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Descent of Man [ 1871]

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Author Topic: Descent of Man [ 1871]  (Read 6391 times)
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« Reply #180 on: February 10, 2009, 01:23:56 pm »

* Ottawa Academy of Sciences, May 21, 1868, pp. 3,5.
  *(2) S. Muller, on the banteng, Zoog. Indischen Archipel.,
1839-1844, tab. 35; see also Raffles, as quoted by Mr. Blyth, in
Land and Water, 1867, p. 476. On goats, Dr. Gray, Catalogue, of the
British Museum, p. 146; Desmarest, Mammalogie, p. 482. On the Cervus
paludosus, Rengger, ibid., s. 345.

  The last Order which we need consider is that of the primates. The
male of the Lemur macaco is generally coal-black, whilst the female is
brown.* Of the Quadrumana of the New World, the females and young of
Mycetes caraya are greyish-yellow and like each other; in the second
year the young male becomes reddish-brown; in the third, black,
excepting the stomach, which, however, becomes quite black in the
fourth or fifth year. There is also a strongly-marked difference in
colour between the sexes of Mycetes seniculus and Cebus capucinus; the
young of the former, and I believe of the latter species, resembling
the females. With Pithecia leucocephala the young likewise resemble
the females, which are brownish-black above and light rusty-red
beneath, the adult males being black. The ruff of hair round the
face of Ateles marginatus is tinted yellow in the male and white in
the female. Turning to the Old World, the males of Hylobates hoolock
are always black, with the exception of a white band over the brows;
the females vary from whity-brown to a dark tint mixed with black, but
are never wholly black.*(2) In the beautiful Cercopithecus diana,
the head of the adult male is of an intense black, whilst that of
the female is dark grey; in the former the fur between the thighs is
of an elegant fawn colour, in the latter it is paler. In the beautiful
and curious moustache monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) the only
difference between the sexes is that the tail of the male is
chestnut and that of the female grey; but Mr. Bartlett informs me that
all the hues become more pronounced in the male when adult, whilst
in the female they remain as they were during youth. According to
the coloured figures given by Solomon Muller, the male of
Semnopithecus chrysomelas is nearly black, the female being pale
brown. In the Cercopithecus cynosurus and griseoviridis one part of
the body, which is confined to the male sex, is of the most
brilliant blue or green, and contrasts strikingly with the naked
skin on the hinder part of the body, which is vivid red.

  * Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1866, p. i. The same fact has also been
fully ascertained by M. M. Pollen and van Dam. See, also, Dr. Gray
in Annals and Magazine of Natural History, May, 1871, p. 340.
  *(2) On Mycetes, Rengger, ibid., s. 14; and Brehm, Illustriertes
Thierleben, B. i., ss. 96, 107. On Ateles Desmarest, Mammalogie, p.
75. On Hylobates, Blyth, Land and Water, 1867, p. 135. On the
Semnopithecus, S. Muller, Zoog. Indischen Archipel., tab. x.

  Lastly, in the baboon family, the adult male of Cynocephalus
hamadryas differs from the female not only by his immense mane, but
slightly in the colour of the hair and of the naked callosities. In
the drill (C. leucophaeus) the females and young are much
paler-coloured, with less green, than the adult males. No other member
in the whole class of mammals is coloured in so extraordinary a manner
as the adult male mandrill (C. mormon). The face at this age becomes
of a fine blue, with the ridge and tip of the nose of the most
brilliant red. According to some authors, the face is also marked with
whitish stripes, and is shaded in parts with black, but the colours
appear to be variable. On the forehead there is a crest of hair, and
on the chin a yellow beard. "Toutes les parties superieures de leurs
cuisses et le grand espace nu de leurs fesses sont egalement colores
du rouge le plus vif, avec un melange de bleu qui ne manque reellement
pas d'elegance."* When the animal is excited all the naked parts
become much more vividly tinted. Several authors have used the
strongest expressions in describing these resplendent colours, which
they compare with those of the most brilliant birds. Another
remarkable peculiarity is that when the great canine teeth are fully
developed, immense protuberances of bone are formed on each cheek,
which are deeply furrowed longitudinally, and the naked skin over them
is brilliantly-coloured, as just-described. (See fig. 69.) In the
adult females and in the young of both sexes these protuberances are
scarcely perceptible; and the naked parts are much less bright
coloured, the face being almost black, tinged with blue. In the
adult female, however, the nose at certain regular intervals of time
becomes tinted with red.

  * Gervais, Hist., Nat. des Mammiferes, 1854, p. 103. Figures are
given of the skull of the male. Also Desmarest, Mammalogie, p. 70.
Geoffroy St-Hilaire and F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. des Mammiferes, 1824,
tom. i.
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