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Author Topic: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN  (Read 76515 times)
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« Reply #1110 on: April 25, 2009, 03:14:13 pm »



According to Hawass, the block comes from the temple of Aton in Amarna and the forms of the inscribed names clearly date it to the reign of Akhenaten.

The best-known pharaoh of ancient Egypt, King Tut has been puzzling scientists ever since his mummy- and treasure-packed tomb was discovered in 1922 the Valley of the Kings by British archaeologist Howard Carter.

Only a few facts about his life are known.

While he lived in el Amarna, his name was Tutankhaton ("honoring Aton" -- the sun god).

When he ascended the throne in 1333 B.C., at the age of nine, and moved to Thebes, he changed his name to Tutankamun ("honoring Amun" -- a traditional cult).

As the last male in the family, his death in 1325 B.C. at age 19 ended the 18th dynasty -- probably the greatest of the Egyptian royal families -- and gave way to military rulers.

Mapping out the lineage of the Egyptian pharaohs is one of Hawass's latest challenges. King Tut has been either credited to be the son of Akhenaten or the offspring of Amenhotep III, who was Akhenaten's father.

Doubts also remain about King Tut's mother. Scholars have long debated whether he is the son of Kiya, Akhenaten's minor wife, or Queen Nefertiti, Akhenaten's other wife.

Egyptian researchers are currently carrying out DNA testing on two mummified fetuses found in King Tut's tomb, believed to be his offspring.

"If the fetus DNA matches King Tut's DNA and Ankhesenamun's DNA, then we would know that they shared the same mother," Hawass said.

According to Swiss anatomist and paleopathologist Frank Ruhli, head of the Swiss Mummy Project at the University of Zurich, Hawass' finding is very important.

"It supports one of my favorite theories about King Tut's parentage. DNA of proven relatives would help if it matches with the one of King Tut," Ruhli told Discovery News.
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« Reply #1111 on: May 05, 2009, 11:19:18 am »


                                           T U T A N K H A M U N    L I N K S

Here are links to information about King Tut, available over the Internet. Be sure to check out the actual entries from Howard Carter's journal which are included for your enjoyment.

Tutankhamun: Anatomy of an Excavation

FINALLY! The long awaited online electronic publication of Howard Carter's records of the excavation of the tomb of King Tut! Brought to you by the Griffith Institute.


Learn more about King Tut including his tomb, his name and his treasures.

Who Killed King Tutankhamen

Here's an article that speculates on the cause of the death of King Tut

Tutankhamun Boy King

Here's another nice presentation by Anthony DiPaolo, featuring info about Tut's attendants, death of the king, discovery of his tomb and more!

In The Tomb of Tutankhamun

Learn about the discovery and preservation of Tut's tomb.

Eighteenth Dynasty: King Tut'ankhamun

Enjoy viewing some of the treasures from  Tut's tomb through this virtual museum site.

The Death of Pharaoh

A concise accounting of the life and death of King Tut including some history about the timeframe in which he lived.

The Diaries of Howard Carter

Check out this two part installment of the journal of Howard Carter around the time of his discovery of Tut's tomb.

Part ONE

October 28 - December 31, 1922

Part TWO

January 1 - May 31, 1923
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« Reply #1112 on: May 09, 2009, 09:51:38 am »


                                                             Found in Iraq: "King Tut"

Middle East News
Monster &
Feb 12, 2009

- A Kurdish archaeological expedition announced on Thursday that it had found a small statue of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen in northern Iraq, a Kurdish news agency reported.

Hassan Ahmed, the director of the local antiquities authority, told the Kurdish news agency Akanews that archaeologists had found a 12-centimeter statue of the ancient Egyptian king in the valley of Dahuk, 470 kilometres north of Baghdad, near a site that locals have long called Pharaoh's Castle.

He said archaeologists from the Dahuk Antiquities Authority believe the statue dates from the mid-14th Century BC.

Ahmed said the statue of Tutankhamen showed 'the face of the ancient civilization of Kurdistan and cast light on the ancient relations between pharaonic Egypt and the state of Mitanni.'

The kingdom of Mittani occupied roughly the same territory spanning Syria, Iraq, Turkey, and Iran in
the 14th Century BC that many Kurds now hope will one day form an independent Kurdistan.

'Historical information indicates familial and political ties between Mittani and Egypt,' Ahmed said.

