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The Egyptian Book of the Dead

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Author Topic: The Egyptian Book of the Dead  (Read 9259 times)
Josie Linde
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« Reply #45 on: December 21, 2008, 11:16:24 pm »

she has the head of a lion surmounted by the sun's disk, round which is a uræus; and she generally holds a sceptre, but sometimes a knife.

Bast, according to one legend, was the mother of Nefer-Tmu. She was the personification of the gentle and fructifying heat of the sun, as opposed to that personified by Sekhet. The cat was sacred to Bast, and the goddess is usually depicted cat-headed. The most famous seat of her worship was the city of Bubastis, the modern Tell Basta, in the Delta.

Nefer-Tmu was the son either of Sekhet or Bast, and he personified some form of the sun's heat. He is usually depicted in the form of a man, with a cluster of lotus flowers upon his head, but sometimes he has the head of a lion; in the little faïence figures of him which are so common, he stands upon the back of a lion.[1] He no doubt represents the sun-god in the legend which made him to burst forth from a lotus, for in the pyramid of Unas the king is said to

xaa em, Nefer-Tmu em sessen er sert Ra

Rise like Nefer-Tmu from the lotus (lily) to the nostrils of Ra,"

and to "come forth on the horizon every day."[2]

Neheb-ka is the name of a goddess who is usually represented with the head of a serpent, and with whom the deceased identifies himself.

Sebak a form of Horus the sun-god, must be distinguished from Sebak the companion of Set, the opponent of Osiris; of each of these gods the crocodile was the sacred animal, and for this reason probably the gods themselves were confounded. Sebak-Ra, the lord of Ombos, is usually depicted in human form with the head of a crocodile, surmounted by ###, ###, or ###, or ###.[3]

Amsu or Amsi is one of the most ancient gods of Egypt. He personified the power of generation, or the reproductive force of nature; he was the "father of his own mother," and was identified with "Horus the mighty," or with Horus the avenger of his father Un-nefer or Osiris. The Greeks identified

[1. See Lanzone, op. cit., tav. 147.

2 Recueil de Travaux, iv., t. p. 45 (l. 394).

3. Ibid., op. cit., tav. 353.

4 Also read Min and Khem.]

{p. cxxii}

him with the god Pan, and called the chief city where his worship was celebrated Khenimis,[l] after one of his names. He is depicted usually in the form of a man standing upon; and he has upon his head the plumes and holds the flail in his right hand, which is raised above his shoulder.[2]

Neb-er-tcher, a name which originally implied the "god of the universe," but which was subsequently given to Osiris, and indicated the god after the completed reconstruction of his body, which had been hacked to pieces by Set.

Un-nefer a name of Osiris in his capacity of god and judge of the dead in the underworld. Some make these words to mean the "good being," and others the "beautiful hare."

Astennu a name given to the god Thoth.

Mert or Mer-sekert the lover of silence," is a name of Isis or Hathor as goddess of the underworld. She is depicted in the form of a woman, having a disk and horns upon her head.[3]

Serq or Selk is a form of the goddess Isis. She is usually depicted in the form of a woman, with a scorpion upon her head; occasionally she appears as a scorpion with a woman's head surmounted by disk and horns.[4]

Ta-urt, the Thoueris of the Greeks, was identified as the wife of Set or Typhon; she is also known under the names Apt and Sheput. Her common titles are "mistress of the gods and "bearer of the gods". She is depicted in the form of a hippopotamus standing on her hind legs, with distended paunch and hanging breasts, and one of her forefeet rests upon ###; sometimes she has the head of a woman, but she always wears the disk, horns, and plumes[4].

Uatchit was a form of Hathor, and was identified with the appearance of the sky in the north when the sun rose. She is either depicted in the form of a woman, having upon her head the crown of the north and a sceptre, around which a serpent is twined, or as a winged uræus wearing the crown of the north.

[1. In Egyptian the town is called Apu.

2. See Lanzone, op. cit., tav. 332.

3. Ibid., tav 124.

4. Ibid., op. cit., tav. 362.]

{p. cxxiii}

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« Reply #46 on: December 21, 2008, 11:16:45 pm »

Beb, Bebti, Baba, or Babu, mentioned three times in the Book of the Dead, is the "firstborn son of Osiris," and seems to be one of the gods of generation.

Hapi is the name of the great god of the Nile who was worshipped in Egypt under two forms, i.e., "Hapi of the South," and "Hapi of the North,"; the papyrus was the emblem of the one, and the lotus of the other. From the earliest times the Nile was regarded by the Egyptians as the source of all the prosperity of Egypt, and it was honoured as being the type of the life-giving waters out of the midst of which sprang the gods and all created things. In turn it was identified with all the gods of Egypt, new or old, and its influence was so great upon the minds of the Egyptians that from the earliest days they depicted to themselves a material heaven wherein the Isles of the Blest were laved by the waters of the Nile, and the approach to which was by the way of its stream as it flowed to the north. Others again lived in imagination on the banks of the heavenly Nile, whereon they built cities; and it seems as if the Egyptians never succeeded in conceiving a heaven without a Nile and canals. The Nile is depicted in the form of a man, who wears upon his head a clump of papyrus or lotus flowers; his breasts are those of a woman, indicating fertility. Lanzone reproduces an interesting scene[1] in which the north and south Nile gods are tying a papyrus and a lotus stalk around the emblem of union to indicate the unity of Upper and Lower Egypt, and this emblem is found cut upon the thrones of the kings of Egypt to indicate their sovereignty over the regions traversed by the South and North Niles. It has already been said that Hapi was identified with all the gods in turn, and it follows as a matter of course that the attributes of each were ascribed to him; in one respect, however he is different from them all, for of him it is written

an mehu en aner tut her uah set sexet aarat

He cannot be sculptured in stone; in the images on which men place crowns and uræi

an qemuh entuf an baka an xerpu tuf an

he is not made manifest; service cannot be rendered nor offerings made to him; not

[1. Dizionario, tav. 198.]

{p. cxxiv}

seset-tu em setau an rex-tu bu entuf an

can he be drawn from [his] mystery; not can be known the place where he is; not

qem tephet anu.

is he found in the painted shrine.[1]

Here the scribe gave to the Nile the attributes of the great and unknown God its Maker.

In the pyramid texts we find a group of four gods with whom the deceased is closely connected in the "other world"; these are the four "children of Horus" whose names are given in the following order:--Hapi, Tua-mautef, Amset and Qebhsennuf.[2] The deceased is called their "father."[3] His two arms were identified with Hapi and Tuamautef, and his two legs with Amset and Qebhsennuf;[4] and when he entered into the Sekhet-Aaru they accompanied him as guides, and went in with him two on each side.[5] They took away all hunger and thirst from him,[6] they gave him life in heaven and protected it when given,[7] and they brought to him from the Lake of Khemta the boat of the Eye of Khnemu.[8] In one passage they are called the "four Khu's of Horus",[9] and originally they represented the four pillars which supported the sky or Horus. Each was supposed to be lord of one of the quarters of the world, and finally became the god of one of the cardinal points. Hapi represented the north, Tuamautef the east, Amset the south, and Qebhsennuf the west. In the XVIIIth dynasty the Egyptians originated the custom of embalming the intestines of the

[1. For the hieratic text from which this extract is taken see Birch, Select Papyri, pll. 20 ff. and 134 ff. see also Maspero, Hymne au Nil, publié et traduit d'après les deux textes A Musée Britannique, Paris, 1868. 4to.

2 Pyramid of Unas, l. 219; Pyramid of Teta, ll. 60, 286; Pyramid of Pepi I., ll. 444, 593, etc.

3. Pyramid of Pepi I., l. 593.

4. Recueil de Travaux, t. iii., p. 905 (l. 219 f.).

5. Ibid., t. vii., p. 150 (ll. 261-63).

6 Ibid., t. v., p. 10 (ll. 59 ff.).

7. ###. Ibid., t. viii., p. 91 (l. 593).

8. Ibid., t. vii., p. 167 (l. 444).

9. Ibid., t. vii., p. 150 (l. 261).]

{p. cxxv}

body separately, and they placed them in four jars, each of which was devoted to the protection of one of the children of Horus, i.e., to the care of one of the gods of the four cardinal points. The god of the north protected the small visceræ, the god of the east the heart and lungs, the god of the south the stomach and large intestines, and the god of the west the liver and gall-bladder. With these four gods four goddesses were associated, viz., Nephthys, Neith, Isis, and Selk or Serq.

Connected with the god Horus are a number of mythological beings called Heru shesu[1] (or shemsu, as some read it), who appear already in the pyramid of Unas in connection with Horus and Set in the ceremony of purifying and "opening the mouth"; and in the pyramid of Pepi I. it is they who wash the king and who recite for him the "Chapter of those who come forth," and the "[Chapter of] those who ascend."[2]

In the judgment scene in the Book of the Dead, grouped round the pan of the balance which contains the heart of the deceased (see Plate III.), are three beings in human form, who bear the names Shai, Renenet, and Meskhenet.

Shai is the personification of destiny, and Renenet fortune; these names are usually found coupled. Shai and Renenet are said to be in the hands of Thoth, the divine intelligence of the gods; and Rameses II. boasts that he himself is "lord of Shai and creator of Renenet."[3] Shai was originally the deity who "decreed" what should happen to a man, and Renenet, as may be seen from the pyramid texts,[4] was the goddess of plenty, good fortune, and the like; subsequently no distinction was made between these deities and the abstract ideas which they represented. In the papyrus of Ani, Shai stands by himself near the pillar of the Balance, and Renenet is accompanied by Meskhenet, who appears to be the personification of all the conceptions underlying Shai and Renenet and something else besides. In the story of the children of Ra, as related in the Westcar papyrus, we find the goddess Meskhenet mentioned with Isis, Nephthys, Heqet, and the god Khnemu as assisting at the birth of children.

[1. Recueil de Travaux, t. iii., p. 182 (l. 17).

2. ###, etc. Ibid., t. vii., p. 170 (l. 463).

3. See Maspero, Romans et Poésies du Papyrus Harris, No. 500, Paris, 1879, p. 27.

4 Pyramid of Unas, l. 564.]

{p. cxxvi}

Disguised in female forms, the four goddesses go to the house of Ra-user, and, professing to have a knowledge of the art of midwifery, they are admitted to the chamber where the child is about to be born; Isis stands before the woman, Nephthys behind her, and Heqet accelerates the birth. When the child is born Meskhenet comes and looking upon him says, "A king; he shall rule throughout this land. May Khnemu give health and strength to his body."[1] The word meskhenet is as old as the pyramid times, and seems then to have had the meaning of luck, destiny, etc.[2]

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« Reply #47 on: December 21, 2008, 11:17:08 pm »

The god Amen, his wife Mut and their associate Khonsu have nothing whatever to do with the Book of the Dead; but Amen, the first member of this great Theban triad, must be mentioned with the other gods, because he was usually identified with one or more of them. The name Amen means the "hidden one," and the founding of the first shrine of the god recorded in history took place at Thebes during the XIIth dynasty; from that time until the close of the XVIIth dynasty, Amen was the chief god of Thebes and nothing more. When, however, the last kings of the XVIIth dynasty had succeeded in expelling the so-called Hyksos and had delivered the country from the yoke of the foreigner, their god assumed an importance hitherto unknown, and his priests endeavoured to make his worship the first in the land. But Amen was never regarded throughout the entire country as its chief god, although his votaries called him the king of the gods. The conception which the Thebans had of their god as a god of the underworld was modified when they identified him with Ra and called him "Amen-Ra"; and, speaking generally, in the time of the XVIIIth dynasty and onwards the god became the personification of the mysterious creating and sustaining power of the universe, which in a material form was typified by the sun. By degrees all the attributes of the old gods of Egypt were ascribed to him, and the titles which among western nations are given to God were added to those pantheistic epithets which Amen had usurped. The following extracts from a fine hymn[3] will set forth the views of the priesthood of Amen-Ra concerning their god.

