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Road To Recognition: LUMBEES Learn From Travails Of Texas Tribe - HISTORY

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Author Topic: Road To Recognition: LUMBEES Learn From Travails Of Texas Tribe - HISTORY  (Read 4476 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #15 on: March 08, 2009, 06:33:06 pm »









Ku Klux Klan conflict



During the 1950s, the Ku Klux Klan sought to wage a campaign of terror in the American South to suppress growing activism of the Civil Rights Movement. The Klan primarily targeted African Americans.

In 1957, after adoption of the Lumbee Act, Klan Wizard James W. "Catfish" Cole of South Carolina began a campaign of harassment against the newly christened "Lumbees," claiming they were "mongrels" and "half-breeds" who had overstepped their place in the segregated Jim Crow South.

A group of Klansmen burned a cross on the lawn of a Lumbee woman in the town of St. Pauls, North Carolina because she was dating a white man. For two weeks, the Ku Klux Klan continued to attack the Lumbee community by burning crosses while Cole planned a massive Klan rally to be held on January 18, 1958, near the town of Maxton, North Carolina. Cole predicted that 5,000 rallying Klansmen would remind the Lumbee of "their place." Cole's rhetorical attacks against the Lumbee and the plan to hold a Klan rally within the Lumbee homeland provoked so much anger that the Lumbee decided to confront the Klan.

Celebrated today in Robeson County as the "Battle of Hayes Pond," or "the Klan Rout," the resulting confrontation made national news.

Over 500 armed Lumbees overwhelmed and scattered 50 Klansmen (not the planned 5,000).

Before Cole had a chance to begin the Klan rally, the Lumbee suddenly appeared, fanned out across
the highway, encircled the Klansmen, and opened fire. Four Klansmen were wounded in the first volley – none seriously – while the remaining Klansmen panicked and fled.

Cole reportedly escaped through a nearby swamp but was later apprehended, charged, and convicted for inciting to riot. He served a sentence of two years.

The Lumbee celebrated the victory by burning the Klan regalia and dancing around the flames, making native whooping noise.
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« Reply #16 on: March 08, 2009, 06:36:24 pm »









Tuscarora hypothesis



A number of Robeson Countians reject the modern Lumbee label as fictitious and claim descent from the Tuscarora Indians, a North Carolina tribe that suffered defeat at the hands of the English colonists in 1713.

The Tuscaroras left their homes in northeastern North Carolina to emigrate north to New York, where they joined the Iroquois League. Tuscarora tribal leaders determined that the emigration was complete by 1802.

Some of the current residents in Robeson County claim to be descended from Tuscarora stragglers who stayed behind.

The Lumbees have advanced the so-called Tuscarora hypothesis in their bid to be recognized by the United States as a legitimate Indian tribe.

The Lumbee claim to Tuscarora heritage is hotly contested by both the federally recognized Tuscarora tribe in New York and the unrecognized Tuscarora Nation of North Carolina.

The recognized Tuscarora tribe asserts that only a few Tuscarora remained behind and that by their intermarriage with other races, they lost their tribal membership. The Tuscarora Nation of North Carolina contends that the Lumbees are stealing their tribal history to advance their own specious claim to Indian heritage.

Proponents of the Tuscarora hypothesis make two arguments. First, the migration trail of the ancestral Lumbees from coastal Virginia to Robeson County passed through the territory in which the Tuscaroras had lived. This makes intermarriage with Tuscarora stragglers a possibility. Second, members of the outlaw Henry Berry Lowrie gang of the Reconstruction era laid claim to at least partial Tuscarora descent.

