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Time Dilation

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Brooke
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« on: March 18, 2007, 06:11:00 pm »



Transversal Time dilation

Time dilation theories state that, relative to a given observer, time passes more slowly for bodies moving quickly relative to that observer, or bodies that are deeper within a gravity well.[22] For example, a clock which is moving relative to the observer will be measured to run slow in that observer's rest frame; as a clock approaches the speed of light it will almost slow to a stop, although it can never quite reach light speed so it will never completely stop. For two clocks moving inertially (not accelerating) relative to one another, this effect is reciprocal, with each clock measuring the other to be ticking slower. However, the symmetry is broken if one clock accelerates, as in the twin paradox where one twin stays on Earth while the other travels into space, turns around (which involves acceleration), and returnsin this case both agree the traveling twin has aged less. General relativity states that time dilation effects also occur if one clock is deeper in a gravity well than the other, with the clock deeper in the well ticking more slowly; this effect must be taken into account when calibrating the clocks on the satellites of the Global Positioning System, and it could lead to significant differences in rates of aging for observers at different distances from a black hole.

It has been calculated that, under general relativity, a person could travel forward in time at a rate four times that of distant observers by residing at the bottom of a 5 meter tall funnel with the mass of Jupiter.[6] For such a person, every one second of their "personal" time would correspond to four seconds for distant observers. Of course, squeezing the mass of a large planet into a non-spherical object five meters in length is not expected to be within our technological capabilities in the near future.
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Brooke
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« Reply #1 on: March 18, 2007, 06:13:51 pm »

Time dilation is the phenomenon whereby an observer finds that another's clock which is physically identical to their own is ticking at a slower rate as measured by their own clock. This is often taken to mean that time has "slowed down" for the other clock, but that is only true in the context of the observer's frame of reference. Locally, time is always passing at the same rate. The time dilation phenomenon applies to any process that manifests change over time.
In Albert Einstein's theories of relativity time dilation is manifested in two circumstances:
   In special relativity, clocks that are moving with respect to an inertial system of observation (the putatively stationary observer) are found to be running slower. This effect is described precisely by the Lorentz transformations.
   In general relativity, clocks at lower potentials in a gravitational field such as in close proximity to a planet are found to be running slower. This gravitational time dilation is only briefly mentioned in this article but is described elsewhere (see also gravitational red shift).


In special relativity, the time dilation effect is reciprocal: as observed from the point of view of any two clocks which are in motion with respect to each other, it will be the other party's clocks that is time dilated. (This presumes that the relative motion of both parties is uniform; that is, they do not accelerate with respect to one another during the course of the observations.)
In contrast, gravitational time dilation (as treated in General Relativity) is not reciprocal: an observer at the top of a tower will observe that clocks at ground level tick slower, and observers on the ground will agree. Thus gravitational time dilation is agreed upon by all stationary observers, independent of their altitude.
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Brooke
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« Reply #2 on: March 18, 2007, 06:17:24 pm »

The formula for determining time dilation in special relativity is:



Time dilation and space flight

Time dilation would make it possible for passengers in a fast moving vehicle to travel further into the future while aging very little, in that their great speed retards the rate of passage of onboard time. That is, the ship's clock (and according to relativity, any human travelling with it) shows less elapsed time than stationary clocks. For sufficiently high speeds the effect is dramatic. For example, one year of travel might correspond to ten years at home. Indeed, a constant 1 g acceleration would permit humans to circumnavigate the known universe (with a radius of some 13.7 billion light years) in one human lifetime. The space-travellers could return to earth billions of years in the future (provided the Universe hadn't collapsed and our solar system was still around, of course). A scenario based on this idea was presented in the novel Planet of the Apes by Pierre Boulle.

A more likely use of this effect would be to enable humans to travel to nearby stars without spending their entire lives aboard the ship. However, any such application of time dilation would require the use of some new, advanced method of propulsion. A further problem with relativistic travel is that at such velocities dispersed particles in the rarefied interstellar medium would turn into a stream of high-energy cosmic rays that would destroy the ship unless extraordinary radiation protection measures were taken. Strong electromagnetic fields that could ionize and deflect any interstellar matter has been suggested as one way to avoid these potentially disastrous consequences.

Current space flight technology has fundamental theoretical limits based on the practical problem that an increasing amount of energy is required for propulsion as a craft approaches the speed of light. The likelihood of collision with small space debris and other particulate material is another practical limitation. At the velocities presently attained, however, time dilation is not a factor in space travel. However travel to regions of spacetime where gravitational time dilation is taking place, such as within the gravitational field of a black hole but outside the event horizon (perhaps on a hyperbolic trajectory exiting the field) could also yield results consistent with present theory. Potentially also enabling 'time travel' but to the future only. Not backwards in time as in some pop culture science fiction.
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« Reply #3 on: March 18, 2007, 06:20:41 pm »

Time dilation at constant acceleration

In Special Relativity, time dilation is most simply described in circumstances where relative velocity is unchanging. Nevertheless, the Lorentz equations allow one to calculate proper time and movement in space for the simple case of a spaceship whose acceleration, relative to some referent object in uniform (ie, unaccelerating) motion, equals g throughout the period of measurement.

Let t be the time in an inertial frame subsequently called the rest frame. Let x be a spatial coordinate, and let the direction of the constant acceleration as well as the spaceship's velocity (relative to the rest frame) be parallel to the x-axis. Assuming the spaceship's position at time t = 0 being x = 0 and the velocity being v0, the following formulas hold [2]:

Position:



Velocity:



Proper time:



Time in the rest frame as a function of x




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Brooke
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« Reply #4 on: March 18, 2007, 06:22:28 pm »



Observer at rest sees time 2L/c
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« Reply #5 on: March 18, 2007, 06:24:26 pm »

Simple inference of time dilation
 
Observer moving left relative to setup, sees longer path, time > 2L/c, same speed cTime dilation can be inferred from the constancy of the speed of light in all reference frames as follows:

Consider a simple clock consisting of two mirrors A and B, between which a photon is bouncing. The separation of the mirrors is L, and the clock ticks once each time it hits a given mirror.

In the frame where the clock is at rest (diagram at right), the photon traces out a path of length 2L and the period of the clock is 2L divided by the speed of light.

From the frame of reference of a moving observer (diagram at lower right), the photon traces out a longer, angled, path. The second postulate of special relativity states that the speed of light is constant in all frames, which implies a lengthening of the period of this clock from the moving observer's perspective. That is to say, in a frame moving relative to the clock, the clock appears to be running slower. Straightforward application of the Pythagorean theorem leads to the well-known prediction of special relativity.












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« Reply #6 on: March 18, 2007, 06:26:42 pm »



Observer moving left relative to setup, sees longer path, time > 2L/c, same speed c

Summary

The clock, as observed in a frame where it is moving at some speed 'v'. In this case, the photon traces out a triangular path which is longer than in the rest frame. But since the speed of light is the same in all frames, this necessarily leads to a lengthening of the period of the clock, as derived in the image.

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« Reply #7 on: March 21, 2007, 03:16:30 pm »

This discussion could potentially become very complicated - very quickly...  So far Brooke has done a fantastic job of explaining time dilation - hat's off to the lady!  I don't know if you noticed it or not, but you managed to highlight (to me anyway) a major problem with "time" in Einstein's work.  It troubled him until his death, and it was the primary reason he never gave up on trying to find a "Theory of Everything".  You noted that Special & General Relativity handle time dilation differently.  The next question begging to be asked is, "Why this is so, if the two theories are simply an improvement upon the other?"  That's the conundrum...  But it is also exciting because it demonstrates that there is a heck of a lot more going on than we have figured out.  It also holds the door open for the potential of time-travel!  Here's what I mean:

Special Relativity (SR) describes the interchangeability of matter and energy, given the speed of light (SOL) as the constant.  Now, for the record, let's stick with the idea that the SOL really is constant in all reference frames, including regions affected by massive gravity.  Time dilation according to SR is due entirely to speed and is viewed only via inertial reference frames.  We wind up dealing with time and speed in a very simple formula that way, T (effective) * S (through space) = SOL.  As Speed increases, time decreases and vice versa.  Time dilation due to GR, however, adds an interesting twist - Gravity.  Gravity is not included at all in SR, therefore, there are two forces (at least) that can affect the passage of it.  This revelation is what caused Einstein to mutter, "This thing of time and space is no different than that of the three forces of nature and their ugly cousin - gravity."  He's right, time dilation mimics the same malfunction we have with unification in the standard model of physics; gravity is a force unto itself and it manages to somehow affect everything without being seen!  Einstein viewed gravity as a geometric principal, and his revolutionary formula for it was amazingly simple to use.  Interestingly enough, there is no easy way to explain why massive gravity affects time like speed does.  Since GR is actually a geometric description of the effects of space time in the presence of great mass (or energy), it might be said that it is really a long road to a short answer.  Example:  Since gravity is expressed in units of attraction to 'massive objects', and massive objects are in effect (due to SR) very 'high energy potentials', GR and SR are both referring to the same principle; distance travelled in time - "Speed".  That would be correct in certain circumstances.  Circumstances where GR and SR are applied to the same object, GR will give you a more precise number.  In fact, there is nothing that SR can solve that GR can't also.  That is not reciprocal though.  SR cannot be substituted in any formula where GR is called for due to gravity.  A good example of where GR & SR part ways are gravitational waves (GW).  Mathematically, GWs will affect time dilation as well as an actual gravitational attraction.  GWs, from a geometric perspective, actually contract and stretch the fabric of Space-time (ST), and due to the relativity of reference frames, no one need be the wiser of it, as long as we're all in the same reference frame.  This is where it could get terribly complex.  So I'll dance around the devilishly detailed math.

