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Festivals of Western Europe

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Perseus
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« Reply #30 on: April 29, 2009, 01:31:54 pm »

The explanition of this Superstition is found in an old Danish legend which says that Jesus, when carrying his heavy cross to Calvary paused to rest at a shoemaker's door. "Go on faster, go on faster!" ordered the shoemaker, pointing to the road. "I shall go on," replied Jesus looking at the man, "but thou, thou shalt wander until I return."

    Folk say that for more than twenty centuries now the Shoemaker of Jerusalem has wandered across Denmark's icy fields on Christmas Eve, searching in vain for an unblessed plough. Should he succeed in finding one he could stop and rest, his wanderings over forever; for then, according to peasant tradition, the shoemaker's curse would be transferred to the godless farmer.

    Thus far no Danish farmer has forgotten to bless his plough, nor has he left it carelessly lying about. But on Christmas Eve as the church bells strike twelve, people say they can hear the Wandering Jew wailing across the heath before he disappears for another twelve months.

    At four or five on Christmas Eve the village bells start ringing joyously and everyone goes to church. Later people return home to feast and make merry within the family circle. Houses are gaily ornamented with red and white candles, the Dannebrog, or Danish flag (with its white cross on a red background) and, of course, the Christmas tree--a young spruce with evergreen needles, the symbol of everlasting life. The tree is always a beautiful sight with its decorations of red and white wax papers, fancy cookies, stilning stars and little colored bags of sweets. In addition, there are plenty of small Danish flags, bright tinsel and delightful homemade ornaments.

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« Reply #31 on: April 29, 2009, 01:32:06 pm »

Christmas Eve Supper, usually served at six o'clock, is the high point of the holiday. Traditionally the meal starts with risengrod, or rice porridge, which has cinnamon on top and a big butter "eye" in the center. The exciting feature of the risengrod is thee whole almond inside. Whoever finds this coveted morsel in his portion receives a prize, such as a marzipan fruit, or some other trifle. Of course, the merriment and suspense are increased when the finder does not disclose his luck until everyone else has consumed his last grain of rice.

    The rice pudding is followed by a wonderful array of foods, chief of which is the roast goose, adorned with small Danish flags and stuffed with apples and prunes. Browned potatoes, red cabbage and currant jelly accompany the bird, while rich apple cake, fruits and nuts follow for dessert.

    After dinner and a hearty "Tak for mad," "Thanks for the meal" to the head of the family, old and young go to the adjoining room, join hands, and dance about the Christmas tree.

    "It's Christmas again, Christmas again," sing the merry dancers, "And Christmas lasts till Easter!" Then follows the rueful refrain, "It isn't true! It isn't true! Lent comes in between!"

    Christmas carols follow. At last it is present time. Often the youngest child hands out the gifts, which are piled beneath the tree. After all gifts have been opened, admired and enjoyed, there are games played for spice-cake forfeits. Before bedtime there is more food--coffee, sandwiches and many different kinds of sweets.

     In olden times people always remembered the Jule-Nisse at Christmas. He was the gnome said to dwell in attic or barn. He looked after the household's welfare and was responsible for its good--or bad luck. The Jule Nisse always received a generous portion of risengrod, with an added helping of butter. Nowadays, alas, nobody seems to see Jule-Nisse. He lives on, nevertheless, in all true Danish hearts, and the brave little red-capped, grey-bearded gnome is always well represented in Christmas cards and holiday decorations.

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« Reply #32 on: April 29, 2009, 01:32:23 pm »

JULEDAG (Christmas) December 25

    Christmas is spent quietly in the homes. All day, following morning church services, relatives and friends drop in to exchange greetings and good wishes.

    Throughout the holiday season hospitality is offered--and accepted--in every household. According to an old superstition, whoever enters a house at Yuletide without partaking of the family's cheer will "carry away the Christmas."

    Anden Juledag, Second Christmas Day, which follows Christmas is often celebrated by country dances at the village hall, a community Christmas tree gathering or, in towns and cities, by attendance at theatres and concerts.