[1. Erman, Die Märchen des Papyrus Westcar, Berlin, 1890, Bl. 10, 11. 13, 14.

2. Compare ###, "the night of thy birth, and the day of thy meskhenet"; see Recueil de Travaux, t. vii., p. 161 (l. 397).

3 See Grébaut, Hymne à Ammon-Ra, Paris, 1874; and Wiedemann, Die Religion, p. 64 ff.]

{p. cxxvii}

"Adoration to thee, O Amen-Ra, the bull in Annu, the ruler of all the gods, the beautiful and beloved god who givest life by means of every kind of food and fine cattle.

"Hail to thee, O Amen-Ra, lord of the world's throne, thou dweller in Thebes, thou bull of thy mother that livest in thy field, that extendest thy journeys in the land of the south, thou lord of those who dwell in the west, thou governor of Punt, thou king of heaven and sovereign of the earth, thou lord of things that exist, thou stablisher of creation, thou supporter of the universe. Thou art one in thine attributes among the gods, thou beautiful bull of the company of the gods, thou chief of all the gods, lord of Maat, father of the gods, creator of men, maker of beasts and cattle, lord of all that existeth, maker of the staff of life, creator of the herbs which give life to beasts and cattle . . . . . . . . Thou art the creator of things celestial and terrestrial, thou illuminest the universe . . . . . . . The gods cast themselves at thy feet when they perceive thee . . . . . Hymns of praise to thee, O father of the gods, who hast spread out the heavens and laid down the earth . . . . . thou master of eternity and of everlastingness. . . . . . . . Hail to thee, O Ra, lord of Maat, thou who -art hidden in thy shrine, lord of the gods. Thou art Khepera in thy bark, and when thou sendest forth the word the gods come into being. Thou art Tmu, the maker of beings which have reason, and, however many be their forms, thou givest them life, and thou dost distinguish the shape and stature of each from his neighbour. Thou hearest the prayer of the afflicted, and thou art gracious unto him that crieth unto thee; thou deliverest the feeble one from the oppressor, and thou judgest between the strong and the weak . . . . . The Nile riseth at thy will. . . . Thou only form, the maker of all that is, One only, the creator of all that shall be. Mankind hath come forth from thine eyes, the gods have come into being at thy word, thou makest the herbs for the use of beasts and cattle, and the staff of life for the need of man. Thou givest life to the fish of the stream and to the fowl of the air, and breath unto the germ in the egg; thou givest life unto the grasshopper, and thou makest to live the wild fowl and things that creep and things that fly and everything that belongeth thereunto. Thou providest food for the rats in the holes and for the birds that sit among the branches . . . . . . thou One, thou only One whose arms are many. All men and all creatures adore thee, and praises come unto thee from the height of heaven, from earth's widest space, and from the deepest depths of the sea . . . . . . . . thou One, thou only One who hast no second . . . . . .whose names are manifold and innumerable."

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« Reply #48 on: December 21, 2008, 11:17:37 pm »

We have seen above[1] that among other titles the god Amen was called the "only One", but the addition of the words "who hast no second" is remarkable as showing that the Egyptians had already conceived the existence of a god who had no like or equal, which they hesitated not to proclaim side by side with their descriptions of his manifestations. Looking at the Egyptian words in their simple meaning, it is pretty certain that when the Egyptians declared that

[1. See above, p. xcv.]

{p. cxxviii}

their god was One and that he had no second, they had the same ideas as the Jews and Muhammadans when they proclaimed their God to be "One"[1] and alone. It has been urged that the Egyptians never advanced to pure monotheism because they never succeeded in freeing themselves from the belief in the existence of other gods, but when they say that a god has "no second," even though they mention other "gods," it is quite evident that like the Jews, they conceived him to be an entirely different being from the existences which, for the want of a better word, or because these possessed superhuman attributes, they named "gods."

The powers of darkness or evil.

The gods above enumerated represent the powers who were the guides and protectors and givers of life and happiness to the deceased in the new life, but from the earliest times it is clear that the Egyptians imagined the existence of other powers who offered opposition to the dead, and who are called in many places his "enemies." Like so many of the ancient gods, these powers were originally certain forces of nature, which were believed to be opposed to those which were regarded as beneficient to man, as for example darkness to light, and night to day; with darkness and night were also associated the powers which contributed in any way to obscure the light of the sun or to prevent his shining. But since the deceased was identified with Horus, or Ra, and his accompanying gods, the enemies of the one became the enemies of the other, and the welfare of the one was the welfare of the other. When the Egyptians personified the beneficent powers of nature, that is say, their gods, they usually gave to them human forms and conceived them in their own images; but when they personified the opposing powers they gave to them the shapes of noxious animals and reptiles, such as snakes and scorpions. As time went on, the moral ideas of good and right were attributed to the former, and evil and wickedness to the latter. The first personifications of light and darkness were Horus and Set, and in the combat--the prototype of the subsequent legends of Marduk and Tiamat, Bel and the Dragon, St. George and the Dragon, and many others--which took place between them, the former was always the victor. But, though the deceased was identified with Horus or Ra, the victory which the god gained over Set only benefited the spiritual body which dwelt in heaven, and did not preserve the natural body which lay in the tomb. The principal enemy of the natural body was the worm, and from the earliest times it seems that a huge worm or serpent was chosen by the Egyptians as the type of the powers which were hostile to the dead and also of

[1. ###, Deut. vi., 4. Compare ###, Deut. iv., 35; and ###, Isaiah xlv., 5.]

{p. cxxix}

the foe against whom the Sun-god fought. Already in the pyramid of Unas a long section of the text contains nothing but formulæ, the recital of which was intended to protect the deceased from various kinds of snakes and worms.[1] These are exceedingly ancient, indeed, they may safely be said to form one of the oldest parts of the funeral literature of the Egyptians, and we find from the later editions of the Book of the Dead and certain Coptic works that the dread of the serpent as the emblem of physical and moral evil existed among the Egyptians in all generations, and that, as will be seen later, the belief in a limbo filled with snakes swayed their minds long after they had been converted to Christianity.

The charms against serpents in the pyramid texts of the Vth and VIth dynasties have their equivalents in the XXXIst and XXXIIIrd Chapters of the Book of the Dead, which are found on coffins of the XIth and XIIth dynasties;[2] and in the XVIIIth dynasty we find vignettes in which the deceased is depicted in the act of spearing a crocodile[3] and of slaughtering serpents.[4] In the Theban and Saïte versions are several small chapters[5] the recital of which drove away reptiles; and of these the most important is the XXXIXth Chapter, which preserved the deceased from the attack of the great serpent Apef or Apep, who is depicted with knives stuck in his folds.[7] In the period of the later dynasties a service was performed daily in th temple of Amen-Ra at Thebes to deliver the Sun-god from the assault of this fiend and on each occasion it was accompanied by a ceremony in which a waxen figure of Apep was burnt in the fire; as the wax melted, so the power of Apep was destroyed. Another name of Apep was Nak, who was pierced by the lance of th eye of Horus and made to vomit what he had swallowed.[9]

The Devourer of the Dead

The judgment scene in the Theban edition of the Book of the Dead reveal the belief in the existence of a tri-formed monster, part crocodile, part lion, and

[1. Maspero, Recueil de Travaux, t. iii., p. 220.

2. Goodwin, Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1866, p. 54; see also Lepsius, Aelteste Texte, Bl. 35, l. 1 ff.

3. Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 44.

4. Ibid., Bd. I., Bl. 46.

5. I.e., chapp. 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, etc.

6. For the text see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 53; and Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bl. 18.

7. See Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 121.

8. The service for the Overthrowing of Apepi is printed in Archæologia, vol. lii., pp. 393-608.

9. ###. Grébaut, Hymne, p. 10.]

{p. cxxx}

part hippopotamus, whom the Egyptians called Am-mit, i.e., "the eater of the Dead," and who lived in Amenta; her place is by the side of the scales wherein the heart is weighed, and it is clear that such hearts as failed to balance the feather of Maat were devoured by her. In one papyrus she is depicted crouching by the side of a lake.[1] Other types of evil were the insect Apshai, [2]confounded in later times with the tortoise[3], which dies as Ra lives;[4] the crocodile Sebak, who afterwards became identified with Ra; the hippopotamus, the ass, etc.

The devils of the underworld.

The pyramid texts afford scanty information about the fiends and devils with which the later Egyptians peopled certain parts of the Tuat, wherein the night sun pursued his course, and where the souls of the dead dwelt; for this we must turn to the composition entitled the " Book of what is in the Tuat," several copies of which have come down to us inscribed upon tombs, coffins, and papyri of the XVIIIth and following dynasties. The Tuat was divided into twelve parts, corresponding to the twelve hours of the night; and this Book professed to afford to the deceased the means whereby he might pass through them successfully. In one of these divisions, which was under the rule of the god Seker, the entrance was guarded by a serpent on four legs with a human head, and within were a serpent with three heads, scorpions,[5] vipers, and winged monsters of terrifying aspect; a vast desert place was their abode, and seemingly the darkness was so thick there that it might be felt. In other divisions we find serpents spitting fire, lions, crocodile-headed gods, a serpent that devours the dead, a huge crocodile, and many other reptiles of divers shapes and forms.

From the descriptions which accompany the scenes, it is evident that the Tuat was regarded by the Egyptians of the XVIIIth dynasty from a moral as well as from a physical point of view.[6] Apep, the emblem of evil, was here punished and overcome, and here dwelt the souls of the wicked and the righteous, who received their punishments or rewards, meted out to them by the decree of Ra and his company of gods. The chief instruments of punishment employed by the gods were fire and beasts which devoured the souls and bodies of the enemies

[1. See below, p. 258.

2. Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 49.

3. Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Bl. 17.

4. ###. Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 184.

