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The Egyptian Book of the Dead

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Author Topic: The Egyptian Book of the Dead  (Read 5765 times)
Josie Linde
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« Reply #105 on: December 24, 2008, 10:34:27 pm »

PLATES XI. AND XII.

Vignette I.: Ani and his wife Thuthu approaching the first Arit,[3] the cornice of which is ornamented with ### i.e., emblems of power, life, and stability. At the entrance sit three gods, the first having the head of a hare, the second the head of a serpent, and the third the head of a crocodile. The first holds an ear of corn (?), and each of the others a knife.

Text [CHAPTER CXLVII.]: (I) THE FIRST ARIT. The name of the doorkeeper is Sekhet-hra-asht-aru[3]; the name of the (2) watcher is Meti-heh (?)[4]; the name of the herald is Ha-kheru.[5]

[WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN OSIRIS COMETH TO THE FIRST ARIT IN AMENTA.[6]] Saith (3) Ani, triumphant, when he cometh to the first Arit: "I am the mighty one who createth his own light. (4) I have come unto thee, O Osiris, and, purified from that which defileth thee, I adore thee. Lead on; (5) name not the name

[1. Lepsius (Todtenbuch, Bl. XI.) adds, after this: "Now those who rise up against me and among whom is evil [see above, l. 141] are the powers of darkness of the god Sut, when there is strife among them, for strife is flame."

2. "May it be granted to [the dead] by the decree of [the gods] who are in Tattu to destroy the souls of his foes!"

2 House or mansion. in the upper line of Plates XI. and XII. there is a series of seven Arits, or mansions, through which the deceased is supposed to pass. In the lower line are the ten Sebkhets, or pylon-shaped gateways.

3 "Reversed of face: of many forms." Var. ###.

4 Var. ###.

5 "The voice that travelleth." Var. ###. "The high-voiced."

6 Supplied from Naville, Todtenbuch, 1. 165.]

{p. 292}

of Re-stau unto me. Homage to thee, O Osiris, in thy might and in thy strength (6) in Re-stau. Rise up and conquer, O Osiris, in Abtu. Thou goest round about heaven, thou sailest in the presence of Ra, (7) thou seest all the beings who have knowledge.[1] Hail Ra, who circlest in [the sky]. Verily I say [unto thee], O Osiris, I am a (Cool godlike ruler. (9) Let me not be driven hence[2] (10) nor from the wall of burning coals. [I have] opened the way in Re-stau; (11) I have eased the pain of Osiris; [I have] embraced that which the balance I hath weighed; [I have] made a path for him in the great valley, it and [he] maketh a path. Osiris shineth(?)."

Vignette II.: The second Arit, guarded by three gods; the first of whom has the head of a lion, the second the head of a man, and the third the head of a dog. Each one holds a knife.

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« Reply #106 on: December 24, 2008, 10:35:07 pm »

Text: (1) THE SECOND ARIT. The name of (2) the doorkeeper is Un-hat[4]; (3) the name of the watcher is (4) Seqet-hra; the name of the herald is Uset.[5]

(6) Saith Osiris Ani, when he cometh unto this Arit; "He sitteth to do his heart's desire, and he weigheth (7) words as the second of Thoth. The strength of Thoth[6] humbleth the (Cool hidden Maata gods[7] who feed upon Maat throughout the years [of their lives].[8] I make offerings at the (9) moment when [he] passeth on his way; I pass on and enter on the way; Grant thou that I may pass through and that I may gain sight of Ra together with those who make offerings."

[1. Birch: "Pure Spirits." Pierret: "Intelligents."

2. I.e., the Arit.

3 Literally standard or perch. Var. ###.

4 Var. ###.

5 Var. ###.

6. Var. "the strength of Osiris is the strength of Thoth."

7 Varr. Nemasa, and Sah, "Orion." The reading in Lepsius is Masti, "gods of the thigh."

8. Var. "their years are the years of Osiris."

9. The text here differs from all others and may be corrupt.]

{p. 293}

Vignette III.: The third Arit, guarded by three gods; the first with the head of a jackal, the second the head of a dog, and the third the head of a serpent. The first holds an ear of corn (?), and each of the others a knife.

Text: (1) THE THIRD ARIT. The name of the (2) doorkeeper is Qeq-hauau-ent-pehui;[1] the name of the (4) watcher is Se-res-hra;[2] the name of the herald is Aaa.[3]

Saith Osiris Ani, [when he cometh to this Arit]: (6) "I am hidden [in] the great deep, [I am] the judge of the Rehui.[4] I have come and I have done away with the offences of Osiris. I am building up the standing place (7) which cometh forth from his urerit (?) crown. I have done his business in Abtu, I have opened the way in Re-stau, I have (Cool eased the pain which was in Osiris. I have made straight his standing place, and I have made [his] path.[5] He shineth in Re-stau."

Vignette IV.: The fourth Arit, guarded by three gods; the first with the head of a man, the second the head of a hawk, and the third the head of a lion. The first holds an ear of corn and each of the others a knife.

Text: (1) THE FOURTH ARIT. The name of the (2) doorkeeper is Khesef-hra-asht- (3) kheru;[6] the name of the (4) watcher is Seres-tepu;[7] (5) the name of the herald is (6) Khesef-At.[8]

Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, [when he cometh to this Arit]: "I am the [mighty] bull, the (7) son of the ancestress of Osiris. O grant ye that his father, the lord of his godlike (Cool companions, may bear witness for him. Here the guilty are weighed in judgment. I have brought unto (9) his nostrils eternal life. I am the son of Osiris, I have made the way, I have passed thereover into Neter-khert."

PLATE XII.--Vignette V.: The fifth Arit, guarded by three gods; the first with the head of a hawk, the second the head of a man, and the third the head of a snake. Each holds a knife.
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« Reply #107 on: December 24, 2008, 10:35:31 pm »

[1. I.e., "Eater of his own filth."

