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Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary

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Che Guevera
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« Reply #150 on: August 02, 2009, 02:51:17 am »

In politics

Political imagery


    "The guy's face is shorthand for 'I'm against the status quo.' He's politics' answer to James Dean, a rebel with a very specific cause."
    — David Segal, The Washington Post [89]

    * In February 2008, a minor internet-based "controversy" emerged when a local news report in Houston, Texas, featured the independently funded office of Cuban-American Maria Isabel, a volunteer staffer for the then Barack Obama presidential campaign.[90] Some conservatives and Obama political opponents were angered when the clip portrayed that Isabel had used a large Cuban flag superimposed with the image of Che Guevara to decorate her office.[91] For his part, Obama addressed the issue and called the flag's presence "inappropriate."[92]

    * In July 2008, Colombian secret agents posing as leftist rebels were able to rescue Ingrid Betancourt and 15 other hostages held by FARC guerrillas. Part of the ruse involved the agents posing as fellow rebels by wearing Che Guevara t-shirts (considered a heroic figure by the Marxist inspired insurgents).[93]

    * During a November 2008 interview with Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda, he disclosed that a band of his rebels refer to themselves as the "Group of Che" and insist on wearing Che Guevara t-shirts as their uniform.[94]

    * Street artist Shepard Fairey, has stated that when he designed the two-tone red and blue stylized portrait of then presidential candidate Barack Obama, his "inspiration" was Alberto Korda's portrait of Che Guevara.[95]

    * In April 2009, Poland's equality minister, Elzbieta Radziszewska, proposed an amendment to the present Polish law prohibiting the production of "fascist" and "totalitarian propaganda". However, critics of the addition worry that it could extend to punish those wearing the popular Che Guevara t-shirts or CCCP (USSR) jackets. If passed, many of Communism's leading figures (and thus presumably Che) would have their images outlawed for public use, with those guilty facing a two-year prison sentence.[96
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« Reply #151 on: August 02, 2009, 02:51:35 am »

Political praise

    "Despite the spectacularization of the image of Che, what remains compelling are the many instances worldwide which the photograph persists as a rallying point for political struggles. To articulate resistance, to define local rebellions, to announce solidarity with others, activist artists will undoubtedly continue to remake, reclaim and recontextualize Korda's photograph."
    — Brian Wallis, International Center of Photography [97]

    * Cuban school children begin every day of class with a salute and pledge of: "We will be like Che!"[98]

    * Former South African President Nelson Mandela in 1991 on a visit to Havana declared that: "Che's life is an inspiration for every human being who loves freedom. We will always honor his memory."[99]

    * American civil rights activist Jesse Jackson, in a 1984 visit to the University of Havana declared: "Long live our cry of freedom. Long Live Che!"[100]

    * One week before his own assassination on October 15, 1987, in a speech marking the 20th anniversary of Guevara's execution, Burkina Faso's revolutionary leader Thomas Sankara (himself coined "Africa's Che")[101] declared: "ideas cannot be killed, ideas never die."[102]

    * Former Cuban President Fidel Castro (who fought alongside Che during the Cuban revolution) has proclaimed that Guevara was "a flower prematurely cut from its stem" who "sowed the seeds of social conscience in Latin America and the world."[103] Castro has also remarked that Che's "luminous gaze of a prophet has become a symbol for all the poor"[104] and that "today he is in every place, wherever there is a just cause to defend."[105]

    * Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez has performed several symbolic acts of solidarity with Guevara, which include wearing a red Che t-shirt to the 2005 World Social Forum,[106] laying a wreath in remembrance of the 40th anniversary of his death at his Mausoleum, naming a state-funded adult education programme "Mission Che Guevara", and granting doctors of the Venezuelan public health system a 60 percent pay raise in "honor of Che" who was a physician.[107]

    * After winning President of Bolivia in 2006, Evo Morales installed a portrait of Che Guevara made from coca leaves in the presidential palace.[108] At a ceremony the following year marking the 40th anniversary of his execution, Morales declared "the ideals and actions of Commander Ernesto Guevara are examples for those who defend equality and justice. We are humanists and followers of the example of Guevara."[109]

    * In October of 2007, Irish Republicans in Derry, Northern Ireland and Sinn Fein organized a weekend celebration on the "life and legacy" of Irish-Argentine Che Guevara. The weekend featured numerous events including a meeting on freeing the "Cuban Five" and a youth discussion in Pilots Row, while concluding with the unveiling of a new Che Guevara mural in the Bogside.[110]

    * On 9 November 2007, the British House of Commons held an early day motion proposed by John McDonnell and signed by 27 other Members of Parliament which read: "This House notes that 9th October marks the 40th anniversary of the murder of Ernesto Che Guevara in Bolivia; further notes the inspiration that Che Guevara has brought to national liberation movements and millions of socialists around the world; and believes that the sustained social gains of the Cuban revolution and the government of Evo Morales in Bolivia are fitting tributes to his legacy." [111]

    * After attending a private screening of Steven Soderbergh's 2008 biopic Che, British politician George Galloway professed that "no one could be more alive - his image, his example, his spirit, is abroad in every struggle throughout the world." Galloway ended his praise by stating that "Guevara radiates out from the photos a goodness, with the power to move millions forever."[112]
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« Reply #152 on: August 02, 2009, 02:51:58 am »

In everything else

    Gael García Bernal (played Che in The Motorcycle Diaries): "How would Ernesto feel about having his face all over the world on a T-shirt?"
    Alberto Granado (travel mate of Che who accompanied him): "Well, knowing him, I think he wouldn't mind, especially if it was a girl." [113]

    * On May 15, 1960, Che Guevara competed against acclaimed author Ernest Hemingway at the "Hemingway Fishing Contest" in Havana, Cuba. The winner of the competition however was fellow boat mate Fidel Castro.[114]