'The discovery of this statue shows us that the name of Pharaoh's Castle was not invented out of vacuum, but rather arose out of historical fact,' Ahmed told Akanews. 'This calls for strengthening archaeological research ties between the territory of Kurdistan and the Arab Republic of Egypt.'
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« Reply #1113 on: May 09, 2009, 09:54:07 am »


Berlin's most treasured museum exhibit

-- the bust of Egyptian Queen Nefertiti.

The Egyptian Museum in Berlin is concerned that it may face fresh demands from Egypt that it return the world-famous bust of Queen Nefertiti following the emergence of new information on how Germany got the priceless ancient artwork.

                                            Did Germany Cheat to Get Bust of Nefertiti?

Feb. 10, 2009

A secret document has emerged claiming that German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt may have misled Egyptian officials into letting him take the world-famous bust of Nefertiti to Germany in 1913, SPIEGEL reports.

SPIEGEL has seen the contents of a document written in 1924 in which the secretary of the German Oriental Company (DOG) gave an account of a meeting on Jan. 20, 1913 between a senior Egyptian official and German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt, who found the bust during a dig in 1912.

The secretary had been present at the meeting which was called to divide up the spoils of the dig between Germany and Egypt on a 50-50 basis. Borchardt, the witness noted, "wanted to save the bust for us" and to that end presented a photograph that didn't show Nefertiti in her best light.

The bust lay already wrapped up in a box in a dimly lit room when Egypt's chief antiques inspector, Gustave Lefebre, perused the various artifacts found in the excavation. It's unclear whether Lefebre went to the trouble of lifting the bust out of the box. In order to further mislead the inspector, Borchardt claimed the figure was made of gypsum, when in fact it's made of a limestone core under a layer of stucco.

 The witness concluded that there had been "cheating" regarding the material the bust was made of.

The German Oriental Society confirmed the existence of the document but maintains that the finds of the archaeological dig were divided up fairly.

"Nefertiti was at the top of the exchange list. The inspector could have looked at everything closely at the time," a spokesman for the society said. "It's not admissible to complain about the deal reached at the time."

Egypt has repeatedly demanded the return of the Egyptian beauty, which is seen by 500,000 visitors in Berlin each year.
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« Reply #1114 on: May 09, 2009, 09:55:01 am »

                          Germans reject claim that Nefertiti was smuggled out of Egypt 

Posted : Thu, 12 Feb 2009 
Author : DPA 

- German officials have rejected claims that the bust of the pharaonic queen Nefertiti, hailed as the world's most beautiful woman, was smuggled out of Egypt using a ruse nearly a century ago. "The claim that the division of treasures did not take place by the rules is untrue," said the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, which has possession of the painted limestone carving.

Media reports claimed Wednesday that Nefertiti's obvious value was concealed during a 1913 meeting to legally apportion the treasures from a German-led archaeological excavation with half for each side.

The foundation denied the German archaeologist had deceived Gustave Lefebvre, Egypt's inspector of antiquities, who checked the finds at Amarna.

It had been the practice at the time to use both photographs and samples of the array of objects to arrive at a fair division of the finds, said the foundation, arguing in effect that Germany could not be held responsible for Lefebvre's failure to realize the bust was so valuable.

Nefertiti, one of Berlin's top tourist draws, is set to obtain a new home at the end of February when the Egyptian collection moves to the Neues Museum on the Island of Museums after its renovation.

Egypt has often called for a return of the 3,400-year-figure.

A document, discovered in the archives of the German Oriental Society, suggests that Ludwig Borchardt, the archaeologist who discovered the bust in 1912, deliberately withheld its true value from Egyptian authorities, the magazine Der Spiegel said.

Written in 1924, the document recounts a meeting held on January 20, 1913 between Borchardt and Lefebvre.

According to the document, penned by the secretary of the German Oriental Company who was present at the meeting, "Borchardt wanted to save the bust for us," Der Spiegel said.

To achieve this goal the bust was tightly wrapped and placed at the bottom of a box in a poorly lit room where Lefebvre was examining artefacts discovered during the excavation.

According to the witness, Borchardt presented an unflattering photograph of the bust. He also said it was made of gypsum, which is of little value, when in fact Nefertiti was painted on limestone.

