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AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN

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Author Topic: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN  (Read 65559 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #840 on: May 08, 2008, 07:28:38 am »



Coffin F is one of three from KV63, an embalmer's cache
from around the time of Tutankhamun, that shows faces
with eyes shaped similarly to Nefertiti's.

(Heather Alexander/Amenmesse Project)
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« Reply #841 on: May 08, 2008, 07:29:52 am »



Object in the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin
(Egyptian museum, building of the New Museum),

Berlin, Germany.



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« Reply #842 on: May 08, 2008, 07:31:53 am »









One of the earliest appearances of Nefertiti's unusual eye shape is on a stela showing the royal family. Found at Amarna and now in Berlin, it is dated by an inscription to before years 8 through 12 of Akhenaten's reign, or around 1350 B.C. On the stela, however, Akhenaten's eye shape is "normal" and resembles those seen on sculptures of him in Thebes, but Nefertiti's is not. So this stela may show a real, physical condition.

It could be that Nefertiti had an epicanthic fold, a piece of skin from the upper eyelid covering the inner edge of the eye. This feature is found not just in people of East Asian descent, but also in individuals with a number of different syndromes--groups of symptoms characteristic of an abnormality--some of which are genetically based. Some syndromes are debilitating, others less so, and still others are passed only from mothers to daughters. We are currently investigating the possibility that Nefertiti's eyes reflect such an underlying physical condition, but without her remains no diagnosis can be made (and the evidence may have been destroyed or altered during mummification).

If a genetically based physical trait was the basis for this eye shape, did Nefertiti pass it on to her children and was it recorded in the appearance of their eyes in artwork? Images of Nefertiti show the trait more frequently and markedly than those of any other individual portrayed at Amarna.

German excavators at Amarna in 1912 found many representations of Nefertiti and her daughters in the studio of an artist named Tuthmosis, including the painted bust of Nefertiti. Many of these representations are in various stages of completion, but their distinctive eyes are easily noticed.

This is especially clear in a relief, now in the Brooklyn Museum, that may show Meritaten, the queen's eldest daughter. 
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« Reply #843 on: May 08, 2008, 07:33:29 am »



Tutankhamun's "Lotus Head"








                                 It is possible that Nefertiti was Tutankhamun's mother.





If so, it wouldn't be surprising if he were shown with an eye shape similar to hers. This is the case with some depictions, such as a wooden head of the young pharaoh that was found in his tomb. It shows his head, sprouting from a lotus bloom, with eyes that match those of Nefertiti.

Other explanations for its appearance with Tut include the possibility that his mother was not Nefertiti but perhaps a woman of the extended royal family who also carried the trait. And it could even be that Tut did not have the eye shape himself, if his mother was a woman other than Nefertiti who did not have it or if the trait was passed only from mothers to daughters. In either case, Tut could be shown with it simply as an artistic continuance of the characteristic.

If the sculptor Tuthmosis were responsible for recording and then re-creating this eye shape, perhaps he extended its use from those who actually had it to--as an artistic convention--a "royal marker" to distinguish images of the king and a few select nobles. For example, this eye shape is also seen on a representation of King Amenhotep III, Akhenaten's father, seated in a relaxed pose with his wife Queen Tiy on a stela found at Amarna, and now in the British Museum. Amenhotep III was Nefertiti's father-in-law, but this stela was probably carved after his death, so the eye shape does not predate its appearance on Nefertiti. It is also used in the 19th Dynasty, such as in depictions of the pharaoh Seti I at Abydos and of Nefertari, queen of Rameses II, who died around 1254 B.C.

And this brings us back to KV63, with its upper-class coffins. Like the yellow faces meant to represent gilding, did the eye shape seek to portray a "royal marker" derived from Nefertiti's own eyes?

The final word is not yet in, but there seems to be a high probability that Nefertiti herself had eyes with epicanthic folds or eyes with a similar shape with descending inner canthi. Eyes of this type undoubtedly created what must have been quite a striking feature to all who saw her. This may have been passed along to some of her royal offspring. Moreover, in the sun cult that they fostered, both Nefertiti and her husband Akhenaten were the only ones through whom prayers could be directed to the solar god Aten. This divine or semi-divine status may have accounted for this eye shape being transformed into an artistic convention that was copied by high-ranking officials and subsequent rulers.




Earl L. Ertman is a professor emeritus at the University of Akron. An authority on art of the Amarna period, he is a member of the KV63 expedition.


For news of the 2008 season at the tomb, see www.kv-63.com. The excavation is part of the Amenmesse Project, a mission of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities.

