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AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN

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Bianca
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« Reply #855 on: May 23, 2008, 08:57:35 am »











                                       The Official Website of the Amarna Project




 
The ancient Egyptian city of Tell el-Amarna (or simply Amarna) was the short-lived capital built by the ‘heretic’ Pharaoh Akhenaten and abandoned shortly after his death (c. 1332 BCE).

It was here that he pursued his vision of a society dedicated to the cult of one god, the power of the sun (the Aten).

As well as this historic interest Amarna remains the largest readily accessible living-site from ancient Egypt. It is thus simultaneously the key to a chapter in the history of religious experience and to a fuller understanding of what it was like to be an ancient Egyptian.

There is no other site like it.
« Last Edit: May 23, 2008, 09:01:07 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #856 on: May 23, 2008, 09:02:17 am »









                                                       Mission Statement





Working with the agreement and co-operation of the Egyptian government, and in particular the Supreme Council of Antiquities, the Amarna Project seeks to:

Explore by archaeology the ancient city of Amarna and its historical context

Preserve what is left of the ancient city

Promote study and recording of the history, archaeology and traditional life and crafts of the surrounding region

Increase public knowledge, at all levels, of the city of Amarna and of the surrounding region

Website first posted September 2000; last updated January 2008 | enquiries concerning website: email bjk2@cam.ac.uk
« Last Edit: May 23, 2008, 09:03:45 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #857 on: May 23, 2008, 09:06:26 am »











The Amarna Project is supported by the





The Amarna Trust is registered with
the Charity Commission as no. 1113058.



Its registered address is:

The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research
University of Cambridge
Downing Street
Cambridge CB2 3ER
United Kingdom





It is also supported by, and works in conjunction with, the


Egypt Exploration Society (see Funding and Support).




All work done at Amarna relies upon the support and agreement of the Supreme Council of Antiquities. We are indebted to its personnel, both local and in Cairo, and in particular to its General Secretary, Dr Zahi Hawass.



Thanks to those who have supported the Amarna Project in the last year


Egypt Exploration Society

McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research

Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Cambridge

Amarna Research Foundation




Digital Drama (Luise Wagner-Roos)

Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI)

G.A. Wainwright Fund

H.M. Chadwick Fund

Jo Fletcher

R.J. Kiln Trust

Seven Pillars of Wisdom Trust

Stewart White

Surésh Dhargalkar

Templeton Foundation

Thomas Mulvey Fund




Amarna Research Foundation (special appeal for a magazine extension)

Kenneth Andresen

Annedore Apaka

Fran Arce

Robert Berman

Charles Cook

Stevan Dana

Patricia Dihel

Ana Gaillat

Richard Harwood

Edward Henderson

Sharon Herron

Mary Kaiman

Gloria Leight

Brenda Lowe

Kevin Maxwell

Grier Merwin

David Moyer

Marilynn Oleck

George Powers III

Bonnie Sampsell

Stanley Sargent

Kristin Thompson

Darrell Walker

Anna White
« Last Edit: May 23, 2008, 09:34:33 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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Bianca
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« Reply #858 on: May 23, 2008, 09:08:53 am »










Location



Amarna (Tell el-Amarna) is located on the east bank of the Nile, in the province of El-Minia.

The city of El-Minia is 58 kms (36 miles) to the north, Cairo is 312 kms (194 miles) to the north,
Asyut is 75 kms (47 miles) to the south, Luxor is 402 kms (250 miles) to the south
(approximate road distances).


 
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« Reply #859 on: May 23, 2008, 09:15:05 am »













Regional Setting



Amarna lies in Middle Egypt, within the boundaries of the governorate of El-Minia. Foreign visitors are welcome in Middle Egypt but are nevertheless closely supervised by the Egyptian Tourist and Antiquities Police. The only available hotels are in El-Minia itself, 58 kilometres (36 miles) to the north of Amarna, along the main north-south highway. Several of these hotels are of fair standard. El-Minia also possesses a modern railway station.





The two nearest towns, across the river on the west bank, are Mallawi in the north and Deir Mawas in the south.

Four villages lies along the edge of the Amarna plain, adjacent to the river and the modern fields. They are, from north to south, Et-Till Beni Amran (or Et-Till), El-Hagg Qandil, El-Amariya and El-Hawata esh-Sharqiya (or El-Hawata).

The majority of visitors to Amarna come by road, even if they have journeyed to El-Minia by train. The last stage of the journey requires a river crossing from the west side of the Nile. There are at present two vehicle ferries, one to the village of Et-Till in the north and one to El-Hagg Qandil in the south. The first is reached from a road that leaves the main highway 5 kms south of Mallawi; the second from a turning in the centre of the town of Deir Mawas. Most tourists use the Et-Till ferry which is closer to the most visited parts of Amarna. It is also where the Tourist Police offices are located.