2. I.e., "Making to lift up his face."

3. I.e., "Great One."

4. I.e., Horus and Set.

5. Var. ###. See the end of the speech of the Osiris at the first arit.

6. I.e., "Repulsing the face, great of speech."

7 Var. ###

8. I.e., "Repulser of the crocodile."]

{p. 294}

Text: (1) THE FIFTH ARIT. The (2) name of the doorkeeper is Ankh-f-em-fent;[1] the name of the (3) watcher is Shabu; the name of the herald is Teb-hra-keha-kheft.[2]

Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, [when he cometh to this Arit]: I have brought unto thee the bones of thy jaws in Re-stau, I have brought thee thy backbone in Annu, (7) gathering together all thy members there. (Cool I have driven back Apep for thee. I have poured water upon the wounds; I have made a path among you. I am the Ancient One among the gods. I have[3] made the offering of Osiris, who hath triumphed with victory, gathering his bones and bringing together all his limbs."

Vignette VI.: The sixth Arit, guarded by three gods; the first with the head of a jackal, and the second and third the head of a dog. The first holds an ear of corn (?), and each of the others a knife.

Text: (I) THE SIXTH ARIT. (2) The name of the doorkeeper is Atek-au-kehaq-kheru;[4] the name of the (4) watcher is An-hri; (5) the name of the herald is Ates-hra.

Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, [when he cometh to this Arit]: "I have come (7) daily, I have come daily. I have made the way; I have passed along that which was created by Anubis. I am the lord of the (Cool urerit crown . . . . . . . magical words. I, the avenger of right and truth, have avenged his eye. I have swathed the eye of Osiris, [I have] made the way]; Osiris Ani hath passed along [it] with you . . . . . . . .

Vignette VII.: The seventh Arit, guarded by three gods; the first with the head of a hare, the second the head of a lion, and the third the head of a man. The first and second hold a knife, and the third an ear of corn (?).

Text: (1) THE SEVENTH ARIT. The name of (2) the doorkeeper is Sekhem-Matenu-sen;[5] the name Of (4) the watcher is Aa-maa-kheru,[6] (5) and the name of the herald is Khesef-khemi.

Saith Osiris, [the scribe] Ani, [when he cometh to this Arit]: (6) "I have come

[1. I.e., "He liveth upon worms."

2. Var. ###.

3. For what follows of this speech Naville gives no equivalent.

4. Var. Seket-tau-keha-kheru.

5. Ates-sen.

6 Var. Aa-kheru.]

{p. 295}

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« Reply #108 on: December 24, 2008, 10:36:03 pm »

unto thee, O Osiris, who art cleansed of [thine] impurities. Thou goest round about heaven, thou seest Ra, thou seest the beings who have knowledge. Hail (7) Only One! behold, thou art in the sektet boat,[1] He goeth round the horizon of heaven. I speak what I will unto his[2] body; (Cool it waxeth strong and it cometh to life, as he spake. Thou turnest back his face. Prosper thou for -me all the ways [which lead] unto thee!"

Vignette I.: Ani and his wife Thuthu, with hands raised in adoration, approaching the first Sebkhet or Pylon, which is guarded by a bird-headed deity wearing a disk on his head, and sitting in a shrine the cornice of which is decorated with khakeru ornaments.

Text: [CHAPTER CXLVI.] THE FIRST PYLON. WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE FIRST PYLON. Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "Lo, the lady of terrors, with lofty walls, the sovereign lady, the mistress of destruction, who uttereth the words which drive back the destroyers, who delivereth from destruction him that travelleth along the way. The name of the doorkeeper is Neruit."

Vignette II.: The second Pylon, which is guarded by a lion-headed deity seated in a shrine, upon the top of which is a serpent.

Text: WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE SECOND PYLON. Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant: "Lo, the lady of heaven, the mistress of the world, who devoureth with fire, the lady of mortals; how much greater is she than all men! The name of the doorkeeper is Mes-Ptah."

Vignette III.: The third Pylon, which is guarded by a man-headed deity seated in a shrine, the upper part of which is ornamented with the two utchats and the emblems of the orbit of the sun and of water.

Text: WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE THIRD PYLON OF THE HOUSE OF OSIRIS. Saith the scribe Ani, triumphant: "Lo, the lady of the

[1. Var. "Thou invokest Ra in the sektet boat of heaven."

2 Reading with Naville ###.]

{p. 296}

altar, the mighty one to whom offerings are made, the beloved[1] (?) of every god, who saileth up to Abtu. The name of the doorkeeper is Sebaq."

Vignette IV.: The fourth Pylon, which is guarded by a cow-headed deity seated in a shrine, the cornice of which is ornamented with uræi wearing disks.

Text: WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE FOURTH PYLON. Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, [triumphant]: "Lo, she who prevaileth with knives, mistress of the world, destroyer of the foes of the Still-Heart, she who decreeth the escape of the needy from evil hap. The name of the doorkeeper is Nekau."

Vignette V.: The fifth Pylon, which is guarded by the hippopotamus deity, with her fore-feet resting upon the buckle, the emblem of protection, seated in a shrine, the cornice of which is ornamented with ###, emblematic of flames of fire.

Text: WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE FIFTH PYLON. Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant: "Lo, the flame, the lady of breath (?) for the nostrils; one may not advance to entreat her shall not come into her presence. The name of the doorkeeper is Hentet-Arqiu."

Vignette VI.: The sixth Pylon, which is guarded by a deity in the form of a man holding a knife and a besom and seated in a shrine, above which is a serpent.

Text: WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE SIXTH PYLON. Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant: "Lo, the lady of light, the mighty one, to whom men cry aloud; man knoweth neither her breadth nor her height; there was never found her like from the beginning (?). There is a serpent thereover whose size is not known; it was born in the presence of the Still-Heart. The name of the doorkeeper is Semati."

