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The Egyptian Book of the Dead

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Author Topic: The Egyptian Book of the Dead  (Read 9096 times)
Josie Linde
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« Reply #60 on: December 21, 2008, 11:29:01 pm »

In some papyri the apes are four (Naville, Das Aeg. Todtenbuch, Bd. I., B1. 26), or seven (Naville, op. cit., Bd. I., Bl. 21) in number.

In the vignette which usually accompanies the hymn to the setting sun (Fig. 2), but which does not occur in the present papyrus, a hawk wearing on his head a disk encircled by a serpent, i.e., Ra-Harmachis, {footnote p. 253} takes the place of the disk and (e.g., British Museum papyri Nos. 9901 (Naville, op. cit., Bd. I., Bl. 22,), and 10,472); and the tet is represented by the stand ### (Naville, op. cit., Bd. 1., Bl. 22), on one side of which are three hawk-headed deities, and on the other three jackal-headed deities (see Lanzone, Dizionario, 10, pp. 56, 57.). Beneath are Isis and Nephthys kneeling in adoration before two lion-gods, which represent yesterday and to-morrow. An interesting variant of the latter vignette occurs in British Museum papyrus No. 10,472, which was made for the lady Anhai, a singer in the temple of Amen at Thebes, about B.C. 1000, where, in addition to the apes and figures of the goddesses (the titles of Isis being ### and those of Nephthys ###, there are represented, on each side (I) the winged utchat with pendent uræus and shen ### (emblematic of the sun's circuit) and feather (2) a man, prostrate, adoring the disk; (3) four men, upright, with both hands raised in adoration; and (4) a human-headed bird ###, emblematic of the soul of the deceased lady, standing upon a pylon.]

{p. 253}

Text: (1) [HYMN TO OSIRIS.] "Glory be to Osiris Un-nefer, the great god within Abydos, king of eternity, lord of the everlasting, who passeth through millions of years in his existence. Eldest son of the womb (2) of Nut, engendered by Seb the Erpat,[1] lord of the crowns of the North and South, lord of the lofty white crown. As Prince of gods and of men (3) he hath received the crook and the flail and the dignity of his divine fathers.[2] Let thy heart which is

[1. The word ### er-pat is composed of er "chief" and pat a clan, "tribe," or "family"; Seb, then, was the prince of the family of the gods. Erpat is a very ancient word, and was probably in use in Egypt before suten, the common word for "king." For a discussion on this point see Maspero, Un Manuel de Hiérarchie Égyptienne, p. 15 ff.; Brugsch, Aegyptologie, p. 210.

2 Osiris, the night sun, was the son of Ra, and the father and son of Horus. He is always represented as a mummy holding in his hands the sceptre ### crook ### and flail ###. See Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 690 ff.; Wiedemann, Religion, p. 123 ff.; Brugsch, Religion und Mythologie, p. 611 ff.]

{p. 254}

in the mountain of Amenta be content, for thy son Horus is stablished upon thy throne. (4) Thou art crowned lord of Tattu[1] and ruler in Abtu.[2] Through thee the world waxeth green (5) in triumph before the might of Neb-er-tcher.[3] He leadeth in his train that which is and that which is not yet, in his name (6) Ta-her-seta-nef;[4] he toweth along the earth in triumph in his name Seker.[6] He is (7) exceeding mighty and most terrible in his name Osiris. He endureth for ever and for ever in his name Un-nefer.[6] (Cool Homage to thee, King of kings, Lord of lords, Prince of princes, who from the womb of Nut hast possessed the world (9) and hast ruled all lands and Akert.[7] Thy body is of gold, thy head is of azure, and emerald light encircleth thee. O An[8] of millions of years, (10) all-pervading with thy body and

[1. The name Tettet or Tattu was borne by two towns in Lower Egypt: Busiris, the metropolis of the 9th nome, and Mendes, the metropolis of the 16th nome. See Brugsch, Dict. Géog., p. 978, and De Rougé, Géographie Ancienne de la Basse Égypte, p. 58.

2. Both Busiris and Abydos claimed to be the resting place of the body of Osiris.

3. A name of Osiris when his scattered limbs had been brought together and built up again into a body by Isis and Nephthys: see Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 714. The name means "lord of entirety."