    * In October 2007, former Central Intelligence Agency operative Gustavo Villoldo, auctioned off a lock of Che Guevara's hair for $ 119,500 to Bill Butler. The purchaser describes Guevara as "one of the greatest revolutionaries of the 20th century", and thus intends to display the 3-inch tress in his Butler & Sons books store in Rosenberg, Texas.[115]

    * On December 14, 2008, Iraqi journalist Muntadhar al-Zeidi threw both of his shoes at President George W. Bush, as an "act of defiance" during a Baghdad press conference. When reporters visited his one-bedroom apartment in west Baghdad, they found the home decorated with a poster Che Guevara, who according to The Associated Press "is widely lionized in the Middle East."[116]

    * Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf owns a German Shepherd dog named "Che", in honor of the revolutionary.[117]

    * At the 2009 Groundhog Day celebrations, the groundhog "Staten Island Chuck" bit the finger of New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg. As a result, Brooklyn entrepreneur Devery Doleman began selling shirts showing Chuck "revolting against the plutocrat mayor", while donning a Che Guevara beret. Creator Doleman, proclaimed the bite an obvious metaphor, while decreeing "Bloomberg cares only about rich people. He's the Marie Antoinette of mayors."[118]

    * In protest of losing Shea stadium for the newly built Citi field, two New York Mets fans Dave Croatto and Ryan Flanders, created "Viva Shea" t-shirts. The phonetic word play inspired shirt features Che Guevara in blue over an orange background (Met's colors) and perched atop Guevara's head is a NY Mets baseball hat.[119]

    * In April of 2009, Raymond Scott a 52 year old British book dealer accused of stealing the 1623 first edition of William Shakespeare's works from Durham University in 1998, arrived in the Consett Magistrates' Court dressed as Che Guevara.[120] His attire to face the charge of stealing the $ 4.5 million dollar book, also included two air guns and a Cuban flag.[121]

    * The University of Texas offers a course entitled "Che Guevara's Latin America", in which students read two of Guevara's travel diaries and his memoir of the Cuban revolutionary war. The aim of the course is to have students analyze the "sudden revival of Che's image in pop culture throughout the world", study Che's own personal observations, and survey class relations in those countries mentioned in Che's memoirs (Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Guatemala, and Mexico).[122]

    * As an act of international solidarity, Cuba dispersed a group of medical doctors to the nation of Nicaragua in 2007. By the start of 2009, the unit titled the "Ernesto Che Guevara Brigade", were credited with treating 1,764,000 people, saving 363 lives, and operating on 3,893 patients.[123] There is also a Cuban supplied and staffed "Che Guevara Medical Brigade" serving in Haiti, composed of 575 doctors and health professionals.[124]
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« Reply #153 on: August 02, 2009, 02:52:18 am »

Criticism

There are those, both supporters and detractors that object to the mass dissemination of Che's image in popular and counter-culture. His detractors dislike the widespread pictorial dissemination of someone they deem to be a "murderer" but also delight in the contradiction and/or irony of a Marxist being utilized as a Capitalist commodity. Conversely, some Che supporters object to the commodification or diminishing of his image by its use in popular culture, and resent those entrepreneurial companies who profit from and/or exploit his legacy; viewing such marketing as an obvious conflict to Guevara's personal ideology.

Regardless of the varying sentiments, Jonathan Green director of the UCR/Museum of Photography believes that there is no escaping the phenomenological influence of Che's symbolism, remarking that "we cannot get away from the context of Che Guevara, whether we like him or hate him, whether we called him a revolutionary or a butcher. The fact that he lived and died for the ideas in which he believed, penetrates constantly in the image."[125]
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« Reply #154 on: August 02, 2009, 02:52:34 am »

From an anti-Che perspective

    "The cult of Ernesto Che Guevara is an episode in the moral callousness of our time. Che was a totalitarian. He achieved nothing but disaster ... The present-day cult of Che - the t-shirts, the bars, the posters — has succeeded in obscuring this dreadful reality."
    — Paul Berman, Slate Magazine [126]

Mexican author Rogelio Villareal has noted how "the famous image is not venerated by all ... it has also been aged, laughed about, parodied, insulted, and distorted around the world."[127] Conservative Mark Falcoff has remarked that Guevara is "a cultural icon" not because of "his example for poor countries" but as a result of "his capacity to provoke empathy among the spoiled youth of the affluent West."[128] Historian Robert Conquest, of the Hoover Institution, has referred to such "empathy" and adulation among the young, as the "unfortunate affliction" of "adolescent revolutionary romanticism."[60] Sean O'Hagan of The Observer contends that the appeal to such empathy is one of superficiality, remarking that "if Che hadn't been born so good-looking, he wouldn't be a mythical revolutionary."[60] In the view of Ana Menéndez, author of the fictional novel Loving Che, the fascination with Che is not with the man, but the photograph.[129] While herself acknowledging him as a "great idealist", Menéndez believes there is a "fallibility of memory", which leads many to "gloss over the fact that he was also a brutal man, the head of a firing squad in the opening days of the revolution."[129] Menéndez theorizes that such unsavory aspects are glossed over in the way one glosses over someone's flaws when in love.[129] Jazz musician Paquito D'Rivera, himself a Cuban exile who fled the island after a run in with Guevara, has criticized the positive portrayal of Che by musicians such as Santana, by noting the strict censorship of music at the time deemed "immoral" and "imperialist" by the Cuban government.[130] In deference to such contradictions, Patrick Symmes, author of Chasing Che: A Motorcycle Journey in Search of the Guevara Legend, has hypothesized that "the more time goes by, the chicer and chicer Che gets because the less he stands for anything."[131] Barcelona museum director Ivan de la Nuez, in the 2008 documentary "Chevolution" describes the overall phenomena by observing that "Capitalism devours everything - even its worst enemies."[132]
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« Reply #155 on: August 02, 2009, 02:52:50 am »