Vignette VII.: The seventh Pylon, which is guarded by a ram-headed deity holding a besom and seated in a shrine, the cornice of which is decorated with khakeru ornaments.

[1. The principal variants are "every god uniteth with her"; "the heart of every god rejoiceth in her." See Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. II., Bl. 371.]

{p. 297}

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« Reply #109 on: December 24, 2008, 10:36:26 pm »

Text: WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE SEVENTH PYLON. Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant: "Lo, the robe which doth clothe the feeble one (i.e., the deceased), weeping for what it loveth and shroudeth. The name of the doorkeeper is Sakti-f."

Vignette VIII.: The eighth Pylon, which is guarded by a hawk wearing the crowns of the North and South, seated on a sepulchral chest with closed doors; before him is a besom, and behind him is the utchat. Above the shrine are two human-headed hawks, emblems of the souls of Ra and Osiris, and two emblems of life.

Text: WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE EIGHTH PYLON. Saith Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant: "Lo, the blazing fire, the flame whereof cannot be quenched, with tongues of flame which reach afar, the slaughtering one, the irresistible, through which one may not pass by reason of the hurt which it doeth. The name of the doorkeeper is Khu-tchet-f."[1]

Vignette IX: The ninth Pylon, which is guarded by a lion-headed deity wearing a disk and holding a besom, seated in a shrine, the cornice of which is ornamented with uræi wearing disks.

Text: WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE NINTH PYLON. Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "Lo, she who is chiefest, the lady of strength, who giveth quiet of heart to her lord. Her girth is three hundred and fifty measures; she is clothed with mother-of-emerald of the south; and she raiseth up the godlike form and clotheth the feeble one The name of the doorkeeper is Ari-su-tchesef."[2]

Vignette X.: The tenth Pylon, which is guarded by a ram-headed deity wearing the atef crown and holding a besom, seated in a shrine, upon the top of which are two serpents.

Text: WORDS TO BE SPOKEN WHEN [ANI] COMETH UNTO THE TENTH PYLON. Saith Osiris Ani, [triumphant]: "Lo, she who is loud of voice, she who causeth those to cry who entreat her, the fearful one who terrifieth, who feareth none that are therein. The name of the doorkeeper is Sekhen-ur."

[1. I.e., "Protecting his body."

2 I.e., "He maketh himself."]

{p. 298}

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« Reply #110 on: December 24, 2008, 10:36:43 pm »

Appendix: The several "texts" of the next eleven Pylons are wanting in this papyrus. Translations of them are here given as they are found in a papyrus published by Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., 131. 161, 162. It will be observed that the names of the doorkeepers are wanting, and also that each text, except in the case of the twenty-first Pylon, ends with words which refer to the examination of the dead at each gate.

THE ELEVENTH PYLON. "Lo, she who repeateth slaughter, the burner up of fiends, It she who is terrible at every gateway, who rejoiceth on the day of darkness. She judgeth the feeble swathed one."

THE TWELFTH PYLON. "Lo, the invoker of the two lands, who destroyeth with flashings and with fire those who come, the lady of splendour, who obeyeth her lord daily. She judgeth the feeble swathed one."

THE THIRTEENTH PYLON. "Lo, Isis, who hath stretched forth her hands and arms over it, and hath made Hapi to shine in his hidden place. She judgeth the feeble swathed one."

THE FOURTEENTH PYLON. "Lo, the lady of the knife, who danceth in blood; she maketh [the festival of] the god Hak on the day of judgment. She judgeth the feeble swathed one."

THE FIFTEENTH PYLON. "Lo, the Bloody Soul, who searcheth out and putteth to the test, who maketh inquiry and scrutiny, who cometh forth by night, and doth fetter the Fiend in his lair; may her hands be given to the Still-Heart in his hour, and may she make him to advance and come forth unto her. She judgeth the feeble swathed one."

THE SIXTEENTH PYLON. Saith Osiris, when he cometh unto this pylon: "Lo, the Terrible one, the lady of the rain storm, who planteth ruin in the souls of men, the devourer of the dead bodies of mankind, the orderer and creator of slaughters, who cometh forth. She judgeth the feeble swathed one."

THE SEVENTEENTH PYLON. "Lo, the Hewer-in-pieces in blood, . . . . . . the lady of flame. She judgeth the feeble swathed one."

THE EIGHTEENTH PYLON. "Lo, the Lover of fire, the purifier of sinners (?), the lover of slaughter, the chief of those who adore, the lady of the temple, the slaughterer of the fiends in the night. She judgeth the feeble bandaged one."

THE NINETEENTH PYLON. "Lo, the Dispenser of light while she liveth, the mistress of flames, the lady of the strength and of the writings of Ptah himself. She maketh trial of the swathings of Pa-an."

THE TWENTIETH PYLON. "Lo, she who is within the cavern of her lord, Clother is her name; she hideth what she hath made, she carrieth away hearts and greedily drinketh water. She judgeth the feeble swathed one."

THE TWENTY-FIRST PYLON. "Lo, the knife which cutteth when [its name] is uttered, and slayeth those who advance towards its flames. It hath secret plots and counsels."

{p. 299}

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« Reply #111 on: December 24, 2008, 10:37:03 pm »

In the late recensions of the Book of the Dead,[1] the text referring to the twenty-first Pylon reads:--

(71) "Hail," saith Horus, "O twenty-first pylon of the Still-Heart. (72) I have made the way, I know thee, I know thy name, I know the name of the goddess who guardeth thee: 'Sword that smiteth at the utterance of its [own] name, the unknown (?) goddess with back-turned face, the overthrower of those who draw nigh unto her flame' is her name. Thou keepest the secret things of the avenger of the god whom thou guardest, and his name is Amem.[2] (73) He maketh it to come to pass that the persea trees grow not, that the acacia trees bring not forth, and that copper is not begotten in the mountain. The godlike beings of this pylon are seven gods. (74) Tchen or At is the name of the one at (?) the door; Hetep-mes[3] is the name of the second one; Mes-Sep[4] is the name of the third one Utch-re[5] is the name of the fourth one; "Ap-uat[6] is the name of the fifth one; Beq[7] is the name of the sixth one; Anubis is the name of the seventh one."

