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the Star Wars Saga

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Darth Maul
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« Reply #30 on: July 22, 2007, 04:53:55 pm »



Directed by George Lucas
Produced by Rick McCallum
 
Written by George Lucas
Starring Ewan McGregor
Natalie Portman
Hayden Christensen
Ian McDiarmid
Samuel L. Jackson
Music by John Williams
Cinematography David Tattersall
Editing by Roger Barton
Ben Burtt
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) May 19, 2005 (USA)
Running time 146 min.
Country United States
Language English
Budget $113,000,000
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« Reply #31 on: July 22, 2007, 04:54:43 pm »

The film is set three years after the onset of the Clone Wars; the noble Jedi Knights are spread out across the galaxy leading a massive clone army in the war against the Separatists. After the kidnapping of Chancellor Palpatine, Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi is dispatched to eliminate the evil General Grievous, while Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker's growing friendship with the Chancellor becomes frowned upon by the Jedi order, and dangerous to the Jedi Knight himself. When the sinister Sith Lord, Darth Sidious, unveils a plot to take over the galaxy, the fate of Anakin, the Jedi order, and the entire galaxy is at stake.

The film was released on May 19, 2005, and received generally positive reviews from critics, especially in contrast to the previous two prequels. It broke several box office records in its opening week, and went on to earn over US$850 million worldwide, making it the highest grossing film of 2005 in the U.S., the second highest grossing film of 2005 worldwide.

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« Reply #32 on: July 22, 2007, 04:56:10 pm »



The Opening Scene Begins With The Battle of Coruscant.
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« Reply #33 on: July 22, 2007, 04:56:52 pm »

The opening crawl reveals that the galaxy is in the midst of the war. Chancellor Palpatine has been kidnapped by the Separatists' second-in-command, General Grievous. Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker and Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi lead a mission to rescue him. After killing Count Dooku and freeing the Chancellor, the Jedi attempt to escape, but are captured by General Grievous. Anakin and Obi-Wan manage to break free, but Grievous escapes and traps the Jedi and the Chancellor inside the severely damaged cruiser. Anakin is forced to crash-land the ship on one of Coruscant's landing tracks.

Upon his return, Anakin is reunited with his wife, Padmé Amidala, who tells him that she is pregnant. Despite Padmé's worries over their secret marriage, Anakin is overjoyed at this news, and the couple makes plans to raise their child. However, Anakin is troubled by visions of Padmé dying in childbirth, visions similar to those he had of his mother just before she died. Later, Obi-Wan privately tells Anakin that the Council wants him to spy on the Chancellor because they believe him to be corrupt, an order Anakin resents since the Chancellor has become a mentor to him. As the Chancellor's bodyguard, Anakin develops a close friendship with Palpatine, who subtly manipulates Anakin in their discussions, making him distrust the Jedi. Palpatine claims to know of an ability to prevent death.

Obi-Wan is sent to Utapau, where he engages and kills General Grievous. Meanwhile, back on Coruscant, Palpatine reveals himself to Anakin as the Sith Lord Darth Sidious, who has been controlling the Republic and the Separatist movement. Anakin leaves to expose him to the Jedi Council. Mace Windu arrives at the Chancellor's office shortly thereafter and eventually subdues Palpatine through a lightsaber duel. Just as Anakin arrives, Windu is about to slay the Chancellor. Anakin quickly disarms Windu, believing the Chancellor holds the only way to save his wife. Windu is consumed by Sidious' torrents of force lightning, forcing him out a window and to his death. Darth Sidious takes Anakin as his Sith apprentice and gives him the name Darth Vader. He then orders Vader to kill all Jedi within the Jedi Temple, then to go to the Mustafar system and eliminate the Separatist leaders.