From a pro-Che perspective

    "During the lifetime of great revolutionaries, the oppressing classes constantly hounded them, received their theories with the most savage malice, the most furious hatred and the most unscrupulous campaigns of lies and slander. After their death, attempts are made to convert them into harmless icons, to canonize them, so to say, and to hallow their names to a certain extent for the “consolation” of the oppressed classes and with the object of duping the latter, while at the same time robbing the revolutionary theory of its substance, blunting its revolutionary edge and vulgarizing it."
    — Vladimir Lenin, The State and Revolution [133]

Duke Latin American studies professor Ariel Dorfman hypothesizes that Che's been "comfortably transmogrified into a symbol of rebellion" precisely because those in power no longer believe him to be dangerous.[134] However, Dorfman suspects the attempt to subvert Che could backfire, positing that 3 billion people now live on less than $2 a day and thus "the powerful of the earth should take heed: deep inside that T shirt where we have tried to trap him, the eyes of Che Guevara are still burning with impatience."[134] Expressing a similar sentiment, director Jonathan Green acknowledges that "Che is turning over in his grave" because of the commercialization; however in Green's view, Che's visage also has the potential to be a "Trojan horse" of capitalist marketing, by embedding itself into pop iconography. In his example, corporations in their desperate drive to sell goods, create the opportunity for observers to see the "logo" and ask "who was that guy?"[125] Trisha Ziff, curator of Che! Revolution and Commerce believes that regardless of the "postmodern" diffusion, you can't disassociate Che from "radical ideas and change", nor can one control it. In Ziff's view, despite the endless array of merchandising, the symbol of Che will continue to be worn and have resonance.[125] Critical pedagogical theorist Peter McLaren theorizes that American capitalism is responsible for the Che phenomenon, stating that "the United States has a seductive way of incorporating anything that it can’t defeat and transforming that 'thing' into a weaker version of itself, much like the process of diluting the strength and efficacy of a virus through the creation of a vaccine."[135] Author Susan Sontag spoke of the potential positive ramifications of utilizing Che as a symbol, positing:

    "I don’t disdain the impact of Che as a romantic image, especially among newly radicalized youth in the United States and Western Europe; if the glamour of Che’s person, the heroism of his life, and the pathos of his death, are useful to young people in strengthening their disaffiliation from the life-style of American imperialism and in advancing the development of a revolutionary consciousness, so much the better."[136]
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« Reply #156 on: August 02, 2009, 02:53:11 am »