NYTARSAFTEN (New Year's Eve) December 31

    Instead of "blowing in the New Year," as was customary in the past, young people now "smash it in" by bombarding people's doors, or "let it in" by setting off fireworks. Once these noisy demonstrations were intended to frighten away powers of darkness; now noise making is just part of the New Year's Eve fun.

    For months ahead boys save up worthless earthenware. On New Year's Eve they break it against the house doors of friends and neighbors. The most popular man in the town or village is he who has the greatest number of old pots and bowls smashed against his door.

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« Reply #33 on: April 29, 2009, 01:32:45 pm »

According to traditional etiquette, the master of the house rushes out and tries to catch his noisy guests, who run away after the attack. They do not run too quickly, however, because those who are caught are treated with cakes, cookies or doughnuts. The young people who explode fireworks outside the door are similarly welcomed and offered holiday cheer.

    In many parts of West Jutland the last night of the year is considered the time for all sorts of pranks and practical jokes, The farmer does well, therefore, to put everything under cover and bolt the barn door; otherwise, cart wheels may mysteriously find their way to the well and pitchforks to the rafters!

    Just at midnight church bells peal out the passing of the year. In towns and cities bands of gay masqueraders swarm through the streets. Banquets, dances, dinners and gala parties are features of the evening's entertainment. In homes throughout the land the traditional supper includes holiday boiled cod and mustard sauce, with aquavit to drink. The Christmas candles are lighted again. Laughter and merriment flow as freely as aquavit for the final night of the year is a time for relaxation and fun.



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« Reply #34 on: April 29, 2009, 03:16:56 pm »

3 FESTIVALS OF FRANCE
LE JOUR DE L'AN (New Year's Day) January 1

    The first day of the year is characterized by family reunions, visiting and the exchange of presents and greeting cards The name Jour des Etrennes, Day of New Year's Presents, is often given to January first because of the widespread custom of gift giving.

    Early in the morning children give their fathers and mothers little handmade articles and wish them "Bonne Annee." Tradesfolk send their errand boys or girls to patrons with the season's compliments and something characteristic of their trade. The fish merchant, for example, may offer oysters, the baker a brioche, the butcher a chicken, the dairyman a dozen eggs, and so on. It is customary to give wine and etrennes of money to those who bring the presents. Servants and clerks generally are allowed a double month's pay as a New Year's gift. Bonbonnieres filled with chocolates or other sweets, flowers, and all kinds of fruits confits et marrons glaces (preserved fruit and candied chestnuts) are the customary gifts exchanged among family and friends.

    The New Year's dinner is an elaborate affair, attended by relatives from far and near. In the afternoon men call on their women friends and younger people on their elders. The streets present a festive air, with their brilliantly-lighted shop windows and crowds of eager holiday folk--laughing, exchanging greetings and hurrying to meet friends.

    In the evening a dinner party usually is held at the home of the "head of the house"--the eldest member of the family. As the French "family" means all the relatives, whether close or several times removed, these reunions are large affairs which are greatly enjoyed by both old and young.

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« Reply #35 on: April 29, 2009, 03:17:08 pm »

LE JOUR DES ROIS (Day of the Kings) January 6

    On le Jour des Rois, or sometimes on the Eve, it is customary to give to the parish poor. In Alsace children go about from door to door, begging for eggs, bacon and cakes. Three of the youngsters represent the Three Kings by dressing in long robes and wearing gold paper crowns; a fourth carries a pole topped by a paper star. In Normandy bands of boys and girls make neighborhood rounds with lighted lanterns and empty baskets. The children sing traditional verses in which they ask the rich to share bounty with the destitute. Householders give the young visitors gifts of food and drink, money, or clothes.

    In some parts of Brittany a beggar leads through the streets a horse, gaily bedecked with mistletoe and ribbon. From the saddle hang empty baskets which soon bulge with donations of food and wearing apparel.