Now, since a GW is not "actual gravity" (only a deformation of the space-time medium), it cannot be attributable to the mass or energy of an actual object.  Quantum mechanics (uncertainty) shields our view of all forces at work simultaneously.  SR would fail to describe the GW's effect altogether - meaning...  Yes, that's right - gravity is acting like a wave in water, "waving" through some unkown medium, changing the distance in some cases, altering the velocity in others.  Two completely different means.

Where does that leave us?  Well, it should cause a few people to ask the question, "Is gravity controlled by gravitons or is it a geometric deformation in the ST fabric?"  The answer to both questions seems to be "Yes".  Gravitons may act in many ways (as they are purely theoretical).  Heck, gravitions might be Dark Matter, and the "Fabric of Space Time" might be Dark energy!  We just don't know at this point - all we can see is gravity's shadow.

What we do know:  Time dilation can be witnessed (and has), so we know it exists.  At least we know it has in the presence of immense (relativistic) speeds and energies, for one.  In collider experiments, we see that particles with exceedingly small half-lives live for a considerably long time (due to dilation).  And secondly, we see that dilation occurs at speeds considered to be very much higher than that achievable here on the planet; albeit the effects are very much smaller - comparatively speaking.  The funny thing is that in both cases, the tests have been performed in the presence of Earth's gravitational field.  It is that gravitational field presence that most likely contributes to the  fact that our observations [of dilation] do not match our predictions; it always is greater than SR and GR independently would predict.  If we sum the averages between the two results and divide by two, the difference in observation and prediction becomes incredibly small.  Again, this would indicate that there are forces acting on this process that are not understood.

What is suspected:  Time comes to a standstill for objects moving at relativistic speeds.  >/= 99% SOL.  This theory throws a monkey wrench in the theories of so many scientists that it is hard to see any way to recover from it.  From black holes to the age of the universe, the notion that objects moving at the speed of light are "ageless" & "timeless" creates havoc. 

Here's what I mean.  In the theory of black holes, it is determined that massive objects collapse through well-understood mechanisms to create a 'point' of matter so dense that even photons cannot escape the pull of gravity.  Even if the items are accelerated, they cannot escape as there is no such thing as accelerating the SOL.  Skipping ahead (just a bit), we get to the event horizon (EH).  At this point, objects cannot resist the pull of gravity, no matter how small they are and beyond it - it doesn't matter.  At the EH, the items are disintegrated into individual fundamental quantum components.  Think "Big Shredder".  Just to the outside of the EH, because of angular momentum and the rotation of the hole itself, a halo is formed with the orbiting matter waiting to fall into the depth.  The closer the matter gets to the EH, the hotter it becomes and the faster it moves.  At this point, Hawkings Radiation takes hold and particle/anti-particle creation and annhilation takes hold.  Some halves of the pairs are ejected from the halo - lost forever, and some don't.  The moment the material crosses the EH - "SLURP" it's gone forever...  Or is it? 

We cannot and do not know what happens in a black hole.  We can conceive of a "naked hole" (naked singularity), one without an EH, but we have never viewed one and the chances for their existence are 1 in 1.978*10120.  Rumor has it that there aren't even that many atoms in the universe (1.7 x 1077), so I don't hold out much hope of finding one.  So, since we apply GR to Black holes, and we theorize that time dilation becomes infinite at SOL (time stops), black holes may not actually "eat" anything.  They grow more massive because all infalling matter freezes the moment the EH is crossed and the EH moves to a larger radius in direct proportion to the amount of matter that has crossed the border. 

It's a good theory in many respects because it removes a bit of the mystery (i.e. "where does all of the infalling matter go?") and explains the 'growth' of the holes.  One interesting aspect of the theory is that it accounts for how Super Massive Black Holes (SMBs) wind up at the center of spiral galaxies and how they become "active".    Think of a SMB as a solar system in and of itself, with the singularity at the center.  The system grows by its satellites extending further and further into the reaches of space around it, accelerating its angular momentum until the the EH itself increases to a speed where it, summed with the effective time (as stated above) achieves SOL (cumulatively) and collapses under its own weight; effectively becoming a black hole bubble around a black hole.  The X-ray and gamma emmissions from this would be practically unfathomable and would bathe the surrounding galaxies in an em storm that is hard to imagine.  In a very short period of time, the once singular BH with a massive EH would become a SMB, and its activity would be noticeable for millions of years - billions of light years away;  all because time stops at the SOL.

That's all I have time for today.  Hopefully I have stirred some interest in the mystery of gravity's effects on time dilation.  Tomorrow we go after how to apply it to time travel.
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« Reply #8 on: March 25, 2007, 09:14:12 pm »

Alright then.  I see a grand total of 40 people have visited.  That's 25 since I posted, so I am assuming that we have a bunch on the "sidelines" as they say.  Hopefully, they are interested and it's not a matter of them saying, "Oh God - he's posting in here too.."

Anyway - here goes, Part II.  Let's pick up from the point where I remarked, Well, it should cause a few people to ask the question, "Is gravity controlled by gravitons or is it a geometric deformation in the ST fabric?"  The answer to both questions seems to be "Yes".  Gravitons may act in many ways (as they are purely theoretical).  Heck, gravitons might be Dark Matter, and the "Fabric of Space Time" might be Dark energy!  We just don't know at this point - all we can see is gravity's shadow.

I'd like to quote you something here that I heard years ago, and it sums up the quandary of gravity and its effects on our ability to understand it quite well: 

The various fields that inhabit our universe are subject to continual quantum fluctuations that give an energy to even nominally empty space.  This energy is observable only through its gravitational effects; energy of any sort generates gravitational fields and is in turn acted on by gravitational fields, so an energy filling all space could have important effects on the expansion of the universe.  We cannot actually calculate the energy per volume that is produced by these quantum fluctuations; using the simplest approximations, it turns out to be infinite.  But, with any reasonable guess at how to throw away the high-frequency fluctuations that are responsible for the infinity, the vacuum energy per volume comes out to be enormously large: it is about a trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion times larger than is allowed by the observed rate of expansion of the universe.  This must be the worst failure of an order-of-magnitude estimate in the history of science. - Steven Weinberg (1979 Nobel prize in Physics) while speaking at Berkley in 1992.

I thought that you would enjoy knowing that many physicists, no matter how impressive they are, can't get their brain around gravity.  I, for one, think it is because we keep trying to look at it like the other three fundamental forces and that we see it as a "force" to be reckoned with through unification.  I think it might be something a little different, maybe it's simply a reaction to something we take for granted - but hell,  that's a discussion for another forum.  At any rate - the discussion of how gravity acts is very much paramount to this forum; hence why I bring it up. 

Thus far, the only legitimate (theoretical) means of slipping the surly bonds of time are through gravitational manipulation (artificially slowing time) and wormholes (exceeding the SOL on a technicality). 

GRAVITATIONAL MANIPULATION

One of the most popular theories in time travel amongst physicists is "Gravitational Manipulation".  Effectively, this means adjusting the SOL locally.  What would we have to do in order to manipulate gravity in such a way as to 'effectively decrease the SOL'.  Well, this is partly why I quoted Steve's comment.  It gives you a bit of insight into how gravity works and how its effects are cumulative.  If we created something energetic enough and/or dense enough, its gravity will affect the surrounding space and in turn, its effects will affect its effects.   Wink  Look at the following picture for a moment:


This is a picture of what the Earth looks like from a gravitational perspective (GRACE gravity mapping satellites).  Red indicates regions of high gravity, blue - low.  It occurs to me that this would be a great way to determine where all of the world’s nuclear power centers are…  Anyway, let’s say that we can create a field strong enough to actually make the SOL through it decrease to 50%.  If we stood inside of that field, we would age at a rate well less than those around us (theoretically).  Now, let’s adjust the field so that the passage of time inside the “device” was linear, and proportional to 1:365; every day that passes is a year ‘outside’.  We need to look at the repercussions of such a device before we go on though.  Gravitation of that magnitude would crush all but the densest of matter to a flat plane, 1 neutron thick…  Hmmm…  Seems like we need to insert some “exotic matter” in order to maintain a bubble of acceptable mass gravity.  Enter pion condensates, lambda hyperons, delta isobars – oh my.  Of course, all of this is for naught if  Einstein really was correct, as Weinberg and I believe, and there is no such thing as “empty space”.  Dark Energy (DE) becomes an issue now because “something” is permeating all of space/time and there become adverse affects to injecting “exotic matter” into an artificially retarded space/time region (inside the device).  Unless we ‘tunnel’, this idea becomes one of weapons value – not time travel.

WORM-HOLING THROUGH SPACE/TIME

So, let’s look at how to create a “virtual vortex” across space in order to beat the SOL on a technicality.  By effectively connecting points 1 light year apart with a tunnel 3 meters long, we can do just that.  It looks (theoretically) what we would need is: anti-matter – and lots of it.  We would also need a large amount of exotic matter to keep the gravitational forces surrounding the hole from collapsing it.  There are a few details to examine though, if we wish to keep it intact.

