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THE SPHINX

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Bianca
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« Reply #30 on: September 22, 2007, 02:39:12 pm »








Phase V of the Sphinx conservation:





                                       Egyptian Antiquities Organization (1955-1987)





Phase V as described here consists of a series of sporadic restorations carried out by the Egyptian Antiquities Organization's restoration department in 1955, 1977,1979, and 1982-1987. There was no over-arching plan of work, nor was the conservation work that was completed recorded or photographed. The workmen were mainly doing work without any supervision by an architect or conservator. As a result, this work did not help for preservation the Sphinx.

In 1955 a temporary restoration work was done on the Sphinx, primarily in the areas that very thin layers of limestone in the area of the chest had started to flake off.

Restorers began to inject the chest with a chemical substance. The injection was done only in the surface layer of the chest. Two months later, this layer began to fall down and we still have this problem.

In September 1979, the architecture department of the Egyptian Antiquities organization (EAO) began restoration on the northern side of the Great Sphinx. This work was carried out by workmen working with only monthly supervision by the architect. The workmen started to add new stones to the north side while simultaneously taking the earlier stones out. Some of the stones taken out were ancient, and others belonged to Baraize's restoration. Unfortunately, the workmen used mortar which consisted of cement and gypsum, a formula well-known even at the time to be harmful to the monuments. When it was discovered that this was the case, the work was suspended.

In October 1981 veneer stones began falling off the north hind paw of the Sphinx.

This alarming event did not go unnoticed by the press. The newspapers called attention to the increasingly dilapidated condition of the Sphinx and demanded a change in the EAO. Hence, many experts from the Faculty of Archaeology and other institutions initiated studies on the Sphinx. Research on the water table and pollution, and analyses of mortar and stone were conducted . However, none of the findings and recommendations forthcoming from these studies were ever applied in practice to the Sphinx.

In 1981-1982, the newly formulated Sphinx committee met to discuss the conservation needs of the Sphinx. These discussions led to their unfortunate decision to remove the Roman stones and apply large stones on the Sphinx. These stones, which remain today, are similar neither to the pharaonic nor the Roman stones. The reasoning underlying the use of such visually incongruent stones was that little mortar was required in this procedure.

The architect of the Egyptian Antiquities Organization directed the restoration program from 1982-1987. The biggest problems in this phase of the work are the following:

1) They did not use the mortar recommended in the scientific report but instead used a very large amount of cement and gypsum. Furthermore, they put the mortar directly on the mother rock.

2) Again, the workmen had no supervision from any member of the Sphinx committee. The architect in charge came personally only rarely to the site.

3)The large stones used in the restoration completely obscured the modeling and the proportions of the Sphinx. This casing was applied on the south paw, north paw, the northern side, the back, the tail, the masonry boxes, the Roman stairs, the Sphinx sanctuary, and the back paw of the northern side. All these places look completely new and strange.

4) Rather than given priority to the weak areas, such as the shoulders and the top of the haunches, this effort focused attention on cosmetic renovations. These latter were in fact done badly. The "restoration" consisted merely of removing stones and mortar and replacement works. They also added buttresses of stone and mortar (again, cement and gypsum) over the mother rock of the Sphinx on the rump, north, and part of the south side.

5) They removed all the ancient stones that were added to the Sphinx in the phase III restoration. These stones were never recorded or saved in storage.

6) The Giza branch of EAO, whose personnel were at the time best equipped to supervise the work, was not permitted to have a role in over-seeing the work.

7) A wall was built on the north side which, among other things, completely obscured the modeling of the Sphinx's shoulder. This was wholly unwarranted archaeologically; it is based purely on imagination rather than evidence.






The results of this type of work on the Sphinx were:

1) The Sphinx body could not tolerate such a huge amount of mortar (cement and gypsum). The mother rock of the Sphinx could not "breathe" and began to push the newly applied stones out. This was especially the case on the back of the northern paw and the area of the tail.

 2) Deterioration and salt started to appear on the new stone. The salt problem appeared even during the work on the back northern paw. To counteract this deterioration they covered this area with mud.

3) The workmen cut the claws that had been carved in the stone by the ancient Egyptians.

All these reasons led to the suspension of work in November 1987.

In February 1988, a chunk of limestone on the southern shoulder of the Sphinx fell off. The weakness of this part had long been known. Indeed it was restored initially by Baraize and it is obvious in all the Sphinx photographs that this area needed attention. Yet, no reparations had been carried out in this area during the 1982-1987 activities.

