Atlantis Online
July 15, 2024, 10:37:20 pm
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: Scientists Confirm Historic Massive Flood in Climate Change
http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/news/20060228/
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

Winter solstice

Pages: [1] 2   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Winter solstice  (Read 448 times)
Nicole Jimmelson
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4259



« on: December 22, 2007, 03:30:42 am »



Fire kept burning through the longest night of the year

Also called Midwinter, DōngZhý, Yule, Şabe Cele/Yalda, Soyal, Teḳufat Ṭebet, Şeva Zistanŕ, Solar New Year, Longest Night
Observed by Various cultures, ancient and modern
Type Cultural, Seasonal, Astronomical
Significance Astronomically marks the middle or beginning of winter, interpretation varies from culture to culture, but most hold a recognition of rebirth
Date The Solstice of Winter
December 21 or 22 (NH)
June 21 or 22 (SH)
2007 date December 22 (UTC North)
June 21 (UTC South)
2008 date December 21 (UTC North)
June 20 (UTC South)
Celebrations Festivals, spending time with loved ones, feasting, singing, dancing, fire in the hearth
Related to Winter Festivals and the Solstice
Report Spam   Logged

Share on Facebook Share on Twitter

Nicole Jimmelson
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4259



« Reply #1 on: December 22, 2007, 03:31:31 am »

The winter solstice occurs at the instant when the Sun's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane as the observer. Depending on the shift of the calendar, the event of the Winter solstice occurs sometime between December 20 and 23 each year in the Northern hemisphere, and between June 20 and 23 in the Southern Hemisphere, and the winter solstice occurs during either the shortest day or the longest night of the year (not to be confused with the darkest day or nights). Though the Winter Solstice lasts an instant, the term is also used to refer to the full 24-hour period.

Worldwide, interpretation of the event has varied from culture to culture, but most cultures have held a recognition of rebirth, involving holidays, festivals, gatherings, rituals or other celebrations around that time.

The word solstice derives from Latin sol (Sun) and sistere (stand still), Winter Solstice meaning Sun stand still in winter.

Report Spam   Logged
Nicole Jimmelson
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4259



« Reply #2 on: December 22, 2007, 03:32:15 am »

Calendrically, in most countries the time of the winter solstice is considered as midwinter. This is evident in calendars as far back as Ancient Egypt, whose system of seasons was gauged according to the flooding of the Nile. For Celtic countries, such as Ireland, the calendarical winter season has traditionally begun November 1 on All Hallows or Samhain. Winter ends and spring begins on Imbolc or Candlemas, which is February 1 or 2. This calendar system of seasons may be based on the length of days exclusively. Most East Asian cultures define the seasons by solar terms, with Dong zhi at the Winter solstice as the middle or "Extreme" of winter. This system is based on the sun's tilt. Some Midwinter festivals have occurred according to lunar calendars and so took place on the night of Hōku (Hawaiian: the full moon closest to the winter solstice). And many European solar calendar Midwinter celebrations still centre upon the night of December 24th leading into the 25th in the north, which was considered to be the winter solstice upon the establishment of the Julian calendar. In Jewish culture, Teḳufat Tevet, the day of the winter solstice, is historically known as the first day of the "stripping time" or winter season. Persian cultures also recognize it as the beginning of winter. Recently, many United States calendars have marked the date on which the winter solstice occurs as the Astronomical First day of winter as a reference to the Tekufah.

Since the time when the 25th was established as the solstice in Europe the difference between the Julian calendar year (365.2500 days) and the tropical year (365.2422 days) moved the day associated with the actual astronomical solstice forward approximately three days every four centuries until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII changed the calendar bringing the northern winter solstice to around December 21st. In the Gregorian calendar the solstice still moves around a bit, but only about one day in 3000 years.

Report Spam   Logged
Nicole Jimmelson
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4259



« Reply #3 on: December 22, 2007, 03:34:34 am »




The figures above show the differences between the Gregorian calendar (Figure 1: using 1 leap year per 4 years) and Persian Jalāli calendar (Figure 2: using the 33-year arithmetic approximation) in reference to the actual yearly time of the winter solstice of the northern hemisphere, the December solstice. The Y axis is "days error" and the X axis is Gregorian calendar years. Each point represents a single date on a given year. The error shifts by about 1/4 day per year, and is corrected by a leap year every 4th year regularly, and in the case of the Persian calendar also one 5 year leap period to complete a 33-year cycle, keeping the Persian winter solstice holiday on the same day every year.
Report Spam   Logged
rockessence
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 1688


Using rocks and minerals to heal the earth and us.