(75) "I have made the way. I am Amsu-Horus, the avenger of his father, the heir of his father Un-nefer. I have come and I have overthrown all foes of my father Osiris. I have come day by day with victory, doing myself the worship of the god, (76) in the house of his father Tmu, lord of Annu, triumphant in the southern sky. I have done what is right and true to him that hath made right and truth; I have made the Haker festival for the lord thereof; I have led the way in the festival; (77) I have made offerings of cakes to the lords of the altars; and I have brought offerings and oblations, and cakes and ale, and oxen and ducks, to my father Osiris Un-nefer. I rise up in order that my soul may be made one wholly; I cause the bennu bird to come forth at [my] words. I have come daily into the holy house to make offerings of incense. (78) I have brought garments of byssus. I have set forth on the lake in the boat. I have made Osiris, the overlord of the netherworld, to be victorious over his enemies; and I have carried away all his foes to the place of slaughter in the East; they shall never come forth from the durance of the god Seb therein. (79) I have made those who stand up against Ra to be still, and [I have] made him to be victorious. I have come even as a scribe, and I have made all things plain. I have caused the god to have the power of his legs. I have come into the house of him that is upon his hill,[8] and I have seen him that is ruler in the sacred hall. (80) I have gone into Re-stau; I have hidden myself, and I have found out the way; I have travelled unto An-rutf. I have clothed those who are naked. (81) I have sailed up to Abtu; I have praised the gods Hu and Sau. (82) 1 have entered into the house of Astes, I have made supplication to the gods Khati and Sekhet in the house of Neith," or, as others say, "the rulers. I have entered into Re-stau; I have hidden myself,

[1. See Lepsius, Todtenbuch, pl. LXIV.

2. I.e., "Devourer."

3. I.e., "Born of peace."

4. I.e., "Who giveth birth to fire."

5 I.e., "Strong of mouth."

6 I.e., "Opener of ways."

7 I.e., "Olive tree."

8 I.e., Anubis, the god of the dead.]

{p. 300}

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« Reply #112 on: December 24, 2008, 10:37:20 pm »

and I have found out the way; I have travelled unto An-rutf. (83) I have clothed him who was naked. I have sailed up to Abtu; I have glorified Hu and Sau. (84) I have received my crown at my rising, and I have power to sit upon my throne, upon the throne of my father and of the great company of the gods. I have adored the meskhen of Ta-sert. (85) My mouth uttereth words with right and with truth. I have drowned the serpent Akhekh. I have come into the great hall which giveth strength unto the limbs; and it hath been granted to me to sail along in the boat of Hai. The fragrance of anti unguent ariseth from the hair of him who hath knowledge. (86) I have entered into the house of Astes, and I have made supplication to the gods Khati and Sekhet within the House of the Prince. (87) I have arrived as a favoured one in Tattu."

Vignette [1] [CHAPTER XVIII.--INTRODUCTION] (Upper register): The priest[2] An-maut-f, who has on the right side of his head the lock of Heru-pa-khrat, or Horus the Child, and who wears a leopard's skin, introducing Ani and his wife to the gods whose names are given in Plates XIII. and XIV.

Text: An-maut-f saith: "I have come unto you, O mighty and godlike rulers who are in heaven and in earth and under the earth; (2) and I have brought unto you Osiris Ani. He hath not sinned against any of the gods. Grant ye that he may be with you for all time."

(1) The adoration of Osiris, lord of Re-stau, and of the great company of the gods who are in the netherworld beside Osiris, the scribe Ani, who saith: (2) "Homage to thee, O ruler of Amenta, Unnefer within Abtu! I have come unto thee, and my heart holdeth right and truth. (3) There is no sin in my body; nor have I lied wilfully, nor have I done aught with a false heart. Grant thou to me food in the tomb, (4) and that I may come into [thy] presence at the altar of the lords of right and truth, and that I may enter into and come forth from the netherworld (my soul not being turned back), and that I may behold the face of the Sun, and that I may behold the Moon (5) for ever and ever."

Vignette (Lower register): The priest Se-mer-f[3] who has on the right side of his head the lock of Heru-pa-khrat and wears a leopard's skin, introducing Ani and his wife to the gods whose names are given in Plates XIII. and XIV.

[1. This and its companion vignette and the vignettes of Plates XIII.-XIV. form one composition.

2. Osiris is also called An-maut-f; see Lepsius, Todtenbuch, chap. cxlii., 1. 7.

3. For the functions of this priest see above, p. 268.]

{p. 301}

Text: Se-mer-f saith (1) I have come unto you, O godlike rulers who are in Re-stau, and I have brought unto you Osiris Ani. Grant ye [to him], as to the followers of Horus, cakes and water, and air, and a homestead in Sekhet-Hetep."[l]

(1) The adoration of Osiris, the lord of everlastingness, and of all the godlike rulers of Re-stau, by Osiris, [the scribe Ani], who (2) saith: "Homage to thee, O king of Amenta, prince of Akert, I have come unto thee. I know thy ways, (3) I am furnished with the forms which thou takest in the underworld. Grant thou to me a place in the underworld near unto the lords (4) of right and truth. May my homestead be abiding in Sekhet-hetep, and may I receive cakes in thy presence."


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« Reply #113 on: December 24, 2008, 10:37:59 pm »

PLATE XIII.

Vignettes (Upper register): A pylon, or gateway, surmounted by the feathers of Maat and uræi wearing disks. (Lower register): A pylon, surmounted by Anubis and an utchat.

