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The Gnomon - Sundial

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Author Topic: The Gnomon - Sundial  (Read 14740 times)
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« Reply #15 on: December 16, 2007, 08:12:53 am »


Imbolic: an ancient Celtic festival held on the 2st of February, celebrating fertility. It is one of the cross- quarter days

inclination: [i, I] the angle between the back of the dial plane and the horizontal for inclining or reclining dials. Equivalently, it is the angle between the zenith and the positive z co-ordinate of the dial. i = 0 implies a horizontal dial. For an inclining dial, 0 < i <  (the latitude of the place). For a reclining dial leaning away from the observer, i < 90; whilst i > 90 implies a proclining dial leaning forward towards the observer. Beware: this convention is not followed by all authors.

inclinometer (or clinometer): an instrument for measuring the inclination or slope of a surface. Two types are common: simple devices with a plumb-line hanging across a protractor, or precision ones where a sensitive spirit level is moved to the horizontal position against an accurate scale. Note: the term inclinometer is also used to describe an instrument - also called a dip circle - for measuring the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field.

index: besides its normal meaning of an alphabetical list, an ~ is a pointer on a scientific instrument, indicating a point on a graduated scale. The index arm of a sextant is the movable arm carrying the index mirror and the fiducial line.

inferior: refers to an event on the celestial sphere below the horizon. Opposite of superior.

inhiraf: the angle which the qibla line makes with the north ray of the meridian at any location.

International Date Line: the line from the N to S poles, approximately following the 180 line of longitude, through which the date alters by one day (positively if travelling from W to E). Variations from the 180 meridian are made to avoid political and geographic boundaries.

Islamic prayer lines: the lines on Islamic dials where the shadow of the nodus falls at the times when Muslims must pray. The times of the three most common lines are determined by a linear relationship to the noon shadow length of a vertical gnomon:

zuhr: noon shadow + 0.25 x gnomon height

asr-awwal: noon shadow + gnomon height

asr-tn: noon shadow + 2 x gnomon height

isogonals: lines of equal magnetic deviation plotted on some navigational charts.
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