In the 1920s, some Robeson County Indians made contact with individual members of the Mohawk tribe, a tribe politically related to the Tuscarora. These mostly rural Robeson County Indians began to express a Tuscarora identity and strongly objected to the Lumbee name and to the Cheraw theory of ancestry. Many associate with the Tuscarora Nation of North Carolina, which is recognized by neither the United States government or the recognized Tuscarora tribe.
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« Reply #17 on: March 08, 2009, 06:37:52 pm »









See also



Native Americans in the United States

Timeline of Lumbee history

List of famous Lumbees

Genealogical DNA test

Roanoke Colony

Brass Ankles
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Bianca
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« Reply #18 on: March 08, 2009, 06:40:42 pm »









References



Barton, Lewis Randolf. The Most Ironic Story in American History. Charlotte: Associated Printing Corporation, 1967

DeMarce, Virginia E. "Looking at Legends - Lumbee and Melungeon: Applied Genealogy and the Origins of Tri-Racial Isolate Settlements." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 81 (March 1993): pp.24-45.

DeWitt, Robert M. The Red Wolf Series, New York

Dial, Adolph L. ‘’The Lumbee (Indians of North America book series).’’ New York: Chelsea House Publications, 1993.

Dial, Adolph L. and David K. Eliades. The Only Land I Know: A History of the Lumbee Indians. San Francisco: Indian Historian Press, 1975.

Evans, William McKee. To Die Game: The Story of the Lowry Band: Indian Guerillas of Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1971.

Greensboro Daily News, "Cole Says His Rights Violated." January 20, 1958: A1.

Hauptman,Laurence M. “River Pilots and Swamp Guerillas: Pamunkey and Lumbee Unionists,” in Between Two Fires: American Indians in the Civil War. New York: Free Press, 1995

Heinegg, Paul. Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina: From the Colonial Period to about 1820. Baltimore: Clearfield, 2001. Available online

Hoffman, Margaret M. Colony of North Carolina (1735-1764), Abstracts of Land Patents, Volume I. Roanoke Rapids, N.C.

Houghton, Richard H., III. “The Lumbee: ‘Not a Tribe.’ ” The Nation 257.21 (20 December 1993)

Life, "Bad medicine for the Klan: North Carolina Indians break up Kluxers’ anti-Indian meeting." 44 (27 January 1958), pp.26-28

McMillan, Hamilton. Sir Walter Raleigh's Lost Colony: An Historical Sketch of the Attempts of Sir Walter Raleigh to Establish a Colony in Virginia, with the Traditions of an Indian Tribe in North Carolina. Indicating the Fate of the Colony of Englishmen Left on Roanoke Island in 1587. Wilson, NC: Advance Press, 1888. online text

McPherson, O.M. Report on Condition and Tribal Rights of the Indians of Robeson and Adjoining Counties of North Carolina. 63rd Congress, 3rd session, January 5, 1915. Senate Document 677. online text

Norment, Mary C. The Lowrie History, As Acted in Part by Henry Berry Lowrie, the Great North Carolina Bandit. Weldon, NC: Harrell's Printing House, 1895.

Pollitzer, William. “The Physical Anthropology and Genetics of Marginal People of the Southeastern United States,” American Anthropologist 74, no. 3 (1972)

Ross, Thomas. American Indians in North Carolina. Southern Pines: Karo Hollow Press, 1999.
Seltzer, Carl C. "A Report on the Racial Status of Certain People in Robeson County, North Carolina." June 30, 1936. [NARA. RG 75, Entry 616, Box 13-15, North Carolina].

Sider, Gerald M. Living Indian histories: Lumbee and Tuscarora people in North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Thomas, Robert K. “A report on research of Lumbee origins."; Lumbee River Legal Services. The Lumbee petition. Prepared in cooperation with the Lumbee Tribal Enrollment Office. Julian T. Pierce and Cynthia Hunt-Locklear, authors. Jack Campisi and Wesley White, consultants. Pembroke: Lumbee River Legal Services, 1987.

Townsend, George Alfred. The Swamp Outlaws: or, The North Carolina Bandits; Being a Complete History of the Modern Rob Roys and Robin Hoods, 1872.

U.S. Bureau of the Census. The First Census of the U.S.: 1790. Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States: North Carolina. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1908.
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Bianca
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« Reply #19 on: March 08, 2009, 06:45:39 pm »









Further reading



The Amerindian (American Indian Review). "Lumbee Indians put Klansmen to rout in ‘uprising’." 6.3 (January-February 1958): [1]-2.