Text [CHAPTER XVIII.]: [" (1) Hail Thoth, who madest Osiris (2) victorious over his enemies, make thou Osiris [the scribe Ani] to be victorious over his enemies, as thou didst make Osiris victorious over his enemies' in the presence of (3) the godlike rulers who are with Ra and Osiris in Annu, on the night of 'the things for the night,'[2] and on the night of battle, and (4) on the shackling of the fiends, and on the day of the destruction of Neb-er-tcher."][3]

§A. Vignette: The gods Tmu, Shut Tefnut, Osiris,[4] and Thoth.

Text: (1) The great godlike rulers in Annu are Tmu, Shu, Tefnut [Osiris, and Thoth], (2) and the shackling of the Sebau signifieth the destruction of the fiends of Set when he worketh evil (3) a second time.

"Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious over his enemies, make thou the Osiris (4) Ani to be victorious over his enemies in the presence of the great divine beings who are in Tattu, on the night of making the Tat to stand up in Tattu."

[1. I.e., the Fields of Peace.

2. The words are explained to mean, "the daybreak on the sarcophagus of Osiris."

3. This section, omitted in the Ani papyrus, is supplied from the papyrus of Nebseni.

4. This god is omitted from the copy of this chapter given on Plate XXIII.]

{p. 302}

§B. Vignette: The gods Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and Horus.

Text: (1) The great godlike rulers in Tattu are Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and Horus, the avenger of his father. Now the "night of making the Tat to stand (2) Up in Tattu" signifieth [the lifting up of] the arm and shoulder of Osiris, lord of Sekhem; and these gods stand behind Osiris [to protect him] even as the swathings; which clothe[1] him.

(3) "Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious over his enemies, make thou the Osiris Ani triumphant over his enemies (4) in the presence of the great godlike rulers who are in Sekhem, on the night of the things of the night [festival] in Sekhem."

§C. Vignette: The gods Osiris and Horus, two utchats upon pylons, and the god Thoth.

Text: (1) The great godlike rulers who are in Sekhem are Horus, who is without sight, and Thoth, who is with the godlike rulers in Naarerutf. (2) Now the "night of the things of the night festival in Sekhem" signifieth the light of the rising sun on the coffin of Osiris.

"Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious (3) over his enemies, make thou the Osiris Ani triumphant over his enemies in the presence of the great godlike rulers in Pe and Tep,[2] on the (4) night of setting up the columns of Horus, and of making him to be established the heir of the things which belonged to his father."

§D. Vignette: The gods Horus, Isis, Mestha and Hapi.

Text: (1) The great divine rulers who are in Pe and Tep are Horus, Isis, Mestha, and Hapi. Now setting up the columns (2) of Horus [signifieth] the command given by Set unto his followers: "Set up columns upon it."

"Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious over his enemies (3), make thou the Osiris-Ani triumphant over his enemies in the presence of the great godlike

[1. The papyrus of Nebseni reads "Now the setting up of the double Tat signifieth the two shoulders and arms of Horus, lord of Sekhem; and they stand behind Osiris even as the swathings which clothe him."

2 See Brugsch, Dict. Géog., p. 213.]

{p. 303}

it rulers in . . . . Rekhit, on the (4) night when Isis lay down to keep watch in It order to make lamentation for her brother Osiris."

§E. Vignette: (1) The gods Isis, Horus, Anubis,[1] Mesthi, and Thoth.

Text: (1) The great godlike rulers who are in. . . . Rekhit are Isis, Horus, and Mestha.

"Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious (2) over his enemies, make thou the Osiris, the scribe Ani (triumphant in peace!), to be victorious over his enemies in the presence of the great godlike ones (3) who are in Abtu, on the night of the god Naker, at the separation of the wicked dead, at the judgment of spirits made just, (4) and at the arising of joy in Tenu."[2]


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« Reply #114 on: December 24, 2008, 10:38:39 pm »

PLATE XIV.

§F. Vignette: The gods Osiris, Isis, and Ap-uat, and the TET.

Text [CHAPTER XVIII.]: (1) The great godlike rulers who are in Abtu are Osiris, Isis, and Ap-uat.

"Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious (2) over his enemies, make thou the Osiris Ani, the scribe and teller of the sacred offerings of all the gods, to be victorious (3) over his enemies in the presence of the godlike rulers who judge the dead, on the night of (4) the condemnation of those who are to be blotted out."

§G. Vignette: The gods Thoth, Osiris, Anubis, and Astennu.[2]

Text: (1) The great godlike rulers in the judgment of the dead are Thoth, Osiris, Anubis, and Astennu. Now (2) the "condemnation of those who are to be blotted out" is the withholding of that which is so needful to the souls of the children of impotent revolt.

"(3) Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious over his enemies, make thou the Osiris, the scribe Ani (triumphant!), to be victorious over his enemies in the

[1. Omitted on Plate XXIV.

2. ###, the capital of the eighth nome of Upper Egypt, situated near Abydos, and probably represented by the modem village of Kûm es-Sultân. It is the ### of the Coptic writers. See Brugsch, Dict. Géog., p. 951; and Amélineau, La Géographie de l'Égypte, p. 500.]

presence of the great godlike rulers, (4) on the festival of the breaking and turning up of the earth in Tattu, on the night of the breaking and turning up of the earth in their blood and of making Osiris to be victorious over his enemies."

§H. Vignette: The three gods of the festival of breaking up the earth in Tattu.

Text: (1) When the fiends of Set come and change themselves into beasts, the great godlike rulers, on the festival of the breaking and turning up of the earth in Tattu, (2) slay them in the presence of the gods therein, and their blood floweth among them as they are smitten down. (3) These things are allowed to be done by them by the judgment of those who are in Tattu.

"Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious over his enemies, make thou the Osiris Ani to be victorious over his enemies in the presence of the godlike rulers (4) who are in Naarutef, on the night of him who concealeth himself in divers forms, even Osiris."[1]

§1. Vignette: The gods Ra, Osiris, Shu, and Bebi,[2] dog-headed.

Text: (1) The great godlike rulers who are in Naarutef are Ra, Osiris, Shu, and Bebi.[3] Now the night of him who concealeth himself in divers forms, even Osiris," is when the thigh [and the head], and the heel, and the leg, are brought nigh unto the coffin of Osiris Un-nefer.

"Hail, Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious (3) over his enemies, make thou the Osiris Ani (triumphant before Osiris) victorious over his enemies in the presence of the great godlike rulers who are in (4) Re-stau, on the night when Anubis lay with his arms and his hands over the things behind Osiris, and it when Horus was made to triumph over his enemies."

§J. Vignette: The gods Horus, Osiris, Isis, and . . . . (?)

[1. Var. en seseta aa aru, "of making to be hidden the one mighty of forms" (i.e., Osiris). See Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. II., Bl. 81.

2 Also written ###; see Brugsch, Wörterbuch, p. 387; Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 197.

3 Var. ### Ababi.]

{p. 305}

Text: (1) The great godlike rulers in Re-stau are Horus, Osiris, and Isis. The heart of Osiris rejoiceth, and the heart of Horus (2) is glad; and therefore are the east and the west at peace.

"Hail Thoth, who madest Osiris victorious over his enemies, (3) make thou the Osiris Ani, the scribe and teller of the divine offerings of all the gods, to triumph over his enemies in the presence of the ten (4) companies of great godlike rulers who are with Ra and with Osiris and with every god and goddess in the presence of Neb-er-tcher. He hath destroyed his (5) enemies, and he hath destroyed every evil thing belonging unto him."

Rubric: This chapter being recited, the deceased shall come forth by day, purified after death, and [he shall make all] the forms[1] (or transformations) which his heart shall dictate. Now if this chapter be recited over him, he shall come forth[2] upon earth, he shall escape from every fire; and none of the foul things which appertain unto him shall encompass him for everlasting[3] and for ever and for ever.


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« Reply #115 on: December 24, 2008, 10:39:36 pm »

PLATE XV.

Vignette: A seated statue of Ani, the scribe, upon which the ceremony of opening the mouth"[4] un re, is being performed by the sem[5] priest, clad in a panther's skin and holding in his right hand the instrument Ur heka[6] i.e., "mighty one of enchantments." In front of the statue are: the

[1. Var. arit xeperuf.

2. The Papyrus of Nebseni has the better reading ufa pu tep ta, "he shall be in a good state upon earth."

3. Brugsch renders em shes maat by "sicut oequum et justum est"; Wörterbuch (Supp.), p. 1203.

4. For a description of this ceremony, see above, pp. 264-270.

5. Compare ### Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 34. In British Museum papyrus No. 10,470, sheet 8, the god Horus performs this ceremony upon the deceased, who is upon a stool.

6. See above, p. 264.]

{p. 306}

sepulchral chest, the instruments Seb-ur, Tun-tet, and Temanu, and the object Pesh-en-kef.[1]

Text [CHAPTER XXIII.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE MOUTH OF OSIRIS, THE SCRIBE ANI. To be said:[2] "May Ptah open my mouth, and may the god of my town[3] loose the swathings, even the swathings[4] which are over my mouth (2). Moreover, may Thoth, being filled and furnished with charms, come and loose the bandages, the bandages of Set which fetter my mouth (3); and may the god Tmu hurl them' at those who would fetter [me] with them, and drive them back. May my mouth be opened, may my mouth be unclosed by Shu[6] (4) with his iron[7] knife, wherewith he opened the mouth of the gods. I am Sekhet,[8] and I sit upon the great western side of heaven. (5) 1 am the great goddess Sah[9] among the souls of Annu. Now as concerning every charm and all the words which may be spoken against me (6), may the gods resist them, and may each and every one of the company of the gods withstand it them."[10]

Text [CHAPTER XXIV.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF BRINGING CHARMS UNTO OSIRIS ANI [IN NETER-KHERT]. [He saith]: "I am Tmu[11]-Khepera, who gave birth unto himself upon the thigh of his divine mother.[12] Those who are in Nu[13]are made wolves, and those who are among the godlike rulers (3) are become

[1. See above, p. 264.

2. Var. "he saith."

3. Var., "By Amen, the god of my town"; Lepsius, Todtenbuch, Pl. xiv.

4. Var., netiu.

5. Var., May Tmu give me my hand to shoot them at those who fetter [me]. May my mouth be given to me, may my mouth be opened."

6. Var., O Ptah.

7. Literally " iron of heaven " (baat en pet = Copt. ###); for discussions on the word, see Dümichen, Aeg. Zeit., 1874, p. 49, and the authorities quoted by Brugsch, Wörterbuch (Suppl.), p. 416.

8. The papyrus of Nebseni adds Uatchit.

9. Var., ###.

10. Var., "Them may the gods resist, and all the company of my gods, and all the company of their gods."

11. Many papyri omit Tmu.

12. Birch, "on the lap of his mother"; Pierret, "en haut de la cuisse de sa mère."

13. I.e., the sky.]

{p. 307}

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« Reply #116 on: December 24, 2008, 10:40:16 pm »

hyenas.[1] Behold, I gather together the charm from every place where it is and from every man with whom it is,[2]' swifter than greyhounds and fleeter than light. (4) Hail thou who towest along the makhent boat of Ra, the stays of thy sails and of thy rudder are taut in the wind as thou sailest over the Lake of Fire in Neter-khert. Behold, thou gatherest together the charm (5) from every place where it is and from every man with whom it is, swifter than greyhounds and fleeter than light, [the charm] which createth the forms of existence from the (6) mother's thigh (?) and createth the gods from (or in) silence, and which giveth the heat of life unto the gods.[3] Behold, the charm is given unto me from wheresoever it is [and from him with whom it is], swifter than greyhounds and fleeter than light," or, (as others say), " fleeter than a shadow."

