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Massive 1,100+ year old Maya site discovered in Georgia's mountains

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Bianca Markos
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« on: December 23, 2011, 04:08:42 pm »

Massive 1,100+ year old Maya site discovered in Georgia's mountains

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Richard Thornton
, Architecture & Design Examiner
December 21, 2011

Archaeological zone 9UN367 at Track Rock Gap, near Georgia’s highest mountain, Brasstown Bald, is a half mile (800 m) square and rises 700 feet (213 m) in elevation up a steep mountainside.  Visible are at least 154 stone masonry walls for agricultural terraces, plus evidence of a sophisticated irrigation system and ruins of several other stone structures. Much more may be hidden underground.  It is possibly the site of the fabled city of Yupaha, which Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto failed to find in 1540, and certainly one of the most important archaeological discoveries in recent times.

 BLAIRSVILLE, GA (December 21, 2011) -- Around the year 800 AD the flourishing Maya civilization of Central America suddenly began a rapid collapse. A series of catastrophic volcanic eruptions were followed by two long periods of extreme drought conditions and unending wars between city states.

Cities and agricultural villages in the fertile, abundantly watered, Maya Highlands were the first to be abandoned.  Here, for 16 centuries, Itza Maya farmers produced an abundance of food on mountainside terraces.  Their agricultural surpluses made possible the rise of great cities in the Maya Lowlands and Yucatan Peninsula. When the combination of volcanic eruptions, wars and drought erased the abundance of food, famines struck the densely populated Maya Lowlands. Within a century, most of the cities were abandoned.   However, some of the cities in the far north were taken over by the Itza Maya and thrived for two more centuries. 

In 1839, English architect, Frederick Catherwood, and writer, John Stephens “rediscovered’ the Maya civilization on a two year long journey through southern Mexico.  When their book on the journey was published in 1841, readers in Europe and North America were astounded that the indigenous peoples of the Americas could produce such an advanced culture.  Architects in both continents immediately recognized the strong similarity in the architectural forms and town plans between southern Mexico and the Southeastern United States. Most agronomists were convinced that corn, beans and tobacco came to the natives of the United States and Canada from Mexico.   

In the decades since Catherwood’s and Stephens’ book, archaeologists have not identified any ruins in the United States which they considered to be built by a people, who had originated in Mexico.  This was primarily due to their unfamiliarity with the descendants of the Southeastern mound-builders . . . tribes such as the Creeks, Alabamas, Natchez, Chitimachas and Choctaws.  In particular, the languages of the Creek Indians contain many Mesoamerican words.

Historians, architects and archaeologists have speculated for 170 years what happened to the Maya people.  Within a few decades, the population of the region declined by about 15 million. Archaeologists could not find any region of Mexico or Central America that evidenced a significant immigration of Mayas during this period, except in Tamaulipas, which is a Mexican state that borders Texas on the Gulf of Mexico. However, Maya influence there, seemed to be limited to a few coastal trading centers.  Where did the Maya refugees go?  By the early 21st century, archaeologists had concluded that they didn’t go anywhere.  They had died en masse. 
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Bianca Markos
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« Reply #1 on: December 23, 2011, 04:11:58 pm »

The evidence was always there

In 1715 a Jewish lass named Liube, inscribed her name and the date on a boulder in Track Rock Gap. When Europeans first settled the Georgia Mountains in the early 1800s, they observed hundreds of fieldstone ruins, generally located either on mountaintops or the sides of mountains.  These ruins consisted of fort-like circular structures, walls, Indian mounds veneered in stone, walls, terrace retaining walls or just piles of stones.   Frontiersmen generally attributed these structures to the Indians, but the Cherokees, who briefly lived in the region in the late 1700s and early 1800s, at that time denied being their builders. 

By the mid-20th century many Georgians held little reverence for Native American structures. Dozens of Indian mounds and stone masonry structures were scooped up by highway contractors to use in the construction of highways being funded by the Roosevelt Administration.  Providing jobs and cheap construction materials seemed more important in the Depression than preserving the past. 

