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Descent of Man [ 1871]

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« Reply #180 on: February 10, 2009, 01:25:26 pm »

* Rengger, Saugethiere, &c., 1830, s. 49.
  *(2) As in Macacus cynomolgus (Desmarest, Mammalogie, p. 65), and in
Hylobates agilis (Geoffroy St-Hilaire and F. Cuvier, Histoire Nat. des
Mammiferes, 1824, tom. i., p. 2).
  *(3) Anthropological Review, Oct., 1868, p. 353.
  *(4) Mr. Blyth informs me that he has only seen one instance of
the beard, whiskers, &c., in a monkey becoming white with old age,
as is so commonly the case with us. This, however, occurred in an aged
Macacus cynomolgus, kept in confinement, whose moustaches were
"remarkably long and human-like." Altogether this old monkey presented
a ludicrous resemblance to one of the reigning monarchs of Europe,
after whom he was universally nicknamed. In certain races of man the
hair on the head hardly ever becomes grey; thus Mr. D. Forbes has
never, as he informs me, seen an instance with the Aymaras and
Quechuas of South America.

 In regard to the general hairiness of the body, the women in all
races are less hairy than the men; and in some few Quadrumana the
under side of the body of the female is less hairy than that of the
male.* Lastly, male monkeys, like men, are bolder and fiercer than the
females. They lead the troop, and when there is danger, come to the
front. We thus see how close is the parallelism between the sexual
differences of man and the Quadrumana. With some few species, however,
as with certain baboons, the orang and the gorilla, there is a
considerably greater difference between the sexes, as in the size of
the canine teeth, in the development and colour of the hair, and
especially in the colour of the naked parts of the skin, than in

  * This is the case with the females of several species of Hylobates;
see Geoffroy St-Hilaire and F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. des Mamm., tom. i.
See also, on H. lar., Penny Cyclopedia, vol. ii., pp. 149, 150.

  All the secondary sexual characters of man are highly variable, even
within the limits of the same race; and they differ much in the
several races. These two rules hold good generally throughout the
animal kingdom. In the excellent observations made on board the
Novara,* the male Australians were found to exceed the females by only
65 millim. in height, whilst with the Javans the average excess was
218 millim.; so that in this latter race the difference in height
between the sexes is more than thrice as great as with the
Australians. Numerous measurements were carefully made of the stature,
the circumference of the neck and chest, the length of the back-bone
and of the arms, in various races; and nearly all these measurements
shew that the males differ much more from one another than do the
females. This fact indicates that, as far as these characters are
concerned, it is the male which has been chiefly modified, since the
several races diverged from their common stock.

  * The results were deduced by Dr. Weisbach from the measurements
made by Drs. K. Scherzer and Schwarz, see Reise der Novara:
Anthropolog. Theil, 1867, ss. 216, 231, 234, 236, 239, 269.

  The development of the beard and the hairiness of the body differ
remarkably in the men of distinct races, and even in different
tribes or families of the same race. We Europeans see this amongst
ourselves. In the Island of St. Kilda, according to Martin,* the men
do not acquire beards until the age of thirty or upwards, and even
then the beards are very thin. On the Europaeo-Asiatic continent,
beards prevail until we pass beyond India; though with the natives
of Ceylon they are often absent, as was noticed in ancient times by
Diodorus.*(2) Eastward of India beards disappear, as with the Siamese,
Malays, Kalmucks, Chinese, and Japanese; nevertheless, the
Ainos,*(3) who inhabit the northernmost islands of the Japan
Archipelago, are the hairiest men in the world. With negroes the beard
is scanty or wanting, and they rarely have whiskers; in both sexes the
body is frequently almost destitute of fine down.*(4) On the other
hand, the Papuans of the Malay Archipelago, who are nearly as black as
negroes, possess well-developed beards.*(5) In the Pacific Ocean the
inhabitants of the Fiji Archipelago have large bushy beards, whilst
those of the not distant archipelagoes of Tonga and Samoa are
beardless; but these men belong to distinct races. In the Ellice group
all the inhabitants belong to the same race; yet on one island
alone, namely Nunemaya, "the men have splendid beards"; whilst on
the other islands "they have, as a rule, a dozen straggling hairs
for a beard."*(6)

  * Voyage to St. Kilda (3rd ed., 1753), p. 37.
  *(2) Sir J. E. Tennent, Ceylon, vol. ii., 1859, p. 107.
  *(3) Quatrefages, Revue des Cours Scientifiques, Aug. 29, 1868, p.
630; Vogt, Lectures on Man, Eng. trans., p. 127.
  *(4) On the beards of negroes, Vogt, Lectures, &c., p. 127; Waitz,
Introduct. to Anthropology, Engl. translat., 1863, vol. i., p. 96.
It is remarkable that in the United States (Investigations in Military
and Anthropological Statistics of American Soldiers, 1869, p. 569) the
pure negroes and their crossed offspring seem to have bodies almost as
hairy as Europeans.
  *(5) Wallace, The Malay Arch., vol. ii., 1869, p. 178.
  *(6) Dr. J. Barnard Davis on Oceanic Races, in Anthropological
Review, April, 1870, pp. 185, 191.
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