Appendix: The following chapter, which generally appears in other early copies of the Book of the Dead, is closely connected with the preceding chapter. It is here taken from the Papyrus of Nebseni.

(1) [CHAPTER XXV.] THE CHAPTER OF CAUSING THE DECEASED TO REMEMBER HIS (2) NAME IN NETER-KHERT. [He saith]: "May my name be given unto me in the great Double House, and may I remember my name in the House of Fire on the (3) night of counting the years and of telling the number of the months. I am with the Holy One, and I sit on the eastern side of heaven. If any god advanceth unto me, (4) forthwith I proclaim his name."

Vignette: The scribe Ani, clothed in white, and with his heart in his right hand, addressing the god Anubis.[4] Between them is a necklace of several rows of

[1. Var. behiu, an animal which is identified with the hyaena croenta by Hartmann (see Aeg. Zeit., 1864, p. 12, Col. 2).

2. Reading with the Nebseni papyrus ###.

3. Here the text is different from any given by Naville. The chief variants are ###, "which createth the gods from (or in) silence, and which maketh them powerless"; and ### "which maketh the gods to speak [from being] silent, and which maketh them speechless."

4. In the vignettes of this chapter published by M. Naville (Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 38) the deceased is represented: (1) seated, and addressing his heart, which stands on a support; (2) standing, holding in his hands a heart, which he offers to three deities. Another vignette represents a priest tying a heart on to a statue of the deceased; and in the late recension of the Book of the Dead published by Lepsius (Bl. 15) the deceased holds a heart to his left side and addresses a human-headed hawk emblematic of the soul.]

{p. 308}

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« Reply #117 on: December 24, 2008, 10:40:49 pm »

coloured beads, the clasp of which is in the shape of a pylon or gateway, and to which is attached a pectoral bearing a representation of the boat of the sun, wherein is set a scarab, emblematic of the Sun.[1]

Text [CHAPTER XXVII: (1) CHAPTER OF GIVING A HEART UNTO OSIRIS ANI (2) IN THE UNDERWORLD. [Ani saith]: "May my heart be with me in the House of Hearts.[2] May my heart be with me, and may it rest in [me], or I shall not eat of the cakes of Osiris on the eastern[3] side of the Lake of Flowers,[4] (3) [neither shall I have] a boat wherein to go down the Nile, and another wherein to go up, nor shall I go forward in the boat with thee. May my mouth be given unto me that I may (4) speak with it, and my two feet to it walk withal, and my two hands and arms to overthrow my foe. May the doors of heaven be opened unto me[5](5); may Seb, the Prince of the gods, open wide his two jaws unto me; may he open my two eyes which are blinded; may he cause me to stretch out my (6) feet which are bound together; and may Anubis make my legs firm that I may stand upon them. May the goddess Sekhet make me to rise (7) so that I may ascend unto heaven, and there may that be done which I command in the House of the Ka of Ptah.[6] I know my heart, I have gotten the mastery over (Cool my heart, I have gotten the mastery over my two hands and arms, I have gotten the mastery over my feet, and I have gained the power to do whatsoever my ka pleaseth. (9) My soul shall not be shut off from my body at the gates of the underworld; but I shall enter in peace, and I shall come forth in peace."

[1. A very fine set of examples of blue, green, and yellow glazed faïence pectorals inlaid with scarabs is exhibited in the Fourth Egyptian Room.

2. I.e., the judgment hall of Osiris, in which hearts were weighed.

3. Var. "West."

4. On the word ### see Brugsch, Wörterbuch (Suppl.), p. 1289, and Stern, Glossarium, p. 19, col. 2, where the various kinds of this sweet-smelling plant are enumerated.

5 Var. ### "May my two hands open [my] mouth in the earth": Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. 11., Bl. 90.

6. I.e., the heavenly Memphis.]

{p. 309}

Text: [CHAPTER XXXB.]. (I) THE CHAPTER[1] OF NOT LETTING (2) THE HEART OF OSIRIS, THE SCRIBE OF THE SACRED OFFERINGS OF ALL THE GODS, ANI, TRIUMPHANT, BE DRIVEN FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Ani saith: "My heart, my mother; my heart, my mother (3). My heart whereby I come into being. May there be nothing to withstand me at [my] judgment; may there be no, resistance against me by the Tchatcha; may there be no parting of thee from me in the presence of him who keepeth the Scales! Thou art my ka within (4) my body, [which] knitteth and strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth in the place of happiness [to which] I advance. May the Shenit,[2] who make men to stand fast, not cause my name to stink."[3]

Vignette: Ani holding his soul in the form of a human-headed bird.

Text: [CHAPTER LXI.] (I) CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE SOUL OF A MAN BE TAKEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Osiris the scribe Ani saith: "I, even I, am he (2) who came forth from the water-flood which I make to overflow and which becometh mighty as the River [Nile]."

Appendix; In many early papyri the text of Chapter LXI. forms part of a longer composition which M. Naville calls Chapters LXI.,[4] LX.,[5] and LXII.,[6] and which reads:--

(1) CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER IN THE UNDERWORLD. [He saith]: "I, even I, am he who cometh forth from (2) Seb. The flood hath been given unto him,

[1. This chapter is usually accompanied by a vignette. In that in the papyrus of Nebseni the deceased is being weighed against his own heart; an ape, "Thoth, lord of the Balance," seated on a pedestal, holds the tongue of the balance. In British Museum Papyrus No. 9964 the deceased is also weighed against his own heart, but at the same time a figure of himself is also watching the process. In the papyrus of Sutimes a square weight lies in each pan of the scales. Other vignettes have simply a scarab, or the deceased addressing his heart, which rests on a standard. See Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bl. 43.