 


© 2008 by the Archaeological Institute of America
www.archaeology.org/0803/etc/nefertiti.html
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« Reply #844 on: May 13, 2008, 10:50:35 am »










                                        Egypt's Colossi of Memnon to be reunited with their twins





by Alain Navarro
Thu Apr 17, 3:20 AM ET
 


LUXOR, Egypt (AFP) - Towering like sentries above the necropolis of Ancient Thebes in southern Egypt, the world-famous Colossi of Memnon will see their number double from two to four from next year.

 
The painstaking work of 12 archaeologists and hundreds of workers is about to redefine the way visitors see and understand this mysterious site that has cast its spell over travellers for more than 2,000 years.

"It will be sensational, that's for sure!" Hourig Sourouzian, the project's enthusiastic director, enthused to AFP.

Next year two giant statues of the pharaoh Amenhotep III will begin to rise again, just a hundred metres (328 feet) behind his two existing colossi that mark the entrance to the temple.

Another two statues, still half-buried, will also be returned to their former upright position in the years to come.

Rising from green fields, the two 18-metre- (59-feet-) high stone giants seem to be watching over roads leading to the temples and pharaonic tombs built in the valleys and ochre mountains of Luxor's west bank.

The statues are all that remains of the funerary temple of 18th dynasty Amenhotep who ruled from 1391 to 1353 BC. He was the father of the iconoclastic pharaoh Akhenaton.

Rises in the water level of the River Nile, pillaging of the stone by other pharaohs and a 27 BC earthquake all took their toll of the temple at Kom el-Hitan whose builders meant it to last a million years.

But when what is left of the site began to suffer 10 years ago because of encroachment from irrigation works in neighbouring fields, renowned Armenian archaeologist Sourouzian decided to save it.

She worked with her husband Rainer Stadelmann, former director of the German Archaeological Institute who was responsible for creating the site's first photogrammetric pictures -- three-dimensional maps made from two-dimensional pictures.

Emergency measures were set in place at the site and enforced by the Supreme Council of Antiquities.

In 1998 and 2004, the Luxor temple was listed as one of the world's 100 most endangered sites by the World Monuments Fund, an international NGO based in New York, and funding was provided to help save it.

French Egyptologist Alain Fouquet created the Association of the Friends of the Colossi of Memnon, which was generously funded by Monique Hennessy from the famous cognac family.

Ursula Lewenton's Forderverein Memnon also made an important contribution.

"From this moment onwards, everything became possible", Sourouzian said.

Annual excavations on the site began to bear fruit under the labours of an international team of experts and 250 Egyptian workers.

The team discovered pieces of four giant Amenhotep statues, two sphinxes, 84 statues of the war goddess Sekhmet depicted as a lioness, and a stele whose 150 fragments were spread across a site which has to be constantly drained.

It is planned that five years from now the statues of Sekhmet the lion-headed goddess will stand again.

The tenth annual dig, which ends this month, has already unearthed a 3.62-metre- (11.9 feet-) tall statue of Tiya, Amenhotep's wife.

"She has an extraordinary beauty", Sourouzian said.

When the two 15-metre red quartz colossi of Amenhotep become upright again in 2009 Tiya's statue will once again stand next to those of her spouse.

The two other giant statues that have been uncovered are not yet ready to reclaim their place alongside the others, however. They are made of alabaster and extremely rare because of the material's fragility.

Unlike other neighbouring funerary temples such as the Ramasseum, dedicated to Ramses II, and Ramses III's temple at Medinat Habu, "we will be able to admire the temple's content, not only its skeleton," said Sourouzian.

But is it right to try restoring such a site to its former splendour? For Sourouzian there is no question about it.

"We didn't invent anything. We just put something that was about to disappear for ever back in its original place. A living temple lay here, not just the colossi."
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« Reply #845 on: May 13, 2008, 10:52:01 am »




A giant statue of the ancient
Pharaoh Amenhotep III

stands at the site of the Colossi of
Memnon near the southern Egyptian
town of Luxor, on March 22.

Egyptian and European archaeologists
announced a string of spectacular new
discoveries at the Colossi of Memnon
site including a giant statue of
Queen Tiy,
the wife of 18th dynasty
Pharaoh Amenhotep III.

(AFP/HO/File) 
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« Reply #846 on: May 13, 2008, 10:57:58 am »



A M E N O P H I S   I I I
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« Reply #847 on: May 13, 2008, 11:01:37 am »









                    Amenophis III was one of the greatest builders in the history of Egypt. 