Anderson, Benedict . Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso; Revised edition, 1991.
 
Anderson, Ryan K. "Lumbee Kinship, Community, and the Success of the Red Banks Mutual Association," American Indian Quarterly 23 (Spring 1999): pp.39-58.

Barth, Fredrik, ed. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1969.

Baker, Fred A. Report on Siouan Tribe of Indians in Robeson County, North Carolina. [National Archives and Records Administration RG 75. Entry 121. File no. 36208-1935-310 General Services].

Beaulieu, David L. "Curly Hair and Big Feet: Physical Anthropology and the Implementation of Land Allotment on the White Earth Chippewa Reservation." American Indian Quarterly 7: pp.281-313.

Berry, Brewton. Almost White: A Study of Certain Racial Hybrids in the Eastern United States. New York: MacMillan Company, 1963.

Blu, Karen I. “Lumbee.” Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 14, Southeast. Ed. Raymond D. Fogelson. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004. pp.319-327.

Blu, Karen I. "'Reading Back' to Find Community: Lumbee Ethnohistory." In North American Indian Anthropology: Essays on Society and Culture, ed. by Raymond DeMallie and Alfonso Ortiz. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993. pp.278-295.

Blu, Karen I. The Lumbee Problem: The Making of an American Indian People. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Blu, Karen I. '"Where Do You Stay At?" Home Place and Community Among the Lumbee." In Senses of Place, ed. by Steven Feld and Keith Basso. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 1996. pp.197-227.

Boyce, Douglas W. "Iroquoian Tribes of the Virginia-North Carolina Coastal Plain," in Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant, vol. 15. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. pp.282-289.

Brownwell, Margo S. "Note: Who Is An Indian? Searching For An Answer To the Question at the Core of Federal Indian Law." University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform 34 (Fall-Winter 2001-2002): pp.275-320.

Davis, Dave D. "A Case of Identity: Ethnogenesis of the New Houma Indians," Ethnohistory 48 (Summer 2001): pp.473-494.

Craven, Charles. "The Robeson County Indian Uprising Against the KKK," The South Atlantic Quarterly LVII (1958): pp.433-442.

DeMarce, Virginia E. "Verry Slitly Mixt': Tri-racial Isolate Families of the Upper South- A Genealogical Study," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 80 (March 1992): pp.5-35.

Dominguez, Virginia. White By Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1986.

Feest, Christian F. "North Carolina Algonquians," in Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant, vol. 15. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978: pp.277-278.

Forbes, Jack D. Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Galloway, Patricia K. Choctaw Genesis, 1500-1700. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.

Garoutte, Eva M. Real Indian: Identity and the Survival of Native America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Greensboro Daily News, "The Lumbees Ride Again." January 20, 1958: 4A.

Hariot, Thomas, John White and John Lawson (1999). A Vocabulary of Roanoke. Evolution Publishing: Merchantville, NJ. ISBN 1-889758-81-7. 

Hobsbawm, Eric. Bandits. New York: Delacorte Press, 1969.

Hudson, Charles M. The Southeastern Indians. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1976.

Magdol, Edward S. "Against the Gentry: An Inquiry into a Southern Lower-Class Community and Culture, 1865-1870," Journal of Social History 6 (Spring 1973), pp.259-283

Maynor, Malinda, “Native American Identity in the Segregated South: The Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina, 1872-1956,” ‘’PhD Dissertation’’. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2005.
 
McCulloch, Anne M. and David E. Wilkins. '"Constructing' Nations Within States: The Quest for Federal Recognition by the Catawba and Lumbee Tribes." American Indian Quarterly 19 (Summer 1995): pp.361-389.

McKinnon, Henry A. Jr. Historical Sketches of Robeson County. N.P.: Historic Robeson, Inc., 2001.