5. See Maspero, Les Hypogées Royaux de Thèbes, p. 76.

6. See Lefébure, Book of Hades (Records of the Past, vol. x., p. 84).]

{p. cxxxi}

Traditions about hell preserved in Coptic times.

of Ra; and we may see from the literature of the Copts, or Egyptians who had embraced Christianity, how long the belief in a hell of fire and torturing fiends survived. Thus in the Life of Abba Shenuti,[1] a man is told that the " executioners of Amenti will not show compassion upon thy wretched sol,"[2] and in the history of Pisentios, a Bishop of Coptos in the seventh century of our era, we have a series of details which reflect the Tuat of the ancient Egyptians in a remarkable manner. The bishop having taken up his abode in a tomb filled with mummies, causes one of them to tell his history.[3] After saying that his parents were Greeks who worshipped Poseidon, he states that when he was dying already the avenging angels came about him with iron knives and goads as sharp as spears, which they thrust into his sides, while they gnashed their teeth at him; when he opened his eyes, he saw death in all its manifold forms round about him; and at that moment angels without mercy came and dragged his wretched soul from his body, and tying it to the form of a black horse they bore it away to Amenta. Next, he was delivered over to merciless tormentors, who tortured him in a place where there were multitudes of savage beasts; and, when he had been cast into the place of outer darkness, he saw a ditch more than two hundred feet deep filled with reptiles, each of which had seven heads, and all their bodies were covered as it were with scorpions. Here also were serpents, the very sight of which terrified the beholder, and to one of them which had teeth like iron stakes was the wretched man given to be devoured; for five days in each week the serpent crushed him with his teeth, but on the Saturday and Sunday there was respite. Another picture of the torments of Hades is given in the Martyrdom of Macarius of Antioch, wherein the saint, having restored to life a man who had been dead six hours, learned that when he was about to die he was surrounded by fiends, some of whom had the faces of dragons, others of lions, others of crocodiles, and others of bears. They tore his soul from his body with great violence, and they fled with it over a mighty river of fire, in which they plunged it to a depth of four hundred cubits; then they took it out and set it before the judge of Truth. After hearing the sentence of the judge the fiends took it to a place of outer darkness where no

[1. See Amélineau, Monuments pour servir à l'Histoire de Égypte Chrétienne, p. 167.

2 ###.

3 See Amélineau, Étude sur le Christianisme en Égypte au Septième Siècle, Paris, 1887, p. 147.]

{p. cxxxii}

light came, and they cast it into the cold where there was gnashing of teeth. There it beheld a snake which never slept, with a head like that of a crocodile, and which was surrounded by reptiles which cast souls before it to be devoured, when the snake's mouth was full it allowed the other reptiles to eat, and though they rent the soul in pieces it did not die. After this the soul was carried into Amenta for ever. The martyr Macarius suffered in the reign of Diocletian, and the MS. from which the above extract is taken was copied in the year of the Martyrs 634 = A.D. 918. Thus, the old heathen ideas of the Egyptian Tuat were applied to the construction of the Coptic Hell.

[1. See Hyvernat, les Actes des Martyrs de Égypte, Paris, 1886, pp. 56, 57.]


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« Reply #49 on: December 21, 2008, 11:18:20 pm »

THE PRINCIPAL GEOGRAPHICAL AND MYTHOLOGICAL PLACES IN THE BOOK OF THE DEAD.

Abtu, the Abydos of the Greeks (Strabo, XVII., i., 42), the capital of the eighth nome of Upper Egypt. It was the seat of the worship of Osiris, and from this fact was called Per-Ausar or Busiris, "the house of Osiris "; the Copts gave it the name ###.[1] Egyptian tradition made the sun to end his daily course at Abydos, and to enter into the Tuat at this place through a "gap" in the mountains called in Egyptian peq.[2] These mountains lay near to the town; and in the XIIth dynasty it was believed that the souls of the dead made their way into the other world by the valley which led through them to the great Oasis, where some placed the Elysian Fields.[3]

Amenta or Amentet, or was originally the place where the sun set, but subsequently the name was applied to the cemeteries and tombs which were usually built or hewn in the stony plateaus and mountains on the western bank of the Nile. Some believe that Amenta was, at first, the name of a small district, without either funereal or mythological signification. The Christian Egyptians or Copts used the word Amend to translate the Greek word Hades, to which they attributed all the ideas which their heathen ancestors had associated with the Amenta of the Book of the Dead.

Annu, the Heliopolis of the Greeks (Herodotus, II., 3, 7, 8, 9, 59, 93; Strabo, XVII., I, 27 ff ), and the capital of the thirteenth nome of Lower Egypt.

[1. See Amélineau, la Géographie de l'Égypte, à l'Époque Copte, p. 155.

2. See Brugsch, Dict. Géog., p. 227.

3. See Maspero, Études de Mythologie, t. i., p. 345.]

{p. cxxxiv}

The Hebrews called it On (Genesis xli., 45, 50; xlvi., 20), Aven (Ezekiel xxx., 17), and Bêth-Shemesh (Jeremiah xliii., 13); this last name is an exact translation of the Egyptian per Ra, "house of the sun," which was also a designation of Annu. The Copts have preserved the oldest name of the city under the form ###.[1] A Coptic bishop of this place was present at the Council of Ephesus. The city of Annu seems to have become associated with the worship of the sun in prehistoric times. Already in the Vth dynasty its priesthood had succeeded in gaining supremacy for their religious views and beliefs throughout Egypt, and from first to last it maintained its position as the chief seat of theological learning in Egypt. The body of the Aged One, a name of Osiris, reposed in Annu, and there dwelt the Eye of Osiris. The deceased made his way to Annu, where souls were joined unto bodies in thousands, and where the blessed dead lived on celestial food for ever.

An-rutf or Naarutf, is a section or door of the Tuat which lies to the north of Re-stau; the meaning of the word is "it never sprouteth."

An-tes(?) (see within, p. 323), an unknown locality where a light tower (?), was adored.

Apu, the Panopolis of the Greeks ({Greek Panw^n po'lis}, Strabo, XVII., i., 41), the metropolis of the ninth nome of Upper Egypt, and the seat of the worship of the god ###, whose name is variously read Amsu, Khem, and Min. In ancient days it was famous as the centre for stone cutting and linen weaving, and the latter industry still survives among the modern Coptic population, who, following their ancestors, call their city ###, which the Arabs have rendered by Akhmîm.

Aqert, a common name for the abode of the dead.

Bast, more fully Pa-Bast or Per-Bast, the Bubastis of the Greek writers (Herodotus, II., 59, 137, 156, 166; Strabo, XVII., 1, 27), the metropolis of the eighteenth nome of Lower Egypt, and the seat of the worship of Bast, a goddess who was identified with the soul of Isis, ba en Auset. The city is mentioned in the Bible under the form ### (Ezekiel xxx., 17), Pi-beseth,

[1. See Amélineau, op. cit., p. 287.]

{p. cxxxv}

which the Copts have preserved in their name for the city, ###; the Arabs call the place Tell Basta.

Het-benbent, the name given to many sun-shrines in Egypt, and also to one of the places in the other world where the deceased dwelt.

Het-Ptah-ka, the sacred name of the city of Memphis, the metropolis of the first nome of Lower Egypt; it means the "House of the ka of Ptah," and was probably in use in the period of the Ist dynasty. Other names for Memphis were Aneb-het'et, "the city of the white wall", Men-nefer and Kha-nefert.

Kem-ur a name given to the district of the fourth and fifth nomes of Upper Egypt.

Khemennu, i.e., the city of the eight great cosmic gods, the Hermopolis of the Greek writers ({Greek E?'rmopolitikh` fulakh`}, Strabo, XVII., I, 41), and the metropolis of the fifteenth nome of Upper Egypt. The old Egyptian name for the city is preserved in its Coptic and Arabic names, ### and Eshmûnên.

Kher-aba, a very ancient city which was situated on the right bank of the Nile, a little to the south of Annu, near the site of which the "Babylon of Egypt"[1] (the {Greek Babulw'n, frou'rion e?rumno'n} of Strabo, XVII., I, 30), was built.

Manu is the name given to the region where the sun sets, which was believed to be exactly opposite to the district of Bekha, where he rose in the east; Manu is a synonym of west, just as Bekha is a synonym of east.[2]

Nekhen, the name of the shrine of the goddess Nekhebet, which is supposed to have been near to Nekheb, the capital of the third nome of Upper Egypt and the Eileithyiapolis of the Greeks.

Neter-khertet, a common name for the abode of the dead; it means the "divine subterranean place."

[1. See Amélineau, op. cit., p. 75.

2 See Brugsch, Diet. Géog., pp. 199, 260; Maspero, Études de Mythologie, t. i., p. 332; and Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1864, pp. 73-76.]

{p. cxxxvi}

Pe, a district of the town of Per-Uatchet, the Buto of the Greeks ({Greek Bou^tos}, Strabo, XVII., i., 18), which was situated in the Delta.

Punt, the tropical district which lay to the south and east of Egypt, and which included probably a part of the Arabian peninsula and the eastern coast of Africa along and south of Somali land.

Re-stau, or a name given to the passages in the tomb which lead from this to the other world; originally it designated the cemetery of Abydos only, and its god was Osiris.

Sa, the Saïs of the Greeks ({Greek Sa'ïs}, Strabo, XVII. i., 23), the metropolis of the fifth nome of Lower Egypt, and the seat of the worship of the goddess Neith.

Sekhem, the Letopolis of the Greeks, and capital of the Letopolites nome (Strabo, XVII., i., 30); it was the seat of the worship of Heru-ur, "Horus the elder," and one of the most important religious centres in Egypt.

Sekhet-Aanru, the "Field of the Aanru plants," was a name originally given to the islands in the Delta where the souls of the dead were supposed to live. Here was the abode of the god Osiris, who bestowed estates in it upon those who had been his followers, and here the beatified dead led a new existence and regaled themselves upon food of every kind, which was given to them in abundance. According to the vignette of the CXth Chapter of the Book of the Dead, the Sekhet-Aanru is the third division of the Sekhet-hetepu, or "Fields of Peace," which have been compared with the Elysian Fields of the Greeks.

Set Amentet, i.e., "the mountain of the underworld," a common name of the cemetery, which was usually situated in the mountains or desert on the western bank of the Nile.

Suten-henen, more correctly Henen-su, the metropolis of the twentieth nome of Upper Egypt, called by the Greeks Heracleopolis Magna (Strabo, XVI I., i., 35). The Hebrews mention the city (###, Isaiah xxx., 4) Hanes as the representative of Upper Egypt, and in Coptic times it was still of considerable size and importance; the Copts and Arabs have preserved the ancient name of the city under the forms ### and ###. Ahnas.

Tanenet, a district sacred to the gods Osiris and Ptah; it was probably situated near Memphis.

Ta-sert, or Ta-tchesertet, a common name for the tomb.

Tep, a district of the town Per-Uatchet, the Buto of the Greeks (Strabo, XVII., i., 18), which was situated in the Delta.

Tettet, a name given both to the metropolis[1] of the ninth nome and to the chief city[2] of the sixteenth nome of Lower Egypt.

Tuat, a common name for the abode of the departed.

[1. I.e., Pa-Aushr, or Per-Aushr, the Busiris of the Greeks.

2. I.e., Ba-neb-Tettet, the Mendes of the Greeks.]


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« Reply #50 on: December 21, 2008, 11:19:34 pm »

FUNERAL CEREMONIES.

In illustration of the ceremonies which accompanied the burial of the dead the reader will find extracts from different texts printed in the Appendix on p. 264 ff. To these may be added an extract from the curious ritual which was in vogue in the Vth and VIth dynasties, and which commemorated the ceremonies which were performed for the god Osiris. It is to be noticed how closely the deceased is identified with Osiris, the type of incorruptibility. Osiris takes upon himself "all that is hateful" in the dead : that is, he adopts the burden of his sins; and the dead is purified by the typical sprinkling of water. While the gods are only accompanied by their ka's, the deceased, in right of his identification with a higher power, is accompanied by his Tet[1] also, that is, by his Osiris.