References

   1. ^ Brand Che: Revolutionary as Marketer’s Dream by Michiko Kakutani, The New York Times, April 20 2009
   2. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 81
   3. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 8
   4. ^ Chasing Che: A Motorcycle Journey in Search of the Guevara Legend, by Patrick Symmes, Vintage, 2000.
   5. ^ a b c "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 11
   6. ^ Tribeca Review: Chevolution by Joel Keller, April 27, 2008.
   7. ^ a b "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 12
   8. ^ Official Website of "Personal Che" directed by Adriana Mariño & Douglas Duarte
   9. ^ a b "In Bolivia, Push for Che Tourism Follows Locals' Reverence by Kevin Hall, August 17, 2004, Knight-Ridder
  10. ^ a b c d e f "The final triumph of Saint Che" by Andres Schipani, September 23, 2007, The Observer
  11. ^ Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, by Jon Lee Anderson, 1997, New York: Grove Press, pg 742
  12. ^ Just A Pretty Face? by Sean O'Hagan, The Observer, July 11, 2004
  13. ^ "The spirit of Che Guevara" by I F Stone, 20 October 1967 (published 20 September 2007), The New Statesman
  14. ^ "Régis Debray Speaks from Prison", by Marlene Nadle, Ramparts Magazine, August 24, 1968, pg 40
  15. ^ a b "International Commemorations Mark Thirty Year Anniversary of Ernesto "Che" Guevara's Death" October 17, 1997, Volume 7 / Number 37, Latin American Institute
  16. ^ "International 5th International Film Festival of Human Rights". Festivalcinebolivia.org. http://www.festivalcinebolivia.org/3thFestival.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  17. ^ "On a tourist trail in Bolivia's hills, Che's fame lives on" By Hector Tobar, October 17, 2004, Los Angeles Times
  18. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 90
  19. ^ ""Jesus ad campaign"". BBC News. 1999-01-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/250752.stm. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  20. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 87
  21. ^ a b Che Guevara: Guerrilla Heroica by Jane Franklin, The Nation, May 19 1997
  22. ^ a b Benicio del Toro sees Shades of Jesus in Che Guevara Yahoo India, December 20, 2008
  23. ^ "Che Trippers" by Lawrence Osborne, The New York Observer, June 15, 2003
  24. ^ Hunter S Thompson: The Movie by Alex Gibney, The Sunday Times, December 14, 2008
  25. ^ Why Che Guevara's Image is Still a Bestseller The Independent, January 5 2009
  26. ^ Rajat Looking for Che Indian Info, February 12 2009
  27. ^ Interview with James Benning on California Trilogy March 17, 2002
  28. ^ Films on Photography, pg 4
  29. ^ Skins bad boy Cooks up Storm by Keeley Bolger, The Sun
  30. ^ VIDEO: Benicio Del Toro talks about meeting Castro to prepare for "Che" on The Colbert Report
  31. ^ Goode Family Clip: Che The Vegan Dog Has A Dark Side
  32. ^ Folk legend Jody Collins hits the road with new songs and old favorites by John Soeder, Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 24 2009
  33. ^ Madonna Interview on Top Of The Pops - 6:47-7:25
  34. ^ Successful Evening Commemorates 40th Anniversary of the Death of Ché Guevara
  35. ^ Brazilian Rock Band Sepultura Pays Tribute to Che Guevara by Nelson García Santos, July 26, 2008
  36. ^ Cuba's Silvio Rodriguez Dedicates Song to 'Che' AP, July 23 2009
  37. ^ Interview With Tom Morello by Charles M. Young
  38. ^ Castro's Brain Time Magazine, August 8, 1960
  39. ^ Dorfman, Ariel. "Time 100: Che Guevara". Time.com. http://www.time.com/time/time100/heroes/profile/guevara01.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  40. ^ "December 2008 Rolling Stone Magazine Cover". http://i23.ebayimg.com/01/i/001/24/23/b2fe_1.JPG. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  41. ^ El Período Especial Revisited in Two Novels by Carlos Rodríguez Martorell, New York Daily News, April 10 2009
  42. ^ 'Che' Guevara's Iconic Image Endures by Martha Irvine, The Washington Post, September 23, 2006
  43. ^ a b c Ernesto Goes to the Movies by J. Hoberman, The American Prospect, September 19, 2004
  44. ^ (Company's website)[dead link]
  45. ^ El Che Cigarettes[dead link]
  46. ^ In various shades of Che by Peter Aspden, Financial Times, December 13, 2008
  47. ^ The Bobblehead, LLC Releases its’ Che Guevara Bobblehead Collection Press Release, November 25, 2008
  48. ^ Army Backs Burns to Raise Cash Evening Times, December 1, 2008
  49. ^ [ http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2008/fidel-castro-in-dacia-revolucion/ "Revolution": The New Dacia Logan MCV Commercial]
  50. ^ Che Guevara's Granddaughter to Appear in PETA Campaign, The Telegraph, June 18 2009
  51. ^ Lydia Guevara's PETA Campaign Poster to Join the Veggie Revolution
  52. ^ Guevara's Granddaughter to Appear in PETA Campaign Associated Press, June 18 2009
  53. ^ ""Info"". Globosapiens.net. http://www.globosapiens.net/moscow-travel-tip/club-che-3868.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  54. ^ ""Site"". St Petersburg Life. 2007-10-11. http://www.st-petersburg-life.com/drink/pubs_cafes_details/16-Cafe_Club_Che. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  55. ^ Che Guevara in popular culture by Fiona Thompson
  56. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 122
  57. ^ Handbags of the Apocalypse by Alexander Boldizar, C-Arts Magazine, September 4 2008
  58. ^ Che Wearing Che T-shirt T-shirt from The Onion
  59. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 7
  60. ^ a b c Just a Pretty Face? by Sean O'Hagan, The Observer, July 11, 2004
  61. ^ September 17, 2007 Press Release
  62. ^ Central Park Statue[dead link]
  63. ^ "Image of the Barcelona Street Performer". http://i.pbase.com/u46/nicksie/large/29954829.IMG_8613.wjpg.jpg. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  64. ^ Artist who Fought with Che Guevara Holds Exhibit in Derry Derry Journal, January 30 2009
  65. ^ Che Trippers The New York Observer, by Lawrence Osborne, June 15, 2003
  66. ^ Albion star has more tattoos than Becks The Argus, November 25 2004
  67. ^ Veron: I've made my own History FIFA, February 2 2009
  68. ^ Palermo 1 - 0 Livorno, Bad Day at The Barbera by Marco Stucazzo, February 2 2008
  69. ^ Banner for footballer Fabrizio Miccoli of Palermo