    Le Jour des Rois is celebrated with parties for both children and adults. The galette des rois, or cake of the Kings, traditionally brings an elaborate feast to an exciting climax. The cake, which is round and flat, often is cut in the pantry, covered with a white napkin and carried into the dining room on a small table. The galette always is cut into one more piece than the number of guests. The extra portion, intended for the first poor person who comes to the door, is called la part a Dieu, God's share. The youngest member of the party, who sometimes hides under the table, is asked to name the person for whom the piece of cake is intended. Great Suspense prevails during the distribution ceremony because a bean (in some places a tiny gift or a china doll) is baked in the cake.

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« Reply #36 on: April 29, 2009, 03:17:32 pm »

The person finding the token becomes king or queen for the evening. The monarch chooses a consort and together they rule the party. Whenever they drink the guests shout, "Le roi boit! La reine boit!" "The king drinks! The queen drinks!" The entire company similarly comments upon and imitates with mock ceremony every move the royal couple makes.

MARDI GRAS (Shrove Tuesday) The Tuesday preceding Ash Wednesday

    Mardi Gras is the last day of Carnival, the three-day-period of boisterous hilarity preceding Lent. Festivities are especially colorful in Nice, Cannes, Menton, Grasse and other southern cities, where people go out into the streets in costume and indulge in all sorts of noisy pranks, such as parading, tooting tin horns, singing and pelting passers-by with confetti and flowers. Each town has its own bataille de fleurs (battle of flowers) preceding Lent. Flower-decked cars and floats drive for hours along the streets and boulevards. As friends and acquaintances pass and repass they pelt one another with missiles of flowers.

    In Nice, where festivities assume more picturesque proportions than elsewhere, an enormous effigy of His Majesty King Carnival, surrounded by a train of clowns and buffoons, is formally presented with the keys of the city. King Carnival is seated on a throne from which he rules the scene. On Shrove Tuesday night, following a brief but merry reign and a torchlight procession, King Carnival is burned at the stake.

    In Paris and some other cities butchers observe the Carnival with the fete of the Boeuf Gras, or Fat Ox. An ox decked with garlands, flowers, ribbons and festoons of green, is led through the streets in procession. The beast is followed by a triumphal cart bearing a little boy known as the "King of the Butchers." The crowd pays tribute to the small king by blowing horns and throwing confetti, flowers and sweets.

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« Reply #37 on: April 29, 2009, 03:17:49 pm »

Brilliant parties, balls and other festivities mark the end of the pre-Lenten gaieties.

LE PREMIER AVRIL (April First) April 1

    Poisson d'avril, April fish, is the name French people apply to one who is fooled or mocked on April first. Confectioners' windows display chocolate fish on this day and many friends anonymously send each other humorous postcards imprinted with pictures of fish.

    Nobody knows the real origin of the custom. Many think it dates back to the time when France adopted the reformed calendar in 1582 and with it the change of the beginning of the New Year from March 25 to January first. People began sending fake gifts on April first (which originally culminated the New Year feast), as a joke on those who previously had received their etrennes, or New Year's gifts, on that day. It is thought that, since the first of April falls within the zodiacal sign of Pisces, the fishes, the term recevoir un Poisson d'avril, to be made an April fish, or fool, came into popular usage.

MI-CAREME (Mid-Lent) The fourth Sunday in Lent

    In many parts of France the gloom of the Lenten season is broken by the mid-Lent festivities.

    In Paris the day is celebrated by the fete of the blanchisseuses, or laundresses. Washerwomen from each of the various metropolitan districts select a queen. Later a "queen of queens" is chosen and she elects a king, who sits beside her as she rides through the streets on a float. Then come the district queens, each with her own brilliant retinue of courtiers and ladies-in-waiting.

    In the evening the laundresses attend a colorful ball, presided over by their queen of queens.



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« Reply #38 on: April 29, 2009, 03:18:03 pm »

PAQUES (Easter)

    Church bells are silent from Good Friday until Easter in token of mourning for the crucified Christ. Mothers and nurses tell the children that "the bells have flown away to Rome."