Nefertiti was the chief wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten who ruled about 1350 BC.,germans-reject-claim-that-nefertiti-was-smuggled-out-of-egypt.html
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« Reply #1115 on: May 09, 2009, 09:55:57 am »

                                                EGYPTIAN QUEEN IN BERLIN

                                        Cairo Demands Clarification on Nefertiti Bust

Feb. 12, 2009

Egypt may renew its official demand for the return of the famous Nefertiti bust after a newly-surfaced document claims German archaeologists tried to trick Egyptian experts about its importance in 1913. A chief archaeologist in Cairo is leading the charge.

"This time I mean it very seriously," is how Egypt's chief archaeologist, Zahi Hawass, characterized his fresh demand for the bust of Queen Nefertiti, which German archaeologists brought home in 1913. He was reacting to SPIEGEL magazine piece that suggested the Germans had tricked Egyptian experts about the true nature of the now-legendary bust.

The bust of Nefertiti is almost 3,400 years old.
Hawass has long called on Berlin to return the bust of Nefertiti, which sits in the city's Egyptian Museum, but SPIEGEL revealed in this week's edition of the magazine that an obscure document from 1924 charged the German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt with "cheating" to secure the bust for Germany.

"I immediately sent a letter to the German Oriental Institute demanding a copy of the document," Hawass told Agence France-Presse. "If it is authentic we will work with all our power with the German government to bring back the statue." He reiterated his position to the German radio station ARD and added, "This time I mean it very seriously."

The secretary of the German Oriental Institute reported in 1924 on a 1913 meeting between Borchardt and a senior Egyptian official. Egypt and Germany had an agreement to split antiquities found by Borchardt's team "à moitié exacte," or 50-50, but the secretary reported in his memo that Borchardt "wanted to save the bust for us."

The bust lay wrapped in a box in a dim room when the Egyptian official, chief antiquities inspector Gustave Lefébvre, looked over artifacts from the Borchardt dig. The secretary wrote that Borchardt presented Lefébvre with an unflattering photo of the bust and claimed it was made of gypsum, when in fact it has a limestone core under a layer of stucco.

Whether Lefébvre went to the trouble of lifting the bust out of the box isn't clear. But the secretary, who witnessed the meeting, claimed there was "cheating" involved, since the Germans misrepresented the material.

 The Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation has possession of the bust and rejects any charge of cheating. The idea that the antiquities were not divided according to the rules in 1913 "is false," the foundation has claimed in a statement. Lefébvre, in other words, just overlooked the importance of the piece.

The German Oriental Institute admits the existence of the document, but also maintains there was no serious breach of the rules. "Nefertiti was at the top of the exchange list," a spokesman for the company told SPIEGEL. "The inspector could have looked at everything closely.... It's not admissible to complain about the deal reached at the time."

The well-preserved Nefertiti bust depicts the queen of Sun King Akhenaten, who was pharaoh of ancient Egypt at the peak of its imperial power almost 3,400 years ago. Egypt has demanded it back from Germany for various reasons since the 1930s. It's now a star attraction at the Egyptian Museum in Berlin, which receives half a million visitors per year.

msm -- with wire reports
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« Reply #1116 on: May 09, 2009, 09:58:24 am »

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« Reply #1117 on: May 09, 2009, 10:00:14 am »

                                             Who stole King Tut's crown jewels?

                            Not just the gold but also a very delicate part of his anatomy

30 October 2007

On a dusty November morning the explorers made their way down the steep slope into the ancient
tomb in the eerie half-light.

Breathless with anticipation, they broke through the wall into the burial chamber itself. Then, as their eyes became accustomed to the dusk, they saw the glint of gold.

That was how, in 1922, the great Egyptologist Howard Carter and his wealthy sponsor, the fifth Earl
of Carnarvon, discovered the mummified body of the boy king Tutankhamun, who had lain undisturbed
in Egypt's Valley of the Kings for 3,000 years, surrounded by the treasures which had been buried with him.

 Someone violated King Tut's grave, taking his ribs and his ****.

The discovery was unprecedented and the news flashed round an astonished world. Within a few weeks, however, the world had a new reason for amazement, when Lord Carnarvon died of blood poisoning.

Ostensibly, the result of a mosquito bite aggravated by a shaving accident, it was blamed on the ancient Mummy's curse.

At the exact hour of the peer's death in Cairo the city's lights mysteriously went out, while back at home at the grand family castle, Highclere in Berkshire, his little dog Rosie let out a loud wail and breathed no more.