Throughout the ceremony, the Eye of Horus,[2] which is represented by various substances, plays a prominent part, for it is that which gives vigour to the heart of the dead and leads him to the god. That portion of the ceremony which was believed to procure the unlocking of the jaws and the opening of the mouth of the deceased, or of the statue which sometimes represented him, was performed after the purification by water and incense had been effected; and hereby was he enabled to partake of the meat and drink offerings, wherein the friends and relatives also participated, in order that they might cement and seal their mystic unity with the dead and with the god with whom he was identified.[3]

[1. Some fifty years ago, M. Reuvens expressed his belief that the ### represented the four quarters of the world, and according to M. Maspero it unites in itself the four pillars which support the sky and Osiris, whom they preserve from chaos; see Recueil de Travaux, t. xii., p. 79, note 3; and Études de Mythologie, t. ii., p. 359.

2. On the eyes of Horus, see Lefébure, Le Mythe Osirien--Les Yeux d'Horus, Paris, 1874; and Grébaut, Les deux yeux du Disque Solaire (Recueil de Travaux t. i., pp. 72, 87, 112-131).

3. To discuss the origin and development of animal sacrifice among the early Egyptians lies outside the scope of this work. For information on the significance of sacrifice among the Semites, in whose customs many originally Egyptian ideas probably survived, see Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites, p. 294 ff. On the origin of sacrificial acts, see Max Müller, Natural Religion, London, 1889, p. 184; and E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, vol. ii., p. 340. Whether the Egyptians regarded the sacrifice of bulls, geese, etc., at the tomb as expiatory offerings, can hardly yet be decided.]

{p. cxxxix}

Certain formulae were directed to be repeated four times: a direction which takes us back to the time when the Egyptians first divided the world into four parts, each corresponding to one of the four pillars which held up the sky, that is to say, to one of the four cardinal points, East, South, West, and North, presided over by a special god. The deceased sought to obtain the assistance of each of the four gods of the cardinal points, and to have the right to roam about in his district; hence the formula was repeated four times. Originally four animals or four geese were sacrificed, one to each god, but subsequently East and North, and West and South were paired, and two bulls (or birds) only were sacrificed, one of which was called the Bull of the North,
  • and the other the Bull of the South. The custom of four-fold repetition continued to the Ptolemaïc times
  • and even later.

The priest whose official title was kher heb, recited the prayers, and the sem or setem priest presented the prescribed offerings. The rubrical directions are given on the margin for the sake of clearness.

"O Osiris,[++] all that is hateful in Unas hath been brought unto thee,[1] and all the evil words which have been spoken in his name. Come, O Thoth, and take them unto Osiris, bring all the evil words which have been spoken and place them in the hollow of thy hand;[2] thou shalt not escape therefrom, thou shalt not escape therefrom. Whosoever marcheth, marcheth with his ka. Horus marcheth with his ka, Set marcheth with his ka, Thoth marcheth with[3] his ka, Sep marcheth with his ka, Osiris marcheth with his ka, Khent-maati marcheth with his ka; and thy tet shall march with thy ka. Hail, Unas, the hand of thy ka is before thee. Hail, Unas, the hand of thy ka is behind thee. Hail, Unas, the leg of thy ka is before thee. Hail, Unas, the leg of thy ka is behind thee. Osiris Unas, I have given unto thee the Eye of Horus, and thy face is filled therewith, and the perfume thereof spreadeth over thee. The libations which are poured[4] out by thy son, which are poured out by Horus, are for thee, O Osiris, and they are for thee O Unas. I have come, and I have brought unto thee the Eye of Horus that thou mayest refresh thy heart therewith, I have placed it beneath thy feet, and I give unto thee whatsoever hath come forth from thy body that thy heart may not cease to beat through [the want] thereof.[5] Thy voice shall never depart from thee, thy voice shall never depart from thee.

[*. This subject has been lucidly discussed by Maspero, Recueil de Travaux, t. xii., pp. 78, 79.

+. See Archæologia, vol. lii., p. 453, at the foot.

++. For the text and French translation, see Maspero, Recueil de Travaux, t. iii., p. 179 ff.

1. Here water shall be sprinkled.

2. Repeat four times.

3. Repeat four times and burn incense.

4. Here [pour out] fresh water, and [burn] two portions of incense.

5. Repeat four times.]

{p. cxi}

"[Here is] unguent, [here is] unguent. Open thy mouth, O Unas,[1] and taste the taste of the scent which is in the holy habitations. This scent is that which distilleth from Horus, this scent is that which distilleth from Set, and it is that which stablisheth the hearts of the two Horus gods.[2] Thou purifiest thyself with the Heru-shesu;
  • thou art purified with natron, and Horus is purified with natron; thou art purified with natron, and Set is purified with natron;[3] thou art purified with natron, and Thoth is purified with natron; thou art purified with natron, and Sep is purified with natron; thou art purified with natron, and art established among them, and thy mouth is [as pure] as the mouth of a sucking calf on the day of its birth. Thou art purified with natron, and Horus is purified with natron; thou art purified with natron, and Set is purified with natron;[4] [thou art purified with natron] and Thoth is purified with natron; thou art purified with natron, and Sep is purified with natron; thy ka is purified with natron, and thou art pure, thou art pure, thou art pure, thou art pure. Thou art stablished among the gods thy brethren, thy head is purified for thee with natron, thy bones are washed clean with water, and thou thyself art made perfect with all that belongeth unto thee. O Osiris, I have given unto thee the Eye of Horus, thy face is filled therewith, and the perfume thereof spreadeth over thee.

"Hail, Unas, thy two jaws are unlocked.[5] Hail, Unas, the two gods have opened thy mouth.[6] O Unas, the Eye of Horus hath been given unto thee, and Horus cometh thereunto; it is brought unto thee, and placed in thy mouth.[7] Hail, Unas, the nipples of the bosom of Horus have been given unto thee, and thou hast taken in thy mouth[8] the breast of thy sister Isis, and the milk which floweth from thy mother is poured into thy mouth.[9]

"Thou hast gotten possession of the two eyes of Horus, the white and the black, thou hast taken them unto thyself and they illumine thy face.[10] The day hath made an offering unto thee in heaven, and the East and the West are at peace with thee; the night hath made an offering[11] unto thee, and the North and the South are at peace with thee. These are the offerings which are brought unto thee, the offerings which thou seest, the offerings which thou hearest, the offerings which are before thee, the offerings which are behind thee, the offerings which are with thee. O Osiris Unas, the white teeth of Horus are given unto thee that thou mayest fill thy mouth therewith.[12] A royal offering to the ka of Unas.[13]. O Osiris Unas, the Eye of Horus hath been given unto thee, and thou livest, and a thou art.[14] O Osiris Unas, the Eye of Horus which strove with Set hath been

[*. ###, the followers of Horus"

[Addressing the statue of the decease the setem priest says]

1. Here [offer] perfume of the south, three grains.

2. Repeat four times.

3. Here [offer] natron of the north.

4 Here [burn] one grain of incense.

5. Here [bring] the Pesesh-kef.

6. Here [offer] two pieces of iron of the north and south.

7. Here [offer] unguent of the north, and unguent of the south.

8. Here [offer] milk.

9. Here [offer] two vases of milk.

10. Here bring two black and white pitchers.

11. Here [offer] a cake.

12. Here [offer] two baskets of onions.

13. Repeat four times.

14. Here [offer] a cake.]

{p. xcli}

given unto thee, and thou hast lifted it[1] to thy lips, and thy mouth is opened thereby. O Osiris Unas, thy mouth is opened by that with which thou art filled.[2] O Osiris Unas, that which hath distilled from thee hath been given unto thee.[3] O Ra, may all the praise which thou receivest in heaven be in praise of Unas, and may all that belongeth unto thy body belong unto the ka of Unas, and may all that belongeth unto his body belong unto thee.[4] O Unas, the Eye of Horus hath been given unto thee, that thou mayest be able to taste,[5] and that thou mayest illumine the night. O Unas, the Eye of Horus hath been given to thee that it may embrace thee.[6] O Unas, the Eye of Horus which strove with Set hath been, given unto thee, in order that the opening of thy mouth may be caused thereby.[7] O Unas, that which flowed from Osiris hath been given unto thee.[8] O Unas, the Eye of Horus hath been given unto thee, in order that without the help of iron thy mouth may be set free.[9] O Unas, the Eye of Horus hath been given unto thee, in order that thy face may be adorned therewith.[10] O Osiris Unas, the Eye of Horus hath sprinkled oil upon thee.[11] O Osiris Unas, that which hath been pressed out of thy face hath been given unto thee.[12] O Osiris Unas, the Eye of Horus hath been given unto thee, in order that it may shave (?) thee.[13] O Osiris Unas, the Eye of Horus hath been given unto thee, in order that it may anoint thee.[14] O Osiris Unas, the Eye of Horus hath been given unto thee, in order that it may lead thee unto the gods.[15] O all ye unguents, be ye laid out before your Horus,[16] and make ye him strong. Cause him to gain the mastery over his body, and make his eyes to be opened. May all the shining beings see him, may they hear his name, for the Eye of Horus hath been brought, in order that it may be placed before Osiris Unas.[17] O Osiris Unas, the two Eyes of Horus have been laid like paint upon thy face.[18]

"O clothe thyself in peace! Put thou on thy apparel in peace! May Tatet put on[19] apparel in peace! Hail, Eye of Horus, in Tep, in peace! Hail, Eye of Horus, in the houses of Nit, in peace. Receive thou white apparel. O grant that the two lands which rejoiced to do homage unto Horus may do homage unto Set; and grant that the two lands which stood in awe of Set may stand in awe of Unas. Dwell thou with Unas as his god, open thou a path for him among the, shining ones, and stablish thou him among them."

[1. Here [offer] two pitchers of white wine.

2. Here [offer] two pitchers of black wine.

3. Here [offer] a vase of black beer.

4. Here [offer] an altar.

5. Here [offer] a cake.

6. Here [offer] a breast.

7. Here [offer] a pitcher of white wine.

8. Here [offer] a vase of black beer.

9. Here [offer] a vase of beer of iron

10. Here [offer] a vase of beer.

11. Repeat four times and [offer] unguent of the festival.

12. Here [offer] heken oil.

13. Here [offer] a pitcher of seft.

14. Here [offer] nish-nem oil.

15. Here [offer] a pitcher of tuat.

16. Here [offer] ash unguent.

17. Here [offer] unguent.

18. Here [offer] stibium and copper.

19. Here bring two garments.]

{p. cxlii}


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« Reply #51 on: December 21, 2008, 11:20:48 pm »

THE PAPYRUS OF ANI.

General Description

The papyrus of Ani, was found at Thebes, and was purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum in 1888. It measures 78 feet by 1 foot 3 inches, and is the longest known papyrus of the Theban period.[1] It is made up of six distinct lengths of papyrus, which vary in length from 26 feet 9 inches to 5 feet 7 inches. The material is composed of three layers of papyrus supplied by plants which measured in the stalks about 41 inches in diameter. The several lengths have been joined together with great neatness, and the repairs and insertion of new pieces (see plates 25, 26) have been dexterously made. When first found, the papyrus was of a light colour, similar to that of the papyrus of Hunefer (B. M. No. 9901), but it became darker after it had been unrolled, and certain sections of it have shrunk somewhat.