  • 1.   Because space is expanding, we would have to continue building the hole (funneling energy and exotic matter into it allowing it to ‘stretch’ with expansion) from the moment it develops.
  • 2.   Its exit point in the new location would have to face away from the earth so that there could be no “feedback loop” developed for relativistic particles (radiation).
  • 3.   We need to filter out any potential “unknown” forces and quantum perturbations so that they may not be amplified by connecting two regions of space.
  • 4.   All wormholes must be uni-directional and may only be held open for short periods of time; else feedback through the hole of radiation would become exponentially large.  So, you’ll need to take a worm hole generator with you through the wormhole when you use it – that way you can get back.

These are only a few “Achilles’ heels” to the process that are known to exist, but let’s proceed knowing full well that we’ll adhere to these rules and manage to create the necessary forces.  The image below shows us a familiar picture.  The red arrow indicates the virtual length traveled and the green arrow shows the actual length once the hole is established.  Assuming that space isn't as fickle as the environment here on the Earth, and decides to collapse upon the new hole, back-fill the void, or censor our attempt to look beyond - it should resemble the picture below.


I can hear you thinking...  This is rudimentary - I didn't feel like making a new drawing spefic to this post after making the other two (below).  There are any number of ways to create such a funnel through space-time (theoretically), but I have a few favorites.  Topping the list, I have chosen the "Merl-800" .  Mathematically speaking, a wormhole could be created by assembling 8 laboratory built spinning black holes.  See the image I threw together below for a visual reference:



The process would be fantastically complex, but still doable, and possibly within my lifetime.  The key would be to build the 8 singularities in the absence of any other matter, and let them free simultaneously while starving them of food.  Getting them to spin around a central point wouldn’t be that difficult, thanks to angular momentum and Kepler once they are set free in space to gobble up vacuum energy.  The ring separating the singularities from the entry point of “Exotic Matter”, Dark Energy and/or Dark Matter might be a bit tricky considering we don’t know what two of them are; best to stick with exotic matter at this point.  Wink  The inner ring separating the EM/DM & DE from the worm hole would have to be made of pure iron and charged negatively, the outer, counter rotating ring would also be iron, and charged positively.  The barrier in between would need to be unobtainium, as the power required for the two “slip-rings” would have to come from matter/anti-matter annihilation.  A small star would be acceptable as a power source if we were to build a wormhole large enough to put a ship through.  If this were a laboratory machine, we would need to tap the Earth's magnetic field to power it (still doable). 

There is a whole lot of 'wicked physics' at play here, and the difficulty would be controlling it.  Let’s hope that DM, DE and vacuum state flux (vacuum energy) doesn’t exist – or, at the very least, singularities cannot feed on it.  If this were to happen, there would be no way at all to control the machine once it ‘ignited’.  As a point of fact, the singularities would each have to be spinning at period equal to 1/8th the duration of the "machine".  That means:  if each singularity is revolving at 1 rps - the overall object would have to be revolving at .125 rps (8 seconds per revolution).  Assuming equilibrium at the center, the exotic matter around it would insulate the opposite holes from sensing the other's presence.  Inertia and the deformation of space around each would effectively isolate them from everything as power increased.  Energy would be metered in incrementally in the form of antimatter until ‘ignition’ was inevitable.  The inner slip rings would be accelerated to match the outer rotating speed of the singularities and the threshold would be surpassed…

The wormhole would be created (ignition of the machine) the moment that all 8 event horizons intersected - effectively creating a "Hollow-naked singularity"; Stephen Hawking's nightmare and Kip Thorne's fantasy.  The amount of potential developed in the slip rings would control the 'depth' (distance) of the hole and the orientation of it in space would decide the direction; turning it would be a simple matter of moving the inner rings - the rest will follow and align with them.  The beauty of it is that it is and it isn’t a larger black hole than the effective diameter seen in the picture below.  This is the wicked physics part again.  We can look at the math involved if anyone is game but I'm not including it here to save space, complexity and confusion.  As anside, the "overall diameter" of the ignited event actually grows beyond the boundary region of the cumulative event horizons, minus the missing mass at the wormhole's center.  That's the whole "is & isn't" part from above.  This "machine" does not become a black hole, it becomes a hollow singularity.  If I need to explain this in more detail, let me know.  It's a fascinating theoretical exercise that has twisted the minds of some of the best physicists I've ever come in contact with and has spurred the choice of High-E physics for many-a-student.  Merely the chance to work on such a project has garnered more than my fair share of willing participants.   Grin


So there you have it, a wormhole to move through space as you wish, thumbing your nose at the SOL and time for that matter.  Now, all you have to do is shoot that thing right through our worldsheet into the next and you can travel amongst realities as well!  Granted - we cannot adapt it to move backward in time (beyond the moment the machine is ignited), but we can definitely use it to move finitely forward.



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« Reply #9 on: March 26, 2007, 06:03:02 am »

Nice work, Merlin.  I'll admit that some of it is a bit over my head and will demand repeat readings to get the gist of it.  How did you arrive at the areas of higher gravity, are those areas stationary, and is there some principle to explain how one area could end up with more gravity than another?

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« Reply #10 on: March 26, 2007, 06:09:26 am »

I'm also impressed by your wormhole theory, did you say that you're working on a project to create one? I also wonder if you'd like to explain the impediments of moving back (instead of forward) in time.  I imagine that any leaps forward in time, would, at this point, be small ones, science seems to make progress only incrementally.
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« Reply #11 on: March 26, 2007, 11:44:56 am »

Nice work, Merlin.

Thanks Derek, I try.  I'm of the opinion that, if I care enough and try hard enough to make it understandable, people might not run away screaming when they realize that I am talking about science.  I still hold out hope that there will be a "Superbowl of Science" televised on Sundays one day.   Grin

I'll admit that some of it is a bit over my head and will demand repeat readings to get the gist of it. 

Crap...  Then I didn't do my job well enough.  If there is something in particluar that you are having trouble with, let me know; I'll endeavor to do better.

How did you arrive at the areas of higher gravity, are those areas stationary, and is there some principle to explain how one area could end up with more gravity than another?

The gravity map is generated via the GRACE Satellite mission.  I have copied and pasted information regarding its mission and effectiveness below. 

This description was taken from the following URL:  http://www.csr.utexas.edu/grace/publications/press/anniversary07.html



The Grace Mission


NASA and the German Space Agency collaborated on the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), now completing its fifth year of doing far more than measuring the attractive pull of Earth on objects.


GRACE's twin satellites' indisputably precise measurements of mountain peaks and ocean depths, of underground watersheds and other hidden concentrations of mass offer a new understanding of changes in Earth's natural systems.

Orbiting 310 miles above Earth, the tandem satellites take advantage of Newton's law that objects receive a stronger gravitational tug from more massive objects. The satellites sense the slightest changes in gravitational pull from different planetary features, including craters deep below the Antarctic ice or the seafloor displacement that activated the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004.

When warmer conditions melt Alaskan glaciers or major water shifts occur elsewhere, the water change registers as a minute, gravity related change in the distance between the tandem GRACE satellites. Researchers have used this satellite sensitivity since March 2002 to detect everything from the climate-related melting of Greenland's ice sheet, to water storage changes in the Amazon river basin.

"It's very interesting to get the whole Earth dynamic with GRACE and see a mass loss in one place, where elsewhere there's a mass gain," said Tapley, who directs the GRACE mission and the Center for Space Research at The University of Texas at Austin.

As the most precise mass-measuring system available, the satellites can indirectly detect a mass change that is a fraction of the Earth's standard gravitational pull on objects. Combine that sensitivity with GRACE's continually improving ability to pinpoint where mass shifts occur, and it becomes clear why the mission received NASA's "compelling" ranking during a 2005 review.

Just this month, Dr. Srinivas Bettadpur at the university's Center for Space Research announced that the Center has upgraded GRACE data to be about three times more accurate. Before GRACE, researchers could only assess the mass of an entire hemisphere. With this latest update, they can now estimate mass changes with a spatial resolution of less than 200 miles, an update partly made possible by the capabilities of the university's Texas Advanced Computing Center.

The scientific weight given to GRACE appears clear in the accelerating number of journal articles and meeting presentations based on GRACE data. Several of these, including findings of ice loss in Greenland's, have identified global warming's watermarks on the world in dramatic detail. In other instances, relatively small features have been the focus, such as the depletion of groundwater in India, likely at the hands of farmers, and altered water storage caused by China's Three Gorges Dam.

"We've moved from a global approach to answering questions," Bettadpur said, "to one that can also address regional issues that involve real, hands-on science."

Michael Watkins, the GRACE Project Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, noted that even subtle changes, such as in oceans' circulation, are beginning to be monitored with GRACE along with water distribution changes at polar caps, river basins and elsewhere. "These small changes in ocean mass are almost impossible to detect from space with any technique but GRACE," the University of Texas at Austin alumnus said.

The highly successful mission has been possible through an outstanding international collaboration involving the Center for Space Research, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory that manages the mission, the German Space Agency (Deutsche Zentrum fr Luft und Raumfahrt, or DLR), and Germany's National Research Centre for Geosciences (GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam). The variety of scientific findings stemming from GRACE helped NASA decide to extend the initial five-year mission until fall 2009.

"GRACE data touch so many different parts of the globe and different areas of science, transcending the engineering domain into the natural sciences," Tapley said.

"GRACE is one of the best performing geo-research missions ever," said Dr. Christoph Reigber, director of GRACE satellite operations in Germany. "We're able to provide researchers with 98 percent of the satellites' data, and continue working daily with our U.S. partners to keep data flowing to researchers worldwide."