    Early on Easter morning the children rush into the garden to watch the bells "fly back from Rome." As the small folk scan the sky for a glimpse of the returning bells their elders hide chocolate eggs, Jordan almonds, almond-paste candies and all sorts of other good things where the boys and girls can find them. "You are too late to see the bells," declare the grown-ups. "See, they have already passed this way! They have dropped sweets under your very noses."

    The tradition of the Easter bells is told in an old lullaby which goes something like this:


Do-do-ding, ding dong sleep little man,
Do-do-ding, ding dong,
The bells have gone to Rome.
It is time to sleep,
The bells have flown away.

They have gone to Rome,
Down there, down there, far away, you see,
To visit the Pope, a saintly man,
An old man, dressed in white is he.
The bell of each church
To him secretly speaks
Of all the good little ones,
And he himself le Bon Dieu tells
The name of each good child.

Do-do-ding, ding dong, sleep little man.

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« Reply #39 on: April 29, 2009, 03:18:14 pm »

Easter is probably the one Sunday in the year when almost everyone goes to church. Candles blessed at the Easter service are carried home and lighted only on special festivals, for an Easter taper must last until the following Paques.

    It is as traditional to eat omelet for Easter morning breakfast as for everyone to wear something new. Eggs play an important part in all festivities. Children receive gifts of candy eggs and, in parts of western France, it is customary for village choir boys to go from farm to farm the day before Easter, begging for eggs for their holiday cakes. As the boys make rounds they sing threatening ditties such as this:


Madame has hidden her hen
So she will not have to give us anything.
Do you know what will happen?
Alleluja!
Her hen will die!

LE PREMIER MAI (The First of May) May 1

    In many places people rise at dawn and go to the woods to search for the first muguets, or lilies-of-the-valley. Sprays of the pressed flowers, accompanied by messages of love and affection, are sent to distant friends as portes-bonheurs (charms). Street corners resound with shrill cries of muguets vendors, who hawk their fragrant wares and urge passers-by to purchase lilies-of-the-valley for friends. Everywhere people declare the flowers are lucky; that any wish one makes while wearing lilles-of-the-valley is bound to come true, and that it is especially good fortune to receive them from one who loves you.

LA FETE DE SAINT GENS (Festival of Saint Gens), in Monteux, region of Provence Sunday following May 15

    Saint Gens, patron of the fever-afflicted and intercessor in time of drought, was born in Monteux where he is said to have averted a great drought in the twelfth century. He is honored twice annually in his native Provence--first, at Monteux on the Sunday following May 15, and again, at Beaucet, the first Saturday and Sunday in September. On both occasions ceremonies for the saint are similar, consisting of processions with his image at the hermitage of Saint Gens, prayers for the sick and supplications for rain.

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« Reply #40 on: April 29, 2009, 03:18:26 pm »

Saint Gens is pictured as ploughing a furrow with an ox and a wolf. Legend says the holy man retired to a desert place near Mont Ventoux, where he worked the land with a team of stout oxen. One day a wolf attacked and ate one of the oxen. Saint Gens made the wolf do penance by hitching him with the remaining animal and ploughing in the place of the devoured beast.

LA FETE DES SAINTES MARIES (Festival of the Holy Maries), in Les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, region of Provence May 24, 25

    Thousands of gypsies from all over the world annually pour into the little fishing town of Les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer to honor Sara, their patron saint, on May 24, and Saints Marie Jacobe and Marie Salome, on May 25.

    For days before the pilgrimage gypsies from France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and many other countries travel in steady procession across the marshy Camargue. On horseback and afoot they come, in thundering motor trucks and expensive trailers, in limousines and dilapidated cars. The dark-skinned pilgrims pitch camp on the outskirts of Les Saintes and soon a noisy, humming community arises. Horses are tethered to trees, pots set boiling. Washlines sag with colorful garments. Youngsters, wrapped in gaudy comfortables, nap on trailer roofs. Groups gather about to eat or sing, to dance or play haunting melodies on harmonica or guitar. All classes of gypsies are represented, all occupations.