4. I.e., The one who draws the world.

5. Seker is, like Ptah, Osiris, and Tenen, a form of the night sun. At the festival of this god, the Hennu boat, a symbol of the god Seker of Memphis, was drawn round the sanctuary at dawn at the moment when the sun casts its golden rays upon the earth. For a list of Seker's shrines, see Lanzone, Dizionario, pp. 1117-1119. See also Wiedemann, Religion, p. 75; Pierret, Panthéon, p. 66.

6. A name of Osiris which, as an important name, is written at times in a cartouche, e.g., ###, ###. It is usually explained to mean "the Good Being," although it has been suggested ### (Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1886) that "beautiful hare" is its signification.

7. A general term for a necropolis. Akert is the country of which Osiris was the prince; and it is mentioned as connected with Stat and Neter-khert, each of which is a name of the great necropolis on the western bank of the Nile. See Brugsch, Dict. Géog., p. 75; Lepsius, Todtenbuch, chap. 165, 1. 6; Naville, La Litanie du Soleil, p. 98.

8. An or Ani, a name or form of Ra, the Sun-god (compare "Ani at the head of the cycle of the gods," Grébaut, Hymne, p. 22), and also of Osiris. Ani is also identified with the Moon-god; compare {footnote p. 255}
  • "Hail, Ani, thou shinest upon us from heaven every day. May we never cease to behold thy rays! Thoth protecteth thee and maketh thy soul to stand up in the maat boat in thy name of Moon." For the identification of Ani with Horus, see Naville, La Litanie du Soleil, p. 99, note 10. The god Ani is also addressed as "Eye of Horus " by the deceased in the 39th chapter of the Book of the Dead, which refers to the "uniting of a soul to its body in the underworld."

* For the hieratic text, see De Horrack, Lamentations d'Isis et de Nephthys, p. 4, II. 1-3.]

{p. 255}

beautiful in countenance in Ta-sert.[1] Grant thou to the ka of Osiris, the scribe Ani, splendour in heaven and might upon earth and triumph in Neter-khert;[1] and that I may sail down to (11) Tattu like a living soul and up to (13) Abtu like a bennu (phœnix); and that I may go in and come out without repulse at (15) the pylons of the Tuat.[1] May there be given unto (16) me loaves of bread in the house of coolness, and (17) offerings of food in Annu, (18) and a homestead for ever in Sekhet-Aru[2] with wheat and barley (20) therefor."


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« Reply #61 on: December 21, 2008, 11:30:03 pm »

PLATE III.

Vignette: Scene of the weighing of the Heart of the Dead. Ani and his wife enter the Hall of Double Law or Truth, wherein the heart, emblematical of the conscience, is to be weighed in the balance against the feather, emblematical of law. Above, twelve gods, each holding a sceptre are seated upon thrones before a table of offerings of fruit, flowers, etc. Their names are: Harmachis, "the great god within his boat"; Tmu; Shu; Tefnut, "lady of heaven"; Seb; Nut, "lady of Heaven" Isis; Nephthys; Horus, "the great god"; Hathor, "lady of Amenta"; and Sa. Upon the beam of the scales sits the dog-headed ape which was associated

[1. A name of the underworld.

2. Or Sexet-Anru, a division of the Sexet-hetepu (see Plate XXXV.), the Elysian fields wherein the souls of the blessed were supposed to reap and sow.

3. In British Museum papyrus No. 9901 the goddess Maat is seated on the centre of the beam of the balance. The double Maat goddesses are at times represented standing beside the balance to watch the result of the weighing, and at the same time Maat is also placed in the scale to be weighed against the heart of the deceased (Fig. x) (see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 136, Pa.). {footnote page 256} In the papyrus of Qenna the head of Anubis is on the beam, and the ape, wearing disk and crescent, is seated upon a pylon-shaped pedestal beside the balance (Fig. 2). Another vignette shows Horus holding Maat in his band, weighing the heart in the presence of the Maat goddesses, and Anubis, holding the deceased by the hand, presents the heart to Osiris while Isis and Nephthys in the form of apes sit near (Fig. 3).