The GRACE measurements provide the added benefit of being comparable in cost to more involved approaches. For example, researchers have used GRACE to confirm that a change in water current direction on the Arctic Ocean floor affects other oceans. The findings have matched those obtained from hundreds of bottom-pressure gauges installed by extensive drilling through ice.

Among countries lacking extensive resources, the cost savings of GRACE measurements could become especially important. U.S. researchers have analyzed water levels in North American aquifers using the twin satellites. The satellite measurements matched those obtained with gauge measurements that do the same work, suggesting that resource-poor countries could use GRACE to evaluate water tables and prepare for impending shortages.

Researchers more often combine GRACE data with information from other projects to gain context. For instance, GRACE data and data from other satellites have helped identify global warming-related sea level rises in the Antarctic and elsewhere.

Dr. John Ries, another senior researcher with Bettadpur at the Center for Space Research, said, "It's important to understand what those sea levels will be in the future without having to put instruments throughout oceans."

Comparing GRACE data to data obtained with satellite interferometry also helped Center for Space Research researcher Jianli Chen, Geology Professor Clark Wilson and colleagues determine that Greenland's accelerated ice loss in recent years is occurring primarily along its southeastern edge.

That finding, published last August in the journal Science, has raised concerns since the added meltwater could change how much fresh water mixes with more buoyant salt water in a branch of the North Atlantic Current. The change could lower water and wind temperatures traveling past the west coast of Ireland and Great Britain, potentially producing chillier winters.

Ultimately, Tapley measures GRACE's success by its relevance to vital issues such as the Earth's sensitivity to warmer climates and the affects of unrestricted farm irrigation on water tables.

"This gravity signal from GRACE is about mass movement around the Earth," Tapley said, "but its meaning extends far beyond that."



Hopefully that helps you understand the map a little better.  Now, you asked a specific question, so I want to be more precise than the article with the answer.  You asked, "...is there some principle to explain how one area could end up with more gravity than another?"  The answer to that is yes.  Newton's theory of gravity (NG) and Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR).  GR is an advancement and improvement on Special Relativity ( E=mc2 ).  Now keep in mind that E=mc2 tells us that the terms "energy" and "mass" are interchangable, therefore, to say that gravity is affected by mass, it is just as easy to say that it is linearly affected by energy.  So, we plug all the GRACE data into a supercomputer and out spits an image of what the planet looks like.  The areas of greater mass pull the beam of light fired between the two satellites a little harder than an area of low density.  It's kind of like strumming a guitar string over a hole...  The deeper the whole, the more the tone changes.  So, GR tells us that the pull is directly caused my mass/energy concentrations and since gravity is "local" we can trace those concentrations to their source.  Mountains read red - valleys blue, and flatlands are in between.  When we come across huge regions of "hollow ground" it is easy to determine that the water table is low sense their is a lot less density than there is altitude.  Make sense?


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« Reply #12 on: March 26, 2007, 01:02:20 pm »

I'm also impressed by your wormhole theory, did you say that you're working on a project to create one? I also wonder if you'd like to explain the impediments of moving back (instead of forward) in time.  I imagine that any leaps forward in time, would, at this point, be small ones, science seems to make progress only incrementally.

Well, look at it this way - improvement, "incremental" or not is still progress.  We do have "quantum leaps" from time to time though, so keep your hopes up.

Yes, we are working on creating a wormhole (as are many other scientists), the difference for us is that we are trying to bypass all of the "incremental steps" and jump right to the stable controlled hole that will do what we want it to do.  In the process we need to build "lab holes", meaning blackholes in a bottle - so the theoretical is taking up most of our time.  There are a hell of a lot of ramifications for our work so we try to keep the government out of the process.  Government money often brings with it a "Writ of Ownership", and I have no desire to share my "Genies in a bottle" with Uncle Sammy or any of his nosey relatives.

The primary impediment to moving backward in time is simple:  Theoretically it cannot happen.  All paradoxes aside, being able to move backward through time, before technology existed to do such a thing becomes problematic in its own right.  Add to that, the notion that time is fluid and runs like a river, there would be no way to return to a previous point.  Even if we were to assume that this "river" flowed in a loop, you have to note that the material in the loop is changed with the passage of time.  Ask yourself, is the water flowing by me the same as the water that flowed by the man standing 10' upstream?  No, it is not and it will be different for the kids standing 25' downstream from you.  I cannot conceive of a way (and I can conceive of things that would make you think I drop acid) to locate a point in the past and arrive there, for the moment I would - it would be inexoribly changed and the river would become different. 

All-in-all, this is a very - very complex discussion, even if we drop the philosophy and discuss it entirely from a physical point of view.  I hope that answered your questions.

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« Reply #13 on: April 01, 2007, 10:54:17 pm »

Hello, Im new this site, However greetings and may I join the conversation. I have been studying this subject for years. I have also done some table top experiments with some interesting results. I am a student of the teaching of Kozyrev and Tesla. I like what I see here. May I join the discussion? Brooke? may I share this link with everyone?

source
http://www.univer.omsk.su/omsk/Sci/Kozyrev/paper1a.txt

Article

  POSSIBILITY OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PROPERTIES OF TIME

  [Unpublished article by N. A. Kozyrev: English title as
    above; Pulkovo, "O VOZMOZHNOSTI EKSPERIMENTAL'NGO
 ISSLEDOVANIYA SVOYSTV VREMENI", Russian, September 1967,
                         pp 1-49]


                         Part 1.
                 Theoretical Concepts

     Time is the most important and most enigmatic property
of nature. The concept of time surpasses our imagination.
The recondite attempts to understand the nature of time by
the philosophers of antiquity, the scholars in the Middle
Ages, and the modern scientist, possesing a knowledge of
sciences and the experience of their history, have proven
fruitless. Probably this occurs because time involves the
most profound and completely unknown properties of the
world which can scarcely bne envisaged by the bravest
flight of human fancy. Past these properties of the world
there passes the thiumphal procession of modern science and
technical progress. In reality, the exact sciences negate
the existence in time of any other qualities other than the
simplest quality of "duration" or time intervals, the
measurement of which is realized in hours. This quality of
time is similar to the spatial interval. The theory of
relativity by Einstein made this analogy more profound,
considering time intervals and space as compo- nents of a
four-dimensional interval of a Minkowski universe. Only the
pseudo-Euclidian nature of the geometry of the Minkowski
universe differentiates the time interval from the space
interval. Under such a conception, time is scalar ( scalar
= weight ) and quite passive. It only supplements the
spatial arena, against which the events of the universe are
played out. Owing to one scalarity of time, in the
equations of theoretical mechanics the future is not
separated from the past; hence the causes are not separated
from the results.  In the result, classical mechanics
brings to the universe a strictly deterministic, but
deprived, causality. At the same time, causality comprises
the most important quality of the real world.  The concept
of causality is the basis of natural science. The
natural scientist is convinced that the question
"why?" is a legitimate one, that a question can be found
for it. However, the content of the exact sciences is much
more impoverished. In the precise sciences, the legitimate
question is only "how?".  i.e., in what manner a given
chain of occurrences takes place. Therefore, the precise
sciences are descriptive. The description is made in a
four-dimensional world, which signifies the possibility of
predicting events. This possibility prediction is the key
to the power of the precise sciences. The fascination of
this power is so great that it often compels one to forget
the basic, incomplete nature of their basis. It is
therefore probable that the philosophical concept of Mach,
derived strictly logically from the bases of the exact
sciences, attracted great attention, in spite of its
nonconformity to our knowlege concerning the universe and
daily experience.  The natural desire arises to introduce
into the exact sciences the principles of natural
sciences. In other words, the tendency is to attempt to
introduce into theoretical mechanics the principle of
causality and directivity of time. Such a mechanics can be
called "causal" or "asymetrical" mechanics. In such
mechanics, there should be be realizable experience,
indicating where the cause is and where the result is. It
can be demonstrated that in statistical mechanics there is
a directivity of time and that it satisfies our desires. In
reality, statistical mechanics constructs a certain bridge
between natural and theoretical mechanics. In the
statistical grouping, an asymmetrical state in time can
develop, owing to unlikely initial conditions caused by the
intervention of a proponent of the system, the effect of
which is causal. If, subsequently, the system will be
isolated, in conformity with the second law of
thermodynamics, its entropy will increase, and the
directivity of time will be associated with this trend in
the variation of entropy. As a result, the system will lead
to the most likely condition; it will prove to be in
equilibrium, but then the fluctuations in the entropy of
vaious signs will be encountered with equal frequency.
Therefore, even in the statistical mechanics of an isol-
ated system, under the most probable condition, the
directivity of time will not exist. It is quite natural
that in statistical mechanics, based on the conventional
mechanics of a point , the direction of time does not
appear as a quality of time itself but originates only as a
property of the state of the system. If the directivity of
time  and other possible qualities are objective, they
should enter the system of elementary mechanics of isolated
processes. However, the statistical generalization of such
mechanics can lead to a conclusion concerning the
unattainability of equilibrium conditions. In reality, the
directivity of time signifies a pattern continuously
existing in time, which, acting upon the material system,
can cause it to transfer to an equilibrium state. Under
such a consideration, the events should occur not only in
time, as in a certain arens, but also with the aid of time.
Time becomes an active participant in the universe,
eliminating the possibility of thermal death. Then, we can
understand harmony of life and death, which we perceive as
the essence of our world. Already, owing to these
possibilities alone, one should carefully examine the
question as to the manner in which the concept of the
directivity of time or its pattern can be introduced into
the mechanics of elementary processes.