Darth Sidious orders clone troopers across the galaxy to turn against their Jedi Generals by enacting a pre-programmed directive, Order 66. Numerous Jedi across the galaxy are seen being exterminated, although both Yoda and Obi-Wan survive. Darth Vader slaughters all the children in the Jedi Temple. Afterwards, he goes to Padmé and tells her the Jedi have attempted to take over the Republic and leaves for Mustafar, where he slaughters the Separatist leaders. Senator Bail Organa rescues Obi-Wan and Yoda, and brings them to the Jedi Temple before heading to the Senate building. Palpatine informs the Senate of a Jedi plot to overthrow the Republic. As a result, he announces that the Republic will be reorganized into the Galactic Empire. In the Jedi Temple, Obi-Wan and Yoda stand in shock over the bodies of the younglings and reconfigure a signal to warn all Jedi to keep away. Obi-Wan looks into the security recordings and, to his horror, sees a hologram of Vader carrying out the orders of Darth Sidious and kneeling to him. Though he initially refuses, Obi-Wan eventually agrees to find and kill Vader. Obi-Wan then meets with Padmé, who refuses to believe his claims about Anakin's fall to the dark side. When she departs for Mustafar, Obi-Wan secretly stows away onboard.

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« Reply #34 on: July 22, 2007, 04:57:37 pm »

When the couple is reunited, Padmé pleads with Vader to leave public life with her, but he refuses, believing that he can overthrow Palpatine so that he and Padmé can rule the galaxy together. Vader sees Obi-Wan emerge from Padmé's ship, and suspects her of betraying him. Enraged, he uses the Force to choke Padmé into unconsciousness. Obi-Wan and Vader break into a vicious lightsaber duel. The duel brings them out of the facility to unprotected areas of the volcano planet. Obi-Wan eventually gains the advantage of higher ground, and when Vader attempts to attack again, Obi-Wan slices off both of his legs and his left arm in two swift cuts. Vader tumbles down the embankment and rolls to a stop at the edge of the lava. He catches on fire, sustaining near-fatal third-degree burns and severe lung damage. Obi-Wan leaves Mustafar with the hurt Padmé and Anakin's lightsaber. Darth Sidious arrives on Mustafar a short time later and rescues Vader from the brink of death.

Padmé is given medical assistance, and although she is physically intact, her will to live is gone. She delivers twins, a boy and a girl and gives them the names "Luke" and "Leia". Just as Padme tells Obi-Wan that there is still good in Anakin, she dies. On Coruscant, Vader's missing limbs and damaged body parts are replaced by cybernetic prostheses and implants. Vader is put into a full suit of black armor and is sealed in a respirator mask, which will allow him to survive his injuries. When Vader asks Sidious about Padmé's condition, he tells Vader that, in his anger, Vader himself killed Padmé. Vader unleashes a furious scream of mournful rage and destroys droids and equipment throughout the room with the Force while Sidious looks on with an evil grin. Aboard the Tantive IV, Obi-Wan, Yoda, and Bail Organa agree to keep the children hidden and separated. Obi-Wan and Yoda will watch and wait until the time is ready for the Skywalker children to do their part in the battle against the Sith. Leia is taken to Alderaan to live with the Queen and Bail Organa, and Luke is transferred to Tatooine to live with Owen and Beru. The film concludes with Owen and Beru holding Luke while staring out over the desert at Tatooine's twin suns.

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« Reply #35 on: July 22, 2007, 04:58:34 pm »



Obi-Wan Kenobi and Darth Vader fight on Mustafar.
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« Reply #36 on: July 22, 2007, 04:59:54 pm »

Production

In 1973, George Lucas claimed to have written the Star Wars saga's fundamental story in the form of a basic plot outline. He would later profess that at the time of the saga's conception, he had not fully realized the details—only major plot points throughout the series.[1] He transformed his notes concerning Episode III into a screenplay in 2003 and 2004, in addition to allowing playwright Tom Stoppard to ghost-rewrite it and polish its dialogue.[2] During production, a large number of fans speculated online about the film's subtitle; rumored titles included Rise of the Empire, The Creeping Fear (which was also named as the film's title on the official website on April Fool's 2004), and Birth of the Empire.[3] Eventually, Revenge of the Sith also became a "guessed title" that George Lucas would later announce to be true.[4]