2. A class of divine beings.

3. The chapter as here given is incomplete; the missing words are: "pleasant for us, pleasant is the hearing, and there is gladness of heart at the weighing of words. Let not lies be spoken against me near the god, in the presence of the great god, the lord of Amentet. Verily, how great shalt thou be when thou risest up in triumph!"

4. The vignette represents the deceased on his knees embracing his soul.

5. Vignette: a man kneeling and holding a lotus.

6. Vignettes: the deceased scooping water with his hands out of a tank.]

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« Reply #118 on: December 24, 2008, 10:41:13 pm »

and he hath gotten power over it as Hapi. I, even I, open the (3) two doors of heaven: and the two doors of the watery abyss have been opened unto me by Thoth and by Hapi, the divine twin sons of heaven, (4) who are mighty in splendours. O grant ye that I may gain power over the water, even as Set overcame his foes on the day(?) (5) when he terrified the world. I have passed by the great ones shoulder against shoulder, even as they have passed by that great and splendid god who is (6) provided [with all things] and whose name is unknown. I have passed by the mighty one of the shoulder. (7) The flood of Osiris hath been passed through by me, and Thoth-Hapi-Tmu, the lord of the horizon, hath opened unto me the flood in his name, 'Thoth, the cleaver of the earth.' (Cool I have gained power over the water, even as Set gained power over his foes. I have sailed over heaven. I am Ra. I am the Lion-god. I am the young bull (9). I have devoured the Thigh, I have seized the flesh. I have gone round about the streams in Seket-Aru. Boundless eternity hath been granted unto me, and, behold, (10) I am the heir of eternity; to me hath been given everlastingness."

Closely connected with the above chapter are the two following short chapters:--[1]

Vignette: The deceased drinking water from a running stream.

Text [CHAPTER LXIIIA.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER AND OF NOT BEING BURNED IN THE FIRE. [The deceased] saith: "Hail, Bull of Amenta. I am brought unto thee, I am the oar of Ra (3) wherewith he ferried over the aged ones; let me not be buried nor consumed. I am Beb,[2] (4) the first-born son of Osiris, who doth wash every god within his eye in Annu. I am the Heir, (5) the exalted (?), the mighty one, the Still [of Heart]. I have made my name to flourish, and I have delivered [it], that I may make myself to live [in remembrance] on this day."

Vignette: The deceased standing near flames of fire.

Text [CHAPTER LXIIIB.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF NOT BEING SCALDED WITH WATER. [He saith]: "I am the oar (2) made ready for rowing, wherewith Ra ferried over the Aged godlike ones. (3) I carry the moistures of Osiris to the lake away from the flame which cannot be passed (4); he is turned aside from the path thereof and he is not burned in the fire. I lie down with the hamemu; (5) I come unto the Lion's lair, killing and binding; and I follow the path by which he came forth."

Vignette: Ani carrying a sail, emblematic of breath and air.

Text [CHAPTER LIV.]: (1) CHAPTER OF GIVING BREATH IN THE UNDERWORLD. Saith Osiris Ani: "I am the Egg of the Great Cackler, and I watch and guard that

[1. For the texts see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bll. 73, 74.

2. The variants are ### and ###.]

{p. 311}

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« Reply #119 on: December 24, 2008, 10:41:30 pm »

great place[1] (2) which the god Seb hath proclaimed upon earth. I live; and it liveth; I grow strong, I live, I sniff the air. I am (3) Utcha-aab,[2] and I go round behind [to protect] his egg. I have thwarted the chance of Set, the mighty one of strength. (4) Hail thou who makest pleasant the world with tchefa food, and who dwellest in the blue [sky]; watch over the babe in his cot when he cometh forth unto thee."

Appendix: The two following chapters, which are closely connected with the preceding chapter, are respectively supplied from Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., 131. 67, and the Nebseni Papyrus.

Vignette: Anubis leading the deceased into the presence of Osiris.

Text: [CHAPTER LV.]: (I) ANOTHER CHAPTER OF GIVING BREATH. [He saith]: "I am Sabsabu. I am Shu. (2) I draw in the air in the presence of the god of sunbeams as far as the uttermost ends of heaven, as far as the ends of the earth, as far as the bounds of Shu (3); and I give breath unto those who become young [again]. I open my mouth, and I see with mine eyes."[3]

Vignette: A man holding a sail in his left hand.

Text [CHAPTER LVI.]: CHAPTER OF SNIFFING THE AIR UPON EARTH. [He saith]: "(2) Hail, Tmu, grant thou unto me the sweet breath which is in thy two nostrils. I embrace the mighty throne which is in Unnu,[4] and I watch and guard the Egg of the Great Cackler. I grow, and it groweth; it groweth, and I grow; I live, and it liveth; I sniff the air, and it sniffeth the air."

Vignette: Ani standing, with a staff in his left hand.

Text [CHAPTER XXIX.]: (I) THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF A MAN BE TAKEN AWAY FROM HIM IN THE UNDERWORLD. Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: "Turn thou back, O messenger of all the gods. (2) Is it that thou art come to carry away[5] this my heart which liveth? My heart which liveth

[1. The text of Lepsius gives "I guard that great egg," etc.

2. The variant text given by Naville indicates by that these words are the name or title of a god. Birch translates them by "Discriminator of Purity," and Pierret by "le sauvé dont le nom est pur."

3. For the texts see Naville, Todtenbuch, Bd. I., Bll. 67, 68, 69.

4. Hermopolis.

5. In a variant vignette given by Naville the deceased holding his heart in both hands offers it to three gods; and in another a man is about to fasten a necklace with a pendent heart to the statue of the deceased.]

shall not be given unto thee. (3) [As I] advance, the gods give ear unto my supplications, and they fall down upon their faces wheresoever they be."


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