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« Reply #41 on: April 29, 2009, 03:18:39 pm »

Regardless of widely differing economic status and social position these nomads from every land have one common interest: all are pilgrims. All come to kneel at the shrine of black-faced Sara the Egyptian, founder of their race. At least once in his lifetime every gypsy hopes to pray at her shrine, to burn an enormous candle before her image, to leave an offering for her to bless.

    Throughout the centuries countless legends have sprung up concerning Sara and how she became the gypsies' guardian. Possibly the best known version is that Sara was the handmaid of Marie Jacobe, sister of the Blessed Virgin, and Marie Salome, mother of the Apostles James and John. After the Crucifixion, in the attempt to destroy Jesus' followers, the two Maries were cast adrift in a frail bark, without rudder, sails, or provisions. The holy women were accompanied by Lazarus, who was raised from the dead, his sisters Martha and Mary Magdalene, Joseph of Arimathea, who eventually carried the Holy Grail to Glastonbury, Maximin and others.

    Legend says that Sara, the Maries' devoted servant, was left behind on the Palestinian shore. An old Provencal song tells how:


Sara, the pious handmaid
Weeps and wants to follow
And serve them even to death
Upon the raging sea.
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« Reply #42 on: April 29, 2009, 03:18:52 pm »

Marie Salome, moved by Sara's entreaties, reputedly threw her mantle on the turbulent waters. Sara caught it and was drawn to her mistress' arms. The tiny craft, guided by an angel and Sara the gypsy, miraculously reached Provence, close to the spot where Les Saintes now stands. There the two Maries, served by Sara to the end, worked and preached, while other members of the company spread out over Provence-Martha to Tarascon, Miximin to the town that bears his name, the Magdalene to continued penance at La Sainte Baume.

    The legend many gypsies prefer is that Sara was a tribal queen of the Camargue. Miraculously learning of the Maries' arrival in their little skiff, she welcomed the holy women, was baptized by them and then led them to the temple of the sun, where her tribe had assembled. Tradition affirms that the two Maries converted the gypsies and that their pagan altar became France's first Christian shrine.

    Sara, the gypsy queen, worked with the saints and helped them. At their death she buried them. Above their tomb an oratory was built and later, the twelfth century fortress church of Notre Dame de la Mer, where thousands gather today for the annual festival. Sara's bones (since she is not a canonized Christian saint) lie in the crypt close to her pagan altar, while those of the Maries--in a blue ark-like reliquary painted with scenes from their lives--rest in an upper chapel, above the church choir.

    On May 24, the first day of the pilgrimage, the statue of Sara is brought up from the dark crypt, where she stays throughout the year, and placed in the church before the congregation. At morning mass the ark of the Maries is slowly lowered from the upper chapel window by means of creaking, flower decorated cables. "Vivent les Saintes Maries! Vive Sainte Sara!" shout the frenzied gypsies. Hundreds of dark hands reach up eagerly to touch the descending reliquary. Parents hold children up to implant resounding kisses on the battered box. The old and infirm pass their hands over it "for health."

    At last the casket, is settled into place on a trestle before the altar and the traditional canticles to "Nos Saintes Marie et Jacobe" echo sonorously through the ancient church.

    After Mass the gypsies carry the image of their patron in colorful procession for the ceremony of blessing the sea. By night Saint Sara is back in the crypt, but no longer alone, because her tribespeople keep vigil with her. Hundreds of tapers burn before the image, the brow crowned with pale roses, the black painted face worn by kisses of the faithful. Each year the gypsies give Sara a new robe, which is put on over the worn garments of previous years. Beside her hangs a clothesline filled with handkerchiefs, neckties, head scarves, and socks, left by the gypsies who seek their patron's special blessing. There are photographs, also, and an offering box, bursting with gold earrings, chains, bracelets and other valuables--all left with thanks for past favors and petitions for future benefits.