During the late 20th century, the Georgia state government took an active role in preserving some of the stone ruins.  Archaeologists surveyed a few sites.  One of the better known ruins became Fort Mountain State Park. For the most part, however, the stone ruins remained outside the public consciousness.

In 1999 archaeologist Mark Williams of the University of Georgia and Director of the LAMAR Institute, led an archaeological survey of the Kenimer Mound, which is on the southeast side of Brasstown Bald in the Nacoochee Valley. Residents in the nearby village of Sautee generally assume that the massive five-sided pyramidal mound is a large wooded hill.   Williams found that the mound had been partially sculpted out of an existing hill then sculpted into a final form with clay.  He estimated the construction date to be no later than 900 AD.  Williams was unable to determine who built the mound.

Williams is a highly respected specialist in Southeastern archaeology so there was a Maya connection that he did not know about.  The earliest maps show the name Itsate, for both a native village at Sautee and another five miles away at the location of the popular resort of Helen, GA. Itsate is what the Itza Mayas called themselves. Also, among all indigenous peoples of the Americas, only the Itza Mayas and the ancestors of the Creek Indians in Georgia built five-side earthen pyramids as their principal mounds. It was commonplace for the Itza Maya to sculpt a hill into a pentagonal mound. There are dozens of such structures in Central America.

The name of Brasstown Bald Mountain is itself, strong evidence of a Maya presence.  A Cherokee village near the mountain was named Itsa-ye, when Protestant missionaries arrived in the 1820s.  The missionaries mistranslated “Itsaye” to mean “brass.”  They added “town” and soon the village was known as Brasstown.  Itsa-ye, when translated into English, means “Place of the Itza (Maya).” 

Into this scenario stepped retired engineer, Cary Waldrup, who lives near Track Rock Gap. In 2000 he persuaded the United States Forest Service to hire a professional archaeologist from South Africa, Johannes Loubser, to study the famous Track Rock petroglyphs, and also prepare a map of the stone walls across the creek in site 9UN367. Waldrup and his neighbors felt that the stone structure site deserved more professional attention.  They collected contributions from interested citizens in Union County, GA to fund an archaeological survey by Loubser’s firm, Stratum Unlimited, LLC.

Loubser’s work was severely restricted by his available budget, but his discoveries “opened up the door” for future archaeological investigations.  His firm dug two test pits under stone structures to obtain soil samples.  In conjunction with the highly respected archaeological firm of New South Associates in Stone Mountain, GA he obtained radiocarbon dates for the oldest layer of fill soil in a test pit, going back around 1000 AD.  He also found pottery shards from many periods of history. Loubser estimated that some of the shards were made around 760 AD – 850 AD.  This is exactly when Maya population began to plummet. 
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Bianca Markos
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« Reply #2 on: December 23, 2011, 04:12:50 pm »

Loubser described the 9UN367 archaeological site as being unique in the United States, and stated that examples of such sites are only found elsewhere in the Maya Highlands and South America.  However, he did not present an explanation for who built the stone walls. He was in a conundrum. The Eastern Band of Cherokees had labeled Track Rock Gap as a “Cherokee Heritage Sacred Site.”  He had been led to believe that the area had occupied by the Cherokee Indians for many centuries, yet he also knew that the Cherokees never built large scale public works. In fact, the Cherokees established a handful of hamlets in the extreme northeastern tip of Georgia during the 1700s, but the western side of Brasstown Bald Mountain, where Track Rock is located, was not official Cherokee territory until 1793. 

Shared research between scholars

The People of One Fire is an alliance of Native American scholars (and their archaeologist friends) that was formed in 2006 after the Georgia Department of Transportation refused to retract a press release which blatantly contradicted several studies by nationally respected archaeologists. Much of its research has focused on tracing the movement of people, ideas and cultivated plants from Mesoamerica and Caribbean Basin to North America.  By instantly sharing research rather than hoarding information, very rapid advances have been made in the past five years concerning the history of the indigenous people of North America.

