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Author Topic: THE SPHINX  (Read 5441 times)
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« Reply #90 on: October 10, 2007, 08:05:28 am »

[15] See Lehner (1980) and D. J. Hamblin ("A unique approach to unraveling the secrets of the Great Pyramids" [article about the work of M. Lehner], Smithsonian [April 1966), 78-93).

[16] Lehner (1980), 18.

[17] Nineteen refraction profiles, two reflection profiles and a refraction tomography data-set were collected on the Giza Plateau during April 1991. The seismic work performed around the base of the Sphinx consisted of hitting a sledgehammer on a steel plate, thus generating energy waves that entered the rock, traveled into the subsurface, and reflected and refracted off of subsurface features. In the Sphinx enclosure, refraction profiles gave us information on the subsurface weathering of the rock. In addition, we located various voids, cavities and other subsurface features (the subject of a paper currently being prepared by Dobecki and me). For instance, the apparent thinner weathering around stations 150 to 160 feet (forty-five to forty-nine meters) on seismic line S2, taken along the south flank of the Sphinx, may not be real; it is probably due to induced resonance caused by a subsurface void. For a summary, in abstract form, of the April 1991 seismic survey of the Giza Plateau, see T. Dobecki, "How Old is the Sphinx?," Abstracts for the Redating the Sphinx Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (Chicago, Redating the Sphinx), 202.

[18] Gauri (1984).

[19] Hassan (1949).

[20] For popular discussions of the history of the Great Sphinx since Khafre's time, see Baines and Malek, 1980; E. A. Wallis Budge, A Guide to the Egyptian Collections of the British Museum (London, 1909); Edwards, 1985; H. Goedicke, "Sphinx" in Encyclopedia Americana, International Edition 25 (1965), 403-404; Grinsell, 1947; Hassan, 1949; Hawass, 1990: Lehner, 199 1; J. Malek, In the Shadow of the Pyramids: Egypt during the Old Kingdom (Norman, 1986); W. M. Flinders Petrie, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeb (with an 'Update" to the original 1883 edition by Z. Hawass, London, 1990); J. Putnam, Egyptology., An Introduction to the History, Culture and Art of Ancient Egypt (New York, 1990); and references cited in these works.

[21] See M. A. Hoffman, Egypt Before the Pharaohs (New York, 1979), for a review of Predynastic Egypt.

[22] M. Ters ("Variations in Holocene Sea Level on the French Atlantic Coast and Their Climatic Significance," in M. R. Rampine, J. E. Sanders, W. S. Newman and L. K. Konigsson, eds., Climate: History, Periodicity, and Predictability [NewYork, 1987], 204-237) notes that "in general, the mean level of the oceans has risen 60 m [200 feet) during the past 10,000 yr" [i.e., since 8000 B.C.]).

[23] See D. J. Hamblin, The First Cities (New York, 1973), for a popular discussion of Catal Hüyük.
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