  70. ^ 'El Che' Playwright Shares Guervara's Passion by Tatiana Hensley, The Arizona Republic, January 14 2009
  71. ^ Diction and Contradiction by Michael Feingold, Village Voice, July 4 2006
  72. ^ "Article". App1.chinadaily.com.cn. 2001-03-08. http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2001/0308/wh26-1.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  73. ^ Capitalizing on Che Guevara's image by Ben Ehrenreich, LA Times, June 1 2008
  74. ^ Haemont Games to release Tropico 3 by Dave Webb, West Palm Beach Examiner, July 14 2009
  75. ^ New Domino Toppling Record Set 3News, November 16, 2008 ---> Video
  76. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 70
  77. ^ Che's Spirit Burns on in Latin America by Daniel Schweimler, BBC News, January 3 2009
  78. ^ "Santa Clara's Che Guevara Memorial and Museum". Hellocuba.ca. http://www.hellocuba.ca/itineraries/310Che_Memorial.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  79. ^ Guevara Monument in Venezuela Destroyed Associated Press, October 19, 2007
  80. ^ Argentina Recognizing Che at Last Reuters, June 15, 2008
  81. ^ "Reuters Pictures: Che Statue". Daylife. http://www.daylife.com/photo/09rKgc7fQEgUQ. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  82. ^ "AP Photo by Dado Galdieri". Daylife. http://www.daylife.com/photo/049Mb1b3Ep5ai. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  83. ^ Beijing Unveils Che Guevara Bust Prensa Latina, January 18, 2008
  84. ^ Amid protests, City of Vienna Unveils Che Guevara Monument October 9, 2007
  85. ^ Honoring Che Guevara: a Statue in Oleiros Galicia
  86. ^ Old and New Street Names in the Ethekwini Municipal Area
  87. ^ A Statue of Che Guevara in South Africa Ahore, March 30 2009
  88. ^ Trust Honours Struggle Heroes News 24, March 18 2009
  89. ^ "The Che Cachet" by David Segal, Washington Post, February 7, 2006
  90. ^ Texas Primary Crucial for Democratic Presidential Hopefuls My Fox Houston, February 6, 2008
  91. ^ Che-bama? by Nick Gillespie, Reason Magazine, February 12, 2008
  92. ^ Che Guevara Flag In Obama Campaign Office Causes Controversy NBC6 News, February 13, 2008
  93. ^ Rescue Hinged on Fake 'International Mission' CNN, July 3, 2008
  94. ^ Encounter With A Rebel Leader by David McDougall, CBC News, November 17, 2008
  95. ^ 'Obey' Street Artist Churns Out 'Hope' for Obama by Jenna Wortham, September 21, 2008
  96. ^ Wear a Che T-shirt, Go to Jail Krakow Post, April 30 2009
  97. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 30-31
  98. ^ A Revolutionary Afterlife New York Times, October 8, 2007
  99. ^ quoted in the trailer for the film Motorcyle Diaries (2004)
 100. ^ Fidel Castro, the First Superdelegate by Greg Grandin, Baltimore Chronicle, March 6, 2008
 101. ^ Burkina Faso Salutes "Africa's Che" Thomas Sankara by Mathieu Bonkoungou, Reuters, October 17, 2008
 102. ^ Sankara 20 years Later: A Tribute to Integrity by Demba Moussa Dembélé, Pambazuka News, October 15, 2008
 103. ^ Cuba Remembers Che Guevara 40 Years After his Fall by Rosa Tania Valdes, Reuters, October 8, 2007
 104. ^ Cuba Salutes 'Che' Guevara CNN, October 17, 1997
 105. ^ Che Remembered 40 Years After Death by Alvaro Suazo, The Washington Post, October 6, 2007
 106. ^ Hugo Chavez Gets Hero's Welcome at Forum The Associated Press, January 31, 2005
 107. ^ Chavez, Honoring Che, Gives Venezuela Doctors 60 Percent Raise by Matthew Walter, Bloomberg, October 9, 2007
 108. ^ "Image: Che coca portrait with President Morales". http://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/0c0V85f1nIeH8/610x.jpg. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
 109. ^ Evo Morales Praises Example of Ernesto Che Guevara ACN, October 9, 2007
 110. ^ Che Remembered 40 Years on in Derry Ógra Shinn Fein, October 17 2007
 111. ^ "Early Day Motion 2041: 40th Anniversary of the Death of Che Guevara". Edmi.parliament.uk. 2007-04-17. http://edmi.parliament.uk/EDMi/EDMDetails.aspx?EDMID=33914&SESSION=885. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
 112. ^ Che Spirit Lives On by George Galloway, Daily Record, December 22 2008
 113. ^ Sympathy for the Rebel by Jessica Winter, Village Voice, September 28 2004
 114. ^ The 2007 Hemingway Fishing Tournament Steve Gibbs
 115. ^ Lock of Che Guevara's Hair Sells for $100,000 AP, October 26, 2007
 116. ^ Family: Shoe Thrower Hates Both US, Iran Role by Robert H. Reid, Associated Press, December 16, 2008
 117. ^ Musharraf and a Dog Named Che by Amit Baruah, Hindustan Times, March 2 2009
 118. ^ Bite Lands Staten Island Chuck's Mug on Shirt Staten Island Advance, February 5 2009
 119. ^ Viva Shea': Mets' Old Home Lives in Fan's Heart by Daniel Howley, Independent, April 16 2009
 120. ^ Man dressed as Che Guevara for court Market Watch, April 15 2009
 121. ^ Book rap dealer in court as red Che The Sun, April 15 2009
 122. ^ Semester Summer 2008: 'Che Guevara's Latin America' at the University of Texas
 123. ^ Cuban Doctors Efforts Extolled in Nicaragua February 10 2009
 124. ^ Salud International to Back Cuban Internationalist Doctors by Phil Lenton, August 16 2004
 125. ^ a b c Che as Revolutionary and Icon review by Corinna Lotz
 126. ^ The Cult of Che by Paul Berman, September 24, 2004.
 127. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 104
 128. ^ "He Thinks We Still Care" - A Review of 'Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life' by Jon Lee Anderson, by Mark Falcoff, The American Spectator, June 1997
 129. ^ a b c Che Chic by Elizabeth Armstrong, The Christian Science Monitor, March 5 2004
 130. ^ Killer Chic: Hollywood’s sick obsession with Che Guevara at Reason TV. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
 131. ^ Give Me a Rebel, But Hold the Politics by Ginia Bellafante, New York Times, March 30, 2004
 132. ^ Capitalizing on Che Guevara’s Image by Ben Ehrenreich, Los Angeles Times, June 1, 2008
 133. ^ The State and Revolution, by Vladimir Lenin, 1999, Resistance Books, ISBN 0909196826, pg 15
 134. ^ a b Time 100: Che Guevara by Ariel Dorfman, June 14, 1999
 135. ^ Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution, by Peter McLaren, 2000, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0847695336, pg Xxii
 136. ^ Viva Che!: The Strange Death and Life of Che Guevara, by Andrew Sinclair, 1968/re-released in 2006, Sutton publishing, ISBN 0750943106, pg 124