The archaeological site would have been particularly attractive to Mayas because it contains an apparently dormant volcano fumarole that reaches down into the bowels of the earth. People of One Fire researchers have been aware since 2010 that when the English arrived in the Southeast, there were numerous Native American towns named Itsate in Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina and western North Carolina. They were also aware that both the Itza Mayas of Central America and the Hitchiti Creeks of the Southeast actually called themselves Itsate . . . and pronounced the word the same way.  The Itsate Creeks used many Maya and Totonac words. Their architecture was identical to that of Maya commoners. The pottery at Ocmulgee National Monument (c 900 AD) in central Georgia is virtually identical to the Maya Plain Red pottery made by Maya Commoners.  However, for archaeologists to be convinced that some Mayas immigrated to the Southeast, an archaeological site was needed that clearly was typical of Mesoamerica, but not of the United States.

In July of 2011, Waldrup furnished a copy of the 2000 Stratum Unlimited, LLC archaeological report to People of One Fire members.  Those with experiences at Maya town sites instantly recognized that the Track Rock stone structures were identical in form to numerous agricultural terrace sites in Chiapas, Guatemala, Belize and Honduras. Johannes Loubser’s radiocarbon dates exactly matched the diaspora from the Maya lands and the sudden appearance of large towns with Mesoamerican characteristics in Georgia, Alabama and southeastern Tennessee.  Track Rock Gap was the “missing link” that archaeologists and architects had been seeking since 1841. 

Archaeologist have been looking for vestiges of “high” Maya civilization in the United States, when all along it was the commoners “who got the heck out of Dodge City” when wars, famines, droughts and almost non-stop volcanic eruptions became unbearable.  The Itza Maya middle class and commoners became the elite of such towns as Waka (Ocmulgee National Monument) and Etalwa (Etowah Mounds)  Just as happened in England after the Norman Invasion, the separate cultures of the commoners and nobility of the indigenous Southeast eventually blended into hybrid cultures that became our current Native American tribes. 

A personal note from the author:

I am astounded by the interest in this article.  Normally, I am followed by a modest cadre of progressive archaeologists and Native Americans. For unknown reasons, I was not able to comment on my article, but I would like to respond to some of the comments, since it is obvious that several readers are reading the comments rather than the article. The situation is getting out of hand, with numerous web sites on the internet debating comments to this article as if they were the article.  Being a writer for the Examiner, I must stay in the realm of journalism and not get into pre-adolescent cat fights and personal attacks that have become commonplace in the world of blogs and social networking.

Let it suffice to say that since the simultaneous passing of several absolute giants of Southeastern archaeology in 1979, the  profession has increasing stagnated, become cult-like and lost its desire to gain new knowledge.  I personally heard one of the archaeologists state at a Society of Georgia Archaeology meeting, "We have learned all there is to know about the Southeastern Indians.  It is time to move on to other things."  Yes, it IS time for them move out of the way.

Please note that I specifically stated that the archaeologists mentioned in this article DID NOT recognize the Maya connection in the sites they surveyed.  Neither was trained in Mesoamerican architecture like I am, and shouldn't be expected to know this.

The first "real" archaeologist to realize a direct connection between Mexico and the Southeast was Dr. Roman Piña-Chan, Director of the Museo Nacional de Antropologia de Mexico . . . and also one of the greatest archaeologists, who ever lived.  I was just a dumb Gringo student and he was the coordinator of my fellowship.  I sat in his office many a time in complete awe, as he pointed out such things as the copper crown worn by the "Great Suns" in Southeastern towns being identical to the crown worn by the Maya Sun God.  Among  his other observations was that the turbans worn by the famous marble statues found at Etowah Mounds, were exactly like the "badges" worn by Maya slaves.  In fact, the first time he noticed the connection was with this comment, "Ricardo, why did your Indios make marble statues of slaves?"   It is a shame that more "real" American archaeologists didn't stop by his office when he was alive.