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« Reply #62 on: December 21, 2008, 11:30:25 pm »

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« Reply #63 on: December 21, 2008, 11:31:16 pm »

]

{p. 256}

with Thoth,[1] the scribe of the gods. The god Anubis, jackal-headed, tests the tongue of the balance, the suspending bracket of which is in the form of the feather The inscription above the head of Anubis reads:--"He who is in the tomb saith, pray thee, O weigher of righteousness, to guide (?) the balance that it may be stablished.'" On the left of the balance, facing Anubis, stands Ani's "Luck" or "Destiny," Shai and above is the object called mesxen which has been described[2] as "a cubit with human head," and which is supposed to be connected with the place of birth. Behind these stand the goddesses Meskhenet and Renenet: Meskhenet[3]

[1. In the papyrus of Sutimes (Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 43) the ape is called neb xemennu ut a maa, "Lord of Khemennu, just weigher"; and in British Museum papyrus No. 9900, "Thoth, lord of the scales."

2. Birch, in Bunsen's Egypt's Place, vol. v., p. 259. In the papyrus of Anhai (British Museum, No. 10,472) there is a meskhen on each side of the upright of the balance: one is called Shai and the other Renen.

3. Four goddesses bore the name of Meskhen, and they were supposed to assist the resurrection of Osiris; they were associated with Tefnut, Nut, Isis, and Nephthys (see Lepsius, Denkmäler, iv., Bl. 59a; and Mariette, Dendérah, iv., pl. 74 a). Each wore upon her head the object ###, which is said by some to represent the blossoms of palm trees (Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 329). Examples of this as an amulet, in hard stone, in the British Museum, are Nos. 8158, 8159, 8161, 20,618, and, in porcelain, No. 15,963.]

{p. 257}

presiding over the birth-chamber, and Renenet[1] probably superintending the rearing of children. Behind the meskhen is the soul of Ani in the form of a human-headed bird standing on a pylon. On the right of the balance, behind Anubis, stands Thoth,[2] the scribe of the gods, with his reed-pen and palette[3] containing black and red ink, with which to record the result of the trial. Behind Thoth stands the female monster Amam[4], the "Devourer," or Am-mit, the eater of the Dead."

[1. The name of this goddess is probably connected with the word renen, "to suckle." M. Pierret identifies her with the goddess of that name who presided over harvests, and is described as the "lady of the offerings of all the gods" (Panthéon, p. 61), having a snake's head, which in some instances is surmounted by the disk, horns and feathers of the goddess Hathor (see Lanzone, Dizionario, tav. 188, No. 2).

2 Thoth was the personification of intelligence. He was self-created and self-existent, and was the "heart of Ra." He invented writing, letters, the arts and sciences, and he was skilled in astronomy and mathematics. Among his many titles are "lord of Law," "maker of Law," and "begetter of Law." He justified Osiris against his enemies, and he wrote the story of the fight between Horus, the son of Osiris, and Set. As "lord of Law" he presides over the trial of the heart of the dead, and, as being the justifier of the god Osiris against his enemies, he is represented in funereal scenes as the justifier also of the dead before Osiris (see Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 1264 ff., and tav. cccciv., No. i; Pierret, Panthéon, pp. 10-14; and Brugsch, Religion und Mythologie, p. 439 ff.). Brugsch connects the name Tehuti (Thoth) with the old Egyptian word tehu, "ibis," and he believes that it means the "being who is like an ibis." The word tex also means "to measure," "to compute," "to weigh"; and as this god is called "the counter of the heavens and the stars, and of all that therein is," the connexion of the name Thoth with tex is evident. Bronze and faïence figures of the god represent him with the head of an ibis, and holding an utchat in his hands (see Nos. 481, 490a, and 11,385 in the British Museum). The utchat, or eye of the sun, has reference to the belief that Thoth brought back each morning the light of the sun which had been removed during the night.

3. The palettes of the Egyptian scribe were rectangular, and were made of wood, stone, basalt, ivory (see Nos. 5512a, 5513, 5525a, and 12,779, etc., in the British Museum). They measure from 10 to 17 inches in length, and from 2 to 3 inches in width. They usually contain two round cavities to hold red and black ink, and a groove to hold the reed-pens. The inscriptions on them, which usually have reference to Thoth, are cut, or written in ink, or inlaid in colour; the name of the owner of the palette is generally added. The colours with which the Egyptians wrote were made of vegetable substances, coloured earths, and preparations of copper.