    We shall represent mechanics in the simplest form, as
the classical mechanics of a point or a system of material
points. Desiring to introduce thus into mechanics the
principle of causality of natural science, we immediately
encounter the difficulty that the idea of causality has not
been completely formulated in natural science. In the
constant quests for causes, the naturalist is guided
rather by his own intuition than by fixed procedures. We
can state only that causality is linked in the closest way
with the properties of time, specifically with the
difference in the future and the past. Therefore, we will
be guided by the following hypotheses:

    I)  Time possesses a quality, creating a difference in
causes from effects, which caqn be evoked by directivity or
pattern. This property determines the difference in the
past from the future.

    The requirement for this hypothesis is indicated by the
difficulties associated with the development of the
Leibnitz idea concerning the definition of the
directivity of time through the causal relationships. The
profound studies by H Reichenbach [1] and G. Whitrow [2]
indicate that one can never advance this idea strictly,
without tautology. Causality provides us with a concept of
the existence of directivity in time and concerning certain
properties of this directivity; at the same time, it does
not constitute the  essence of this phenomenon, but only
its result.

    Let us now attempt, utilizing the simpleist properties
of causality, to provide a quantitative  expression of
hypotheses I. Proceeding from those circumstances in which:
1) cause is always outside of the body in which the result
is realized and 2) the result sets in after the cause, we
can dormulate the next two axioms:

    II)  Causes and results are always separated by space.
Therefore, between them exists an arbitrarily small, but
not equalling zero, spatial difference x.

    III)  Causes and results are separated in time.
Therefore, between their appearance there exists an
arbitrarily small, but not equalling zero time difference
t of a fixed sign.

    Axiom II forms the basis of classical Newtonian
mechanics. It is contained in a third law, according to
whicha variation in a quantity of motion cannot occur under
the effect of internal forces. In other words, in body
there cannot develop an external force without the
participation of another body. Hence, based on the
impenetrability of matter, &x is not = to 0.  However, on
the basis of the complete reversibility of time, axiom III
is lacking in the Newtonian mechanics: &t = 0.

    In atomic mechanics, just the oppsite takes place. In
it, the principle of impenetrability loses its value and,
based on the possibility of the superposition of fields, it
is obviously assumed that &x = 0. However, in atomic
mechanics there is a temporal irreversibility, which did
not exist in the Newtonian mechanics. The influence upon
the system of a macroscopic body, i.e., they devise,
introduces a difference between the future and the past,
because the future proves predictable, while the past is
not. Therefore, in the temporal environs of the
experiment &t is not = to 0, although it can be arbitrarily
small. In this manner, classical mechanics and atomic
mechanics enter into our axiomatics as two extreme systems.
This circumstance becomes especially clear if we introduce
the relationship:
                      &x
                      --- = C  .                    (1)
                      &t     2

    In a real world, C  most likely constitutes a finite
                      2
value. However, in classical mechanics, &x is not = to 0,
&t = 0, and hence C = oo. In atomic mechanics, &x = 0,
                   2
&t is not = 0, and  therefore C = 0.
                               2
    Let us now discuss the concept of the symbols &x and &t
introduced by us.  In a long chain of causal-resultant
transformations, we are considering only that elementary
chain wherein the cause produces the result. According to
the usual physical viewpoints, this  chain comprises a
spatial time point, not subject to further analysis.
However,  on the bases of our axioms of causality, this
elementary causal-resultant chain should have a structure
caused by the impssibility of the spatial-time
superimposition of causes and effects.  The condition of
non-superimposition in the case of the critical approach is
stipulated by the symbols &x and &t. Hence, these symbols
signify the limit of the infinitely-small values under the
condition that they never revert to 0.  These symbols
determine the point distances or dimensions of an "empty"
point, situated between the material points, with which the
causes and effects are linked. However, in the calculation
of the intervalsc of the entire causal- resultant chain,
they should  be considered equal to 0 with any degree of
accuracy. However, in the calculation of the low values of
one order, their ratio C  can be a finite value and can
                        2
express a qualitatively physical  property of the
causal-resultant relationship. This physical property is
included in the pattern of time, formulated qualitatively
by hypothesis I.

    In reality, according to definition (I), the value C
                     2
has the dimensionality  of velocity and yields a value of
the rate of the transition of the cause to the effect. This
transition is accomplished through the "empty" point, where
there are no material bodies and there is only space and
time. Hence, the value C  can be associated only with the
         2
properties of time and space, not with the properties of
bodies. Therefore, C  should be a universal constant,
          2
typifying the patter  of time of our world. The
conversion of the cause to an effect requires the
overcoming of the "empty" point in space. This point is an
abyss, the transition through which can be realized only
with the aid of the time pattern. From this, there follows
directly the active participation of time in the process of
the material systems.

    In Eq. (1), the symbol t has a definite meaning. It
can be established by the standard condition: the future
minus the past comprises a positive value. However, the
sign of the value for &x is quite arbitrary, since space is
isotropic and in it there is no principal direction. At the
same time, the sign of C  should be definite, because
         2
logically we should have a  possibility of conceiving the
world with an opposite time pattern: i.e., of another sign.
The difficulty arises which at first glance seems
insurmountable, and disrupting the entire structure
formulated until now.  However, owing to just this
difficulty, it becomes possible to make an unequivocal
conclusion: C is not a scalar value but a pseudo-scalar
        2
value:   i.e., a scalar changing sign in case of the
mirror image or inversion of the coordinate system. In
order to be convinced of this, let us rewrite Eq. (1) in a
vector form, having signified by i the unit vector of the
direction of the causal-resultant relationship:


                          C (i&t)=&x           (1a)
            2

    If C  is pseudo-scalar, i&t should be a critical value
   2
of a pseudo-vector colinear with the critical vector x.
The pseudo-vector nature of i&t signifies that in the plane
(YZ) of a perpendicular to the X-axis there occurs a
certain turning, the sign of which can be determined by the
sign of t. This means that with the aid of t, we can
orient the plane perpendicular to the X-axis: i.e., we can
allocate the arrangement of the Y and Z axes. Let us now
alter now in Eq.  (1) the sign of x, retaining the sign of
t and signifying the retention of the orientation of the
plane (Y,Z). Then the constant C  changes its sign, as it
            2
should, since our operation is tantamount to a mirror
image. However, if we change the sign not only of &x but
also of &t, the constant C based on Eq. (1)   does not
change sign. This should be the case, because in the given
instance we effected only a turning of the coordinate
system. Finally, changeing the sign of t only, we once
again obtain a mirror (specular) image of the coordinate
system under which the sign of the pseudo-scalar should
change. This proof of the pseudo-scalar property of the
time pattern can be explained by the following simple
discussion. The time pattern should be determined in relat-
ion to a certain invariant. Such an invariant, independant
of the properties of matter, can be only space. The
absolute value of the time pattern is obtained when the
absolute difference in the future and the past will be
linked with the absolute difference in the properties of
space. In space there are no differences in directions, but
there is an absolute difference between right and left,
although these concepts per se are quite tentative.
Therefore, the time pattern also should be established by a
value having the sense of a linear velocity of turning
(rotation). From this it follows that C  cannot equal the
                   2
speed of light C  comprising the conventional scalar.
      1
  From the pseudo-scalar properties of the time pattern,
    there immediately follows the basic theorem of causal
mechanics:

    A world with an opposite time pattern is equivalent to
our world, reflected in a mirror.

    In a world reflected by a mirror, causality is
completely retained. There- fore, in a world with an
opposite time pattern the events should develop just as
regularly as in our world. It is erroneous to think that,
having run a movie film of our world in a reverse
direction, we would obtain a pattern of the world of an
opposite time direction. We can in no way formally change
the sign in the time intervals. This leads to a disruption
of causality:  i.e., to an absurdity, to a world which
cannot exist. In a variation of the directivity of time,
there should also become modified the influences which the
time pattern exerts upon the material system. Therefore,
the world reflected in a mirror should differ in its
physical properties from our world.  However, classical
mechanics confirms the identity of these worlds. Up until
recent times, this identity was assumed in atomic mechanics
and was said to be the law of the preservation of parity.
However, these studies by Lie and Young of the nuclear
processes during weak interactions led to the experiments,
having demonstrated the erroneous position of this law.
This result is quite natural under the actual existence of
time directivity, which is confirmed by the direct
experiments described later. At the same time,, one can
never make the opposite conclusion. Numerous investigations
of the observed phenomena of the nonpreservation of parity
have demonstrated the possibility of other interpretations.
It is necessary to conclude that further experiments in
the field of nuclear physics narrow the scope of possible
interpretations to such an extent that the existence of
time directivity in the elementary processes will become
quite obvious.

    The difference in the world from the mirror image is
especially graphically indicated by biology. The morphology
of animals and plants provides many examples of asymmetry,
distinguishing right from left and independently of what
hemisphere of the earth the organism is living in.
Asymmetry of organisms is manifested not only in their
morphology. The chemical asymmetry of protoplasm
discovered by Louis Pasteur demonstrates that the asymmetry
constitutes a basic property of life. The persistent
asymmetry of organisms being transmitted to their
descendents cannot be random. This asymmetry can be not
only a passive result of the laws of nature, reflecting the
time  direct- ivity. Most likely, under a definite
asynnetry, corresponding to the given time pattern, an
organism acquires an additional viability: i.e., it can use
it for the reinforcement of life processes. Then, on the
bases of our fundamental theorem, we can conclude that in a
world with an opposite time pattern, the heart in the
vertebrates would be located on the right, the shells of
mollusks would be mainly turned leftward, and in protoplasm
there would be observed an opposite qualitative inequality
of the right and left molecules. It is possible that the
specially formulated biological experi- ments will be able
to prove directly that life actually uses the time pattern
as an additional source of energy.