At the time of writing (June 2006) work had begun on a road bridge across the Nile in the area of Deir el-Bersha which will give direct road access to Amarna from the north.
« Last Edit: May 23, 2008, 09:19:31 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #860 on: May 23, 2008, 09:21:03 am »













Getting There



Amarna lies in Middle Egypt, within the boundaries of the governorate of El-Minia. Foreign visitors are welcome in Middle Egypt but are nevertheless closely supervised by the Egyptian Tourist and Antiquities Police. The only available hotels are in El-Minia itself, 58 kilometres (36 miles) to the north of Amarna, along the main north-south highway. Several of these hotels are of fair standard. El-Minia also possesses a modern railway station.





The two nearest towns, across the river on the west bank, are Mallawi in the north and Deir Mawas in the south.

Four villages lies along the edge of the Amarna plain, adjacent to the river and the modern fields. They are, from north to south, Et-Till Beni Amran (or Et-Till), El-Hagg Qandil, El-Amariya and El-Hawata esh-Sharqiya (or El-Hawata).

The majority of visitors to Amarna come by road, even if they have journeyed to El-Minia by train. The last stage of the journey requires a river crossing from the west side of the Nile. There are at present two vehicle ferries, one to the village of Et-Till in the north and one to El-Hagg Qandil in the south. The first is reached from a road that leaves the main highway 5 kms south of Mallawi; the second from a turning in the centre of the town of Deir Mawas. Most tourists use the Et-Till ferry which is closer to the most visited parts of Amarna. It is also where the Tourist Police offices are located.

At the time of writing (June 2006) work had begun on a road bridge across the Nile in the area of Deir el-Bersha which will give direct road access to Amarna from the north.
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« Reply #861 on: May 23, 2008, 09:26:16 am »












Tourist Facilities



Tickets for entrance to the tombs are purchased from a government ticket office that lies at the beginning of the asphalt road that runs from the eastern edge of the village of Et-Till out to the North Tombs. Beside the ticket office is a clean and pleasant tourist cafeteria and gift shop, with toilets.
A second rest-house for visitors has been built on the desert below the South Tombs but is currently not in use.

A site museum is under construction on the quay on the north side of the ferry landing-stage at Et-Till. It is intended to illustrate the nature of the ancient city of Amarna and of the way of life of the people who lived there.

 


MUSEUM



http://www.amarnaproject.com/index.shtml
« Last Edit: May 23, 2008, 09:37:07 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #862 on: June 01, 2008, 12:29:36 pm »



http://bellsouthpwp.net/k/e/ken5sar/
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« Reply #863 on: June 04, 2008, 05:54:42 pm »











Personnel


Those currently responsible for specific areas of work are:


Project Director
Barry Kemp (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research)

Excavation & survey
South Tombs Cemetery Excavation
Barry Kemp

Stone Village Survey & Excavation
Anna Stevens (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research), Wendy Dolling

Desert Hinterland Survey
Helen Fenwick (University of Hull)

Middle Egypt Survey Project
Sarah Parcak (University of Alabama-Birmingham)

North Palace study
Kate Spence (University of Cambridge)

Christian Settlements
Gillian Pyke

Conservation & reconstruction
Surésh Dhargalkar

Environmental history
Archaeobotany
Chris Stevens (Wessex Archaeology and Institute of Archaeology, University College London)
Alan Clapham (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research)

Paleoentomology
Paul Buckland (Bournemouth University)
Eva Panagiotakopulu (University of Edinburgh)

Charcoal analysis
Rainer Gerisch (Free University, Berlin)

Organic residues
Margaret Serpico (Institute of Archaeology, University College London)

Zooarchaeology
Phillipa Payne

Physical anthropology
Jerry Rose (University of Arkansas-Fayetteville)

Material culture
Leather working
Andre Veldmeijer
Erno Endenburg

Metal working
Mark Eccleston

New Kingdom pottery
Pamela Rose (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research)
Boris Trivan

Canaanite Amphorae: Margaret Serpico (Institute of Archaeology, University College London)

New Kingdom wall paintings
Fran Weatherhead

Roman pottery
Jane Faiers
Gillian Pyke

Roman glass
Jane Faiers

Roman wall plaster
Gillian Pyke

Small finds
Anna Stevens (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research)

Statuary
Kristin Thompson (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Dimitry Laboury (Université de Liège)

New Kingdom texts
Dan Lines (University of Cambridge)

City plan interpretation
Bill Erickson (University of Westminster)

Photographer
Gwil Owen (Cambridge University)

Illustrator
Andy Boyce
« Last Edit: June 04, 2008, 06:02:29 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #864 on: June 04, 2008, 06:08:59 pm »












Background



The surviving buildings at Amarna are predominantly made from sun-dried mud bricks. They include the palaces and the enclosure walls and pylons of the two main temples.

After the city was abandoned the walls either fell down in sections or began to crumble away. In both cases the rubble formed embankments at the base of the walls and so helped to protect them.