4 She is also called "Devourer of Amenta" (i.e., the underworld), and Shai (see Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 129). In the British Museum papyrus No. 9901 she is described as hat en emsuh; pehu-s em tebt her-ab-set em ma "the fore-part of a crocodile; her hind-quarters are those of a hippopotamus; her middle part [is that] of a lion."

{footnote p. 258} The Devourer usually stands near the balance instead of behind Thoth; but there is one papyrus quoted by Naville, (Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 136) in which she is shown crouching beside the lake of fire in the infernal regions.

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« Reply #64 on: December 21, 2008, 11:32:10 pm »

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« Reply #65 on: December 21, 2008, 11:32:28 pm »

]

{p. 258}

Text: [Chapter XXXB.] Osiris, the scribe Ani, saith:[1] "My heart my mother, my heart my mother, my heart my coming into being! May there be nothing to resist me at [my] judgment; may there be no opposition to me from the Tchatcha;[2] may there be no parting of thee from me in the presence of him who keepeth the scales! Thou art my ka within my body [which] knitteth[3] and strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth to the place of happiness to which[4] I am advancing. "May the Shenit[5] not cause my name to stink, and may no lies be spoken against me in the presence of the god![6] Good is it for thee to hear."[7] . . . . . . .

Thoth, the righteous judge of the great company of the gods who are in the presence of the god Osiris, saith: "Hear ye this judgment. The heart of Osiris hath in very truth been weighed, and his soul hath stood as a witness for him; it hath been found true by trial in the Great Balance. There hath not been found any wickedness in him; he hath not wasted the offerings in the temples; he hath not done harm by his deeds; and he uttered no evil reports while he was upon earth."

The great company of the gods reply to Thoth dwelling in Khemennu: "That which cometh forth from thy mouth hath been ordained. Osiris, the scribe

[1. Ani's speech forms the text of Chapter XXXB. as numbered by M. Naville (Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 43).

2. The four gods of the cardinal points, Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf (see Naville, Todtenbuch Einleitung, p. 164).

Some copies read, "Thou art my ka within my body, the god Khnemu (i.e., "Moulder"), who uniteth (or formeth) and strengtheneth my limbs." Khnemu was called "builder of men, maker of the gods, the father from the beginning; creator of things which are," etc.

4 British Museum papyrus No. 9901 has "place of happiness to which thou goest with me."

5 A class of divine beings.

6 I.e., "the great god, lord of Amenta."

7. This sentence appears to be unfinished; see the Egyptian text, p. 12.]

{p. 259}

Ani, triumphant, is holy and righteous. He hath not sinned, neither hath he done evil against us. Let it not be given to the devourer Amemet to prevail over him. Meat-offerings and entrance into the presence of the god Osiris shall be granted unto him, together with a homestead for ever in Sekhet-hetepu, as unto the followers of Horus."


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« Reply #66 on: December 21, 2008, 11:53:28 pm »

PLATE IV.

Vignette: Ani, found just, is led into the presence of Osiris. On the left the hawk-headed god Horus, the son of Isis, wearing the double crown of the North and the South, takes Ani by the hand and leads him forward towards "Osiris, the lord of eternity" Ausar neb t'etta, who is enthroned on the right within a shrine in the form of a funereal chest. The god wears the atef crown with plumes; a menat (see p. 245, note 2) hangs from the back of his neck; and he holds in his hands the crook, sceptre, and flail, emblems of sovereignty and dominion. He is wrapped in bandages ornamented with scale work. The side of his throne is painted to resemble the doors of the tomb. Behind him stand Nephthys on his right hand and Isis on his left. Facing him, and standing on a lotus flower, are the four "children of Horus (or Osiris)," or gods of the cardinal points. The first, Mestha, has the head of a man; the second, Hapi, the head of an ape; the third, Tuamautef, the head of a jackal; and the fourth, Qebhsennuf, the head of a hawk. Suspended near the lotus is an object which is usually called a panther's skin,[1] but is more probably a bullock's hide.

The roof of the shrine is supported on pillars with lotus capitals, and is surmounted by a figure of Horus-Sept or Horus-Seker and rows of uræi.