    Let us now comment on yet another important
circumstance, connected with the determination of the time
pattern by Eq. (1). Each causal-resultant relationship has
a certain spatial direction, the base vector of which is
signified by i. Therefore, in an actual causal relationship
the pseudo-scalar i C  will be oriented by the time
             2
pattern. Let us prove that at one point -- the cause --
and at another point -- the result -- these values should
be in opposite directions. In reality, the result in the
future will be situated in relation to the cause, while the
cause in the past will be situated in relation to the
result. This means that at the points cause and effect t
should have opposite signs, meaning that there should also
be an opposite orientation of the plane perpendicular to i.
Then, at a definite i-value we have a change in the type of
the coordinate system, and  the expression iC  will have
                    2
different signs. However,if during the transition from the
cause to the effect we have a change in the sign of i, the
sign of C  will remain  unchanged and, hence, iC  will
    2                                      2         
change sign in this case also. This means that
the time pattern is characterized by the values +iC
                     2
and constitutes a physical  process, the model of which
can be the relative rotation of a certain ideal top
(gyroscope). By an ideal gyroscope, we connote a body the
entire mass of which is located at a certain single
distance from the axis. This top can have an effect on
another body through a material axis of rotation and
material relationships with this axis, the masses of which
can be disregarded. Therefore, the mechanical property of
an ideal gyroscope will be equivalent to the properties of
a material point having the mass of the gyroscope, and its
rotation. Let us assume that the point with which the top
interacts is situated along the direction of its axis. Let
us signify by j the bas vector of this direction and
consider it to be aq standard vector. We can tentatively,
independently of the type of the coordinate system, place
it in another point:  for example, in the direction from
which the rotation of the top appears to be originating --
in this case, in a clockwise direction. The rotation of the
top which is occurring can be described by the approximate
pseudo-scalar ju, where u equals the linear velocity of
rotation. With such a description and the direction
selected by us, u should be pseudo-scalar, positive in the
left hand system of coordinates. Let us now consider the
motion of a point upon which the gyroscope axis is acting
from the position of the point on its rim. Since the
distance of this point from the plane of the rim is
arbitrarily small, its velocity, computed from the position
of the rim in respect to the radius and the period, will be
the same value for u. We can draw on a sheet of paper the
motion of the points of the rim relative to the center and
to the motion of the center from the position of the rim
points.  The motion is obtained in one direction if we
examine the paper from the same side: e.g., from above.
However, the infinitely small emergence of a stationary
point from the plane of the rim compels us to examine the
rotation from another position: i.e., to examine the
paper from beneath. We obtain a rotation in the opposite
direction, as a result of which we should compare with the
gyroscope the approximate pseudo-scalar: i.e., ju. This
signifies that the time pattern being determined by the
values +iC  actually has an  affinity with the relative
     2
rotation, which is determined by the value +ju of the same
type. It is understandable that this formal analogy does
not fully esplain the essence of a time pattern. However,
it opens up the remarkable possibility of an experimental
study of the properties of time. In reality, if into the
causal relationship there will enter a rotating body, we
can expect a combination of values +iC  and +ju, since this
                  2
operation is quite  permissible from a mathematical
standpoint. In other words, we can expect that in a system
with rotation the time pattern changes instead of +iC : it
                       2
becomes equal to +(iC  + ju). Let us now attempt to explain
           2
which variations can occur in a mecanical system. For this,
it is necessary to refine the concept of cause and effect
in mechanics

    The forces are the cause altering the mutual
arrangement of bodies and their quantity of motion. The
change in the arrangement of bodies can lead to the
appearance of new forces, and according to the d'Alembert
priciple, the variation of a quantity of motion for unit
time, taken with an opposite sign, can be regarded as the
force of inertia. Therefore, in mechanics the forces are
comprised of the causes and all possible effects. However,
in the movement of a body (1) under the effect of a force
F, the force of inertia dp /dt does not constitute a result.
           1
Both of these forces originate at one point. According to
axiom II, owing to this there cannot be a causal-resultant
relationship between them, and they are identical concepts.
Therefore, as Kirchoff operated in his mechanics, the force
of inertia can serve as a determination of the force F. The
force F, applied to point (1) can evoke an effect only in
another point (2). Let us call this force of the result of
the effect S  of the first  point upon the second:
       0

                  dp        dp
                     1         2
         S  = F - ------ = -------              (2)
          0        dt         dt



    For the first point, however, it comprises the lost
d'Alembert force:

                   dp           dp
                     1            2
                 ------ = F -  -------
                   dt            dt



    In conformity with these expressions, we can consider
that for the time dt, point (1) loses the pulse dp  which
                    2
is transmitted to point (2). In the case  for which there
is a causal  relationship between point (1) and (2),
&t is not = to 0, and between
them there exists the approximate difference &p  is not =
                      2
to 0. When the cause is situated at point (1), the
transition of dp  from point  (1) to point (2) corresponds
      2
to an increase in the time. Therefore :


                  &p        &p
                     1         2
                  ------ = ------- =               (3)
                   &t        &t       0


   Let us signify by i the unit vector of effect S . Then,
                    0
according to  Eq. (3):


                        | &p |     |&p  |
                            2      |  2 | |&x|
          = i| | = i  ------ = i |----| ----- .
         0      0         &t       | &x |  &t




  According to Eq. (1), the value &x/&t  can be replaced
by C  if we tentatively utilize that system of coordinates
    2
in which C is positive
     2
                             | &p  |
                             |   2 |
                    S  = iC  | ----|.              (4)
                     0     2 | &x  |



    Under this condition:

                             | &p  |
                             |   2 |
                    S  = iC  | ----|.              (4)
                     0     2 | &x  |



    The factor at iC comprises a value independent of a
          2
time pattern: i.e.,  a force invariant. In reality, during
any pattern of time not only the spatial intervals but also
the time intervals should be measured by the unchanging scales.
Therefore, the velocity and, consequently, also thepulses
should not depend on the pattern (course) of time. As was
demonstrated above, in case of the existence of a time
pattern iC  in point (2), there must be in point (1)  the
     2
time pattern -iC . This means that during the effect upon
      2
point (2), there  must be a counter effect or a reaction
force R  in point (1): 
       0
                              | &p  |
                              |   2 |
                    R = - iC  | ----|.              (5)
                     0      2 | &x  |



    Thus, the third Newtonian law proves to be the direct
result of the properties of
causality and pattern of time. The effect and the counter
effect comprise two facets of the identical phenomenon, and
between them a time discontinuity cannot exist. In this
manner, the law of the conservation of a pulse is one of
the most fundamental laws of nature.

    Let us now assume that the time pattern has varied and,
instead of +iC   it has become equal to +( iC  + ju ).
              2                2
Then, based on Eqs. (4), and (5), the  following
transformation of forces should occur:

                | &p  |                  | &p  |
                |   2 |                  |   2 |
    S = (iC +ju)| ----|;  R = - (iC + ju)|-----| .
           2    | &x  |            2     | &x  |



The additional forces are obtained

                              u
           &S = S - S  = + j --- |S |,
                     0        C    0
                               2
                                                 (6)
                              u
           &R = R - R  = - j --- |S |,
                     0        C    0
                               2



    Thus, in the causal relationship with a spinning top
(gyroscope), we can expect the appearance of additional
forces (6), acting along the axis of rotation of the top.
The proper experiments described in detail in the following
section indicate that, in reality, during the rotation,
forces develop acting upon the axis and depending upon the
time direction. The measured value of the additional forces
permits us to determine, based on Eq. (6), the value C  of
                        2
the time pattern not only in magnitude but also in sign: i.e.,
to indicate the type of the coordinate system in which C  is
                     2
positive. It turns  out that the time pattern of our world
is positive in a levorotary system of coordinates. From
this, we are afforded the possibility of an objective
determination of left and right; the left-hand system of
coordinates is said to be that system in which  the time
progress is positive, while the right- hand system is one
in which it is negative.  In this manner, the time progress
linking all of the bodies in the world, even during their
isolation, plays the role of that material bridge
concerning the need, of which Gauss (3) has already spoken,
for the coordination of the concepts of left and right.

    The appearance of the additional forces can perhaps be
graphically repre- sented in the following manner: Time
enters a system through the cause to the effect. The
rotation alters the possibility of this inflow, and, as a
result, the time pattern can create additional stresses in
the system. The additional stresses alter the potential and
the full energy of the system. These variations  produce
the time pattern. From this it follows that time has
energy. Since the additional forces are equal and are
directed oppositely, the pulse of the system does not vary.
This signifies that time does not have a pulse, although it
possesses energy.  In Newtonian mechanics, C  = oo. The
                   2
additional forces according to Eq. (6)  disappear, as
should occur in this mechanics. This is natural because the
infinite pattern of time can in no way be altered.
Therefore, time proves to be an imparted fate and
invincible force. Jowever, the actual time has a finite
pattern and can be effective, and this signifies that the
principle of time can be reversible. How, in reality, these
effects can be accomplished should be demonstrated sometime
by experiments studying the properties of time.