It contains a number of chapters of the Book of the Dead, nearly all of which are accompanied by vignettes; and at top and bottom is a border of two colours-red and yellow.[2] At the beginning and end of the papyrus spaces of six and eleven inches respectively have been left blank. The inscribed portion is complete, and the loss of the few characters which were damaged in unrolling[3] does not interrupt the text. It was written by three or more scribes; but the uniformity of the execution of the vignettes suggests that fewer artists were employed on the illustrations. The titles of the chapters, rubrics, catchwords, etc., are in red. In some instances the artist has occupied so much space that the

[1 The papyrus of Nebseni, of the XVIIIth dynasty (B.M., No. 9900), measures 76 feet 81 inches by 13 inches; and the papyrus of Hunefer, of the XIXth dynasty (B.M., No. 9601), 18 feet 10 inches by 1 foot 3 5/8 inches; the Leyden papyrus of Qenna, of the XVIIIth dynasty, measures about 50 feet; and the Dublin papyrus (Da of M. Naville's edition), XVIIIth dynasty, 24 feet 9 inches.

2 In some sections the border is painted yellow and orange.

3 See plates 1, 15, 24.]

{p. cxliii}

General description.

scribe has been obliged to crowd the text (e.g., in plate 11) and at times he has written it on the border (see plates 14, 17). This proves that the vignettes were drawn before the text was written.

All the different sections of the papyrus were not originally written for Ani, for his name has been added in several places' by a later hand. As however such additions do not occur in the first section, which measures 16 feet 4 inches in length, it must be concluded that that section was written expressly for him, and that the others were some of those ready-written copies in which blank spaces were left for the insertion of the names of the deceased persons for whom they were purchased. The scribe who filled in Ani's name in these spaces wrote hurriedly, for in Chapter XXXB., line 2 (pl. 15), he left himself no space to write the word "Osiris" in the phrase, "Ani victorious before Osiris" (compare pl. 1, line 5); in Chapter XLIII., lines 1, 2 (pl. 17), he has written it twice; in Chapter IX., l. 1 (pl. 18), he has omitted the determinative in Chapter XV., line 2 (pl. 20) he meant to write "Ani, victorious in peace (pl. 19), but wrote "Ani in triumph" in Chapter CXXV., line 18 (pl. 30), the word ### is written twice, probably, however, with the view of filling up the line; in Chapter CLI. (Pl. 34) the name is written crookedly, and the determinative is omitted; and in Chapters XVIII. (Introduction, pl. 12) and CXXXIV. (pl. 22). the scribe has, in two spaces, omitted to write the name. It seems tolerably certain that all the sections of the papyrus were written about the same time, and that they are the work of scribes of the same school; the variations in the depth of the space occupied by the text and the difference in the colours of the border only show that even the best scribes did not tie themselves to any one plan or method in preparing a copy of the Book of the Dead. The text has many serious errors: by some extraordinary oversight it includes two copies of the XVIII th Chapter, one with an unusual introduction and the other without introduction; and a large section of the XVIIth Chapter, one of the most important in the whole work, has been entirely omitted. Such mistakes and omissions, however, occur in papyri older than that of Ani, for in the papyrus of Nebseni (B.M., No. 9900), which was written at Memphis early in the XVIIIth dynasty, of Chapters L., LVI., LXIV., CLXXX., two copies each, of

[1. See Chapter XXVI, l. 1 (pl. 15); Chapter XLV., l. 1 (pl. 16); Chapter IX, 1. 6 (pl. 18); Chapter CXXXIV., 1. 15 (pl. 22); Chapter LXXVIII., l. 1 (p. 25); Chap. LXXX., l. 1 (pl. 28); Chapter CLXXXV., l. 15 (pl. 36).]

{p. cxliv}

Chapters C. and CVI., three copies, and of Chapter XVII. two extracts are given in different parts of the papyrus.[1]

Ani's rank.

The papyrus of Ani is undated, and no facts are given in it concerning the life of Ani, whereby it would be possible to fix its exact place in the series of the illustrated papyri of the Theban period to which it belongs. His full titles are:--

suten in maa an hesb hetep neter en neteru nebu

Royal scribe veritable, scribe and accountant of the divine offerings (i.e., revenues) of all the gods.

mer tenti en nebu Abtu an hetep neter en

The governor of the granary of the lords of Abydos, scribe of the divine offerings (i.e., revenues) of

nebu Uast.

the lords of Thebes;

and he is said to be "beloved of the lord of the North and South" and to "love him". The name of the king thus referred to cannot be stated. That Ani's rank of "royal scribe" [2] was not titular only is shown by the addition of the word "veritable," and his office of scribe and accountant of all the gods was probably one of the highest which a scribe could hold.[3] His other offices of "governor of the granary of the lords of Abydos," and "scribe of the sacred property of the lords of Thebes," further prove his rank and importance, for Abydos and Thebes were the most ancient and sacred cities of Egypt.

Ani's wife.

Ani's wife Thuthu is described as "the lady of the house, the qematet of Amen".[4] What the title "lady of the house

[1. Naville, Einleitung, pp. 48-54.

2. See Brugsch, Aegyptologie, p. 223.

3. In the list of the high officers of the priesthood given by Brugsch (Aegyptologie, p. 218), we meet with an official whose title is ###, "the scribe set over the sacred property of the gods"; Ani held a similar appointment.

4 Plate 19; her name is nowhere else mentioned in the papyrus.]

{p. cxlv}

means has not yet been decided, but qemat is the title applied to the noble ladies who sang or played on an instrument in the temple of a god.[1] The lady Thuthu belonged to the number of the priestesses of the god Amen-Ra at Thebes, and she always carries in her hands the sistrum. and the instrument menat, the emblems of her office. Thus Ani and his wife were high ecclesiastical dignitaries connected with the famous confraternity of the priests of Amen.

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« Reply #52 on: December 21, 2008, 11:21:56 pm »

Copies of the Book of the Dead in the Theban period.

Age of the papyrus.

An examination of the papyri of the Theban period preserved in the British Museum shows that two distinct classes of Book of the Dead papyri existed in the XVIIIth dynasty. In the first both text and vignettes are traced in black outline,[2] the rubrics, catchwords, etc., alone being in red colour; in the second the text only is black, the rubrics, etc., being red, and the vignettes beautifully painted in a number of bright colours. To the latter class the papyrus of Ani belongs, but, if the text and vignettes be compared with those found in any other early Theban papyri, it will be seen that it occupies an independent position in all respects. Though agreeing in the main with the papyri of the XVIIIth dynasty in respect of textual readings, the papyrus of Ani has peculiarities in spelling, etc., which are not found in any of them. The handwriting of the first section at least suggests the best period of the XVIIIth dynasty; but as the scribe forms some of the characters in a way peculiarly his own, the palæographic evidence on this point is not decisive. That the papyrus belongs to the period which produced such documents as the papyrus of Neb-qet,[3] and the papyrus of Qenna,[4] i.e., to some period of the XVIIIth dynasty, is tolerably certain; and we may assume that it is older than the papyrus of Hunefer, which was written during the reign of Seti I.; for, though belonging to the same class of highly decorated papyri, the execution of the vignettes is finer and more careful, and the free, bold forms of the hieroglyphics in the better written sections more closely resemble those of the texts inscribed in stone under the greatest kings of the XVIIIth dynasty. The "lord of the two lands," i.e., of Upper and Lower Egypt, or the North and South, mentioned in pl. 4, is probably one of the Thothmes or Amenhetep kings, and accordingly we may place the period of our papyrus between 1500 and 1400 years B.C.

[1. In the stele of Canopus, is rendered by {Greek ta`s i'era`s parðe'nous}; see Brugsch, Wörterbuch, P. 1454.

2. Compare the papyrus of Nebseni (British Museum, No. 9, 900)

3. Le Papyrus de Neb-Qued, ed. Devéria, Paris, 1872. M. Pierret, its translator, says, "Il appartient la plus ancienne époque des exemplaires sur papyrus."

4 Papyrus Égyptien Funéraire Hiéroglyphique (t. ii.), ed. Leemans, Leyden, 1882.]

{p. cxlvi}

The text.

The text may be divided into two parts. The first part contains unusual versions of two hymns to Ra and Osiris, the vignette of the sunrise (Chapter XVIA.), and the judgment Scene accompanied by texts, some of which occur in no other papyrus. The second part comprises about sixty-two Chapters of the Theban edition of the Book, in the following order:--I., XXII. LXXII., rubric, XVII., CXLVII., CXLVI., XVIII., XXIII., XXIV., XXVI. XXXB., LXI., LIV., XXIX., XXVII., LVIII., LIX., XLIV., XLV., XLVI., L., XCIII., XLIII., LXXXIX., XCI., XCII., LXXIV., VIII., II., IX., CXXXII., X., [XLVIII.], XV., CXXXIII., CXXXIV., XVIII., CXXIV., LXXXVI., LXXVII., LXXVIII., LXXXVII., LXXXVIII., LXXXII., LXXXV., LXXXIII., LXXXIV., LXXXIA., LXXX., CLXXV., CXXV. Introduction and Negative Confession, XLII., CXXV., Rubric, CLV., CLVI., XXIXB., CLXVI., CLI., VI., CX., CXLVIII., CLXXXV., and CLXXXVI. The titles of these Chapters arranged according to the numeration introduced by Lepsius are as follows :--

List of Chapters.

Chapter I. "Here begin the chapters of 'coming forth by day,' and of the songs of praise and of glorifying, and of coming forth from and of going into the glorious Neter-khert in the beautiful Amenta; to be said on the day of the burial going in after coming forth." (See pp. 19, 270 and pll. 5, 6.)

The papyri belonging to the early part of the XVIIth dynasty call this Chapter the "Chapter of going in to the divine chiefs of Osiris," ###. The large numbers of the men attending the bier and of the weeping women are peculiar to the Ani papyrus.

Chapter II. "The Chapter of coming forth by day and of living after death." (See pp. 120, 321, and pl. 18.)

This Chapter is found only in one other papyrus of the Theban period (British Museum, No. 9964). Another copy of it is inscribed upon a mummy bandage preserved in the Louvre, No. 3097.'

Chapter VI.--[See Chapter CLI., of which it forms a part, pp. 233, 362, and pl. 32.] In the papyrus of Nebseni (British Museum, No. 9900) this Chapter stands by itself, and is entitled "Chapter of making the ushabti figures to perform work for a man in the Neter-khert,"

[1. See Naville, Einleitung, p. 103.]

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« Reply #53 on: December 21, 2008, 11:22:49 pm »

Chapter VIII. "The Chapter of passing through Amenta, and of coming forth by day." (See pp. 119, 320, and pl. 18.)

As a separate composition, this Chapter is found in only two other papyri of the XVIIIth dynasty.[1]

Chapter IX. "The Chapter of coming forth by day, having passed through the tomb." (See pp. 120, 321, and pl. 18.)

