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the Crusades (Original)

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Ceneca
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« Reply #180 on: December 31, 2007, 04:15:32 am »

Rachel Dearth

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   posted 12-31-2006 03:40 AM                       
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Timeline of the Crusades: Second Crusade Aftermath 1150 - 1186
1150 Fatimid rulers fortify the Egyptian city of Ascalon with 53 towers.
1151 The Toltec Empire in Mexico ended.
1152 Baldwin III is crowned king of Jerusalem.
1152 King Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, thus gaining control of her lands in France. Eleanor would give birth to Richard the Lionheart, one of the leaders of the Third Crusade. She had previously been married to King Louis of France and her involvement in the Second Crusade was blamed by some for its failure.
March 04, 1152 Friedrich I Barbarossa, nephew of Conrad III, is elected German King in Frankfurt. He would later become Holy Roman Emperor.
1153 King Baldwin III of Jerusalem captures Ascalon after a siege of several months, thus drawing Egypt into an alliance with the Turks in Palestine. Reynald of Chantillon is named Prince of Antioch.
August 20, 1153 St. Bernard of Clairvaux dies. Bernard had founded the famous abbey at Clairvaux and was largely responsible for inspiring many Europeans to set off on the Second Crusade. The failures of the Second Crusade deeply troubled Bernard and he had blamed them on the sins of the Crusaders themselves.
April 25, 1154 Because European Crusaders had laid siege to the city in 1148 despite the existence of a truce with them, citizens of Damascus decide that the Crusaders could no longer be trusted and hand control over to Nur ad-Din Mahmud bin Zengi. In assuming control of this city, Nur ad-Din is able to unite all of Muslim Syria. One of Nur ad-Din's lieutenants, Saladin (Salah-al-Din Yusuf ib-Ayyub), would rise to prominence in the coming conflicts.
1155 King Baldwin III enters into an alliance with Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus in order to more effectively counter the growing threat from Nur ad-Din.
1156 Baldwin III signs a peace treaty with Nur ad-Din, but the following year he would break it and capture the city of Narim.
1156 Reynald of Chantillon, Prince of Antioch, launches an attack against Cyprus.
August 1157 A strong earthquake hits Syria. Through the previous couple of years, numerous earthquakes had been recorded all through the Levant.
September 08, 1157 Richard I Lionheart of England is born. Richard would be one of the leaders of the Third Crusade.
October 1157 Nur ad-Din is struck by a severe illness, halting his steady campaign against the Crusaders.
1158 Baldwin III defeats Seljuk ruler Nur ad-Din.
1160 Birth of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester and leader of the Crusade against the Cathars in southern France.
1160 Raymond of Chantillion is captured during a Muslim ambush and is imprisoned for 14 years in Aleppo. Once released, his hatred of Islam and Muslims would be even greater than before and would be instrumental in the Third Crusade being launched.
1161 Explosives were first used in China at the Battle of Ts'ai-shih.
February 10, 1162 King Baldwin III dies at Tripoli and control of Jerusalem passes to his brother, Amalric I. Amalric's chief goal is the conquest of Egypt and, in fact, his continual failure to capture Egypt may have been an important cause of the decline in power of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1163 - 1169 Egypt and Jerusalem are in a constant state of war. During this time one of Nur ad-Din's lieutenants, Saladin (Salah al-Din), rises to prominence.
1163 Nur ad-Din lays siege the fortress of Krak des Chevaliers (headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller in Syria) but fails to take it.
September 1163 Amalric I, king of Jerusalem. launches his first invasion of Egypt. He manages to get as far as the Nile, but is turned back by the flooding.
May 1164 Shawar is reinstated as Vizier of Cairo with the help of Nur ad-Din Mahmud bin Zengi.
July 1164 A joint army of Egyptians and Franks besiege Shirkun in Bilbeis.
1165 Cathars have become so numerous in Languedoc that they are able to defy local prelates and meet at Lombers (Lombez) where there heretical doctrines are proclaimed openly.
August 21, 1165 Philip II Augustus of France is born. Philip would be one of the leaders of the Third Crusade.
1166 Saladin orders the construction of fortifications in Cairo which become known as "The Citadel."
1167 Papa Nicetas, a Bogomil heretic from the east, attends an assembly of Cathars leaders in Languedoc at Saint-Felix-de-Caraman (near Toulouse).
1167 Amalric I launches his second of three unsuccessful invasions of Egypt, although he briefly captures the city of Cairo. This same year he marries Maria Comnena, grand-niece of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus.
1168 Arab forces recapture Cairo from the Crusaders.
1168 - 1250 The Ayyubid dynasty, founded by Salah-al-Din Yusuf ib-Ayyub, rules Egypt.
October 10, 1168 Amalric I launches his third of three unsuccessful invasions of Egypt. This is a joint project with Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus Megas.