Eventually, with the addition of fresh sand blown in by the wind, the site as a whole stabilised, the positions of walls and buildings marked by slight swellings in a relatively smooth though undulating surface. Excavation removes the protective embankments and so exposes what is left at the bottom of the walls to fresh erosion.

The natural forces that bring about erosion are wind and rain.

Every year strong winds blow from the north in the winter and from the south in the summer, in both cases driving dust and sand across the desert surface. Where they hit ancient walls they erode the face, often to the greatest extent close to the ground, so undermining the wall. Although rainfall is low, when it does occur it penetrates the surface of mud bricks and loosens the bonding of the particles. When the bricks dry out, the damp layer becomes dust, which rapidly blows away. Often the mud was originally mixed with pebbles rather than with straw. The pebbles fall out as the dust blows away. Eventually only the pebbles remain to mark the line of the wall.

The best way to preserve excavated structures is to rebury them in sand. Some buildings are so large that this is not feasible, and in any case some of them are of major public interest.

Since 1988 the EES expedition has included within its annual programme of work repairs to the ancient brickwork at two major sites, the Small Aten Temple (in the Central City) and the North Palace.

The North Palace was dug in 1923 and 1924 and was the subject of many photographs at the time. On comparing them with the appearance of the building more than seventy years later it can be seen that something like half of the brickwork has been lost to erosion.
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« Reply #865 on: June 08, 2008, 09:50:30 pm »



Mud bricks:

Amarna’s main
building material

« Last Edit: June 08, 2008, 09:52:09 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #866 on: June 08, 2008, 09:54:30 pm »









After a series of experiments carried out in the late 1980s by structural engineer Richard Hughes it
was decided not to use chemical treatment.

Cost was one reason but another is the ability of the mud of the bricks to act as a filter and to separate the chemical from the solvent. The result is the formation of a hard crust, which in time separates from the more loosely consolidated core of the brick and falls away, so hastening erosion.

 Instead, the work has concentrated on the making of new mud bricks to a relatively resistant formula and to use them to cap walls where a loose upper surface has developed, to patch the sides of walls especially where weathering is undermining them, and to lay fresh, bonded lines of bricks to mark the outlines of ancient walls where little or nothing of the original survives. In general our policy is to leave as much as possible of the original brickwork visible.

For the first ten years the work was supervised by architect Michael Mallinson.

Since then architect Suresh Dhargalkar (who for many years was employed to supervise building conservation on some of the royal palaces in the United Kingdom) has been responsible. They have worked alongside construction specialists from the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt.

The builders and workmen who carry out the repairs are local men who have developed years of experience.
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« Reply #867 on: June 08, 2008, 09:55:52 pm »











North Palace



The North Palace was completely cleared of its debris by the Egypt Exploration Society in two seasons,
of 1923 and 1924.

A detailed photographic record is in the Society’s archives. The building was then left exposed and unfenced.

By the 1970s the walls had eroded considerably, losing much of their original surfaces and part of their volume (perhaps up to a half in places). Local farmers drove their animals diagonally across it on their way to and from their fields.

In 1983 the Egyptian Antiquities Department (as it then was) cleaned the accumulated sand and dust from the rear (eastern) part of the palace and added it to the embankment of spoil which is heaped against the outer wall and helps to protect the palace from wind erosion. At the same time the entire enclosure was protected by a barbed-wire fence with a small gateway in the southern side. Since then the palace interior has been closed to visitors who view it from the top of the embankment on the east, outside the fence. This is necessary in order to protect the still fragile brickwork.

Deterioration of the brickwork nonetheless continued, perhaps accelerated by an increase in humidity brought about by an extension of irrigated agriculture on to the desert behind the palace.

It had reached alarming proportions by 1997 when the expedition began a programme of consolidation and repairs, which has extended in some places to clarifying the plan for visitors by marking the positions of missing elements.

The walls of the North Palace are built from mud bricks some of which are of poor quality, although in other places the bricks have hardened through a build-up of calcium carbonate. Erosion has been intensified by the ancient practice of strengthening the walls by inserting lengths of timber amongst the courses of bricks. The wood was subsequently eaten by termites, leaving a line of weakness which weathering opens up, leading to the collapse of overlying top-heavy sections of brickwork.
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« Reply #868 on: June 08, 2008, 10:01:46 pm »



A wall at the North Palace which separates two
adjacent chambers in the garden court.

The brickwork has been cleaned prior to repairs.

The erosion of the surface has occurred since the
wall was exposed in 1923
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« Reply #869 on: June 08, 2008, 10:09:01 pm »



A wall at the North Palace which separates two
adjacent chambers in the garden court.

The long horizontal groove which runs the full
length of the wall is where the builders had in-
serted a length of wood to reduce the danger
of the wall cracking.

The wood was eventually eaten by termites,
leaving a space.

Bricks from above this space are falling away.
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