    In atomic mechanics, C  = 0. Equqtions (6), obtained by
           2
a certain  refinement of the principles of Newtonian
mechanics, are approximate and do not give the critical
transition at C = 0. They only indicate that the
          2
additional effects not envisaged by Newtonian mechanics
will play the pre- dominant part. The causality becomes
completely intertwined (confused) and the occurrences of
nature will remain to be explained statistically.

    The Newtonian mechanics correspond to a world with
infinitely stable causal causal relationships, while atomic
mechanics represent another critical  case of a world with
infinitely weal causal relationships. Equations (6)
indicate that the mechanics corresponding to the principles
of the causality of natural science should be developed
from the aspect of Newtonian mechanics, and not from the
viewpoint of atomic mechanics. For instance, we can expect
the apperance of quantam effects in macroscopic mechanics.

    The theoretical concepts expounded here are basically
necessary only in order to know how to undertake the
experiments in the study of the properties of time. Time
represents an entire world of enigmatic phenomena, and they
can in no way be persuid by logical deliberations. The
properties of time must be gradually explained by physical
experiment.

    For the formulation of the experiments, it is important
to have a foreknowledge of the value of the expected
effects, which depent upon the value C . We can attempt to
                  2
estimate the numerical value of C , proceeding from the
             2
dimensionality concepts. The single universal constant
which can have the meaning of a pseudo-scalar is the Planck
constant, h. In reality, this constant has the
dimensionality of a moment of a quantity of motion and
determines the spin of elementary particles. Now, utilizing
the Planck constant in any scalar universal constant, it is
necessary to obtain a value having the dimensionality of
velocity. It is easy to establish that the expression

                      2
              C   = ae /h =    350 /           (7)
               2


comprises a unique combination of this type. Here e equals
he charge of an elementary particle and equals a certain
dimensionless factor. Then, based on Eq. (6), at u = 100
                         -4
m/sec, the additional forces will be of the order of 10 
     -5
or 10   (at a considerable a-value) from the
applied forces. At such a value for C , the forces of the
                 2
time pattern can easily be revealed in the simplest
esperiments not requiring high accuracy of
measurements.




                       Part II.

    Experiments on Studying the Properties of Time, and
                     Basic Findings


    The experimental verification of the above-developed
theoretical concepts was started as early as the winter of
1951-1952. From that time, these tests have been carried on
continuously over the course  of a number of years with the
active participation by graduate student V. G. Labeysh. At
the present time, they are underway in the laboratory of
the Pulkovo Observatory with engineer V. V. Nasonov. The
work performed by Nasonov imparted a high degree of
reliability to the experiments. During the time of these
investigations, we accumulated numerous and diversified
data, permitting us to form a number of conclusions
concerning the properties of time. We did not succeed in
interpreting all of the material, and not all of the
material has a uniform degree of reliability. Here we will
discuss only those data which were subjected to a recurrent
checking and which, from our viewpoint, are completely
reliable.  We will also strive to form conclusions from
these data.

    The theoretical concepts indicate that the tests on the
study of causal relationships and the relationships and the
pattern of time need to be conducted with rotating bodies:
namely, gyroscopes. The first tests were made in order to
verify that the law of the conservation of a pulse is
always fulfilled, and independently of the condition of
rotation of bodies.  These tests were conducted on
lever-type weights. At a deceleration of the gyroscope,
rotating by inertia, its moment of rotation should be
imparted to the weights, causing an inevitable tortion of
the suspensions. In order to avert the suspension
difficulties associated with this, the rotation of the
gyroscope should be held constant. Therefore, we utilized
gyro- scopes from aviation automation, the velocity of
which was controlles by a variable 3-phase current with a
frequency of the order of 500 cps. The gyroscope's rotor
turned with this same frequency. It appeared possible,
without decreasing significantly the suspension precision,
to supply current to the gyroscope suspended on weights
with the aid of three very thin uninsulated conductors.
During the suspension the gyroscope was installed in a
hermetically sealed box, which excluded completely the
effect of air currents. The accuracy of this suspension was
of the order of 0.1 - 0.2 mg. With a vertical arrangement
of the axis and various rotation velocities, the readings
of the weights remained unchanged. For example, proceeding
from the data for the data for one of the gyroscopes
(average diameter D of rotor equals 4.2 cm: rotor weight Q
equals 250 gr.), we can conclude that with a linear
ritational velocity u = 70 m/sec, the effective force upon
the weights will remain unchanged, witha precision higher
than up to the sixth place. In these experiments, we also
introduced the following interesting theoretical
complication; The box with the gyroscope was suspended
from an iron plate, which attracted the electromagnets
fastened together with a certain mass. This entire system
was suspended on weights by means of an elastic band. The
current was supplied to the electromagnets with the aid of
two very thin conductors. The system for breaking the
current was established separately from the weights. At
the breaking of the circuit, the box with the gyroscope
fell to a clipper fastened to the electromagnets. The
amplitude of these drops and the subsequent rises could
reach 2mm. The test was conducted for various directions
of suspension and rotation rates of the gyroscope, at
different amplitudes, and at an oscillation frequency
ranging from units to hundreds of cps. For a rotating
gyroscope, just as for a stationary one, the readings of
the weights remained unchanged. We can consider that the
experiments described substantiate fairly well the
theoretical conclusion concerning the conservation of a
pulse in causal mechanics.

    In spite of their theoretical interest, the previous
experiments did not yield any new effects capable of
confirming the role of causality in mechanics.  However, in
their fulfillment it was noted that in the transmission of
the vibrations from the gyroscope to the support of the
weights variations in the readings of the weights can
appear, depending on the velocity and direction of rotation
of the gyroscopes. When the vibrations of the weights
themselves begin, the box with the gyroscope discontinues
being strictly a closed system, However, the weights can go
out of equilibrium if the additional effect of the
gyroscope developing from rotation proves to be transferred
from the shaft of the gyroscope to the weights' support.
From these observations, a series of tests with these
gyroscopes developed.

    In the first type the vibrations were due to the energy
of the rotor and its pounding in the bearings, depending on
the clearance in them. It is understandable that the
vibrations interfere with accurate suspension. Therefore,
it was necessary to abandon the precision weights of the
analytical type and convert to engineering weights, in
which the ribs of the prisms contact small areas having the
form of caps. Nevertheless, in this connection we managed
to maintain an accuracy of the order of 1 mg in the
differential measurements.  The support areas in the form
of caps are also convenient by virtue of the fact that with
them we can conduct the suspension of gyroscomes rotating
by inertia.  A gyroscope suspended on a rigid support can
transmit through a yoke its vibrations to support of the
weights.  With a certain type of vibration, which was
chosen completely by feel, there occurred a considerable
decrease in the effect of the gyroscope upon the weights
during its rotation in a counter-clockwise direction, if
we examined it from above. During rotation in a clock- wise
direction, under the same conditions, the readings of the
weights remained practically unchanged. Measurements
conducted with gyroscopes of varying weight and rotor
radius, at various angular velocities, indicated that a
reduction in the weight, in conformity with Eq. (6), is
actually proportional to the weight and to the linear rate
of rotation. For example, at a rotation of the gyroscope (D
= 4.6 cm, Q = 90 gr, u = 25 m/sec), we obtained the weight
difference Q = -8 mg. With rotation in a clockwise
direction, it always turned out that Q = 0. However, with
a horizontal arrangement of the axis, in azimuth, we found
the average value Q = -4 mg. From this, we can conclude
that any vibrating body under the conditions of these
experiments should indicate a reduction in weight. Further
studies demonstrated that this effect is caused by the
rotation of the earth, which will be discussed in detail
later. Presently, the only fact of importance to us is that
during the vibration there is developed a new zero reading
relative to which with a rotation in a counterclockwise
direction, we obtain a weight reduction, while during a
rotation in a clockwise direction we obtain a completely
uniform increase in weight (Q = 4 mg). In this manner,
Eq. (6) is given a complete, experimental confirmation. It
follows from the adduced data that C  = 550 km/sec.
                2
According to this condition, the vector j  is oriented in
that direction in which the rotation appears to be
originating in a clockwise direction it is directed
downward. With such a rotation, the gyroscope becomes
slightly lighter, meaning that its additional effect upon
the support of the weights is directed downward: i.e., in
respect to the base vector j. This will obtain in the case
in which u and C  have the same signs.   Under our
      2
condition relative to the direction of the base vector j
the pseudo scalar u is positive in a left-hand system of
coordinates. Consequently, a time pattern of our world is
also positive in a left-hand system. Therefore,
subsequently we will always utilize a left-hand system of
coordinates. The aggregation of the tests conducted then
permitted us to refine the value of C : 
                 2


            C  = + 700+50 km/sec in a left-hand     (Cool
        2
system.             


    This value always makes probable the relationship of
the time pattern with other universal constants based on
Eq. (7) at a = 2. Then, the dimensionless constant of the
thin Sommerfeld structure becomes simply a ratio of the two
velocities C /C , each of which occurs in nature. 
       2  1
    The tests conducted on weights with vibrations of a
gyroscope also yield a new basic result. It appears that
the additional force of effect and counter effect can be
situated in different points of the system: i.e., on the
support of the weights and on the gyroscope. We derive a
pair of forces rotating the balance arm of the weights.
Hence, tome possesses not only energy but also a rotation
moment which it can transmit to a system.