November 01, 1168 Amalric I, King of Jerusalem. massacres the inhabitants of Bilbeis, a fortress city on the eastern edge of the southern Nile delta in Egypt. The harsh treatment of locals manges to turn most Egyptians against the Crusaders, even the Coptic Christians who might have otherwise provided valuable aid and intelligence.
1169 Christians complete the reconstruction of the Church of Nativity in Bethlehem.
January 02, 1169 Amalric I, King of Jerusalem. leaves Egypt before Shirkuh and a Syrian army arrive.
January 08, 1169 Shirkuh, chief advisor and general for Nur ad-Din and Saladin's uncle, enters Cairo.
January 17, 1169 Vizier Shawar of Cairo is killed and Saladin takes control of both the city and Egypt.
November 1169 A Byzantine fleet and army attack Damietta, but they are forced to withdraw without accomplishing anything.
1170 Saladin captures the Crusader-controlled city of Eilat, located on the Red Sea.
1171 In the bull Non parum animus noster, Pope Alexander III equates Crusades against pagan Estonians and Finns in the north with Crusading in the Holy Land: "We therefore grant to those who fight with might and courage against the aforesaid pagans one year's remission for the sins they confess and receive penance for, trusting in God's mercy and the merits of the apostles Peter and Paul, just as we usually grant to those who visit the Sepulcher of the Lord; and if those who perish in the fight are doing their penance, to them we grant remission of all their sins."
1171 Battle of Santarem: The last battle that drives the Muslims out of Portugal.
March 12, 1171 For a time Byzantine emperor Manuel ends Venetian commercial privileges in Constantinople, a factor that would eventually play in Venice's decision to have the armies of the Fourth Crusade conquer and loot the city. Every Venetian in the empire is arrested and all of their property is confiscated. In retaliation, Venetian ships sack the Byzantine islands of Chios and Lesbos.
June 1171 Under orders from Nur ad-Din, Saladin removes the last Fatimid Caliph from power. The Caliph of Egypt would eventually die and the Caliph of Baghdad would be recognized in Egypt.
September 10, 1171 Saladin announces the formation of the Abbasid Caliphate in Egypt.
1173 Saladin launches an attack on the Fortress of Kerak but fails.
1174 King Henry II of England is forced to humble himself at the grave of Thomas Becket, canonized the year before. As part of his penance for his complicity in Becket's murder, Henry is required by Pope Alexander III to send twice a year enough funds and supplies to support 200 Templar and Hospitaller knights in the Holy Land. This support would end up playing an important role in financing the Third Crusade.
January 81, 1174 Bernard of Clairvaux is canonized.
May 15, 1174 Nur ad-Din Mahmud bin Zengi dies. Saladin would eventually take over for him, controlling a Muslim empire that stretches from the Tigris river to the Libyan desert and surrounding the Crusader states on three sides. First, though, Saladin had to defeat ed-Din's son As-Salih Ismail.
July 11, 1174 Amalric I, king of Jerusalem. dies and is succeeded by his son, Baldwin IV. Baldwin, unfortunately, is only thirteen years old and had been showing signs of leprosy since he was nine - so no one was very confident that he would be able to truly take control of the kingdom.
September 1174 Count Raymond of Tripoli is named regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Raymond is not a popular choice. Although supported by many barons, the Hospitallers.htm">Hospitallers, and others, he is opposed by the Templars and other influential families like the Lusignans. These divisions would plague the Crusaders states and contribute to their eventual downfall.
October 28, 1174 Saladin captures Damascus and becomes the ruler of both Egypt and Damascus.
1175 Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus fortifies the Anatolian city of Dorylaeum.
1175 Reynald of Châtillon and Joscelin of Courtenay are released by the atabeg of Aleppo. The atabeg was grateful to the Christian Crusaders because they had come to his aid against Saladin. Opposition to Count Raymond of Tripoli coalesces around Reynald and Joscelin.
1176 Battle of Myriocephalum: Muslims defeat the Byzantines under Manuel I Comnenus Megas and capture the city of Dorylaeum.
August 1176 Saladin besieges the city of Masyaf.
1177 Sibylla, sister of leper king Baldwin IV and daughter of Amalric I, is married to William of Montferrat. William, however, dies shortly thereafter due to malaria.
November 18, 1177 Saladin leaves Egypt in the hope of quickly capturing Jerusalem from the Crusaders. A small force of Knights Templar are kept pinned down so that the main army can continue northward.
November 25, 1177 Battle of Ramleh (Montgisard): Although a force of 500 led by King Baldwin IV attempts to stop Saladin at Ascalon, the same site where an Egyptian relief force was defeated almost one hundred years before, the Egyptian army is able to bypass the Crusaders and continue on towards the goal of Jerusalem. Baldwin is able to join up with the Templars from Gaza, however, and surprise Saladin from the rear. The Egyptian army is routed and Saladin himself barely escapes. Luckily for Saladin, the Crusaders were unable to seriously press their unexpected advantage and threaten his holdings in Damascus or Egypt.