The vignette in the papyrus of Ani is similar to that which stands at the head of Chapters VIII. and IX. in other papyri of this period.

Chapter X. [See Chapter XLVIII., pp. 123, 321, and pl. 18.]

Chapter XV. 1. "A hymn of praise to Ra when he riseth in the eastern sky." (See pp. 1, 236, and pl. I.)

This version is found in no other papyrus.

Chapter XV. 2. "A hymn of praise to Osiris Unnefer, the great god in Abydos,"[2] etc. (See pp. 8, 253, and pl. 2.)

Chapter XV. 3. "A hymn of praise to Ra when he riseth in the eastern sky, and when he setteth in the [land of] life." (See pp. 123, 322, and pl. 18-21.)

The Litany to Osiris (pl. 19) and the hymn to Ra (pll. 24, 25) which follow are variants of the XVth Chapter, similar to those published by M. Naville.[3]

Chapter XVIA. consists of a vignette only. (See p. 252, and pl. 2.) Strictly speaking, it should form the vignette of the XVth Chapter, or of that part of it which refers to the rising sun. Like many other ancient papyri, the papyrus of Ani has no vignette referring to the sunset.

Chapter XVII. "Here begin the praises and glorifyings of coming out from and of going into the glorious Neter-khert in the beautiful Amenta, of coming forth by day in all the transformations which please him, of playing at draughts, and of sitting in the Sekh hall, and of coming forth as a living soul." (See pp. 27, 280, and Pll. 7-10.)

This is one of the oldest and most important of all the Chapters in the Book of the Dead, and it contains the most complete statements concerning the Egyptian cosmogony as formulated by the college of priests of Heliopolis. The scribe seems to have accidentally omitted a large section.

Chapter XVIII. This Chapter has no title.

[1. I.e., in British Museum papyrus, No. 9964, and in a papyrus in Rome; see Naville, Einleitung, p. 118.

2. This hymn may form no part of the XVth chapter, and may have been inserted after the hymn to Ra on account of Ani's official connection with the ecclesiastical endowments of Abydos.]

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List of Chapters.

The papyrus of Ani contains two copies of this Chapter. In the first the gods of the localities are grouped separately, and it is preceded by a very rare introduction, in which the An-mut-f and Sa-mer-f priests introduce Ani to the gods, whom he addresses in two speeches. (See p. 71, 301, and pll. 12-14.) In the second the text is not divided into distinct sections, and the gods are not grouped. (See p. 330, and pll. 23-24.)

Chapter XXII., "The Chapter of giving a mouth to Osiris Ani, the scribe It and teller of the holy offerings of all the gods." (See pp. 25, 274, and pl. 6.)

The ceremony of giving a mouth to the deceased was, according to the vignette in the papyrus of Nebseni, performed by the "Guardian of the Balance ". In the papyrus of Ani there is no vignette, and it is remarkable that this Chapter follows immediately after Chapter 1.

Chapter XXIII. "The Chapter of opening the mouth of Osiris, the scribe Ani." (See pp. 84, 306, and pl. 15.)

Chapter XXIV. "The Chapter of bringing charms unto Osiris Ani in Neter-khert." (See pp. 85, 306, and pl. 15.)

As with other ancient Theban papyri, the papyrus of Ani gives no Vignette.

Chapter XXVI. "The Chapter of giving a heart unto Osiris Ani in Neter-khert." (See pp. 88, 308, and pl. 15.)

The vignette is probably unique.

Chapter XXVII. "The Chapter of not letting the heart of a man be taken away from him in Neter-khert." (See pp. 100, 312, and pl. 15.)

The vignette is unusual.

Chapter XXIX. "The Chapter of not letting the heart of a man be taken away from him in Neter-khert." (See pp. 97, 311, and pl. 15.)

No other copy of this Chapter is at present known.

Chapter XXIXB. "The Chapter of a heart of carnelian." (See pp. 228, 359, and pl. 33.)

Chapter XXXB. "The Chapter of not letting the heart of Osiris Ani be driven away from him in Neter-khert." (See pp. I 1, 90, 258, 309, and pl. 15-)

Chapter XLII. This Chapter is without title (see pp. 213, 353, and pl. 32), but in other ancient papyri it is called "Repulsing of slaughter in Suten-henen."

Chapter XLIII. "The Chapter of not letting the head of a man be cut off from him in Neter-khert." (See pp. 111, 317, and pl. 17.)

{p. cxlix}

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« Reply #54 on: December 21, 2008, 11:24:40 pm »

List of Chapters.

As in other ancient Theban papyri, this Chapter is without vignette.

Chapter XLIV. "The Chapter of not dying a second time in Neter-khert." (See pp. 105, 315, and pl. 16.)

The vignette is peculiar to the papyrus of Ani.

Chapter XLV. "The Chapter of not suffering corruption in Neter-khert." (See pp. 106, 315, and pl. 16.)

Only one other copy of the text of this Chapter is known.[1] Among Theban papyri the vignette is peculiar to the papyrus of Ani.

Chapter XLVI. "The Chapter of not perishing and of becoming alive in Neter-khert." (See pp. 107, 316, and pl. 16.)

Only one other copy of the text of this Chapter is known (B.M. No. 9900). Among Theban papyri the vignette is peculiar to the papyrus of Ani.

Chapter XLVIII. "Another Chapter of one who cometh forth by day against his foes in Neter-khert." (See pp. 123, 321, and pl. 18.)

Only one other copy of the text of this Chapter is known (B.M. No. 9900). Among Theban papyri the vignette is peculiar to the papyrus of Ani.

Chapter L. "The Chapter of not entering in unto the block." (See pp. 108, 315, and pl. 16.)

The text of this Chapter agrees rather with the second version in the papyrus of Nebseni than with that in B.M. papyrus No. 9964. As the Ani papyrus is of Theban origin this was to be expected.

Chapter LIV. "The Chapter of giving breath in Neter-khert." (See pp. 94, 310, and pl. 15.)

Only one other copy of this Chapter is known, and it is without vignette.[2]

Chapter LVIII. " The Chapter of breathing the air, and of having power over the water in Neter-khert." (See pp. 103, 314, and pl. 16.)

No other copy of this Chapter is known.

Chapter LIX. "The Chapter of breathing the air, and of having power over the water in Neter-khert." (See pp. 104, 315, and pl. 16.)

Only one other copy of this Chapter is known.[2]

Chapter LXI. "The Chapter of not letting the soul of a man be taken away from him in Neter-khert." (See pp. 91, 309, and pl. 15.)

The vignette is similar to that in the papyrus of Sutimes, which M. Naville believes to be no older than the XIXth dynasty.[3]

[1. Naville, Einleitung, p. 134.

2. Ibid., p. 136.

3. Ibid., p. 100.]

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List of Chapters

Chapter LXXII.--Rubric. (See pp. 26, 275, and pl. 6.)

Chapter LXXIV. "The Chapter of walking with the legs and of coming forth upon earth." (See pp. 118, 320, and pl. 18.)

Chapter LXXVII. " The Chapter of changing into a golden hawk ." (See pp. 152, 332, and pl. 25.)

Chapter LXXVIII. "The Chapter of changing into a divine hawk." (See pp. 154, 333, and pl. 25, 26.)

Chapter LXXX. "The Chapter of changing into the god who giveth light in the darkness." (See pp. 182, 341, and pl. 28.)

Chapter LXXXIA. "The Chapter of changing into a lotus." (See pp. 181, 340, and pl. 28.)

The pool of water in the vignette is uncommon.

Chapter LXXXII. "The Chapter of changing into Ptah." (See pp. 170, 337, and pl. 27.)

As in other XVIIIth dynasty papyri, this Chapter has a vignette.

Chapter LXXXIII. "The Chapter of changing into a bennu bird" (phœnix?). (See pp. 176, 339, and pl. 27.)

Like other XVIIIth dynasty papyri, this Chapter lacks the addition which is found in the papyrus of Sutimes.

Chapter LXXXIV. "The Chapter of changing into a heron." (See pp. 178, 339, and pl. 28.)

Chapter LXXXV. " The Chapter of changing into the soul of Tmu." (See pp. 172, 338, and pl. 27.)

The vignette to this Chapter is similar to that of the papyrus of Tura, surnamed Nefer-uben-f, of the XVIIIth dynasty.'

Chapter LXXXVI. "The Chapter of changing into a swallow." (See pp. 250, 331, and pl. 25.)

Chapter LXXXVII. "The Chapter of changing into Seta." (See pp. 169, 337, and pl. 27.)

Chapter LXXXVIII. "The Chapter of changing into a crocodile." (See pp. 170, 337, and pl. 27.)

Chapter LXXXIX. "The Chapter of causing the soul to be united to its body in Neter-khert." (See pp. 112, 318, and pl. 17.)

The two incense burners which stand, one at the head and one at the foot of the bier, are peculiar to the papyrus of Ani.

[1. Naville, Einleitung, p. 97.]

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List of Chapters.

Chapter XCI. "The Chapter of not letting the soul of a man be captive in Neter-khert." (See pp. 114, 319, and pl. 17.)

Chapter XCII. "The Chapter of opening the tomb to the soul and the shadow, of coming forth by day, and of getting power over the legs." (See pp. 115, 319, and pl. 17.)

The vignette of this Chapter is unusual and of great interest, for in it Ani's soul accompanies his shadow.

Chapter XCIII. "The Chapter of not letting a man pass over to the east in Neter-khert." (See pp. 109, 317, and pl. 17-)

The vignette as here given is peculiar to the papyrus of Ani.

Chapter XCIIIA. "Another Chapter." (See pp. 110, 317, and pl. 17.)

Chapter CX. "Here begin the Chapters of the Sekhet-hetepu, and the Chapters of coming forth by day, and of going into and coming out from Neter-khert, and of arriving in the Sekhet-Aanru, and of being in peace in the great city wherein are fresh breezes." (See pp. 236, 362, and pl. 34.)

The text is here incomplete.

Chapter CXXIV. "The Chapter of going unto the divine chiefs of Osiris." (See pp. 146, 330, and pl. 24.)

In the vignette we should expect four, instead of three, gods.

Chapter CXXV. "The Chapter of entering into the Hall of double Right and Truth: a hymn of praise to Osiris." (See pp. 189, 344, and pl. 30.)

The Introduction to this Chapter as found in the papyrus of Ani is not met with elsewhere; the text which usually follows the "Negative Confession" is however omitted. The vignette as here given is peculiar to the papyrus of Ani.

Chapter CXXXII. "The Chapter of making a man to return to see again his home upon earth." (See pp. 121, 321, and pl. 18.)

Chapter CXXX III. "[A Chapter] to be said on the day of the month." (See pp. 138, 327, and pl. 21.)

Chapter CXXXIII.--Rubric. (See pp. 142, 328, and pl. 22.)

Chapter CXXXIV. "A hymn of praise to Ra on the day of the month wherein he saileth in the boat." (See pp. 142, 329, and pl. 22.)

Chapter CXLVI. "The Chapter of renewing the pylons in the House of Osiris which is in the Sekhet-Aanru." (See pp. 63, 295, and pll. 11, 12.)