Witness to this is borne especially by the temple of Luxor, by the double temple of
Soleb and Sedeinga in Nubia and by his mortuary temple on the west bank of Thebes;
the latter exceeded all its predecessors in size, but it was soon severely damaged by
an earthquake.  Where the monumental entrance to the temple once stood, now only
the two huge Colossi of Memnon (below), each more than 65feet in height and weigh-
ing 720tons, testify to the temple's original size, as well as to the king's tendency to
megalomania.







This latter stamped out not only his architecture and royal statuary, but other objects
as well; never had such large 'shawabtis' and scarabs been made.

The officials of the royal court followed the king in this tendency, as shown by the huge,
though uncompleted, tomb of the vizier Amenhotpe on the Asasif.

The tendency to the colossal was complemented by a turn to unusual building material.

In a dedicatory inscription at the temple of Montu in the Karnak complex, the king men-
tions precious materials such as gold, silver, lapis lazuli, jasper, turquoise, bronze and
copper, which he used in its construction and decoration, noting with pride the exact
weights of each.

He attempted thus to capture, quite literally, the "weight of this monument," as the capt-
ion to another list on the Third Pylon at Karnak puts it.



http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php/topic,706.15.html
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« Reply #848 on: May 23, 2008, 08:19:31 am »














                                                           M A R U - A T E N


Maru-Aten is the ancient name for a building that stood in the desert to the south of the main city, near the modern village of El-Hawata. It was briefly explored by the Egypt Exploration Society in 1922.





Aerial photograph of the site of Maru-Aten
taken on 10 March 1932



It consisted of twin enclosures surrounded by buttressed brick walls, one of the enclosures larger than the other. Both enclosures seem to have been largely given over to shallow pools or lakes and to gardens planted with trees, with small pavilions of various kinds set around the edges, some of brick and some of stone. A long narrow stone causeway and pier, with a decorated kiosk at the end, projected out into the larger lake.
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« Reply #849 on: May 23, 2008, 08:26:02 am »



MAP OF MARU-ATEN
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« Reply #850 on: May 23, 2008, 08:27:54 am »



Excavator’s photograph of Building MIV, towards the west




Excavator’s photograph of Building MIV, towards the east








The most distinctive part to have survived lay in the north-east corner of the larger enclosure. A square artificial island surrounded by a ditch supported a stone platform. Behind it and occupying the corner of the enclosure was a long pillared construction that shaded a series of interlocking T-shaped water basins. These were surrounded by a gypsum pavement painted with designs from nature, divided into panels. Fragments of carved stone from the buildings also celebrate nature through the use of plant motifs.

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« Reply #851 on: May 23, 2008, 08:33:11 am »



A section of the T-shaped water basins surrounded by the
gypsum pavement painted with panels illustrating nature
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« Reply #852 on: May 23, 2008, 08:36:41 am »

                           

                            Examples of the painted panels adjacent
                            to the T-shaped water basins







Reconstruction of a painted
column in building M VIII
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« Reply #853 on: May 23, 2008, 08:43:41 am »






Object 22/273:

fragment of red granite stela showing Akhenaten adoring the Aten.

The hieroglyphic text records the name of the place



                  ‘the Sunshade of the King’s daughter Meritaten in Maru-Aten in Akhetaten’.



Meritaten’s name replaces another name.







The inscribed stonework preserved the name of the place as Maru-Aten, identified it as an example of a solar temple (‘Sunshade’), and recorded the name of Akhenaten’s eldest daughter and heiress, Meritaten.

 Her name had, however, been carved over an earlier female royal name.

At first this was thought to have been Nefertiti.

It is generally concluded now that the original name was that of Kiya, an earlier queen of Akhenaten.
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« Reply #854 on: May 23, 2008, 08:48:56 am »



The last traces of Maru-Aten, photographed in 1978.
In the foreground are the remains of the 1922 spoil
heaps that ran along the outside of the enclosure wall
on the east.










Maru-Aten was wholly destroyed in the 1960s and 70s when a huge government irrigation scheme was
laid out to the north and east of El-Hawata.




References



The report on the excavation of Maru-Aten is contained within the single-volume,
T.E. Peet and C.L. Woolley,

The City of Akhenaten, Part I.
Excavations of 1921 and 1922 at El-‘Amarneh

(London, Egypt Exploration Society 1923), Chapter V.





Some further details are added in B.J. Kemp, ed.,

Amarna Reports VI

(London, Egypt Exploration Society 1995), 416–32.


 
http://www.amarnaproject.com/pages/amarna_the_place/maru_aten/index.shtml
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