    A basic checking of the results obtained with the
weights yields a pendulum in which the body constitutes a
vibrating gyroscope with a horizontal axis susp- ended on a
long fine thread. As in the tests conducted with the
weights, during the rotation of a gyroscope under quiescent
conditions nothing took place and this filament (thread)
did not deflect from the perpendicular. However, at a
certain stage of the vibrations in the gyroscope the
filament deflected from the perpendicular, always at the
same amount (with a given u-value) and in the direction
from which the gyroscope's rotation occurred in a
counterclockwise direction. With a filament length 1 = 2 m
and u = 25 m/sec, the deflection amounted to 0.07 mm, which
yields, for the ratio of the horizontal force to the
                          -5
weight, the value 3.5 10   , sufficiently close to the
results of this suspension.

    A significant disadvantage of the tests described is
the impossibility of a simple control of the vibration
conditions. Therefore, it is desirable to proceed to tests
in which the vibrations are developed not by the rotor but
by the stationary parts of the system.

    In the weights, the support of the balance arm was
gripped by a special clamp, which was connected by a
flexible cable with a long metal plate. One end of this
plate rested in a ball-bearing, fitted eccentrically to the
shaft of an electric motor, and was connected by a rubber
clamp with the bearing. The other end of the plate was
fastened by a horizontal shaft. Changing the speed of the
electric motor and the position of the cable on the plate,
we were able to obtain harminic oscillations of the balance
arm support of the weights of any frequency and amplitude.
The guiding devices for raising the balance arm support
during a stopping of the weights eliminated the possibility
of horizontal swaying. For the suspension of the
gyroscope, it was necessary to find the optimal conditions
under which the vibration was transmitted to the rotor and,
at the same time, this end of the balance arm remained
quasi-free relative to the other end, to which the
balancing load was rigidly suspended.  Under such
conditions, the balance arm can vibrate freely, rotating
around its end, fastened by a weight to a rigid suspension.
Oscillations of this type could be obtained by suspending
the gyroscope on a steel wire 0.15 mm in diameter and with
a length of the order of 1-1.5 m. With this arrangement, we
observe the variation in the weight of the gyroscope during
its rotation around the vertical axis. It was remarkable
that, in comparison with the pre- vious tests, the effect
proved to be of the opposite sign. During the turning of
the gyroscope counterclockwise, we found, not a lightening,
but a consider- able weight increase. This means that in
this case there operates upon the gyro- scope an additional
force, oriented in a direction from which the rotation
appears to be originating in a clockwise direction. This
result signifies that the causality in the system and the
time pattern introduced a vibration and that the source of
the vibration establishes the position of the cause. In
these tests, a source of the vibration is the non-rotating
part of the system, while in the initial model of the
tests, a rotor constituted a source. Trans- posing in
places the cause and the effect, we alter in respect to
them the direction of rotation: i.e., the sense of the base
vector j. From this, based on Eq. (6), there originates the
change in the sign of the additional forces.  In
conventional mechanics all of the forces do not depend
entirely on what comprises the source of the vibration, but
also on what is the effect. However, in causal mechanics,
observing the direction of the additional forces, we can
immediately state where the cause of the vibrations is
located. This means that in reality it is possible to have
a mechanical experiment distinguishing the cause from the
effects.

    The tests with the pendulum provided the same result. A
gyroscope suspended on a fine wire, during the vibration of
a point of this suspension, deflected in a direction from
which its rotation transpired in a clockwise direction. The
vibration of the suspension was accomplished with the aid
of an electromagnetic device. To the iron plate of a relay
installed horizontally, we soldered a flex- ible metal rod,
on which the pendulum wire was fastened. Owing to the rod,
the oscillations became more harmonic. The position of the
relay was regulated in such a way that there would not be
any horizontal displacements of the suspension point. For
monitoring the control, we connected a direct current, with
which the electromagnet attracted the plate and raised the
suspension point. The position of the filament (thread) was
observed with a laboratory tube having a scale with
divisions of 0.14 mm for the object under observation.
Estimating by eye the fractions of this wide division, we
could, during repeated measurements, obtain a result with
an accuracy of up to 0.01 mm. At a pendulum length 1 = 3.30
m and a rotation velocity u = 40 m/sec, the defl- ection of
the gyroscope l was obtained as equalling 0.12 mm. In
order to obtain a value of the additional force Q in
relation to the weight of the rotor (Q = 250 g), it is
necessary to introduce a correction for the weight of the
gyroscope mounting a = 1.50 g: i.e., to multiply l/l by (Q
+ a)/Q. From this, we derive just that value of C  which is
                   2
presented above (Cool. In these tests it turned out that to
obtain the effect of deflection of the filament, the end of
the gyroscope shaft, from which the rotation appears to be
originating in a clockwise direction, must be raised
somewhat. Hence, in this direction there should exist a
certain projection of force, raising the gyroscope during
the vibrations. In reality, the effect of the deflection
turns out to be even less when we have accomplished a
parametric resonance of the thread with osci- llations, the
plane of which passed through the gyroscope axis.
Evidently, the existence of forces acting in the direction
ju intensifies the similarity of ju with the time pattern
and facilitates the transformation +iC  by +(iC +ju). 
                      2
It is also necessary to comment that the gyroscope axis
needs to be located in the plane of the firdt vertical
meridian -- a certain additional displacement developes.
Obviously, this displacement is created by force evoked by
the earth's rotation, which we mentioned in describing the
first experiments of the vibrations on weights. Let us now
return to an explanation of these forces.

    Let us signify by u the linear velocity of the rotation
of a point situated on the earth's surface. This point is
situated in gravitational interaction with all other points
of the earth's volume. Their effect is equivalent to the
effect  of the entire mass of the earth at a certain
average velocity <u>, the value of which is located betewwn
zero and u at the equator. Thereefore, in the presence of a
causal relationship there can originate additional forces,
directed along the axis of the earth, and similar forces
acting upon the gyroscope during its  rotation with the
velocity (u - <u>) relative to the mounting. If the causal
occurrences of the cosmic life of the earth are associated
with the outer layers, these forces should act upon the
surface in the direction from which the rotation appears to
be originating counterclockwise: i.e., toward the north.
Thus, in this case on the earth's surface there should
operate the forces of the time pattern:

                 -j(u - <u>)
           Q = ------------ |Q|                     (9)
                     C
                      2


[Translator's note: one line of text is missing at this
point] in the interior of the earth, forces
act in the opposite direction, and according to the law of
conservation of momentum, the earth's center of gravity
does not become_ displaced. In the polar regions u < <u>,
and therefore there in both hemispheres Q will be directed
southward. Hence, in each hemisphere there is found a
typical parallel where Q = 0. Under the effect of such
forces, the earth will acquire the shape of a cardioid,
extending to the south. One of the parameters
characterizing a cardioid is the coefficient of asymmetry
E:
                        b  -  b
                         S     N
                   E = -----------               (10)
                           2A


where A equals the major semi-axis and b  and b  are the
               S      N
distances of the poles  to the  equatorial plane.

    On Jupiter and Saturn the equatorial velocity u is
around 10 km/sec. Therefore, on planets with a rapid
rotation the factor can be very high and reach in
conformity (Cool, (9) several units of the third place.
Careful measurement of photographs of Jupiter made by the
author and  D. O. Mokhnach [4] showed that on Jupiter the
southern hemisphere is more extended and 
      -3          -3
E=+3 10   + 0.6 10  . A similar result, only with less
accuracy, was also obtained for Saturn:
       -3        -3
E= 7 10   +  3. 10.


    The measurements of the force of gravity of the surface
of the earth and the motion of artificial earth sattelites
indicate that there exists a certain difference of
accelerations of gravity in the northern and southern
                  -5
hemispheres:   g = g  - g > 0, g/g = 3.10  . For a
           S    N
homogeneous planet this should also be the case
for an extended southern hemisphere, becaues the points of
this hemisphere are located farther south from the center
of gravity. The factor E should be of the order of g/g. It
is necessary to stress that the conclusion is in direct
contradiction with the above-presented data concerning
theacceleration of gravity. The gist of this difference
consists in the fact that without allowance for the forces
of the time pattern, the increase in gravity in the
northern hemisphere can be explained only by the presence
there of denser rocks.  In this case, the leveled surface
of the same value should regress farther.  Identifying the
level surface with the surface of the earth, it will remain
to be inferred that the northern hemisphere is more
extended. However, the sign E obtained directly for
Jupiter and Saturn provide evidence against this
interpretation, containing in itself a further
contradictory assumption concerning concerning the
disequilibrium distribution of the rocks within the earth.

    The sign obtained for the asymmetry of the shapes of
planets leads to the paradoxical conclusion to the effect
that the cause of the physical occurrences within the
celestial bodies is situated in the peripheral layers.
However, such a result is possible if, e.g., the energetics
of a planet are determined by its compression. In his
studies of the structure of a star [5], the author
concluded that the power of stars is very similar to the
power of cooling and compressing bodies. The inadequacy of
the knowledge of the essence of the causal relationships
prevents us from delveing into this qeustion. At the same
time, we are compelled to insist on the conclusions which
were obtained from a comparison of the asymmetry of the
planets with the forces acting upon the gyro- scope.

    The direction of the perpendicular on the earth's
surface is determined by the combined effect of the
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Brooke
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« Reply #14 on: April 01, 2007, 11:42:58 pm »

Hi Dr. Lee & welcome to the forum, and the discussion!  I was hoping that you would show up here. Any thoughts you have on this are well-appreciated.  Like Merlin said, the subject of time dilation can get awfully complicated awfully fast, but people here have open minds and are eager to learn.  Welcome again.

Brooke
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"The most incomprehensible thing about our universe is that it can be comprehended." - Albert Einstein
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