In the centre Ani kneels before the god upon a reed mat, raising his right hand in adoration, and holding in his left hand the kherp sceptre. He wears a whitened wig surmounted by a "cone," the signification of which is unknown. Round his neck is a deep collar of precious stones. Near him stands a table of offerings of meat, fruit, flowers, etc., and in the compartments above are a number of vessels for wine, beer, oil, wax, etc., together with bread, cakes, ducks, a wreath, and single flowers.

[1. On the bullock's hide, in which the deceased, or the person who represented him, was supposed to wrap himself, see Virey, Tombeau de Rekhmara, p. 50, and plate 26, lower register.]

{p. 260}

Appendix: The shrine is in some instances represented in the shape of a pylon, the cornice of which is ornamented either with uræi, or with the disk of the sun and feathers, emblematic of Maat. It usually rests upon a base made in the shape of a cubit, The throne upon which Osiris sits is placed upon reed mats (British Museum papyrus No. 10,471), or upon the cubit-shaped base, or in a pool of water, from which springs a lotus flower with buds and having the four gods of the cardinal points (see British Museum papyrus No. 9901) standing upon it. In some of the

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« Reply #67 on: December 21, 2008, 11:53:53 pm »

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« Reply #68 on: December 21, 2008, 11:54:11 pm »

oldest papyri the body of Osiris is painted white, and he stands upright. Isis is described as "great lady, divine mother," and Nephthys as "the mistress of the underworld." In British Museum papyrus No. 10471 the scene of the presentation of the deceased to Osiris is unusual and of interest. On the right the scribe Nekht and his wife Thuau stand with both hands raised in adoration of Osiris. Behind them, upon a cubit-shaped base, is a house with four windows in its upper half, and upon the roof two triangular projections similar to those which admit air into modern houses in the East. Before the door are a sycamore (?) tree and a palm tree, with clusters of fruit; on the left is the god Osiris on his throne, and behind him stands "Maat, mistress of the two countries, daughter of Ra," above whom are two outstretched female arms proceeding from a mountain and holding a disk between the hands. In the centre, between Osiris and the deceased, is a pool of water with three sycamore (?) trees on each side, and at each corner a palm tree bearing clusters of dates; and from it there springs a vine laden with bunches of grapes.

In British Museum papyrus No. 10,472 the god seated in the shrine wears the crown of the god Tanen, and is called "Ptah-Seker-Ausar, within the hidden place, great god, lord of Ta-sert, king of eternity, prince of the everlasting."

Text: Saith Horus, the son of Isis: "I have come unto thee, O Unnefer, and I have brought the Osiris Ani unto thee. His heart is [found] righteous coming forth from the balance, and it hath not sinned against god or goddess. Thoth hath weighed it according to the decree uttered unto him by the company {p. 261} of the gods; and it is very true and righteous. Grant him cakes and ale; and let him enter into the presence of Osiris; and may he be like unto the followers of Horus for ever."

Behold, Osiris Ani saith: "O Lord of Amentet (the underworld), I am in thy presence. There is no sin in me, I have not lied wittingly, nor have I done aught with a false heart. Grant that I may be like unto those favoured ones who are round about thee, and that I may be an Osiris, greatly favoured of the beautiful god and beloved of the lord of the world, the royal scribe indeed, who loveth him Ani, triumphant before the god Osiris."

Appendix: The usual title of this chapter [XXXB.] is, "Chapter of not allowing the heart of [the deceased] to be driven away from him in the underworld."[1] it is an address by the deceased to his own heart, which he calls his ka or "double" within his body. It should be accompanied by a vignette of the trial of the heart in which the heart is weighed against the dead man himself, as in the ancient Nebseni papyrus.

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« Reply #69 on: December 21, 2008, 11:54:48 pm »

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« Reply #70 on: December 21, 2008, 11:55:10 pm »

In the Ani papyrus, however, it will be observed that the heart is being weighed against the feather of the Law, Maat, a scene which often accompanies Chapter CXXV.

Interesting variants of the vignettes of Chapter XXXB. are given by Naville (Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 43), where we find the deceased addressing either his heart placed on a stand, or a beetle, or a heart to which are attached the antennæ of a beetle. In certain papyri this chapter is followed by a rubric:--"[This chapter is] to be said over a scarab[2] of green stone encircled with smu metal, and [having] a ring of silver, which is to be placed upon the neck of the dead. This chapter was found in Khemennu.[3]

[1. ###

2. Chapter XXXA. is never found inscribed upon scarabs.

3. I.e., Hermopolis Magna, the metropolis of Un, the 15th nome of Upper Egypt, the city

called ### by the Copts, and Eshmûnên, ### by the Arabs. It was the abode of the "eight" (xemennu) great primeval gods, and of Thoth, the scribe of the gods. (See Meyer and Dümichen, Geschichte des alten Agyptens, p. 185.)]