There is absolutely no doubt whatsoever of a Maya presence in Georgia.  He is typing on this computer right now.  Like most Georgia and South Carolina Creeks, I carry a trace of Maya DNA.  I think you will find that some branches of the Seminoles and Cherokees also carry Maya DNA.  There are many Maya and Totonac words in the Creek languages.  The Creek house (chiki) was identical to the Totonac house (also called chiki.)

The people whom Georgia archaeologists call Hitchiti Creeks, called themselves, Itsate . . . pronounced It-zja-tee.  The people that are generally called today Itza Maya, formerly called themselves Itsate . . .  pronounced It-zja-tee.  On my desk are site plans produced by archeological teams from several major universities that describe pentagonal earthen mounds built by the Itza Mayas in Chiapas and Belize, which are identical to those in Georgia, such as the Kenimer Mound. In short,  if it builds the same buildings as the Itza Maya,  says the same words as the Itza Maya, and has the same DNA as the Itza Maya . . . by golly, it must be an Itza Maya.

Getting There

The Track Rock Gap Archaeological Zone and Petroglyphs are owned by the citizens of the United States and protected by the United States Forestry Service.  The archaeological zone is open to the public year-round and may be accessed by a network of trails requiring rigorous hiking.  Both the Creek and Cherokee Indians consider this place to be a very sacred, so please be respectful.  By Federal law, the ruins and petroglyphs may not be disturbed in any way.

Winter is the best time to view the stone structures, but the region can get significant snow storms. Check the weather report before leaving home.  To obtain information on the hiking trails contact either the Chattahoochee Forest Visitors Center in Blairsville, GA at 706-745-6928 or the main office of the Chattahoochee National Forest in Gainesville, GA at 770-297-3000.  Information on accommodations near Track Rock Gap can be obtained from the Blairsville Area Chamber of Commerce at 877-745-5789.  The region is a major tourist destination, so there are plenty of restaurants, motels and bed & breakfast homes available.

If you have questions about Native American history, please contact Richard at .  These questions will be answered in his other Native American History Examiner column.

Richard Thornton has written a book on the Archaeological Site 9UN367 and the evidence of the immigration of Mesoamerican refugees to North America.  It will be available from the publisher in early January 2012, and is entitled, “Itsapa . . . the Itza Mayas in North America.” The book includes over 250 full color, virtual reality images and photographs, including pictures of identical Maya agricultural terrace sites in Chiapas, Guatemala, Campeche and Belize.  Indiana film maker, John Haskell is also producing a documentary film on the Maya diaspora.

The previously unknown story is fascinating.  For example, the famous “eye on hand” motif found on Native American art throughout the Southeast and Midwest is the symbol of the Maya’s supreme deity, Hunab-ku.  For information on reserving or ordering Thornton’s book, go to
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Bianca Markos
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« Reply #3 on: December 23, 2011, 04:13:32 pm »

This 3D virtual reality image was made from the Johannes Loubser site plan. There may be many other hidden structures in the ancient site. Credit: VR Image by Richard Thornton
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Avenging Angel
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« Reply #4 on: December 26, 2011, 01:25:05 am »

Has an 1100 year old Mayan site been discovered in the Georgia mountains?

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Gary Daniels
, Atlanta Road Trip Travel Examiner
December 23, 2011 - Like this? Subscribe to get instant updates.


(Atlanta, GA) On December 21, 2011, architect and researcher Richard Thorton published an explosive article which suggested an archaeological site on the side of Brasstown Bald, Georgia's highest peak located 100 miles north of Atlanta, was an ancient Mayan site. The article drew an enormous amount of attention from the public as well as a certain amount of derision from academics who derided the article as lunacy or simply dismissed it outright.

Could there really be an ancient Mayan village located in the north Georgia mountains? Having done my own research into this topic over the course of several years, I independently came to the same conclusion as Mr. Thorton thus was quite interested to see another researcher's take on the evidence. So let's cut to the chase and simply look at the evidence to see if it's possible the Maya reached north Georgia and constructed a village.