Chapter CXLVII. "A Chapter to be said when Ani cometh to the first Aril." (See pp. 56, 291, and pll. 11, 12.)

Chapter CXLVIII. Without title. See pp. 239, 366, and pl. 35.)

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List of Chapters.

Chapter CLI. Scene in the mummy chamber. (See pp. 229, 360, and Pll. 33, 34.)

Chapter CLV. "The Chapter of a Tet of gold." (See pp. 225, 357, and pl. 33.)

Chapter CLVI. "The Chapter of a Buckle of carnelian." (See pp. 227, 359, and pl. 33.)

Chapter CLXVI. "The Chapter of the Pillow which is placed under the head." (See pp. 228, 359, and pl. 33.)

Chapter CLXXV. " The Chapter of not dying a second time." (See pp. 184, 341, and pl. 29.)

Only one other much mutilated copy of this most important Chapter is known. In it it is declared that neither men nor gods can conceive what great glory has been laid up for Ani in his existence in the next world, and that his life therein shall be for "millions of millions of years."

Chapter CLXXXV. "A Hymn of Praise to Osiris, the dweller in Amenta, Un-nefer within Abtu (Abydos)." (See pp. 241, 367, and pl. 36.)

Chapter CLXXXVI. "A Hymn of praise to Hathor." (See pp. 242, 368. and pl. 37.)
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« Reply #55 on: December 21, 2008, 11:26:09 pm »

THE BOOK OF THE DEAD.
Translation
PLATE I.

Vignette: The scribe Ani, standing with hands raised in adoration before a table of offerings consisting of haunches of beef, loaves of bread and cake, vases of wine and oil, fruits, lotus, and other flowers. He wears a fringed white and saffron-coloured linen garment; and has a wig, necklace, and bracelets. Behind him stands his wife "Osiris, the lady of the house, the lady of the choir of Amen, Thuthu,"[1] similarly robed and holding a sistrum and a vine (?)-branch in her right hand, and a menat[2] in her left.

[1. See Plate XIX.

2. The menat, which is often called "the counterpoise of a collar," consists of a disk, with a handle attached, and a cord. It was an object which was usually offered to the gods, with the sistrum; it was presented to guests at a feast by their host; and it was held by priestesses at religious festivals. It was either worn on the neck or carried in the left hand; and it was an emblem which brought joy to the bearer. Interesting examples of the pendent menat in the British Museum are No. 17,166, inscribed, "Beautiful god, lord of the two lands, maker of things, King of the North and South, Khnem-ab-Ra, son of the Sun, Aahmes (Amasis), beloved of Hathor, lady of sycamore trees"; and No. 13,950 * in faïence; and Nos. 8172, 8173, and 20,607 in hard stone. No. 18,108 is the disk of a menat in faïence, inscribed, Hathor, lady of the town of Anitha." No. 20,760 is a disk and handle in bronze, the disk having, in hollow work, the figure of a cow, sacred to Hathor, and the handle, the upper part of which is in the form of the head of Hathor, having a sistrum. On the one side is the prenomen of Amenophis III. and on the other is Hathor, lady of the sycamore." The meaning and use of the menat is discussed by Lefébure in Le Menat et le Nom de l'eunuque (Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1891, pp. 333-349).

* A duplicate is in the Louvre; see Perrot and Chipiez, Histoire de l'Art, l'Égypte, p. 821, No. 550.]

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Text: [Chapter XV.] (1) [1] A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. Behold Osiris Ani the scribe who recordeth the holy offerings of all the gods, (2) who saith: "Homage to thee, O thou who hast come as Khepera,[2] Khepera, the creator of the gods. Thou risest, thou shinest, (3) making bright thy mother [Nut], crowned king of the gods. [Thy] mother Nut doeth homage unto thee with both her hands. (4) The land of Manu[4] receiveth thee with content, and the goddess Maat[5] embraceth thee at the two seasons. May he give splendour, and power, and triumph, and (5) a coming-forth [i.e., resurrection] as a living soul to see Horus of the two horizons[6] to the

[1. The numbers in parentheses indicate the lines of the papyrus.

2. The god Khepera is usually represented with a beetle for a head; and the scarab, or beetle, was sacred to him. The name means "to become, to turn, to roll," and the abstract noun kheperu may be rendered by "becomings," or "evolutions." The god was self-created, and was the father of all the other gods; men and women sprang from the tears which fell from his eyes; and the animal and vegetable worlds owed their existence to him. Khepera is a phase of Tmu, the night-sun, at the twelfth hour of the night, when he "becomes" the rising sun or Harmachis (i.e., Horus in the horizon). He is also described as " Khepera in the morning, Ra at mid-day, and Tmu in the evening." See Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 927 ff.; Grébaut, Hymne à Ammon-Ra, p. 264, note 2; Pierret, Panthéon, pp. 74, 75; Lefébure, Traduction Comparée des Hymnes au Soleil, p. 39; De Rougé, Inscription d'Ahmés, p. 110; Archaeologia, vol. 52, p. 541 ff.; Wiedemann, Die Religion der Alten Aegypter, p. 17; Brugsch, Religion und Mythologie, p. 245, etc.

3. The goddess Nut represented the sky, and perhaps also the exact place where the sun rose. She was the wife of Seb, the Earth-god, and gave birth to Isis, Osiris, and other gods. One of her commonest titles is "mother of the gods." She is depicted as a woman bearing a vase upon her head, and sometimes wears the disk and horns usually characteristic of Isis and Hathor. She was the daughter and mother of Ra. See Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 392; Pierret, Panthéon, pp. 34, 36; Brugsch, Religion und Mythologie, pp. 603-610.

4. Manu is the name given to the mountains on the western bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes, wherein was situated tu Manu, "the mountain of Manu," the chief site of rock-hewn tombs. See Brugsch, Dict. Géog., p. 259.

5. Maat, "daughter of the Sun, and queen of the gods," is the personification of righteousness and truth and justice. In many papyri she is represented as leading the deceased into the Hall of Double Maat, where his heart is to be weighed against her emblem. She usually wears the feather, emblematic of Truth, and is called the "lady of heaven": see Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 276 (and tav. 109, where the twin-goddesses Maat are shown); Pierret, Panthéon, p. 2011. She is sometimes represented blind-fold: see Wiedemann, Religion der alten Aegypter, p. 78. For figures of the goddess in bronze and stone, see Nos. 380, 383, 386, II, 109, and II, 114 in the British Museum.

6 Heru-khuti, i.e., "Horus of the two horizons," the Harmachis of the Greeks, is the day-sun from his rising in the eastern horizon to his setting in the western horizon; for the various forms in which he is represented, see Lanzone, Dizionario, tav. 129. Strictly speaking, he is the rising sun, and is one of the most important forms of Horus. As god of mid-day and evening he is called Ra-Harmachis and Tmu-Harmachis respectively. The sphinx at Gizeh was dedicated to him.]

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ka[1] of Osiris,[2] the scribe Ani, triumphant[3] before Osiris, (6) who saith: Hail all ye gods of the Temple of the Soul,[4] who weigh heaven and earth in the balance, and who provide food and abundance of meat. Hail Tatunen,[5] One, (7) creator of mankind and of the substance of the gods of the south and of the north, of the west and of the east. Ascribe [ye] praise unto Ra, the lord of heaven, the (Cool Prince, Life, Health, and Strength, the Creator of the gods, and adore ye him in his beautiful Presence as he riseth in the atet[6] boat. (9) They who dwell in the heights and they who dwell in the depths worship thee. Thoth[7] and Maat both are thy recorders. Thine enemy[8] is given to the (10) fire, the evil one hath fallen; his arms are bound, and his legs hath Ra taken from him. The children of (11) impotent revolt shall never rise up again.

[1. According to the Egyptian belief man consisted of a body xa, a soul ba, an intelligence xu, and ka, The word ka means "image," the Greek ei?'dolon (compare Coptic kau Peyron, Lexicon, p. 61). The ka seems to have been the "ghost," as we should say, of a man, and it has been defined as his abstract personality, to which, after death, the Egyptians gave a material form. It was a subordinate part of the human being during life, but after death it became active; and to it the offerings brought to the tomb by the relatives of the dead were dedicated. It was believed that it returned to the body and had a share in its re-vivification. See Birch, Mémoire sur une patère Égyptienne (in Trans. Soc. Imp. des Antiquaires de France, 1858; Chabas, Papyrus Magique, pp. 28, 29; Maspero, Étude sur quelques peintures, p. 191 ff.; Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch., vol. vi., p. 494 ff.; Brugsch, Aegyptologie, p. 181; Wiedemann, Religion der alien Aegypter, p. 126 f.).

2 The deceased is always identified with Osiris, or the sun which has set, the judge and god of the dead. As the sun sets in the west and rises again in the cast, so the dead man is laid in his tomb on the western bank of the Nile, and after being acquitted in the Hall of judgment, proceeds to the east to begin a new existence.

3. maaxeru or maatxeru. On this word, see Naville, Litanie du Soleil, p. 74; Devéria, L'Expression Mââ-xerou (in Recueil de Travaux, tom. i., p. 10 ff.).

4. Compare ### and ### Brugsch, Dict. Géog., pp. 185, 186.

5. Tatunen, or Tenen was, like Seb with whom he was identified, the god of the earth; his name is often joined to that of Ptah, and he is then described as the creator of gods and men, and the maker of the egg of the sun and of the moon. See Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 1259; Wiedemann, Religion, p. 74; Pierret, Panthéon, p. 6; and Naville, La Litanie du Soleil, pp. 118, 119, and plate xxiv., 1. 3. This god was, in one aspect, a destroyer of created things; compare ###, Naville, op. cit., p. 89.

6. A name for the boat of the evening sun.

7. See infra, p. 257, note 2.

8 The enemy of Ra was darkness and night, or any cloud which obscured the light of the sun. The darkness personified was Apep, Nak, etc., and his attendant fiends were the mesu betesh, or 'children of unsuccessful revolt.']

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The House of the Prince[1] keepeth festival, and the sound of those who rejoice is in the (12) mighty dwelling. The gods are glad [when] they see Ra in his rising; his beams flood the world with light. (13) The majesty of the god, who is to be feared, setteth forth and cometh unto the land of Manu; he maketh bright the earth at his birth each day; he cometh unto the place where he was yesterday. (14) O mayest thou be at peace with me; may I behold thy beauties; may I advance upon the earth; may I smite the Ass; may I crush (15) the evil one; may I destroy Apep[2] in his hour[3]; may I see the abtu[4] fish at the time of his creation, and the ant fish in his creation, and the (16) ant[4] boat in its lake. May I see Horus in charge of the rudder, with Thoth

[1. ###, more fully ### "the great house of the old man," i.e., the great temple of Ra at Heliopolis: see Brugsch, Dict. Géog., p. 153.

2 Apep, the serpent, personifying darkness, which Horus. or the rising sun must conquer before he can re-appear in the East.

3 Compare the following scenes which represent Apep in the form of a serpent and crocodile and ass being pierced by the deceased.