Ever since that day myth and supposition have surrounded the life and death of Tutankhamun. For, even though a new exhibition on the boy king is about to come to Britain, very little was known, until now, about the real person behind the treasure.

Now aided by modern science, the present Earl of Carnarvon, greatgrandson of the ill-fated explorer who spent £2million of the family fortune on exhuming the king, has embarked on a quest to piece together the true story of the boy's life and death.
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« Reply #1118 on: May 09, 2009, 10:01:12 am »

The extraordinary findings are revealed in a TV documentary which also brings to light that, though the hapless pharaoh was discovered intact, his grave has been mysteriously violated since Carter's dramatic find 85 years ago.

Not content with hacking out his ribs, someone in modern times - most likely the Second World War, when the tomb was unguarded - has also removed Tutankhamun's ****.

To understand why, it is first necessary to appreciate the new findings about the pharaoh himself.

Tutankhamun was born in the new Egyptian capital of Amarna on the Nile in 1342 BC. His father was the curious pear- shaped pharaoh Akhenhaten, whom some think introduced monotheism (the belief there is only one god) into Egyptian society as a result of finding Moses in the bullrushes.

Akhenhaten broke with the old Egyptian religion to build a brand new capital halfway to Cairo and installed his famous queen Nefertiti in a palace there.

According to hieroglyphic records, Nefertiti only bore her husband daughters. Now new finds among the ruins suggest Tutankhamun's mother was one of his father's secondary wives, a woman called Kiya, who lived in great style in her own wing in the palace.

Dramatically they also suggest that Kiya died in childbirth and that Akhenhaten and his queen Nefertiti wept copiously at this death in the family.

Having lost his mother, the little boy was brought up by his wetnurse and when his father died he was crowned king.

Tutankhamun was only nine at the time, so it seems safe to assume that there was an adult, probably military, power behind his coronation, who also encouraged him to marry his teenage sister as was Egyptian tradition.

The two are pictured together on a golden throne.

Blinded by so much gold, early explorers gave little thought to the more mundane artefacts in the pharaoh's tomb. Yet it is these, together with modern body scans, that seem to reveal what actually happened to Tutankhamun, who was dead by the age of 19.

From the grotesque body shapes on temple carvings and preliminary photos taken in 1926, experts hitherto imagined that he must have been a sickly weakling who succumbed to a genetic disease.
Or that he was murdered by an ambitious successor with a blow to the back of the head. But an examination of the contents of baskets and jars placed in the tomb yields quite another scenario.
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« Reply #1119 on: May 09, 2009, 10:02:19 am »

The ancient Egyptians, who believed that life and death were a seamless process, traditionally placed food and medicine in containers to succour the dead in the afterlife. In Tutankhamun's case these were full of medicinal herbs to cure headaches and fever, indicating he might well have been ill at the end of his days.

But the tomb was also full of canes.

These suggest that the young pharaoh may have suffered from a bad curvature of the spine that made it difficult for him to walk unaided.

Recent scans of the body, however, show that contrary to previous assumptions, Tutankhamun was not a weakling at all.

All the signs are that, not only was he able-bodied, he was an exceptional athlete.

Indeed, according to Dr Zahi Hawass, of the Supreme Council of Egyptian Antiquities, he seems to have been a fan of extreme sports.

Chariots buried with him, as well as gauntlets for holding chariot reins and body braces designed to protect his body, indicate that the boy pharaoh was a daring charioteer who must have taken his life in his hands every time he whipped his horses over the rough desert roads at more than 25 miles per hour .
There are shoulder clothes to shield him from the blazing sun and hundreds of arrows, some of which have clearly been used for hunting.

The final clue is revealed by a break in the bone just above the pharaoh's left knee. Modern technology shows that the damage was not done after death, but that the young king broke it in life, probably as a result of a hunting accident.

The fracture had no time to heal before Tutankhamun died, probably of an infection contracted when he tumbled from his chariot at speed, crushing his thigh bone and ripping open the flesh. Despite all local herbal cures, he did not survive.

Such startling new discoveries paint an entirely new picture of the life and death of the most famous pharaoh of them all.

The Royal Horticultural Society in Britain has also established, from the nature of the garlands that were placed round the king's neck for his funeral, exactly when this would have taken place.