Merrell, James H. The Indians' New World: Catawbas and Their Neighbors from European Contact through the Era of Removal. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Merrell, James H. to Charlie Rose, October 18, 1989, in “U.S. Congress, House Committee on Natural Resources,” ‘’Report Together with Dissenting Views to Accompany H.R. 334, 103rd Congress, 1st Session, October 14, 1993, House Report 290.

Miller, Bruce G. Invisible Indigenes: The Politics of Nonrecognition. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.

Morrison, Julian. "Sheriff Seeks Klan Leader's Indictment: Cole Accused of Inciting Riot Involving Indians and Ku Klux." Greensboro Daily News, January 20, 1958: A1-3.

Nagel, Joane. "American Indian Ethnic Renewal: Politics and the Resurgence of Identity." American Sociological Review 60 (December 1995): pp.947-965.

New York Times, “Raid by 500 Indians balks North Carolina Klan rally.” January 19, 1958, p.1.

Newsweek, "North Carolina: Indian raid." 51 (January 27, 1958: p.27.

Pascoe, Peggy. "Miscegenation Law, Court Cases, and Ideologies of 'Race' in Twentieth-Century America." Journal of American History 83 (June 1996): pp.44-69.

Perdue, Theda. "Mixed Blood" Indians: Racial Construction in the Early South. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2003.

Pierce, Julian, J. Hunt-Locklear, Jack Campisi, and Wesley White, ‘’The Lumbee Petition’’, Pembroke, NC: Lumbee River Legal Services, 1987.

Price, Edward T. "A Geographic Analysis of White-Negro-Indian Racial Mixtures in Eastern United States." The Association of American Geographers. Annals 43 (June 1953): pp.138-155.

Price, Edward T. "Mixed-blood Populations of Eastern United States as to Origins, Localization and Persistence. (Ph.D. dissertation) University of California, Berkeley, 1950.

Redding, Kent. Making Race, Making Power: North Carolina's Road to Disenfranchisement. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.

Robesonian, "‘The Law’ Treads Lightly to Avert Maxton Violence." January 20, 1958: 1.

Ross, Thomas. “The Lumbees: Population Growth of a Non-reservation Indian Tribe,” in Cultural Geography of North American Indians, eds. Thomas E. Ross and T.G. Moore. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987: pp.297-309.

Ryan, Ethel. Greensboro Record, "Indians who crushed rally were mature tribesmen." January 21, 1958: A1.

Saunt, Claudio. A New Order of Things : Property, Power, and the Transformation of the Creek Indians, 1733-1816. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Saunt, Claudio. Black, White, and Indian : Race and the Unmaking of an American Family. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Seib, Rebecca S. Settlement Pattern Study of the Indians of Robeson County, NC, 1735-1787. Pembroke, NC: Lumbee Regional Development Association, 1983.

Seib, Rebecca S. Lumbee Indian Histories: Race, Ethnicity, and Indian Identity in the Southern United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Seib, Rebecca S. "Lumbee Indian Cultural Nationalism and Ethnogenesis," Dialectical Anthropology 1 (January 1975): pp.161-172.

Seib, Rebecca S. “The walls came tumbling up: The production of culture, class and Native American societies.” Australian journal of anthropology 17.3 (December 2006): pp.276-290.

Smith, Martin T. Archeology of Aboriginal Culture Change in the Interior Southeast: Depopulation During the Early Historic Period. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1987.

Stilling, Glenn Ellen Starr. "Lumbee Indians." Encyclopedia of North Carolina. Ed. William S. Powell. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006. pp.699-703. available online

Swanton, John R. "Probable Identity of the 'Croatan' Indians." National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. MS 4126

Torbert, Benjamin. "Tracing Native American Language History through Consonant Cluster Reduction: The Case of Lumbee English" American Speech 76 (Winter 2001): pp.361-387.

U.S. Bureau of the Census, ‘’2000 Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics: North Carolina’’ Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2002

U.S. Congress, Senate. Recognition as Siouan Indians of Lumber River of certain Indians in North Carolina. 73rd Congress, 2d session, January 23, 1934. Senate Report 204.