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« Reply #56 on: December 21, 2008, 11:26:35 pm »

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« Reply #57 on: December 21, 2008, 11:27:19 pm »

4 The abtu and the ant fishes are sometimes depicted on coffins swimming at the bows of the boat of the sun.]

{p. 249}

and Maat beside him; may I grasp the bows of the (17) seket[1]boat, and the stern of the atet boat. May he grant unto the ka of Osiris Ani to behold the disk of the Sun and to see the Moon-god without ceasing, every day; and may my soul (18) come forth and walk hither and thither and whithersoever it pleaseth. May my name be proclaimed when it is found upon the board of the table of (22) offerings; may offerings be made unto me in my (24) presence, even as they are made unto the followers of Horus; may there be prepared for me a seat in the boat of the Sun on the day of the going forth of the (26) god; and may I be received into the presence of Osiris in the land (28) of triumph!

Appendix: The following versions of this chapter are taken from: I. Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Pl. xiv. II. Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Pl. xv.; III. British Museum Papyrus No. 9901 and IV. British Museum Papyrus No. 10,471.

I. (1) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, (2) who saith: "Homage to thee, in thy rising thou Tmu in thy crowns of beauty. Thou risest, thou risest, thou Ra shinest, (3) thou shinest, at dawn of day. Thou art crowned like unto the king of the gods, and the goddess Shuti doeth homage unto thee. (4) The company of the gods praise thee from the double-dwelling. Thou goest forth over the upper air and thy heart is filled with gladness. (5) The sektet boat draweth onward as [Ra] cometh to the haven in the atet boat with fair winds. Ra rejoiceth, Ra rejoiceth. (6) Thy father is Nu, thy mother is Nut, and thou art crowned as Ra-Harmachis. Thy sacred boat advanceth in peace. Thy foe hath been cast down and his (7) head hath been cut off; the heart of the Lady of life rejoiceth in that the enemy of her lord hath been overthrown. The mariners of Ra have content of heart and Annu rejoiceth."

(Cool The merchant Qenna saith: "I have come to thee, O Lord of the gods, Tmu-Harmachis, who passest over the earth . . . . . . . (9) I know that by which thou dost live. Grant that I may be like unto one of those who are thy favoured (10) ones [among the followers] of the great god. May my name be proclaimed, may it be found, may it be lastingly renewed with . . . . . . . (11) The oars are lifted into the sektet boat, and the sacred boat cometh in peace. (12) May I see Ra when he appeareth in the sky at dawn, and when his enemies have fallen at the block. (13) May I behold [Horus] guiding the rudder and steering with [his] two hands. (14) May I see the abtu fish at the moment of his creation; and may I see the ant fish when he maketh himself manifest at creation, and the ant boat upon its lake. O thou Only One, O thou Mighty One, thou Growing One, (15) who dost never wax faint, and

[1. A name of the boat of the rising sun.]

{p. 250}

from whom power cannot be taken. . . . . . . . . . . . . . the devoted (17) servant of "the lord of Abtu."

"The merchant Qenna saith: (18) "Homage to thee Heru-Khuti-Tmu, Heru-Khepera, mighty hawk, who dost cause the body [of man] to make merry, beautiful of face by reason of thy two great plumes. Thou (19) wakest up in beauty at the dawn, when the company of the gods and mortals sing songs of joy unto thee; hymns of praise are offered unto thee at eventide. The (20) starry deities also adore thee. O thou firstborn, who dost lie without movement, (21) arise; thy mother showeth loving kindness unto thee every day. Ra liveth and the fiend Nak is dead; thou dost endure for ever, and the (22) fiend hath fallen.

"Thou sailest over the sky with life and strength. The goddess Nehebka is in (23) the atet boat; the sacred boat rejoiceth. Thy heart is glad and thy brow is wreathed with the twin serpents."

II. (I) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, triumphant, who saith: (2) "Homage to thee, O thou who risest in Nu, and who at thy birth dost make the world bright with light; all the company of the gods (3) sing hymns of praise unto thee. The beings who minister unto Osiris cherish him as King of the North and of the South, the beautiful and beloved man-child. When (4) he riseth, mortals live. The nations rejoice in him, and the Spirits of Annu sing unto him songs of joy. The Spirits of the towns of Pe and Nekhen (5) exalt him, the apes of dawn adore him, and all beasts and cattle praise (6) him with one accord. The goddess Seba overthroweth thine enemies, therefore rejoice (7) within thy boat; and thy mariners are content thereat. Thou hast arrived in the atet boat, and thy heart swelleth with joy. O Lord of the gods, when thou (Cool dost create them, they ascribe praises unto thee. The azure goddess Nut doth compass thee on every side, and the god Nu floodeth thee with his rays of light. (9) O cast thou thy light upon me and let me see thy beauties, me, the (10) Osiris Qenna the merchant, triumphant! When thou goest forth over the earth I will sing praises unto thy fair (11) face. Thou risest in the horizon of heaven, and [thy] disk is adored [when] it resteth upon the mountain to give life unto the world."

Saith Qenna the merchant, triumphant: (12) "Thou risest, thou risest, coming forth from the god Nu. Thou dost become young again and art the same as thou wert yesterday, O mighty youth who hast created thyself. Not . . . . . . . my hand. (13) Thou hast come with thy splendours, and thou hast made heaven and earth bright with thy rays of pure emerald light. The land of Punt is (14) established for the perfumes which thou smellest with thy nostrils. (15) Thou risest, O thou marvellous Being, in heaven, the twin serpents are placed upon thy brow, and thou art lord of the world and the inhabitants (16) thereof; [the company] of the gods and Qenna the merchant, triumphant, adore thee."

III. (1, 2) A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. (3) Behold Osiris Hunefer, triumphant, who saith: "Homage to thee, O thou who art Ra when thou (4) risest and Tmu when thou settest. Thou risest, thou risest; thou shinest, (5) thou shinest, thou who art crowned king of the {p. 251} gods. Thou art the lord of heaven, [thou art] the lord of earth, [thou art] the creator of those who dwell in the heights (6) and of those who dwell in the depths. [Thou art] the One god who came into (7) being in the beginning of time. Thou didst create the earth, (Cool thou didst fashion man, thou didst make the watery abyss of the sky, thou didst form Hapi [the Nile], and thou art the maker of streams and of the (9) great deep, and thou givest life to all that is therein. Thou hast knit (10) together the mountains, thou has made mankind and the beasts of the field, thou hast created the heavens and the earth. Worshipped be thou whom the goddess Maat embraceth at morn and at eve. Thou dost travel across the (11) sky with heart swelling with joy; the Lake of Testes is at peace. The fiend Nak hath fallen and his two arms are cut off. The sektet boat receiveth fair winds, and the heart of him that is in his shrine rejoiceth. Thou (12) art crowned with a heavenly form, the Only one, provided [with all things]. Ra cometh forth from Nu in triumph. O thou mighty youth, thou everlasting son, self-begotten, who didst give thyself birth, (13) O thou mighty One, of myriad forms and aspects, king of the world, Prince of Annu, lord of eternity and ruler of the everlasting, the company of the gods rejoice when thou risest and when thou sailest (14) across the sky, O thou who art exalted in the sektet boat. Homage to thee, O Amen-Ra, thou who dost rest upon Maat, thou who passest over the heaven, and every face seeth thee. Thou dost wax great as thy (15) Majesty doth advance, and thy rays are upon all faces. Thou art unknown and canst not be searched out . . . . . . . . his fellow except thyself; thou art (16) the Only One . . . . . . [Men] praise thee in thy name [Ra], and they swear by thee, for thou art lord over them. Thou hast heard (17) with thine ears and thou hast seen with thine eyes. Millions of years have gone over the world; I cannot tell the number of them, through which thou hast passed. Thy heart hath decreed a day of happiness in thy name [of Ra]. Thou dost pass over (18) and travellest through untold spaces of millions and hundreds of thousands of years; thou settest out in peace, and thou steerest thy way across the watery abyss to the place which thou lovest; this thou doest in one (19) little moment of time, and thou dost sink down and makest an end of the hours."

Osiris, the governor of the palace of the lord of the two lands (i.e., Seti I.), Hunefer, triumphant, saith: (20) Hail my lord, thou that passest through eternity and whose being is everlasting. Hail thou Disk, lord of beams of light, thou risest and thou makest all mankind to live. Grant thou that I may behold thee at dawn each day."

IV. A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA by Nekht, the royal scribe, captain of soldiers, who saith: "Homage to thee, O thou glorious Being, thou who art provided [with all things]. O Tmu-Heru-khuti, when thou risest in the horizon of heaven, a cry of joy cometh out of the mouth of all peoples. O thou beautiful Being, thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the Disk within thy mother Hathor; therefore in every place every heart swelleth with joy at thy rising, for ever. The eastern and the western parts of heaven come to thee with homage, and give forth sounds of joy at thy rising. O Ra, thou who art Heru-khuti (Harmachis), the mighty man-child, the heir of eternity, self-begotten and self-born, king of earth, prince of the netherworld, governor of the mountains of Aukert (i.e., the netherworld), thou dost rise in the horizon of heaven and sheddest upon the world beams of emerald light; thou art born from the {p. 252} water, thou art sprung from Nu, who fostereth thee and ordereth thy members. O thou who art crowned king of the gods, god of life, lord of love, all the nations live when thou dost shine. The goddess Nut doeth homage unto thee, and the goddess Maat embraceth thee at all times. They who are in thy following sing unto thee with joy and bow down to the earth when they meet thee, the god of heaven, the lord of earth, the king of right and truth, the god of eternity, the everlasting ruler, the prince of all the gods, the god of life, the creator of eternity, the maker of heaven by whom is established all that therein is. The company of the gods rejoice at thy rising, the earth is glad when it beholdeth thy rays; the peoples that have been long dead come forth with cries of joy to see thy beauties. Thou goest forth over heaven and earth, made strong each day by thy mother Nut. Thou passest through the uppermost heaven, thy heart swelleth with joy; and the Lake of Testes is content thereat. The Enemy hath fallen, his arms are hewn off, the knife hath cut asunder his joints. Ra liveth in Maa[1] the beautiful. The sektet boat draweth on and cometh into port; the south, the north, the west and the east turn to praise thee, O thou unformed substance of the earth, who didst create thyself. Isis and Nephthys salute thee, they sing unto thee in thy boat hymns of joy, they shield thee with their hands. The souls of the East follow thee, the souls of the West praise thee. Thou art the ruler of all gods and thou hast joy of heart within thy shrine; for the Serpent Nak is condemned to the fire, and thy heart shall be joyful for ever. Thy mother Nut is adjudged to thy father Nu."


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« Reply #58 on: December 21, 2008, 11:28:14 pm »

PLATE II.

Vignette I.: The disk of the Sun, supported by a pair of arms proceeding from the ankh, the sign of life, which in turn is supported by a tet the emblem of the East and of the god Osiris. The tet stands upon the horizon. On each side of the disk are three dog-headed apes, spirits of the Dawn, their arms raised in adoration of the disk. On the right hand side of the tet is the goddess Nephthys and on the left is Isis each goddess raising her hands in adoration of the tet, and kneeling upon the emblem aat, or hemisphere. Above is the sky. This vignette belongs properly to the hymn to the rising sun.[2]

[1. Maa, unvarying and unalterable Law. Compare the vignette from British Museum papyrus No. 9901. (Fig. 1.)

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« Reply #59 on: December 21, 2008, 11:28:40 pm »

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