Significantly the flowers included cornflowers, which bloom in the Nile Valley between March and April - evidence, it would seem, that he was buried in spring.

And working back 70 days from that date - the time it took for the ancient Egyptians to mummify a body - the pharaoh, it seems, would have been out hunting in the cooler days, towards the end of the year, probably delighted, before his fatal accident happened, to get back into his chariot again after the unbearably hot summer.

So what of the broken ribs and the pharaoh's member, which were both intact when Howard Carter first opened the tomb, but have mysteriously disappeared?

So valuable was the tomb that it has been guarded round the clock since its discovery.

However, there was one period when a modern grave robbery might have taken place. During the Second World War when the Egyptian desert was reduced to a battleground.

The latest tests indicate quite clearly that someone must have used this opportunity to deliberately cut away the pharaoh's ribs in order to get to the jewelled collar he was wearing and which was glued fast to the body by the ancient embalmer's sticky black resin.

As for his ****, if it was not ground down by local robbers to use as primitive ****, perhaps it was stolen by a soldier as a memento of his war years in the desert.

If so, it may yet come to light.

The extraordinary story of Tutankhamun is not over yet.
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« Reply #1120 on: May 09, 2009, 10:05:54 am »


               AMENHOTEP III

                                         Egyptian archaeologists uncover ancient statues in Luxor 

-- Egyptian archaeologists on Wednesday uncovered a statue of pharaoh and a bust of the famous woman
pharaoh Hatshepsut in the southern city of Luxor, the state MENA news agency reported.

    The three-meter Amenhotep statue was "dug out with only one damage in the nose and one in the teeth,"
said Moustafa el-Waziri, director of the archaeological mission, adding that more antiques would be unearthed
in the future.

    Amenhotep III, or Amenophis III, was the ninth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt. He ruled the country from 1411 B.C. to 1375 B.C. after his father Thutmose IV died.  He was the father of Akhenaten, 'The Heretic' Pharaoh (Amenhotep IV, or Amenophis IV) and grand-father of Tutankhamen.

    Hatshepsut, or Hatchepsut, generally regarded as one of the most successful pharaohs, was the fifth monarch of the eighteen dynasty which dates back to 15th century B.C.

    Being a woman, she wore a false beard to reinforce her authority while acting as the regent of her son, Thutmose III.

Yang Lina
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« Reply #1121 on: May 09, 2009, 10:14:39 am »


A Johns Hopkins University archaeological expedition in Luxor, Egypt, has unearthed a life-sized statue, dating back nearly 3,400 years, of one of the queens of the powerful king Amenhotep III.

(Photo by
Jay VanRensselaer)

                               Johns Hopkins Team Discovers Statue Of Egyptian Queen

(Jan. 30, 2006)

— A Johns Hopkins University archaeological expedition in Luxor, Egypt, has unearthed a life-sized statue, dating back nearly 3,400 years, of one of the queens of the powerful king Amenhotep III.

The statue, which dates to between 1391 and 1352 B.C.E., was uncovered earlier this month by the expedition's director, Betsy Bryan, Johns Hopkins professor of Egyptian art and archaeology. Bryan and a graduate student, Fatma Talaat Ismail, were clearing a portion of the platform of the temple of the goddess Mut in Luxor, an area dating to about 700 B.C.E. The statue, which was lying face down in the ground, appeared to have been used as building rubble, Bryan said.

The statue's back pillar was unearthed first and led Bryan to believe briefly that it dated from a far later period, since an inscription there was clearly made in the 21st Dynasty, about 1000 B.C.E., for a very powerful queen Henuttawy.
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« Reply #1122 on: May 09, 2009, 10:21:42 am »



"The statue, however, when it was removed, revealed itself as a queen of Amenhotep III, whose name appears repeatedly on the statue's crown," Bryan said. She said she theorizes that perhaps this statue is of the great Queen Tiy, wife of Amenhotep III and mother of the so-called heretic king Akhenaten, who came to the throne as Amenhotep IV but later changed his name because of his rejection of the god Amen in favor of the sun disk Aten.

"Tiy was so powerful that, as a widow, she was the recipient of foreign diplomatic letters sent to her from the king of Babylonia in hopes that she would intercede with her son on behalf of the foreign interests," Bryan said. "Some indications, such as her own portraits in art, suggest that Tiy may have ruled briefly after her husband's death, but this is uncertain."