The media made a case of it and the Sphinx became a political issue as also had happened in the reign of Thutmosis IV in 1400 BC and in 1981 when veneer stones fell off the north hind paw of the Sphinx.
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« Reply #31 on: September 22, 2007, 02:41:21 pm »








Phase VI of the Sphinx conservation





                                                      (1989-present)





Since it was uncovered by Baraize in 1926 the Sphinx has been under siege from many elements. These are:

1) The rising water table.

2) Vibrations emanating from aircraft and vehicular traffic, especially buses, in the immediate vicinity of the area.

3) People living around the Sphinx, in particular the villagers of Nazlet-el-Samman and Kafr-el-Gebel. The population of the former has now reached 200,000.

4) The leaking of waste water from nearby villages which lack sewage containment systems.

5) The modern construction of the Sound and Light show installation and the cutting of the tunnels for cables.

6) Climatic factors, such as rain and fluctuations in humidity and temperature.

7) Modern technology, such as factories near the monument and the resulting pollution.

Cool The practice of utilizing stop-gap and harmful methods of conservation, restoration, particularly those using cement and gypsum on the mother rock of the Sphinx's lion body.

9) The limestone quarry near the Giza plateau, which uses dynamite to pulverize lime for use in sugar factories.

Since 1988 many foreign experts have come to the Sphinx to investigate and offer solutions to these problems. All have agreed that the new casing stones and the cement should be taken off immediately.

In 1989 a Sphinx committee, consisting of appointees from different divisions of the EAO and from Egyptian universities, was established. Under the late DR. Sayed Tawilk, the chairman of the E.A.O. To whom we Owe a great deal of thanks, the support and the efforts of Mr. Farouk Hosni, the Minister of Culture was very important for the success of the project. In addition, the late Sayed Tawilk and the author, among others, appointed a group of specialists who were to work on the site.

The team used the elevations and plans that had been produced in 1979 by the American Research Center in Egypt. Sphinx project and that of the German Institute as guides to begin restoring the contours of the Sphinx as they existed prior to 1982-88 interventions.

The project was divided into three phases. The first, which is currently drawing to a close, has consisted of carrying out many scientific studies as well as doing restorations work in select areas.
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« Reply #32 on: September 22, 2007, 02:42:47 pm »








The areas include the southern paw, the southern side of the Sphinx, and the tail. In this work both the photogrammetric map of the Sphinx project and the old Baraize photographs have been used as a basis directing reconstruction.

The old large stones and cement were all removed and the mother rock was treated. New stones were chosen from a quarry at Helena after analysis had shown it was consistent with the limestone of the mother rock. Rather than use thin facing slabs that would require lots of mortar, we elected to use whole blocks of stones, placed end first against the mother rock and laid in overlapping courses; this system, the norm in brick laying, interlocks the stones and permits ease of replacement. The mortar was made of lime and sand mixed in proportions of 1:3. The mixture was allowed to stand in plastic bags for 10-15 days to allow for maximum congealment. In this first phase also the chest was given a protective course of limestone on the sides matching the construction techniques of the original.

The scientific studies associated with the first phase of our current campaign have yielded many important insights toward the future conservation needs of the Sphinx.

The outcome of studies on the level of the water table carried out by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics is of particular interest: the studies show the water level is now seven meters below the base of the Sphinx. This is down five meters from the situation that prevailed for at least 50 years. The drop in the water table may be a consequence of the new sewage system that the Egyptian government constructed in the last two years in the village of Nazlet el-Samman.
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« Reply #33 on: September 22, 2007, 02:46:51 pm »










The scientific studies associated with the first phase of our current campaign have yielded many important insights toward the future conservation needs of the Sphinx. The outcome of studies on the level of the water table carried out by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics is of particular interest: the studies show the water level is now seven meters below the base of the Sphinx. This is down five meters from the situation that prevailed for at least 50 years. The drop in the water table may be a consequence of the new sewage system that the Egyptian government constructed in the last two years in the village of Nazlet el-Samman.

A major concern about the strength of the head and neck was also alleviated through a diagnostic examination of the Sphinx by a team from UNESCO. This work was done under B. Changneaud and A. Bouineau. One of the results that the head of the Sphinx, is the strongest part.
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« Reply #34 on: September 22, 2007, 02:48:52 pm »








This phase of conservation has secured an improvement in the Sphinx's environment as a result of another study by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, this one of the seismic waves emanating from blasting activities at quarries in the vicinity. These waves were determined to be of potential hazard to the Sphinx. Therefore, based on recommendations from this study, limits were placed on the size of the blasts, and schedules were established to space out the detonations so as to prevent overlapping. Recording stations were set up in the Sphinx complex to monitor compliance with these restrictions.