The Credentials

Mr. Thorton's evidence was based on his comparison of architectural and town planning features of the Georgia site and their similarity to Mayan sites in southern Mexico and Guatemala. I contacted Mr. Thorton to find out what his credentials were to make such comparisons and he informed me that he earned two masters degrees in Architecture and City Planning from Georgia Tech. He also taught a class on Mesoamerican Architecture at Georgia Tech as well as was awarded a fellowship to study Mesoamerican Architecture in Mexico under famed Mexican archaeologist Roman Pina-Chan of the prestigous Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. Thus clearly Mr. Thorton has the credentials and education to do comparative studies between architectural and town planning details of sites in Georgia and Mexico.

The Evidence

What did Mr. Thorton find in his research? He noted that the terraces on the side of Brasstown Bald were unique in the southeastern United States yet were identical in form to mountainside terraces constructed by the Maya in southern Mexico and Guatemala.

Mr. Thorton also noted that on the opposite side of Brasstown Bald was an archaeological site known as the Kenimer Mound. He noted that archaeological studies of the site revealed that it was a natural hill that was carved into a pentagonal pyramid form. The archaeologist who studied the site stated it was quite unique and unlike anything else in the southeast. Mr. Thorton noted that similar pentagonal mounds have also been found at Mayan sites in southern Mexico. (Mr. Thorton sent me a copy of a site plan from a Maya site in Mexico that did, indeed, include two pentagonal mounds.)

Mr. Thorton also noted that when looking at old colonial maps of the region,  several Native American towns were located nearby called Itsate. In the Hitchiti language, Itsate translates as "Itsa People." It was at this point that Mr. Thorton concluded that the Itza Maya of southern Mexico and Guatemala were the most likely builders of the stone terraces on the side of Brasstown Bald and the pentagonal Kenimer Mound on the opposite side of the same mountain.

Finally, Mr. Thorton noted that several words of Mayan origin appear in the Hitchiti language which is quite an enigma. Combined with all the preceding evidence Thorton concluded that this was more evidence that Mayans, likely the Itza Maya, were in north Georgia and responsible for the stone terraces and pentagonal mound.

The Controversy

Mr. Thorton's argument seems straight-forward but it set off a firestorm of controversy among academic archaeologists. They dismissed his observations outright in quite colorful language. Why Thorton's observations would evoke such a response is interesting in its own right and says much about the inner-workings of Academia. If Mr. Thorton's observations turn out to be true, it would overturn fifty years worth of denials by mainstream academics that there was any contact or connection between Native American tribes in the Southeastern U.S. and Mexico. People who have spent their entire careers argueing against such connections are not going to simply sit quietly while all their life's work gets overturned.

More Research Which Supports A Maya Presence in Georgia

There was nothing surprising about Thorton's research. My own research over the past several years has arrived at the same conclusion independently of Mr. Thorton. For instance, a site in Florida called Fort Center near Lake Okeechobee offers the earliest evidence of corn agriculture in the eastern United States. The question naturally arises as to how corn, a Mexican plant, could show up in Florida before it showed up elsewhere in the southeast. The logical conclusion is that it was brought by people who arrived by boat.

I next looked for a migration legend to see if any Native American tribe was associated with this area and discovered that the Hitchiti migration legend placed them in the Lake Okeechobee area after having arrived on the Florida coast from a "place of reeds." In the Mayan language, "place of reeds" is a metaphor for a large city. Thus, this legend suggests the Hitchiti were Mayan who left a major city in Mexico before arriving on the coast of Florida and settling near Lake Okeechobee. The legend then states they traveled north and settled permanently. The Hitchiti were located in Georgia at the time of European contact which is consistent with the legend.

I now decided to focus on the Hitchiti and see if I could find any linquistic similarities between the Hitchiti and Mayan languages. I only knew one Mayan phrase off the top of my head: Chichen Itza, the great Mayan city in the Yucatan. I knew that chichen meant "mouth of the well" in Mayan with chi meaning "mouth" and chen meaning "well." I consulted a Hitchiti-English dictionary and to my amazement discovered that chi also meant "mouth" in Hitchiti and chahni meant "well" thus chichahni meant "mouth of the well" in Hitchiti. I have no idea what the odds are of finding a correlation on the first try but I was now even more intrigued.