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« Reply #157 on: August 02, 2009, 02:53:25 am »

External links

    * Che-Lives.com
    * DeviantART: Che Guevara
    * Che Guevara Photos from daylife
    * RevLeft: Che Discussion Forum
    * The Many Faces of Che - a slideshow by PBS
    * BBC News Video: Che Honored in Argentina June 15, 2008
    * NPR Audio Report: "In Latin America, Che's Legend on the Rise"
    * Salon: "Che Anything" by Amy Reiter, May 5, 2008
    * The New York Times: "A Revolutionary Icon, and Now, a Bikini" by Marc Lacey, October 9, 2007
    * Wall Street Journal (photo gallery): "The Ubiquitous Che"
    * Washington Post: "The Che Cachet" by David Segal, February 7, 2006
    * Che from Rebel to Icon by Christophe Chataign, Socialist Review, July 2004
    * Why is Che Guevara such a Pop Culture Icon? a photo essay by Designboom
    * Advertising World’s Obsession with Che Guevara by Adoholic, February 21, 2009
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« Reply #158 on: August 02, 2009, 02:54:14 am »

Notes

   1. ^ a b c The date of birth recorded on his birth certificate was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year. Constenla alleges that she was told by an unidentified astrologer that his mother, Celia de la Serna, was already pregnant when she and Ernesto Guevara Lynch were married and that the date on the birth certificate of their son was forged to make it appear that he was born a month later than the actual date to avoid scandal. (Anderson 1997, pp. 3, 769.)
   2. ^ Partido Unido de la Revolución Socialista de Cuba, aka PURSC
   3. ^ Hall 2004
   4. ^ Casey 2009, p. 128.
   5. ^ a b On Revolutionary Medicine Speech by Che Guevara to the Cuban Militia on August 19, 1960
   6. ^ At the Afro-Asian Conference in Algeria A speech by Che Guevara to the Second Economic Seminar of Afro-Asian Solidarity in Algiers, Algeria on February 24, 1965
   7. ^ Beaubien, NPR Audio Report, 2009, 00:09-00:13
   8. ^ a b c d "Castro's Brain" 1960.
   9. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 267.
  10. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 526-530.
  11. ^ Ryan 1998, p. 4
  12. ^ Guevara 2005
  13. ^ Dorfman 1999.
  14. ^ Maryland Institute of Art, referenced at BBC News May 26, 2001
  15. ^ Che's last name "Guevara" derives from the Castilianized form of the Basque "Gebara", a habitational name from the province of Álava. Through his grandmother, Ana Lynch, he was a descendant of Patrick Lynch, an emigrant from Galway, Ireland in the 1740s.
  16. ^ Lavretsky 1976
  17. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 22-23.
  18. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 8.
  19. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 28.
  20. ^ Hart 2004, pg 98.
  21. ^ Hart 2004, pg 98.
  22. ^ Haney 2005, p. 164.
  23. ^ (Anderson 1997, p. 37–38)
  24. ^ (Anderson 1997, p. 37–38)
  25. ^ (Anderson 1997, p. 37–38)
  26. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 10.
  27. ^ Ratner 1997, p. 25.
  28. ^ NYT bestseller list: #38 Paperback Nonfiction on 2005-02-20, #9 Nonfiction on 2004-10-07 and on more occasions.
  29. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 98.
  30. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 126.
  31. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 31.
  32. ^ Guevara Lynch 2000, p. 26.
  33. ^ Radio Cadena Agramonte 2006.
  34. ^ Ignacio 2007, p. 172.
  35. ^ a b U.S. Department of State 2008.
  36. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 144.
  37. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 39.
  38. ^ Snow, Anita. "'My Life With Che' by Hilda Gadea." Associated Press at WJXX-TV. August 16, 2008. Retrieved on February 23, 2009.
  39. ^ Che Guevara 1960–67 by Frank E. Smitha
  40. ^ Sinclair, Andrew (1970). Che Guevara. The Viking Press. p. 12.
  41. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 55.
  42. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 28.
  43. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 194.
  44. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 213.
  45. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 32.
  46. ^ DePalma 2006, pp. 110–111.
  47. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 269–270.
  48. ^ Castañeda 1998, pp. 105, 119.
  49. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 269–270, 277–278.
  50. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 35.
  51. ^ Ignacio 2007, p. 177.
  52. ^ Ignacio 2007, p. 193.
  53. ^ Moore, Don. "Revolution! Clandestine Radio and the Rise of Fidel Castro". Patepluma Radio. http://www.pateplumaradio.com/central/cuba/rebel1.html.
  54. ^ Bockman 1984.
  55. ^ Castro 1972, pp. 439–442.
  56. ^ Dorschner 1980, pp. 41–47, 81–87.
  57. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 39.
  58. ^ Anderson 1997, 397.
  59. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 400–401.
  60. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 424.
  61. ^ Guevara had children from both his marriages, and one illegitimate child, as follows: With Hilda Gadea (married August 18, 1955; divorced May 22, 1959), Hilda Beatriz Guevara Gadea, born February 15, 1956 in Mexico City; died August 21, 1995 in Havana, Cuba; with Aleida March (married June 2, 1959), Aleida Guevara March, born November 24, 1960 in Havana, Cuba, Camilo Guevara March, born May 20, 1962 in Havana, Cuba, Celia Guevara March, born June 14, 1963 in Havana, Cuba, and Ernesto Guevara March, born February 24, 1965 in Havana, Cuba; and with Lilia Rosa López (extramarital), Omar Pérez, born March 19, 1964 in Havana, Cuba (Castañeda 1998, pp. 264–265).
  62. ^ Gómez Treto 1991, p. 115. "The Penal Law of the War of Independence (July 28, 1896) was reinforced by Rule 1 of the Penal Regulations of the Rebel Army, approved in the Sierra Maestra February 21, 1958, and published in the army's official bulletin (Ley penal de Cuba en armas, 1959)" (Gómez Treto 1991, p. 123).
  63. ^ Gómez Treto 1991, pp. 115–116).
  64. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 372, 425.
  65. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 376.
  66. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 267.
  67. ^ Niess 2007, p. 60
  68. ^ Gómez Treto 1991, p. 116).
  69. ^ Niess 2007, p. 61
  70. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 267.
  71. ^ Different sources cite different numbers of executions. Anderson (1997) gives the number specifically at La Cabaña prison as 55 (p. 387.), while also stating that as a whole "several hundred people were officially tried and executed across Cuba" (p. 387.). This is supported by Lago who gives the figure as 216 documented executions across Cuba in two years.