In May 1990 the Getty Conservation Institute of the United States installed a solar- powered monitoring station on the back of the Great Sphinx designed to measure such potentially destructive environmental factors as wind, precipitation, relative humidity, and condensation. Data collected thus far indicate the strong, sand-bearing northwest wind as the principle source of wind erosion. They also indicate that moisture in the atmosphere, reacting on a daily basis with salts contained in the limestone, contributes at least in part to the surface flaking of the Sphinx.

Samples of rock taken from the Sphinx and surrounding outcrops were analyzed by the Petroleum Research Institute in Cairo, permitting composition analyses
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« Reply #35 on: September 22, 2007, 02:50:04 pm »







Samples of rock taken from the Sphinx and surrounding outcrops were analyzed by the Petroleum Research Institute in Cairo, permitting composition analyses.

Petrographic and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate, among other things, that the uppermost layers of the Sphinx are composed of marly limestone, the heterogeneous nature of which contributes to decomposition. The lower parts, on the other hand, are composed of fossiliferous limestone which, while harder and more compact, raise other conservation concerns. Analysis of the data is on-going and one looks forward to the full publication of the results in the near future.

The center of Archaeological Engineering has submitted to EAO a plan for the next two phases of conservation. These will include recording, sampling, and protecting the Sphinx from the environment. The second phase is scheduled to start September 1, 1992. Areas selected for attention are the chest and northern side of the Sphinx.

Issues include the question of whether to inject the chest with a chemical substance to stabilize it or to cover it with stone to protect it from wind erosion. Both these alternatives must be carefully considered.


http://guardians.net/hawass/sphinx2.htm
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« Reply #36 on: September 22, 2007, 07:14:09 pm »










                                       DIRECTION FOR FUTURE CONSERVATION





The four-day multidisciplinary symposium held in Cairo, February 29-March 3, 1992, under Dr. Farouk E1 Baz as president of the conference and Dr. Gaballah Aly Gaballah as Egyptological advisor, brought together ninety scholars and specialists to review and discuss the results of recent scientific applications in the assessment of conservation needs of the Great Sphinx.

Scientists, historians, geologists, chemists, artists, and environmentalists addressed many of the issues involved in developing a global plan for conserving the Sphinx. There were also useful discussions of the progress in the most recent phase (1989-present) in the long history of conservation of the Sphinx and its future directions.

More importantly, however, was the demonstrated willingness of Egyptian scholars to openly discuss the Sphinx issue, which has long been a source of heated political and scholarly debate in their own country. collaborative receptiveness to criticism and their frank invitation to Collaborative research is perhaps the single most important step towards saving this precious monument. It is a clear admission that the Great Sphinx is a world heritage and not that of Egypt alone. Indeed, a worldwide response is now needed to face the enormous challenge that lays ahead.
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« Reply #37 on: September 22, 2007, 07:16:55 pm »









Phase II of the Modern Sphinx Restoration.





This phase was very important because the Sphinx's north side had the following:

 

1- Large stones had been placed that do not match those of the Old Kingdom or Roman period.

2- Three meters of cement were put on this side.

3- Salt began to appear on the left paw.

4- Stones started to move from north side because of pressures caused by the fact that the cement prevented the limestone from breathing.

5- The proportions of that side were completely lost because of faulty restoration.

We started to mechanically remove the new stones and cement.

Then Mahmoud Mabrouk the sculptor began to do the modeling with large stones similar to the pharaonic period (New Kingdom).

Meanwhile the conservation of the upper part of the body was continued by our restoration.

Documentation of all the work was done by the architects and the archaeologists.


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« Reply #38 on: September 22, 2007, 07:23:10 pm »








Phase III of the Sphinx Restoration:

This phase is connected with the chest of the Sphinx. Discussion during the conference led to following solution:

1- To restore the chest with chemicals that could stop the flaking of the Sphinx chest.

2- To reconstruct the chest with masonry The second solution discussed above can not apply to the Sphinx because we do not know what the chest of the Sphinx looked like. In ancient times, we can not add stones because we should not reconstruct. The Sphinx is a ruin and we should keep it as a ruin.

The other solution also can not be applied to the Sphinx because chemicals would not work well with the natural limestone. We found out that the best solution for the Sphinx's chest was the following: 1- The lower part of the Sphinx was restored with stones.

2- All the middle, upper part and the neck were restored with mortar consist of lime and sand. On December 25, 1997, we took away the scuffling out and announced the final phase of the Sphinx restoration. But it is very important to note that the Sphinx is the oldest patient and we should stay near him all the time.
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« Reply #39 on: September 22, 2007, 07:25:50 pm »






                                                    The Restoration team:





  The Sphinx Restoration project under the supervision of H.E. Farouk Hosni, Minister of Culture.