U.S. Congress, Senate. Relating to Lumbee Indians of North Carolina. 84th Congress, 2nd session, May 16, 1956. Senate Report 2012.

Usner, Daniel H. Jr. American Indians in the Lower Mississippi Valley: Social and Economic Histories. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

Usner, Daniel H. Jr. Indians, Settlers, and Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy : The Lower Mississippi Valley Before 1783. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Wilkins, David E. "Breaking Into the Intergovernmental Matrix: The Lumbee Tribe's Efforts to Secure Federal Acknowledgment." Publius 23 (Fall 1993): pp.123-142. available online
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Bianca
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« Reply #20 on: March 08, 2009, 06:51:38 pm »











External links



 Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Lumbee

Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina, Official Web Site

Lumbee Language and the Lumbee Indian Culture

The Lumbee Indians: An annotated bibliography

"Lumbee for Kids"

Strike at the Wind Outdoor Drama

U.S. Bureau of the Census

Lumbee genealogy website



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lumbee
« Last Edit: March 08, 2009, 06:55:59 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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Bianca
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« Reply #21 on: March 08, 2009, 07:00:32 pm »




               

Lumbee Jamie Oxendine and U.S. Congresswoman Marcy Kaptur during the opening of the National Museum of the American Indian.
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« Reply #22 on: March 08, 2009, 07:03:37 pm »



             






             
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« Reply #23 on: March 08, 2009, 07:09:02 pm »




Trey Oxendine

of the Lumbee Tribe
from Pembrook, NC
« Last Edit: March 08, 2009, 07:10:25 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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Bianca
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« Reply #24 on: March 08, 2009, 07:29:39 pm »




             








                                                Lumbees celebrate routing of the KKK






North Carolina:

The Lumbee Tribe will honor surviving American Indians who chased the Ku Klux Klan from Robeson County in 1958.


“I am excited [to] honor the Lumbee warriors who helped rid the county of a message of bigotry and hate,”


said Tribal Chairman Jimmy Goins. 


“I hope everyone brings their children so that the oral tradition and stories will be passed on.”




From 1957-1958, the KKK threatened Lumbee Indians by leaving burning crosses in their yards. One was a Lumbee woman they claimed was having an affair with a white man. 

When Klan leader James Cole planned a rally at Hayes Mill Pond, city and government officials and Lumbee Indians asked the Klan to hold the rally elsewhere.  They refused, predicting that 5,000 Klansmen would be
at the rally. However, only 50 showed.  As Cole began to speak, a Lumbee man shot out the bulb providing
the light. Then dozens of American Indians fired weapons into the air.  The Klansmen fled into the woods, leaving behind their public address system, unlit cross and various regalia. 

Cole was later arrested for inciting a riot and appeared before Lacy Maynor, the only Indian judge in Robeson County.  He was sentenced to a year in prison. 

The incident received national television and print coverage, including coverage in Life magazine.



photo and article:

www.indianz.com
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« Reply #25 on: March 08, 2009, 07:44:02 pm »





http://www.tmealf.com/native_flags_flying.htm
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Tom Hebert
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« Reply #26 on: March 09, 2009, 05:33:24 am »

Hi Bianca,

It's a difficult issue to resolve.  I spent much of my career in Cumberland County, next door to Robeson, and dealt with Lumbees Indians on a regular basis.  Now I live in New Hanover County, and we have a Lumbee Indian who is an elder in our church.  I only knew this because he told me.

This points out the main problem, as I see it.  Over the centuries the Lumbees have become assimilated into mainstream American society.  You would not know the difference except perhaps for their last names.  Of course, Lumbee Indians should be proud of their heritage, but they are trying to recreate something that no longer exists. That's why the movement will always have an aura of illegitimacy associated with it.

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« Reply #27 on: March 09, 2009, 07:25:08 am »







Tom,

So good of you to furnish first-hand observations!

Thank you!!!


Because of my personal feelings, I never feel in a position to comment, just to report the ongoing
situations, both in the US and Canada.
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