For reasons relating to inscriptions found on it, the statue of the queen definitely may be dated to the late years of Amenhotep III's 38-year rule, Bryan said.

"The king did marry his own daughter, princess Sit-Amun, and made her his great royal wife as Tiy became more elderly," Bryan said. "Thus the statue could also represent Sit-Amun as queen. Research on this highly detailed and exquisitely worked large-scale statue is only beginning. More story will be revealed."

The discovery was made during Bryan's 11th annual excavation at the Mut Temple Precinct, where she and her students are exploring the Egyptian New Kingdom (1567 to 1085 B.C.E.). The crew shares its work with the world through "Hopkins in Egypt Today," an online diary featuring images by university photographer Jay VanRensselaer and captions by Bryan, detailing the day-to-day life on an archaeological dig. It is located at The site will be updated to include details of this new find.


Adapted from materials provided by Johns Hopkins University.
Email or share this story:    Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the following formats:

 MLA Johns Hopkins University (2006, January 30). Johns Hopkins Team Discovers Statue Of Egyptian Queen. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 9, 2009, from­ /releases/2006/01/060130153552.htm
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« Reply #1123 on: May 10, 2009, 10:15:27 am »


Chapter IX, The Lesser and Foreign Monuments

...   Another queen has left here one of the most striking portraits ever carved by an Egyptian . The well-known queen Thyi, the consort of the magnificent monarch Amenhotep III, has until now only been known to us by some relief sculptures, and not by any named figures in the round. It is strange that this remotest settlement of Egypt has preserved her portrait for us, unmistakably named by her cartouche in the midst of the crown.

The material is dark green schistose steatite, and the whole statuette must have been about a foot in height. Unhappily, no other fragment of the figure remained in the temple, and the head alone has been preserved. The haughty dignity of the face is blended with a fascinating directness and personal appeal. The delicacy of the surfaces round the eye and over the cheek shows the greatest care in handling. The curiously drawn-down lips, with their fulness and yet delicacy, their disdain without malice, are evidently modelled in all truth from the life. After seeing this, it seems probable that the supreme fragment of a queen's head in marble from the temple of Tell el Amarna is the portrait of Thyi, and not of Nefertythi (PETRIE, Tell el Amarna, pl. i, 15). This is the more likely as a queen's head found this year at Gurob, and bought for Berlin, is unquestionably in accord with the flat portraits of Nefertythi, and does not resemble the marble head. Moreover, Mr. N. Davies has observed that only the statues of Akhenaten and Thyi are depicted as being in the temple where the marble head was found.

Turning to the new portrait, we gather some details about the queen. The ear is represented as being pierced, as is also the case with her son Akhenaten (Tell el Amarna, pl. i, 9). The crown which she wore was probably of openwork, in gold. The two winged uraei wave their length in loops around the head, till they meet at the back; while in front they are the supporters of the cartouche with the name. From the two sides of the cartouche depend the two uraei over the forehead, the emblem of the great queen of Upper and Lower Egypt. This piece alone was worth all the rest of our gains of the year; it is now in the Cairo Museum.
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« Reply #1124 on: June 02, 2009, 06:13:01 am »

                                             DNA test for Tutenkhamun's lineage

Tue Jun 2 2009

Zahi Hawass says researchers are using DNA tests to probe the lineage of pharaoh king Tutenkhamun.

Egyptian researchers are using DNA tests to discover the lineage of pharaoh king Tutenkhamun, whose ancestry remains a mystery to Egyptologists, antiquities chief Zahi Hawass said on Monday.

The young king, whose mummy was found in a gold and turquoise sarcophagus by English archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922, ruled Egypt between 1333 and 1324 BC.

His ancestry has been as much a source of speculation as his abrupt end.

"Until now, we don't know who his father was. Was it Akhenaten or Amenhotep III," Hawass told reporters at a press conference.

The antiquities chief said the testing would be done with help from experts at Cairo University's faculty of medicine and would also include X-raying and the reconstruction of possible relatives' features.

The testing will mostly be done in the Valley of the Kings in Upper Egypt, where pharaonic royalty was mummified, Hawass said.

Egypt's antiquities council opposed previous efforts to test the mummies because they were undertaken by "foreigners" and the tests were to be done in laboratories "not specialising in mummies", he said.

The result will be announced in February, he said.
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