Dr. Gaballa Ali Gaballa
 
 General Secretary of the Supreme Council of Antiquities & other General Secretaries.
 
 
Dr. Zahi Hawass
 
 Director
 
 
Adam Henein
 
 Sculptor (from 1992 1995)
 
 
Dr. Mahmoud Mabrouk
 
 Sculpture Supervisor and Artist (1989 - 1998)
 
 
Dr. Shawki Nakhla
 
 Scientific Director
 
 

Special thanks to the late Dr. Sayed Tawfik who initiated the project.

Architectual Engineers: - Abdel Hamid Kotb
- Adel Amin Zaki
 
Archaeologists: - Nassau Mohamed Ramadan.
- Emad Fahmy Mohamed.
 
Conservation:  - Moustafa Abdel Kader, head of conservation.
- Mohamed Sayed Mabrouk. Assistant
 
* Technical Supervision: - Said Hassan Mohamed. Overseer of Sculpture.
- Yassien Mohamed Ahmed. Assistant. 



Cost:

80 Thousand Egyptian Pounds (per month)

* Project started in January 1989.

    December 25, 1998.

    the final stage of the restoration.


http://guardians.net/hawass/sphinx2.htm

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sphinx1.htm
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« Reply #40 on: September 23, 2007, 08:55:01 am »










                          T H U T M O S E   I V - T H E   ' D R E A M   S T E L A '





Preceded by:
Amenhotep II Pharaoh of Egypt

18th Dynasty Succeeded by:
Amenhotep III




A granite bust of Thutmose IV
Reign 1401 BC 1391 BC or
1397 BC 1388 BC

Praenomen   
Menkheperure
"Established in forms is Re"

Nomen   
Thutmose
Thoth bore him

Consort(s) Nefertari, Iaret, Mutemwiya

Issue Amenhotep III, Siatum (?), Amenemhat,
Tiaa, Amenemopet, Petepihu, Tentamun
 
Father Amenhotep II

Mother Tiaa

Died 1391 BC or 1388 BC

Burial KV43



Thutmose IV (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis IV and meaning Thoth is Born) was the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His prenomen or royal name was Menkheperure.
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« Reply #41 on: September 23, 2007, 09:00:15 am »








Dates and length of reign


Dating the beginning of the reign of Thutmose IV is difficult to do with certainty because he is several generations removed from the astronomical dates which are usually used to calculate Egyptian chronologies, and the debate over the proper interpretation of these observances has not been settled.

Thutmose's grandfather Thutmose III almost certainly acceded the throne in either 1504 or 1479, based upon two lunar obervances during his reign. After ruling for nearly 54 years, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV's father, took the throne and ruled for at least 26 years, but has been assigned up to 35 years in some chronological reconstructions. The currently preferred reconstruction, after analyzing all this evidence, usually comes to an accession date around 1401 BC or 1400 BC[6] for the beginning of Thutmose IV's reign.

The length of his reign is not as clear as one would wish. He is usually given about nine or ten years of reign. Manetho credits him a reign of 9 Years and 8 Months. However, Manetho's other figures for the 18th dynasty are frequently assigned to the wrong kings or simply incorrect, so monumental evidence is also used to determine his reign length.

Of all of Thutmose IV's dated monuments, three date to his first regnal year, one to his fourth, possibly one to his fifth, one to his sixth, two to his seventh, and one to his eighth.  Two possible other dated objects, one dated to a Year 19 and another year 20, have been suggested as belong to him, but neither have been accepted as dating to his reign.

The reading of the king in these dates are today accepted as referring to the prenomen of Thutmose III--Menkheperre--and not Menkhepe[ru]re Thutmose IV himself. Due to the absence of higher dates for Thutmose IV after his Year 8 Konosso stela, Manetho's figures here are usually accepted. There were once chronological reconstructions which gave him a reign as long as 34-35 years.

 Today, however, most scholars ascribe give him a 10 year reign from 1401 to 1391 BC, within a small margin of error.
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« Reply #42 on: September 23, 2007, 09:02:38 am »







Life



Thutmose IV was born to Amenhotep II and Tiaa but was not actually the crown prince and Amenhotep II's chosen successor to the throne. Some scholars speculate that Thutmose ousted his older brother in order to usurp power and then commissioned the Dream Stele in order to justify his unexpected kingship. Thutmose's most celebrated accomplishment was the restoration of the Sphinx at Giza and subsequent commission of the Dream Stele.