WWW
« Reply #4 on: December 22, 2007, 03:40:09 am »

Okay, so here we go, heading towards summer light!

Winter Solstice pictures:


Upper New York state


Denali Park- Alaska




Sun halo at Winter Solstice


SUNLIGHT ENTERS THE NEWGRANGE CHAMBER
http://www.mythicalireland.com/ancientsites/newgrange/illumination.html


Machu Picchu At Winter Solstice


Winter Solstice -Antarctica- June 21




« Last Edit: December 22, 2007, 04:04:30 am by rockessence » Report Spam   Logged

ILLIGITIMI NON CARBORUNDUM

Thus ye may find in thy mental and spiritual self, ye can make thyself just as happy or just as miserable as ye like. How miserable do ye want to be?......For you GROW to heaven, you don't GO to heaven. It is within thine own conscience that ye grow there.

Edgar Cayce
rockessence
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 1688


Using rocks and minerals to heal the earth and us.


WWW
« Reply #5 on: December 22, 2007, 04:09:09 am »

CHACO CANYON


The Sundagger structure, an ancient  solar and lunar observatory,  is not elaborate. It is constructed of three large stone slabs wedged upright with smaller stones. On the day of the summer solstice, a dagger of light cast by the rising sun bisects a spiral carved into the rock behind the stones. On the winter solstice, two daggers of light frame the spiral.
« Last Edit: December 22, 2007, 04:22:42 am by rockessence » Report Spam   Logged

ILLIGITIMI NON CARBORUNDUM

Thus ye may find in thy mental and spiritual self, ye can make thyself just as happy or just as miserable as ye like. How miserable do ye want to be?......For you GROW to heaven, you don't GO to heaven. It is within thine own conscience that ye grow there.

Edgar Cayce
Zodiac
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4530



« Reply #6 on: December 22, 2007, 08:40:19 pm »

Awesome stuff!  We pagans have to keep our winter celebrations alive! 
Report Spam   Logged
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #7 on: December 22, 2007, 09:11:21 pm »



Maenad depicted in red-figure cup, ca. 480 BCE, Louvre








                                                             LenŠa, Brumalia


                                        (Ancient and Hellenistic Greece, Roman Kingdom)





In the Aegean civilizations, the exclusively female midwinter ritual, Lenaea or Lenaia, was the Festival of the Wild Women.

In the forest, a man or bull representing the harvest god, Dionysus, was torn to pieces and eaten by Maenads.

Later in the ritual, a baby, representing Dionysus reborn, was presented.

The Ageans dedicated their first month of the Delian calendar, Lenaion, to the festival's name. By classical times, the human sacrifice had been replaced by that of a goat and the women's role had changed to that of funeral mourners and observers of the birth.

Wine miracles were performed by the priests, in which priests would seal water or juice into a room overnight and the next day it would have turned into wine. The miracle was said to have been performed by Dionysus and the Lenaians.

By the 5th century BCE the ritual had become a Gamelion festival for theatrical competitions, often held in Athens in the Lenaion theater.



The festival influenced Brumalia which was an ancient Roman solstice festival honoring Bacchus, generally held for a month and ending December 25. The festival included drinking and merriment.

The name is derived from the Greek word bruma, meaning "shortest day", though the festivities almost always occurred at night.
« Last Edit: December 22, 2007, 09:15:53 pm by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #8 on: December 22, 2007, 09:19:12 pm »










                                                          S A T U R N A L I A





Observed by Ancient Romans

 Pagan, Historical

Date: December 17

Celebrations:  The dedication of the Temple of Saturn





Saturnalia is the feast at which the Romans commemorated the dedication of the temple of the god Saturn, which took place on 17 December. Over the years, it expanded to a whole week, up to 23 December.

Saturnalia became one of the most popular Roman festivals. It was marked by tomfoolery and reversal of social roles, in which slaves and masters ostensibly switched places.


 


                                                          Origins





The Saturnalia was a large and important public festival in Rome.

In time, it became one of the most popular Roman festivals. It involved the conventional sacrifices, a couch (lectisternium) set out in front of the temple of Saturn and the untying of the ropes that bound the statue of Saturn during the rest of the year. Besides the public rites there were a series of holidays and customs celebrated privately.

The celebrations included a school holiday, the making and giving of small presents (saturnalia et sigillaricia) and a special market (sigillaria). Gambling was allowed for all, even slaves; however, although it was officially condoned only during this period, one should not assume that it was rare or much remarked upon during the rest of the year.

