blocks which mark the outline of the ancient stonework. The ancient layer of gypsum concrete which provides the evidence for the original presence of this stonework is buried beneath a thick layer of sand. The stone blocks are cut approximately to the ancient dimensions
« Last Edit: October 09, 2008, 09:59:14 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #880 on: October 09, 2008, 10:01:36 pm »












Completion of repairs to the garden court of the North Palace

 






Repairs to the brickwork at the back of the North Palace
« Last Edit: October 09, 2008, 10:04:34 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #881 on: October 12, 2008, 10:55:34 pm »











                                                          Small Aten Temple






The Small Aten Temple was excavated and planned in 1931 by the EES expedition directed by John Pendlebury. The temple consists of a large rectangular enclosure surrounded by a thick mud-brick wall strengthened with external buttresses. It was divided into three parts by cross-walls. The outer enclosure wall and the two internal cross-walls were pierced with gateways, the principal ones being on the main central east-west axis of the temple. Each of these central gateways was flanked with pylon towers, also built from mud-bricks.

The third court at the rear of the temple contained the Sanctuary, which had been built from stone laid over the characteristic gypsum-concrete foundation layer which preserved impressions from the lowest course of blocks. The Sanctuary had been fronted by a large stone pylon and colossal columns.

Pendlebury had used the open spaces as suitable ground for heaping the spoil from the excavation. Before the current work began in 1987, therefore, it was not possible to gain a clear picture of the layout of the temple, and its emphasis upon large open spaces. In the early seasons of the current work much effort was expended upon removing these dumps (sieving them for archaeological material at the same time). The largest dump, which separated the stone Sanctuary from the rest of the temple, was removed with the aid of a mechanical conveyor belt (provided by the good offices of Alf Baxendale and donated by British Coal). It is now possible to view the temple as a coherent single building.
« Last Edit: October 12, 2008, 10:58:27 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #882 on: October 12, 2008, 10:59:44 pm »










The mud-brickwork of the temple has been treated in a similar fashion to that at the North Palace (and was begun earlier, in 1988). The scheme of consolidation, capping and replacement of missing parts has been applied to the enclosure wall, the pylon towers and parts of the interior dividing walls, and to the so-called ‘priest’s house’ which stands in front of the southern tower of the third pylon. The outline of a large mud-brick altar or offering-platform in the outer court has been remade in new bricks, and a token number of small brick offering-tables have been rebuilt beside it.

The mud bricks made in the early years of the current work represented experiments, and some of them now need to be replaced by more weather-resistant bricks made to the current formula.

 



The Small Aten Temple viewed to the north-east. The wall in the foreground is the south enclosure wall which had been strengthened by external buttresses. The outline of the wall and of the buttresses has been completed in new bricks.
« Last Edit: October 12, 2008, 11:00:55 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #883 on: October 12, 2008, 11:02:31 pm »










Stonework



The Sanctuary of the Small Aten Temple was originally built from stone blocks and covered with carved and painted scenes. Most of the blocks appear to have been of limestone but some at least were of sandstone, as were the doorframes and gigantic columns which stood in front of the Sanctuary. The floor level of the Sanctuary had apparently been made up with stone rubble and gypsum to a depth of around one metre.

Since the outline plan of the Sanctuary is recorded in the fragments of the gypsum foundation layer it is possible to mark out on the ground the lines of the original walls. This has been done in new limestone blocks laid over a protective bed of sand. The main walls of the Sanctuary were about two metres thick. In the modern replacements only the edges of the wall have been recreated in stone. The intervening space has been filled with the pale chippings and dust from the original foundation platform. This same material also forms the current ground inside the Sanctuary.



 

Aerial photograph of the Sanctuary of the Small Aten Temple at the completion of the laying out of the Sanctuary outline in new limestone blocks. The new stone flooring of the gateways between the pylons had not been completed when the photograph was taken.
« Last Edit: October 12, 2008, 11:03:42 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #884 on: October 12, 2008, 11:04:52 pm »










In front of the Sanctuary Pendlebury found many large pieces from sandstone columns. These have been set upright in the approximate positions of the original columns. Enough pieces remained to allow for a reconstruction of the whole shape. A segment of the column was reproduced in the UK in modelling clay by sculptor Simon Bradley. From this he made a series of rigid moulds. These were brought to Egypt and a series of casts made in glass-reinforced concrete at a factory in New Salhiya. The casts were erected by Simon Bradley around a central framework of welded ironwork in the 1994 season, using welding equipment and scaffolding loaned from Richard Keen of Keminco.





 Many pieces of the original sandstone columns remain on the site. From their designs and dimensions a replica column has been made and set up in order to bring a sense of the original height of the buildings. The replica
column is made from a series of panels in glass-fibre reinforced concrete, cast from a clay mould of a segment
of the column.
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