After the earliest draft of the screenplay was submitted, the art department began designing the various ways that each element could appear on screen. For the Kashyyyk environment, the art department turned to The Star Wars Holiday Special for inspiration.[5] Over a period of months, Lucas would approve hundreds of designs that would eventually appear in the film. He would later rewrite entire scenes and action sequences to correspond to certain designs he had chosen.[6] The designs were then shipped to "pre-visualization" to create moving CGI versions known as "animatics". Ben Burtt would edit these scenes with Lucas in order to previsualize what the film would look like before the scenes were even filmed.[6] The pre-visualization footage featured a basic raw CGI environment with equally unprocessed CGI characters performing a scene (typically an action sequence). Steven Spielberg was also allowed to assist both the art and pre-visualization department's designs for several action sequences in Revenge of the Sith.[6] Later, the pre-visualization and art department designs were sent to the production department to begin "bringing the film out of the concept phase"[6] by building the various sets, props and costumes. To determine the required sets, Lucas analyzed each scene with the staff to see which moments the actors would come in most contact with the set, warranting the set to be constructed.

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« Reply #37 on: July 22, 2007, 05:00:56 pm »



Ewan McGregor standing on an almost completely green screen set. This type of set was used frequently during the production of Revenge of the Sith.
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« Reply #38 on: July 22, 2007, 05:01:36 pm »

During this time, actors Hayden Christensen and Ewan McGregor rehearsed extensively with stunt coordinator Nick Gillard to memorize and perform their climactic lightsaber duel together. In addition to performing the scenes as actors, they rehearsed each fight scene together for months on end. Like the previous two prequel films, all lightsaber battles featuring Obi-Wan and Anakin were performed by the actors themselves without the use of stunt doubles.[7] As a result of months of practice, the speed at which Anakin and Obi-Wan engage in their duel is the speed at which it was filmed, and was not digitally accelerated. However, there are instances where single frames were removed to increase the velocity of particular strikes. An example of this occurs as Obi-Wan strikes down on Anakin after applying an armlock in the first half of the duel.[1]

Although the first scene filmed was the final scene to appear in the film (shot during the filming of Attack of the Clones in 2000),[8] principal photography on the film occurred from June 30 to September 17, 2003. The film was shot entirely on sound stages at Fox Studios Australia in Sydney, although practical environments were shot as background footage later to be composited into the film. These included the limestone mountains depicting Kashyyyk, which were filmed in Phuket, Thailand (they were later damaged by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami). The production company was also fortunate enough to be shooting at the same time that Mount Etna erupted in Italy. Camera crews were sent to the location to shoot several angles of the volcano that were later spliced into the background of the animatics and the final film version of the Mustafar planet.[6]

Revenge of the Sith eventually became the second Star Wars film in which Anakin Skywalker and the suited Darth Vader were played by the same actor in the same film. As Hayden Christensen recounted, it was originally intended to simply have a "tall guy" in the Darth Vader costume. But after "begging and pleading" with George Lucas, the Vader costume used in the film was created specifically to fit Christensen. The new costume featured shoe lifts and a muscle suit.[9] It also required Christensen (who is 6 ft 1 in or 1.85 metres, while David Prowse is 6 ft 7 in or 2 meters) to look through the mouthpiece of the helmet.[10]

While shooting key scenes, Lucas would often use an "A camera" and "B camera," or the "V technique," a process that involves shooting with two or more cameras at the same time in order to gain several angles of the same performance.[6] Using the HD technology developed for the film, the filmmakers were able to send footage to the editors the same day it was shot, a process that would require a full 24 hours had it been shot on film.[6] Footage featuring Mustafar was given to editor Roger Barton, who was on location in Sydney cutting the climactic duel. All other footage was forwarded to lead editor Ben Burtt at Skywalker Ranch in California.