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« Reply #43 on: April 29, 2009, 03:19:02 pm »

On May 25, the second day of the festival, the gypsies bear the images of the two Maries from the church to the sea, just as they took out Sara on the previous day. Preceding the gypsies and the Maries, comes a group of local girls, dressed in traditional Arlesienne costume. The long silk dresses of gray, blue, orange, yellow and rose, have ruffled lace fichus crossed over the ample bosoms. Little embroidered ribbon caps perch like trembling butterflies on the graceful dark heads, with hair parted behind and swept up on either side. No fete in this part of France is complete without a procession of girls in these regional costumes, many of which have been handed down from mother to daughter for generations.

    Following the Arlesiennes the gypsies proudly carry the heavy platform with the images of the Saints, standing erect in a little blue, tinsel-trimmed boat. The Maries--one in pink satin mantle, the other in blue--wear chaplets of flowers. A mounted honor escort of gardiens, or cowboys, riding the evil-eyed wild ponies of the Camargue and carrying the iron-tipped tridents used for prodding bulls, attend the Maries.

    The Archbishop of Aix, with miter and staff and a silver armshaped reliquary, follows. Then come clergy with crosses and banners, and a throng of chanting gypsies and visitors. The procession is more gay than solemn, for the singing is noisy, the colors bright, and the Maries' pink and blue satin robes billow mischievously in the brisk sea breeze.

    Through the long straggling village and out across the sands the procession advances. The gardiens, raising their tridents in salute, ride swiftly into the sea. Then the horsemen turn, forming a semicircle about the Saints as the gypsies carry them into the waves. The Archbishop, meanwhile, enters a boat decorated with multicolored pennants. Raising the silver arm so all can see, he solemnly blesses the waters which traditionally brought the Maries to these shores nineteen centuries ago.

    At afternoon vespers in the church the gypsy pilgrims chant a final petition:


Great Saintes Maries, we are about to leave you.
Intercede for us before God
So He will preserve our souls and bodies,
So He will help us to be better.
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« Reply #44 on: April 29, 2009, 03:19:15 pm »

Two swarthy men, standing in the upper chapel window pull on the creaking cables and slowly elevate the reliquary of the Maries. As on the previous day, hysterical shouts of "Vivent les Saintes Maries! Vive Sainte Sara! Vivent les Saintes Maries! Vive Sainte Sara!" resound through the sanctuary. Gypsies with outstretched arms vie with each other to be last in touching the ascending casket. Finally the ark reaches the chapel window, where it remains suspended until the festival ends.

    At the conclusion of religious ceremonies the congregation rapidly disperses for the horse races or bull ring. Some pilgrims, however, linger about the well in the center of the church and start lowering empty wine bottles by strings into the waters below. Centuries ago, when parishioners fled to this fortress church at sight of enemy ships, the same well enabled them to resist siege for indefinite periods. Today the waters are thought to possess miraculous curative powers. "They will cure the headache," according to one gypsy informant who was corking up his bottle, "but only," he amended, "if drawn on le Jour de fete."

LA PENTECOTE (Pentecost) (Whitsun) The fortieth day after Easter

    All city people try to spend this two-day spring holiday in the country. Picnics, excursions and outings of all kinds are planned at this time.

LA FETE-DIEU (Corpus Christi) The Thursday following Trinity Sunday

    This great church festival, celebrated in honor of the Blessed Sacrament, is observed throughout France. Gorgeously robed priests, followed by choir and laymen, carry the Eucharist through the streets under canopies that are richly embroidered in gold.

    In some towns and villages the path of the Eucharist procession is covered with a thick carpet of rose petals. Prizes are offered for the most beautifully decorated houses. Often people pin flowers to sheets which they hang against walls or the sides of buildings. One of the most picturesque aspects of the festival are the reposoirs, or small altars, which villagers set up out-of-doors-often at the crossroads. These shrines are covered with hand-embroidered or lace-trimmed altar cloths and decorated with candles, images, flowers, or garlands of green. Canopies of interwoven green branches give the altars the appearance of woodland chapels. The priest gives his benediction to these places of worship as he makes the village rounds.

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