{p. 262}

written upon a slab of steel of the South, in the writing of the god himself, under the feet of the majesty of the god, in the time of the majesty of Men-kau-Ra,[1] the king of the North and of the South, triumphant, by the royal son Heru-tata-f[2] who found it while he was journeying to inspect the temples."[3]

The scarabs which are found in the mummies, or lying upon the breast just above the position of the heart, form an interesting section of every large Egyptian collection. In the British Museum series every important type of the funereal scarab is represented. They are made of green basalt, green granite (Nos. 7894 and 15,497), white limestone (Nos. 7917, 7927, 15,508), light green marble (No. 7905), black stone (Nos. 7907, 7909, 7913), blue paste (Nos. 7904, 14,549), blue glass (No. 22,872), and purple, blue, or green glazed faïence (Nos. 7868, 7869). They vary in size from 5 inches to 2 inches in length. On the hard stone examples the text of the Chapter of the Heart, more or less complete, is usually cut on the base in outline; but it is sometimes traced in red ink (No. 7915), or in gold (No. 15,518). Incuse hieroglyphics are sometimes filled with gold (No. 7881). The name of the person with whom the scarab was buried usually precedes the text of the Chapter of the Heart; but in many instances blank spaces are found left without insertion of the name--a proof that i, these amulets were bought ready-made. The base however is often quite plan (Nos. 7965, 7966), or figures of Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys occupy the place of the usual inscription (Nos. 15,500, 15,507). The backs of scarabs are generally quite plain, but we find examples inscribed with figures of the boat of the Sun Osiris, with flail and crook the bennu bird, and the u'tat (No. 7883), Ra and Osiris (No. 15,507), and the bennu bird with the inscription neteri ab en Ra, "the mighty heart of Ra" (No. 7878). A finehard, green stone scarab of the Greek or Roman period has upon the back the figures of four Greek deities (No. 7966). In rare instances, the beetles have a human face (Nos. 7876, 15,516) or head (No. 7999). Carefully made scarabs have usually a band of gold across and down the back where the wings join: an example of the late period (No. 7977) has the whole of the back gilded. The scarab was set in a gold oval ring, at one end of which was a smaller ring for suspension from the neck or for attachment to the bandages of the mummy (No. 15,504). The green glazed faïence scarab of Thothmes III. (No. 18,190) was suspended by a gold chain from a bronze torque. A thick gold wire to fit the neck is attached to No. 24,401. The base of the scarab is sometimes in the form of a heart (Nos. 7917, 7925). A remarkable example of this variety is No. 7925, in which are

[1. The fifth king of the IVth dynasty.

2. This prince is said to have been a very learned man, whose speech was difficult to be understood (see Wiedemann, Aeg. Geschichte., p. 191).

3. For the hieroglyphic text, see pp. 13-15. This rubric was published by Birch, Aeg. Zeitschrift, p. 54; and by Rosellini, Breve Notizia interno un frammento di Papiro funebre Egizio essistente nel ducale museo di Parma; Parma, 1839, 8vo.]

{p. 263}

the emblems of "life," "stability," and "protection," engraved on the upper part of the base. Across the back of this scarab is -- ###;[1] On the right wing:-- ### and on the left ###[2]. A highly polished, fine green basalt scarab with human face (No. 7876) is set in a gold base, upon the face and edges of which are cut part of the Chapter of the Heart. At a period subsequent to the XXIInd dynasty inscribed funereal scarabs in marble, paste, etc., were set in pylon-shaped pectorals made of Egyptian porcelain, glazed blue, green, or yellow, which were sewed to the mummy bandages over the heart. On such pectorals the boat of the Sun is either traced in colours or worked in relief, and the scarab is placed so as to appear to be carried in the boat; on the left stands Isis, and on the right Nephthys (Nos. 7857, 7864, 7866).