The post-production department began work during filming and continued until weeks before the film was released in 2005. Special effects were created using almost all formats, including model work, CGI and practical effects. The same department later composited all such work into the filmed scenes—both processes taking nearly two years to complete. Sith holds the world record for most special effects used in a single film: 2,151 shots.

As the DVD featurette Within a Minute illustrates, the film required 910 artists and 70,441 man-hours to create 49 seconds of footage for the Mustafar duel alone.[6] The film was produced with a budget of US$113 million, making it the least expensive of the three prequel films.[11] Members of Hyperspace, the Official Star Wars Fan Club, received a special look into the production. Benefits included not only special articles, but they also received access to a webcam that transmitted a new image every 20 seconds during the time it was operating in Fox Studios Australia. Many times the stars, and Lucas himself, were spotted on the webcam
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« Reply #39 on: July 22, 2007, 05:02:33 pm »

Releases

Revenge of the Sith premiered at the Cannes Film Festival (out of competition) on May 15, 2005. Its theatrical release in most other countries took place on May 19 — the same day and month as the release of 1999's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1977's Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope and 1983's Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi were also released on the same day and month, six years apart). The global outplacement firm Challenger, Gray & Christmas claimed one week before the premiere that it may have cost the US economy approximately US$627 million in lost productivity because of employees who took a day off or reported in sick.[13] Grauman's Chinese Theatre, a traditional venue for the Star Wars films, did not show it. However, a line of people stood there for more than a month hoping to convince someone to change this. Most of them took advantage of an offer to see the film at a nearby cinema, ArcLight Cinemas (formerly the "Cinerama Dome").

A copy of the movie leaked into peer-to-peer file sharing networks just hours after opening in theaters. The movie was a time-stamped workprint, suggesting it may have come from within the industry rather than from someone who videotaped an advance screening.[14] Eight people were later charged with copyright infringement and distributing material illegally. Documents filed by the Los Angeles District Attorney allege that a copy of the film was taken from an unnamed Californian post-production office by an employee, who later pleaded guilty to his charges.[15] The illegal copy was passed among seven people until reaching an eighth party, who also pleaded guilty to uploading to an un-named P2P network.[16]

Shortly after the above-mentioned print was leaked, it was released in Shanghai as a bootleg DVD with Chinese subtitles. The unknown producer of this DVD, for unexplained reasons, also elected to include English subtitles, which were in fact translated back into English from the Chinese translation, rather than using the original English script. This translation was particularly inept, leading to unintentional humor; the title of the movie, for example, was given as "Star War - The third gather - The Backstroke of the West". One error in translation that recurs several times in the film is that the phrase "it seems" was rendered as "good elephant". The mis-translation also caused the word "****" to appear three times in the subtitles.
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« Reply #40 on: July 22, 2007, 05:03:27 pm »

Rating

Revenge of the Sith is the first and only Star Wars film to receive a PG-13 rating from the MPAA, officially for "sci-fi violence and some intense images," namely for the scene in which Darth Vader is set aflame. Some critics, including Roger Ebert and Richard Roeper, later responded that the film could be handled by children as long as they had parental guidance, hence a "PG rating."[18] At the same time, Lucas had stated months before the MPAA's decision that he felt the film should receive a PG-13 rating, because of Anakin's final moments and the content of the film being the darkest and most emotional of all six films.[19] All previously released films in the series were rated PG. The PG-13 rating had not existed when the films in the original trilogy were released; however, the films in the original trilogy were later re-submitted to the MPAA due to changes in the re-released versions and once again received PG ratings. When Revenge of the Sith was released in Canada, it was given a PG rating in most provinces, excluding Quebec, where it was rated G. In Great Britain it received a "12A" rating (equivalent to the American "PG-13" rating).