According to Thutmose's account on the Dream Stele, while the young prince was out on a hunting trip, he stopped to rest under the head of the Sphinx, which was buried up to the neck in sand. He soon fell asleep and had a dream in which the Sphinx told him that if he cleared away the sand and restored it he would become the next Pharaoh. After completing the restoration of the Sphinx, he placed a carved stone tablet, now known as the Dream Stele, between the two paws of the Sphinx.The restoration of the Sphinx and the text of the Dream Stele would then be a piece of propaganda on Thutmose's part, meant to bestow legitimacy upon his unexpected kingship. 

Little is known about his brief ten-year rule. He suppressed an uprising in Nubia in his 8th year around 1393 BC and was referred to in a stela as the Conqueror of Syria, but little else has been pieced together about his military exploits. Thutmose IV's rule is significant because he was the New Kingdom pharaoh who established peaceful relations with Mitanni and married a Mitannian princess to seal this new alliance. Thutmose IV's role in initiating contact with Egypt's former rival, Mitanni, is documented by Amarna letter EA 29 composed decades later by Tushratta, a Mittanian king who ruled during the reign of Akhenaten, Thutmose IV's grandson. Tushratta states to Akhenaten that:

When [Menkheperure], the father of Nimmureya (ie. Amenhotep III) wrote to Artatama, my grandfather, he asked for the daughter of my grandfather, the sister of my father. He wrote 5, 6 times, but he did not give her. When he wrote my grandfather 7 times, then only under such pressure, did he give her. (EA 29)


Like most Thutmosids, he built on a large scale. Thutmose IV completed an obelisk first started by Thutmose III, which, at 32 m (105 feet), was the tallest obelisk ever erected in Egypt, at the Temple of Karnak. It was transported to Rome by a later Roman Emperor and today stands at Saint Peter's Square in the Vatican.




Burial



Thutmose IV was buried in the Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV43, but his body was moved to the mummy cache in KV35, where it was discovered by Victor Loret in 1898. An examination of his body shows that he was very ill and had been wasting away for the final months of his life prior to his death. He was succeded by his son, Amenhotep III.
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« Reply #43 on: September 23, 2007, 09:06:16 am »


Set between the front legs
 of the Great Sphinx of Giza,
 the Dream Stela tells the
story of a young prince on
his way to the throne.






The Dream Stela is a rectangular stone with a rounded top, that was set up between the front legs of the Great Sphinx at Giza.

Although the monument puprorts to date to the early years of the reign of Thutmosis IV of the 18th Dynasty, there are errors and irregularities in orthography that are inconsistent with this date and type of monument. It is possible that the text is an attempted restoration of a damaged original that was dated to Thutmosis IV, or that the entire monument is of a later date altogether and was intended as an attempt to enhance the importance of the Great Spinx.

The top part of the stela shows the king, on the left and on the right oriented towards the centre, bringing an offering to the Sphinx. For practical, esthetical and relgious reasons, the Sphinx has about the same size as the king. This meant that the Sphinx, in real life much bigger and higher than a human being, had to be displayed as if it were lying on a podium, decorated with the recessed panelng motif known as serekh.

The text below this offering scene, tells the story of a young prince, the future Thutmosis IV, fell asleep in the shadow of the Great Sphinx after a hunting expedition in the desert.

In his sleep, the god Harmachis, believed to have been represented by the Sphinx, appears before the young prince, and promises to raise him to the throne, in return for the prince freeing his statue from the sands. Unfortunately, the text breaks off soon after the prince woke up, but the fact that Thutmosis IV did indeed rise to the throne means that this story had a happy ending.
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« Reply #44 on: September 23, 2007, 09:12:25 am »









                                                     The offering scenes



 

The scene on the lefthandside:

Identification of the king: The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Lord of the Two Lands, Menkheperure Thutmosis, the appearance of appearances, bestowed with life.

The king's action: Greeting (the god) with a Nemset vase

The Sphinx: Harmakhis. Words spoken: "I give strength to the Lord of the Two Lands, Thutmosis, the appearance of appearances".
 

The scene on the righthand side:

Identification of the king: The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, the lord of the Two Lands, Menkheperure Thutmosis, the appearance of appearances, bestowed with life.

The king's action: Making an offering of incense and a libation

The Sphinx: Harmakhis. Words spoken: "I give strength to the Lord of the Two Lands, Thutmosis, the appearance of appearances".
 

Between the two scenes:

Words spoken: "I make that Menkheperure appears on the throne of Geb, and Thutmosis, the appearance of appearances, in the offixe of Atum".
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