  72. ^ Dumur 1964 shows Che Guevara speaking French.
  73. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 423.
  74. ^ Niwata 2007. Guevara requested that the Japanese government arrange for him to visit Hiroshima. When they refused, he covertly left his Osaka hotel to visit Hiroshima by night train, along with his aide Omar Fernández.
  75. ^ a b Anderson 1997, p. 435.
  76. ^ Sierra, J.A.. "Che Guevara Timeline". historyofcuba.com. http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/time/Che-1.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-19.
  77. ^ Cuban Information Archives.
  78. ^ Socialism and man in Cuba by Che Guevara, March 1965
  79. ^ PBS: Che Guevara, Popular but Ineffective
  80. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 62.
  81. ^ a b Sandison 1996, p. 66.
  82. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 506.
  83. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 507.
  84. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 509.
  85. ^ a b "Economics Cannot be Separated from Politics" speech by Che Guevara to the ministerial meeting of the Inter-American Economic and Social Council (CIES), in Punta del Este, Uruguay on August 8, 1961
  86. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 492.
  87. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 530.
  88. ^ a b Anderson 1997, p. 545.
  89. ^ a b c d e "Colonialism is Doomed" speech to the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations in New York City by Cuban representative Che Guevara on December 11, 1964
  90. ^ a b c Bazooka Fired at U.N. as Cuban Speaks by Homer Bigart, The New York Times, December 12, 1964 - page 1
  91. ^ Guillermo Novo Biography by Spartacus Educational Encyclopedia
  92. ^ Snow 2007.
  93. ^ Hart 2004, pg 271.
  94. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 618.
  95. ^ a b "Socialism and Man in Cuba" A letter to Carlos Quijano, editor of Marcha, a weekly published in Montevideo, Uruguay; published as "From Algiers, for Marcha: The Cuban Revolution Today" by Che Guevara on March 12, 1965
  96. ^ Guevara 1969, p. 350.
  97. ^ Guevara 1969, pp. 352–59.
  98. ^ Message to the Tricontinental A letter sent by Che Guevara from his jungle camp in Bolivia, to the Tricontinental Solidarity Organisation in Havana, Cuba, in the Spring of 1967
  99. ^ Guevara 1965.
 100. ^ Ben Bella 1997.
 101. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 624.
 102. ^ Gálvez 1999, p 62.
 103. ^ Gott 2004 p. 219.
 104. ^ BBC News January 17, 2001.
 105. ^ "The intercept operators knew that Dar-es-Salaam was serving as a communications center for the fighters, receiving messages from Castro in Cuba and relaying them on to the guerrillas deep in the bush (Bamford 2002, p. 181).
 106. ^ Ireland's Own 2000.
 107. ^ Guevara 2000, p. 1.
 108. ^ Castañeda 1998, p. 316.
 109. ^ Guevara 2009, p. 167.
 110. ^ Mittleman 1981, p. 38.
 111. ^ a b Selvage 1985.
 112. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 693.
 113. ^ U.S. Army 1967 and Ryan 1998, pp. 82–102, inter alia. "U.S. military personnel in Bolivia never exceeded 53 advisers, including a sixteen-man Mobile Training Team (MTT) from the 8th Special Forces Group based at Fort Gulick, Panama Canal Zone" (Selvage 1985).
 114. ^ "Bidding for Che", Time Magazine, Dec 15 1967
 115. ^ Guevara 1972.
 116. ^ Castañeda 1998, pp. 107–112; 131–132.
 117. ^ Wright 2000, p. 86.
 118. ^ Shadow Warrior: The CIA Hero of 100 unknown battles, Felix Rodriguez and John Weisman, Publisher: Simon & Schuster, October 1989,
 119. ^ Anderson 1997, p.733.
 120. ^ a b "The Man Who Buried Che" by Juan O. Tamayo, Miami Herald, September 19, 1997
 121. ^ a b c d e Ray, Michèle (March 1968). "In Cold Blood: The Execution of Che by the CIA". Ramparts Magazine: 33.
 122. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 267.
 123. ^ Grant 2007. René Barrientos has never revealed his motives for ordering the summary execution of Guevara.
 124. ^ Time magazine 1970.
 125. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 739.
 126. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 739.
 127. ^ Almudevar 2007 and Gott 2005.
 128. ^ Lacey 2007a.
 129. ^ After the Cuban revolution, seeing that Guevara had no watch, his friend Oscarito Fernández Mell gave him his own gold watch. Sometime later, Che handed him a piece of paper; a receipt from the National Bank declaring that Mell had "donated" his gold wristband to Cuba's gold reserve. Guevara was still wearing his watch, but it now had a leather wristband (Anderson 1997, p. 503).
 130. ^ Kornbluh 1997.
 131. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 740.
 132. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 741.
 133. ^ a b c Nadle, Marlene (August 24, 1968). "Régis Debray Speaks from Prison". Ramparts Magazine: 42.
 134. ^ Cuba salutes 'Che' Guevara: Revolutionary Icon Finally Laid to Rest CNN, October 17, 1997 CNN VIDEO
 135. ^ "Bidding for Che", Time Magazine, Dec 15 1967
 136. ^ Guevara 1967b.
 137. ^ Ryan 1998, p. 45
 138. ^ Ryan 1998, p. 104
 139. ^ Ryan 1998, p. 148
 140. ^ Ramírez 1997.
 141. ^ Bolivia unveils original Che Guevara diary by Eduardo Garcia, Reuters, July 7, 2008
 142. ^ McLaren 2000, p. 7.
 143. ^ Che's Second Coming? by David Rieff, November 20, 2005, New York Times
 144. ^ Guevara 2009, p. II.
 145. ^ Moynihan 2006.
 146. ^ Sinclair 1968 / 2006, p. 80.
 147. ^ Sinclair 1968 / 2006, p. 127.
 148. ^ McLaren 2000, p. 3.
 149. ^ Sinclair 1968 / 2006, p. 67.
 150. ^ Ernesto Che Guevara R.I.P. by Murray Rothbard, Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought, Volume 3, Number 3 (Spring-Autumn 1967)
 151. ^ Just a Pretty Face? by Sean O'Hagan, The Observer, July 11, 2004
 152. ^ People's Weekly 2004.
 153. ^ Argentina pays belated homage to "Che" Guevara by Helen Popper, Reuters, June 14, 2008
 154. ^ Statue for Che's '80th birthday' by Daniel Schweimler, BBC News, June 15, 2008
 155. ^ On a tourist trail in Bolivia's hills, Che's fame lives on By Hector Tobar, Los Angeles Times, October 17, 2004
 156. ^ Schipani 2007.
 157. ^ Behind Che Guevara’s mask, the cold executioner Times Online, September 16, 2007
 158. ^ Vargas Llosa 2005.
 159. ^ Vargas Llosa 2005.
 160. ^ Vargas Llosa 2005.
 161. ^ D'Rivera 2005.
 162. ^ ""Chávez es díficil de encasillar, pero a final de cuentas queda claro que es un pobre rico"". El Nacional. http://el-nacional.com/www/site/p_contenido.php?q=nodo/76704/Internacional/Canek-S%C3%A1nchez-Guevara:-Ch%C3%A1vez-es-una-mezcla-de-caudillo,-peronista-y-guerrillero-en-tiempos-de-paz.
 163. ^ BBC News May 26, 2001
 164. ^ see also Che Guevara (photo)
 165. ^ Lacey 2007b.
 166. ^ BBC News 2007.
 167. ^ O'Hagan 2004.