Deleted roles

Scenes of a group of Senators (including Padmé) planning on organizing an Alliance to prevent the Chancellor from receiving any more executive powers were cut; they featured a young Mon Mothma. They were cut to achieve more focus on the story of Anakin.[1] George Lucas wrote early drafts of the script in which a 10-year-old Han Solo appeared, but the role was never cast or shot. The scene where Yoda arrives on Dagobah to begin his self-imposed exile was also cut, but is featured in a deleted scene in the DVD release, though producer Rick McCallum has stated that he hopes Lucas may include it to the theatrical release when and if he releases a 6 episode DVD box set.[1]

Many Order 66 scenes were cut. The deaths of Barriss Offee and Luminara Unduli were either cut from the film or never filmed in the first place. The death scene of Shaak Ti aboard the Invisible Hand (which can be viewed in the DVD deleted scenes section) is non-canon, as she was later confirmed to be alive.

Bai Ling filmed minor scenes for the film playing the role of a senator, but her role was cut during editing. She claimed this was because she posed for the June 2005 issue of Playboy magazine, whose appearance on newsstands coincided with the movie's May release, but Lucas denied this, stating that the cut had been made more than a year earlier, and that he had cut his own daughter's scenes as well.[38]

George Lucas had previously promised to explain the mystery behind the erasure of the planet Kamino from the Jedi Archives setup in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones.[1] This may be viewed as a plot hole; however, Lucas instead chose to include it in the novel Labyrinth of Evil, which took place immediately before Revenge of the Sith. Lucas did this in order to focus more on Anakin's story in the film.


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« Reply #41 on: July 22, 2007, 05:04:21 pm »



Members of the cast of Revenge of the Sith. From left: Portman, Jackson, Christensen, Smits, McGregor. Kenny Baker (R2-D2) and Peter Mayhew (Chewbacca) sit in the foreground.
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« Reply #42 on: July 22, 2007, 05:05:11 pm »

Reaction

Critical reaction towards the film was largely enthusiastic, especially in comparison to the two previous prequels. Film review site Rotten Tomatoes calculated a rating of 82% based on 229 reviews, compared to the 63% and 66% received by Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace and Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones respectively.[23] Some critics noted that they view it to be the best of the prequels,[23] while other reviewers judged it to be the best Star Wars film since Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back. A. O. Scott of The New York Times concluded that it was "the best of the four episodes Mr. Lucas has directed," and equal to The Empire Strikes Back as "the richest and most challenging movie in the cycle."

Much of the criticism for the film was directed towards the dialogue of Revenge of the Sith, particularly the film's romantic scenes. Critics and fans alike were quick to jump on such lines of Anakin or Padmé including "Hold me, Ani. Hold me, like you did by the lake on Naboo."[23] Critics have claimed this demonstrated Lucas' weakness as a writer of dialogue, a subject with which Lucas openly agreed when receiving the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Film Institute.[24]

Other criticisms included previously raised issues with the prequels: "wooden" acting,[25] overuse of flashy and colorful computer-generated special effects, and attempts to be both childish and mature at the same time. It is often said the film contains a number of plot holes, although this claim is widely disputed and debated by fans.[26] Though many critics and fans saw it as one of the best of the series, or at least, the strongest of the three prequels, others saw it as more or less on par with The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones.[23] Some neoconservatives criticized the film, claiming it has a liberal bias and is a "weak" commentary on the U.S. Bush Administration and the U.S./Iraqi war.[citation needed] Some websites went so far as to propose a boycott of the film. Lucas defended the film, stating that the film's storyline was written during the Vietnam War, and was influenced by it instead. Lucas did note, however, that "The parallels between Vietnam and what we're doing in Iraq now are unbelievable."[27] A letter posted at film critic Roger Ebert's website claims that the film was the most conservative film of 2005.[28]