At this point I decided to find out more about the Maya and who would be capable of an ocean voyage to reach Florida. I quickly found the research of Douglas Peck on the Chontal Maya and their seafaring accomplishments.The Chontal Maya were great sailors and navigators who controlled all the coastal trade routes from Mexico down to Central America. They also made voyages into the Caribbean. Thus they were the most likely candidates to have sailed to Florida bringing corn along with them.

I also read J. Eric Thompson's book Maya History and Religion and discovered the Chontal Maya called themselves the Putun or Poton and called their province Acala. Interestingly, there is a city called Ocala in Florida. It is named after a Native American province recorded in the journals of the first Spanish  conquistadors to pass through the area in the early 1500s. While reading the Spanish journals I was astonished to read the name of the first Native American tribe they met in the vicinity of Ocala: the Potani. Thus we have a province called Ocala and a people called Potani in Florida and a Poton people living in a province called Acala in Mexico.

By this point I was convinced that the Poton Maya (Chontal Maya) had definitely reached Florida but what about Georgia? While researching the first French colony in the New World at Fort Caroline in modern-day Jacksonville, Florida I read in the French journals that they travelled to the Apalachian Mountains and encountered a tribe mining gold. (America's first gold rush took place in these same mountains thus we know there was once significant gold in the area.) This was odd since archaeologists have never found many gold artifacts in Native American graves in the region. So who was this tribe and what were they doing with the gold?

Once again I was surpised to learn that the name of this tribe as recorded by the French explorers was Potanou. Were the Poton Maya mining gold in the Apalachian mountains and shipping it back to Mexico? Was this the reason so few gold artifacts were discovered in eastern North America?

We know the Maya were doing something similar in the American southwest at Chaco Canyon. Archaeologists have found southwestern turquois in mosaics at Chichen Itza and Mayan chocolate residue in drinking cups at Chaco Canyon. This is an overland distance of over 2,000 miles. By comparison, Florida is an overwater distance of only 450 miles. In addition, archaeologists have found Mayan jade at sites in the eastern Caribbean on the island of Antigua which is an overwater distance of 1700 miles. (See Map) Clearly, reaching Florida would have been quite easy for the Putun Maya. In fact, the Gulf Loop Current flows north past the Yucatan and goes directly to Florida thus even without advanced sailing technology one could simply float on the currents and arrive in Florida.


Thus I was not surprised that Mr. Thorton discovered a site in the Georgia mountains that appeared to be of Mayan origin. My own research has led me to believe the Maya had a presence of some sort in the southeastern U.S. What was surprising is that he discovered several placenames called Itsate near those sites which translates as "Itsa people" in the Hitchiti language spoken in the area. This reminded me of the great Mayan scholar J. Eric Thompson's belief that the Putun Maya (Chontal Maya) and Itza Maya were either related or the same people.

Which brings about the question: was the site in the Georgia mountains similar in function to Chaco Canyon which appears to be a place where high value trade items were collected and shipped to Chichen Itza for use by the  city's elites?

There is much more evidence of this Mesoamerican connection which I will cover in future articles. Until then you can find me on facebook or read more of my research at the following links:

Fort Center Mounds

Fort Mountain

Kolomoki Mounds

Ocmulgee Mounds

Etowah Mounds
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Avenging Angel
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« Reply #5 on: December 26, 2011, 01:28:35 am »

Were the Maya mining gold in Georgia? This artwork was created by the French artist Le Moyne who accompanied the French expeditions into the Georgia mountains where they met with a tribe called the Potanou who mined gold in the region. Credit:
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Avenging Angel
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« Reply #6 on: December 26, 2011, 01:33:49 am »

Was a village in the Georgia mountains inhabited by the Maya who used it to collect and ship gold back to Chichen Itza? Credit: Wikipedia
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