1179 Saladin defeats Crusader forces at Marj Ayun (Valley of the Springs), capturing the Master of the Knights Templar in the process.
1180 Meinhard, an Augustinian monk from Holstein, leads the first attempt to convert Baltic pagans in what most regard as the first steps of the Baltic Crusades.
March 1180 Sibylla, sister of King Baldwin IV, marries Guy De Lusignan. King Baldwin also negotiates a peace treaty with Saladin, bringing hostilities to a temporary end. Reynald of Châtillon throws his support behind Guy for the throne of Jerusalem and against Raymond of Tripoli, regent of Jerusalem.
September 18, 1180 Death of French King Louis VII, one of the leaders of the Second Crusade.
September 24, 1180 Death of Manuel I Comnenus Megas, Byzantine Emperor. Manuel had let the armies of the Second Crusade pass through his lands on their way to Palestine, but during much of his reign he was at war with various European powers like the Normans and Venice. Manuel is succeeded by his son Alexius II, just eleven years old. Manuel's wife, Maria, is Latin by birth and greatly resented among the people, leading to an insurrection two years later.
1181 Al-Salih Ismail, heir of Nur ad-Din, dies. This allows Saladin to complete his take-over of ad-Din's empire.
1181 Reynald of Châtillon raids a large caravan of pilgrims on their way to Mecca. The violates a peace treaty which outrages Saladin.
1182 Andronicus Comnenus leads an insurrection against empress Maria, killing many Italian merchants as well as the young Alexius II, heir to the throne of the Byzantine empire. Andronicus becomes a ruthless leader, killing large numbers of alleged rivals and dissenters.
May 11, 1182 Saladin sets out from Cairo with a large Muslim army. His intention is to link up with other Muslim forces elsewhere, gathering enough soldiers under his immediate command to put an end to the Crusader states once and for all.
1183 Reynald of Chantillon, Prince of Antioch, launches a military expedition down the Red Sea. His intention is to invade Arabia and travel to Mecca where he would destroy Muhammed's tomb and smash the Kaaba. He takes with him a small force, lands at el-Haura, and is surprised by an Egyptian group that had been marching to Mecca already. Only a few, including Reynald, manage to escape.
1183 Saladin captures the city of Aleppo.
September 17, 1183 Saladin leaves Damascus with a large Muslim army and heads for the Crusader states. He meets the Crusader forces at the Pools of Goliath but the Christians retreat to Jerusalem. Guy of Lusignan's decision to withdraw here causes him to lose the confidence of other Christian leaders who now come to believe that he is indecisive at best, but more likely a coward.
1184 Meinhard oversees the building of the Christian church built in the Baltic region: the village of Uexküll (in modern-day Latvia).
1184 Saladin launches a second attack on the Fortress of Kerak, but fails again.
1184 Isaac Comnenus takes control of Cyprus. Isaac is a great-nephew of Manuel I and had launched a rebellion against the harsh rule of Byzantine emperor Andronicus, establishing an independent kingdom in Cyprus. Constantinople is far too weak to crush this rebellion and Isaac would hold on to power for 7 years.
1185 - 1195 Isaac II Angelus becomes Byzantine emperor. Andronicus Comnenus had ordered him arrested and killed, but his years of heavy-handed rule had taken their toll and the people refused. Isaac is made emperor by popular acclamation and Andronicus is forced to flee, but he is captured and killed by a mob. Isaac would not be as ruthless as Andronicus, but at the same time Isaac would be far more corrupt.
March 1185 King Baldwin IV dies of leprosy and King Baldwin V, still an infant, succeeds him as King of Jerusalem. Raymond of Tripoli is named regent.
August 1185 Normans lay siege to and sack Thessalonica, a Greek Christian city.
December 06, 1185 Death of Afonso I Henriques of Portugal in Coimbra. The first king of Portugal, Alfonso had created the nation of Portugal by liberating it from Muslim invaders and attempts at dominance from Castile in Spain.
1186 Meinhard is consecrated as the first Bishop of Buxtehude (Uexküll).
1186 Reynald of Chantillon breaks a truce with Saladin by attacking a Muslim caravan and taking several prisoners, including a sister of Saladin. This infuriates the Muslim leader who vows to kill Reynald with his own hands.
March 03, 1186 The city of Mosul, Iraq, submits to Saladin.
August 1186 Baldwin V, young king of Jerusalem. dies of an illness. His mother, Sibylla, sister of King Baldwin IV, is crowned Queen of Jerusalem by Joscelin of Courtenay and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, is crowned King. This is contrary to the previous king's will. The forces of Raymond of Tripoli are based in Nablus and Raymond himself is in Tiberias; as a consequence, the entire kingdom is effectively split in two and chaos reigns.
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