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« Reply #71 on: December 21, 2008, 11:56:12 pm »

PLATES V. AND VI.

Vignettes: The funereal procession to the tomb; running the length of the two plates. In the centre of Plate V. the mummy of the dead man is seen lying in a chest or shrine mounted on a boat with runners, which is drawn by oxen. In the boat, at the head and foot of the mummy, are two small models of Nephthys and Isis. By the side kneels Ani's wife Thuthu, lamenting. In front of the boat is the Sem priest burning incense in a censer,[3] and pouring out a libation from a vase; he wears his characteristic dress, a panther's skin. Eight mourners follow. one of whom has his hair whitened. In the rear a sepulchral ark or chest[4] surmounted. by a figure of Anubis and ornamented with emblems of "protection" and "stability," is drawn on a sledge by four attendants, and is followed by two others. By their side walk other attendants carrying Ani's palette, boxes, chair, couch, staff, etc.

In Plate VI. the procession is continued up to the tomb. In the centre is a

[1. "Thou goest forth over heaven in three-fold peace [in] thy sektet boat; when thou showest thy face . . . . . . . thee."

2. "He giveth to thee thine eyes to see therewith, and thine cars [to hear therewith]."

3. For a bronze censer similar in shape, see No. 5296 a, Fourth Egyptian Room.

4. It is similar in shape to the chests which held the four jars containing the mummied intestines of the deceased. For examples of them see Nos. 8543a, 8543b in the Third Egyptian Room.]

{p. 264}

group of wailing women, followed by attendants carrying on yokes boxes of flowers, vases of unguents, etc. In the right centre are a cow with her calf, chairs of painted wood with flowers upon them, and an attendant with shaven head, carrying a haunch, newly cut, for the funereal feast. The group on the right is performing the last rites. Before the door of the tomb stands the mummy of Ani to receive the final honours; behind him, embracing him, stands Anubis, the god of the tomb; and at his feet, in front, kneels Thuthu to take a last farewell of her husband's body. Before a table of offerings stand two priests: the Sem priest, who wears a panther's skin, holding in his right hand a libation vase, and in his left a censer; and a priest holding in his right hand an instrument[1] with which he is about to touch the mouth and eyes of the mummy, and in his left the instrument for "opening the mouth."[2] Behind or beside them on the ground, in a row, lie the instruments employed in the ceremony of "opening the mouth,"[2] etc., the mesxet instrument, the sepulchral box, the boxes of purification, the bandlet, the libation vases, the ostrich feather and the instruments called Seb-ur, Temanu or Tun-tet, and the Pesh-en-kef. The Kher-heb priest stands behind reading the service of the dead from a papyrus.

Appendix: In the papyrus of Hunefer a slab or stele with rounded top is placed by the door of the tomb (Fig. 1, p. 265). In the upper part of it the deceased is shown adoring Osiris, and below is the legend,[3] "Hail, Osiris, the chief of Amenta, the lord of eternity,

[1. This instrument is called ### ur hekau, and is made of a sinuous piece of wood, one end of which is in the form of a ram's head surmounted by a uræus (Fig. 1).

2. In the Neb-seni papyrus the "Guardian of the Scale" opens the mouth of the deceased (Fig. 2).

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« Reply #72 on: December 21, 2008, 11:56:39 pm »

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« Reply #73 on: December 21, 2008, 11:56:53 pm »

3. ###.]

{p. 265}

spreading out in everlastingness, lord of adorations, chief of the company of his gods; and hail, Anubis [dweller] in the tomb, great god, chief of the holy dwelling. May they grant that I may go into and come out from the underworld, that I may follow Osiris in all his festivals at the beginning of the year, that I may receive cakes, and that I may go forth into the presence of [Osiris]; I, the double (ka) of Osiris, the greatly favoured of his god, Hu-nefer." In the upper register of this section of the papyrus is the text of the "Chapter of opening the mouth of the statue of Osiris." The complete scene, including this stele and vignette, appears in the tomb of Pe-ta-Amen-Apt. In the vignette of the first chapter of the Book of the Dead in the papyrus of Neb-qet[1] the soul of the deceased is represented descending the steps of the tomb to carry food to its mummy in the underground chamber (Fig. 2).

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« Reply #74 on: December 21, 2008, 11:57:12 pm »

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