Ewan McGregor and Ian McDiarmid's performances as Obi-Wan and Palpatine respectively, was generally well-received by critics. Todd McCarthy of Variety commented, "Entertaining from start to finish and even enthralling at times, 'Sith' has some acting worth writing home about, specifically McDiarmid's dominant turn as the mastermind of the evil empire."[29] A reviewer for The Village Voice wrote that "Ian McDiarmid's unctuous Emperor; turns appropriately vampiric as he attempts to draw Anakin into the Sith fold with promises of eternal life."[30]

An indication of the film's public reception is its rating of 7.9 (as of July 7, 2007) in the Internet Movie Database, whereas its two predecessors, The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones, rated 6.3 and 6.9 respectively. For reference, both A New Hope and The Empire Strikes Back rated 8.8 (ranked 12 and 8 in Top 250 films respectively), while Return of the Jedi rated 8.2 (ranked 111).
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« Reply #43 on: July 22, 2007, 05:06:51 pm »

Box office performance

Revenge of the Sith was released in 115 countries. Worldwide gross for the film eventually reached nearly $850 million—ranking the film second worldwide in 2005, behind Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire.[31] The film earned an estimated $16.5 million from 2,900 midnight screenings in North America upon its release. In total, it earned a record $50 million on its opening day.[31] It was surpassed the following year by Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest which earned $55.5 million on its opening day.

With only the May 19 earnings, the film broke four box office records: midnight screenings gross (previously held by The Lord of the Rings: Return of the King, $8 million), opening day gross (Spider-Man 2, with $40.4 million), single day gross (Shrek 2 with $44.8 million) and Thursday gross (The Matrix Reloaded with $37.5 million). Its single day gross record and opening day gross record were later surpassed by Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest on July 7, 2006, when that movie grossed $55.5 million on its opening day. It still retains its records for midnight screening gross and Thursday gross, however.

According to box office analysis sites, Revenge of the Sith set American records for highest gross in a given number of days for each of its first twelve days of release except for the seventh and eighth, where the record is narrowly held by Spider-Man 2. On its fifth day it became the highest grossing movie of 2005, surpassing Hitch ($177.6 million).[31]

Revenge of the Sith earned $158.5 million in its first four-day period, surpassing the previous four-day record held by The Matrix Reloaded ($134.3 million), and joining Spider-Man, The Matrix Reloaded and Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire as the only movies to make $100 million in three days.

Revenge of the Sith earned $200 million in its first eight days (record tied with Spider-Man 2). By its 17th day, it had passed $300 million (surpassing the record of 18 days of Shrek 2). The film earned $25,088,336 in its third weekend (June 3–5). It was eventually the third fastest film (after Shrek 2 and Spider-Man) to reach $350 million.[31]

The film ended its run in American theaters on October 20, 2005.[31] Its total of $380,270,577 ranks it 8th all-time in the United States, the highest-grossing movie of 2005, outgrossing second-place The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by nearly $90 million.[31] (Taking ticket-price inflation into account, it is the 26th highest grossing movie in World history.)


Awards and nominations

Despite being the best reviewed and most well received film in the prequel trilogy, Revenge of the Sith received the smallest number of award nominations in comparison to the previous films (35 categories in total, compared to The Phantom Menace's 55 and Attack of the Clones' 38 category nominations).

In retrospect, the film did however receive the smallest number of Golden Raspberry Awards nominations, only one for Hayden Christensen as Worst Supporting Actor, which he "won" (both The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones received 7 nominations each, with 1 and 2 "wins", respectively). This nomination was controversial, as Christensen's character, Anakin Skywalker, is the main focus of the film, and not a supporting actor (the nominating ballots listed McGregor as the lead actor). It is the only Star Wars prequel to not receive a Razzie nomination for "Worst Picture". Christensen did however win the "Best Villain" award at the MTV Movie Awards.

Revenge of the Sith is the only Star Wars film not to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Visual Effects, however the film was nominated for Best Makeup to Dave Elsey and Nikki Gooley. The film also won "Best Picture" awards at the People's Choice Awards, Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films, Empire Awards and the Teen Choice Awards.
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« Reply #44 on: July 22, 2007, 05:10:53 pm »



Darth Vader and his legion of Clone troopers march on the Jedi Temple in a direct reference to the well-known "Odessa Steps" sequence from The Battleship Potemkin.

Cinematic and literary allusions

Throughout Revenge of the Sith Lucas refers to a wide range of films and other sources drawing on political, military and mythological motifs to enhance the impact of his story. Palpatine's appearance and actions are also reminiscent of Doctor Mabuse, particularly as portrayed by German actor Rudolph Klein-Rogge in Fritz Lang's films. Anakin also bears a resemblance to a villainous character played by Klein-Rogge from a film by Lang — the mad scientist Rotwang from the classic film Metropolis. Both Anakin and Rotwang wear a menacing leather glove on one hand and are obsessed with saving — or resurrecting — a lost loved one. Also, Rotwang builds the android whose appearance heavily influenced the image of Lucas' C-3PO, who was built by Anakin prior to The Phantom Menace.
Following the march on the Jedi Temple sequence (itself a direct tribute to Sergei Eisenstein's "Odessa Steps" montage in The Battleship Potemkin; save that the white-armored troopers are marching up the steps), Lucas' editing schemes during Order 66, the slaughter of the Separatists and the declaration of the Galactic Empire are reminiscent of the montage of massacres during the christening scene of The Godfather, a film directed by mentor Francis Ford Coppola.

Palpatine has been compared to Iago, the villain of Shakespeare's Othello by many, including McDiarmid himself. In Othello, Iago manipulates the title character into believing that his wife has committed adultery with his confidante and lieutenant. In Revenge of the Sith, Vader comes to believe that Padmé has betrayed him to his former master, Obi-Wan. In both cases, blind rage drives the husband to strangle his wife.[41]

Certain plot points, including that of Palpatine building his own "monster", and especially the final scenes are comparable to the story of Frankenstein. Notably Anakin being assembled by various parts (although in the film they are mechanical), he is then raised on the platform he was assembled on. He then struggles and breaks free from the platform, stumbling forward.[40]

McDiarmid, Lucas, and others have also called Anakin's journey to the dark side Faustian in the sense of making a "pact with the devil" for short-term gain. Midway in the film, Lucas intercuts between Anakin and Padmé by themselves, thinking about one another in the Jedi Temple and their apartment, respectively during sunset, in a sequence without dialog and complemented by a moody, synthesized soundtrack. Lucas' coverage of the exterior cityscapes, skylines and interior isolation in the so-called "Ruminations" sequence is similar to the cinematography and mise-en-scene of Rosemary's Baby, a film in which a husband makes a literal pact with the devil.

References to the original trilogy

The prequel trilogy films often make references to the original trilogy in order to help connect the films together. Lucas has often referred to the films as a long poem that rhymes.[43] Such examples include the now famous line of "I have a bad feeling about this" that is used in each film, as well as battles (namely lightsaber duels) almost always taking place over a pit of some kind.

Of the prequel trilogy films, Revenge of the Sith makes the most references to the original trilogy. For example, when Obi-Wan Kenobi slays General Grievous with a blaster, he mutters to himself "So uncivilized." This is a reference to the beginning of A New Hope, when Obi-Wan describes a lightsaber as being "Not as clumsy or as random as a blaster, but an elegant weapon for a more civilized age." In addition, during the opening battle of Revenge of the Sith, Anakin mutters to himself that "this is where the fun begins." The same line was spoken by Han Solo under similar circumstances in A New Hope. In Obi-Wan's final confrontation with General Grievous he jumps down from an overhead catwalk and says "Hello there." which is a direct quote of Obi-Wan's first line in "A New Hope" and a slight nod to Sir Alec Guiness.



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