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« Reply #159 on: August 02, 2009, 02:54:42 am »

References

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    * Anderson, Jon Lee (1997). Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1600-0.
    * Bamford, James (2002). Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency (Reprint edition). New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0-385-49908-6.
    * BBC News (January 17, 2001). "Profile: Laurent Kabila". Accessed April 10, 2008.
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    * Gott, Richard (August 11, 2005). "Bolivia on the Day of the Death of Che Guevara". Le Monde diplomatique. Accessed February 26, 2006.
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    * Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (1995). Motorcycle Diaries. London: Verso Books.
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    * Guevara Lynch, Ernesto (2000). Aquí va un soldado de América. Barcelona: Plaza y Janés Editores, S.A. ISBN 84-01-01327-5.
    * Hall, Kevin (2004). "In Bolivia, Push for Che Tourism Follows Locals' Reverence". Common Dreams. commondreams.org. Accessed November 15, 2008.
    * Haney, Rich (2005). Celia Sánchez: The Legend of Cuba's Revolutionary Heart. New York: Algora Pub. ISBN 0875863957.
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    * Lacey, Mark (October 26, 2007). "Lone Bidder Buys Strands of Che's Hair at U.S. Auction". New York Times.
    * Lacey, Mark (October 9, 2007). "A Revolutionary Icon, and Now, a Bikini". The New York Times.
    * Lago, Armando M (September 2005). "216 Documented Victims of Che Guevara in Cuba: 1957 to 1959PDF (24.8 KB)". Cuba: the Human Cost of Social Revolution. (Manuscript pending publication.) Summit, New Jersey: Free Society Project.
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    * Mittleman, James H (1981). Underdevelopment and the Transition to Socialism – Mozambique and Tanzania. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-500660-8
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    * Ratner, Michael (1997). Che Guevara and the FBI: The U.S. Political Police Dossier on the Latin American Revolutionary. Ocean Press. ISBN 1875284761.
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    * Schipani, Andres (September 23, 2007). "The Final Triumph of Saint Che". The Observer. (Reporting from La Higuera.)
    * Selvage, Major Donald R. – USMC (April 1, 1985). Che Guevara in Bolivia. Globalsecurity.org. Accessed January 5, 2006.
    * Sinclair, Andrew (1968 / re-released in 2006). Viva Che!: The Strange Death and Life of Che Guevara. Sutton publishing. ISBN 0750943106.
    * Snow, Anita (October 8, 2007). "Castro Pays Homage to Che Guevara". ABC News.
    * Taibo II, Paco Ignacio (1999). Guevara, Also Known as Che. St Martin's Griffin. 2nd edition. pp. 691. ISBN 312206526.
    * Time Magazine (October 12, 1970). "Che: A Myth Embalmed in a Matrix of Ignorance".
    * Time Magazine cover story (August 8, 1960). "Castro's Brain".
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    * Vargas Llosa, Alvaro (July 11, 2005). "The Killing Machine: Che Guevara, from Communist Firebrand to Capitalist Brand". The Independent Institute. Accessed November 10, 2006.
    * "World Combined Sources" (October 2, 2004). "Che Guevara remains a hero to Cubans". People's Weekly World.
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« Reply #160 on: August 02, 2009, 02:54:59 am »

External links

    * BBC: Che Guevara Images:   Set 1, Set 2, Set 3
    * Che Guevara Internet Archive: Speeches, Images
    * CNN (video): "Che Guevara, Superstar"
    * Death of Che Guevara: Declassified U.S. Archives
    * Democracy Now: "Life & Legacy of Che Guevara"
    * Discovery Channel: Ernesto "Che" Guevara
    * Documentary: Che Guevara, The Body & The Legend
    * Documentary: El Che Investigating a Legend

   

    * History International: Tracing Che: A Motorcycle Journey
    * MSNBC Slideshow: "In Cuba, Che Still Sells Revolution"
    * New York Post: Ernesto "Che" Guevara Photo Gallery
    * NY Times Interactive Gallery: "A Revolutionary Afterlife"
    * Reuters Slideshow: "Honoring Che"
    * Slate Magazine: Picture Essay of Che
    * The Guardian: "Making of a Marxist" ~ Che's Early Journals
    * The History Channel: The True Story of Che Guevara

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« Reply #164 on: August 02, 2009, 03:25:28 am »

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