It was a time to eat, drink, and be merry. It was license within careful boundaries; it reversed the social order without subverting it. It was also an opportunity for men to be completely free with their fellowmen, sometimes evolving into homosexual and sometimes also pedophilic relations.

The toga was not worn, but rather the synthesis, i.e. colorful, informal "dinner clothes"; and the pileus (freedman's hat) was worn by everyone. Slaves were exempt from punishment, and treated their masters with disrespect. A Saturnalicius princeps was elected master of ceremonies for the proceedings.

The customary greeting for the occasion is a "io, Saturnalia!" Ś io (pronounced "yo") being a Latin interjection related to "ho" (as in "Ho, praise to Saturn").
« Last Edit: December 22, 2007, 09:26:20 pm by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #9 on: December 22, 2007, 09:30:59 pm »







                                                    Saturnalia in Literature





Seneca the Younger wrote about Rome during Saturnalia around AD 50:




"It is now the month of December, when the greatest part of the city is in a bustle. Loose reins are given to public dissipation; everywhere you may hear the sound of great preparations, as if there were some real difference between the days devoted to Saturn and those for transacting business....Were you here, I would willingly confer with you as to the plan of our conduct; whether we should eve in our usual way, or, to avoid singularity, both take a better supper and throw off the toga."





Horace in his Satire II.7 (published circa 30 BC) uses a setting of the Saturnalia for a frank exchange between a slave and his master in which the slave criticizes his master for being himself enslaved to his passions. Martial Epigrams Book 14 (circa AD 84 or 85) is a series of poems each based on likely saturnalia gifts, some expensive, some very cheap. For example: writing tablets, dice, knuckle bones, moneyboxes, combs, toothpicks, a hat, a hunting knife, an axe, various lamps, balls, perfumes, pipes, a pig, a sausage, a parrot, tables, cups, spoons, items of clothing, statues, masks, books, and pets. Pliny in Epistles 2.17.24 (early second century AD) describes a secluded suite of rooms in his Laurentine villa which he uses as a retreat:

"...especially during the saturnalia when the rest of the house is noisy with the licence of the holiday and festive cries. This way I don't hamper the games of my people and they don't hinder my work/studies."






Macrobius in Saturnalia I.24.23-23 wrote:



Meanwhile the head of the slave household, whose responsibility it was to offer sacrifice to the Penates, to manage the provisions and to direct the activities of the domestic servants, came to tell his master that the household had feasted according to the annual ritual custom.

For at this festival, in houses that keep to proper religious usage, they first of all honor the slaves with a dinner prepared as if for the master; and only afterwards is the table set again for the head of the household. So, then, the chief slave came in to announce the time of dinner and to summon the masters to the table.




The Saturnalia was originally celebrated in Ancient Rome for only a day, but it was so popular it soon it lasted a week, despite Augustus' efforts to reduce it to three days, and Caligula's, to five.

Like Christmas, this important holy day (feriae publicae) was for more than fun and games. Saturnalia was a time to honor the god of sowing, Saturn. But again, like Christmas, it was also a festival day (dies festus) on which a public banquet was prepared. An effigy of the god was probably one of the guests.




The poet Catullus describes Saturnalia as the best of days. It was a time of celebration, visits to friends, and gift-giving, particularly of wax candles (cerei), and earthenware figurines (sigillaria). The best part of the Saturnalia (for slaves) was the temporary reversal of roles. Masters served meals to their slaves who were permitted the unaccustomed luxuries of leisure and gambling. Clothing was relaxed and included the peaked woollen cap that symbolized the freed slave.

A member of the familia (family plus slaves) was appointed Saturnalicius princeps, roughly, Lord of Misrule.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturnalia
« Last Edit: December 22, 2007, 09:34:03 pm by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #10 on: December 22, 2007, 09:43:41 pm »

Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #11 on: December 22, 2007, 09:47:57 pm »



ROME

The Temple of Saturn in the ancient Roman Forum, where a
yearly re-enactment of the Saturnalia takes place, not too
far from Vatican City.
« Last Edit: December 22, 2007, 10:06:26 pm by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #12 on: December 22, 2007, 09:49:31 pm »




ROME

MODERN CELEBRATION OF SATURNALIA IN THE TEMPLE OF SATURN AT THE ROMAN FORUM,

A STONE'S THROW FROM VATICAN CITY
« Last Edit: December 25, 2007, 10:22:39 pm by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #13 on: December 22, 2007, 09:51:31 pm »

Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #14 on: December 22, 2007, 09:52:37 pm »

« Last Edit: December 22, 2007, 09:55:04 pm by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Pages: [1] 2   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy