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Medieval Sourcebook: the Crusades

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Starla St. Germaine
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« on: January 11, 2009, 03:08:30 am »

Crusade Sources in Translation

 


By Paul Halsall (c)

[Preliminary Version 0.1 : December 26 1997]

COLLECTIONS [All Crusades]

Recueil des historiens des Croisades
Recueil des historiens des Croisades, (Paris, Imprimerie royale, 1841-1906), 16 Vols
Historiens occidentaux. t. 1-5, 1844-95.--
Historiens orientaux, t. 1-5, 1872-1906.--
Documents armeniens. t. 1-2,1869-1906.
Historiens grecs, t. 1-2, 1875-81.
Lois. Assises de Jerusalem ... t. 1-2, 1841-43.
---For arrangement of contents see:
Lasteyrie du Saillant., Bibliographie generale des travaux historiques et archeologiques publies par les societes savantes de la Francem t. 3, p. 464-467.
Contents:
The whole set was reissued in photofacsimilie - Farnborough (Hants.) Gregg Press, 1967-) 5 ser. in 16 v. in plates (maps) 33 cm.
Facsim. reprint of the 1st ed., Paris, Imprimerie royale, 1841-1906.
-This is the major collection of crusade texts. For the most part they are edited in original languages and have a modern French translation underneath.

Collected Accounts
Arab Sources
English trans. F. Gabrieli and E. J. Costello, Arab Historians of the Crusades, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969)
Irwin, Robert, "The Image of the Byzantine and the Frank in Arab Popular Literature of the Late Middle Ages", Mediterranean Historical Review 4 (1989)

Damascus Chronicle
Arabic
English trans. H.A.R. Gibb, The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades, (London: Luzac, 1932)


FIRST CRUSADE

Collected Translated Accounts
A.C. Krey, The First Crusade: The Accounts of Eye-Witnesses and Participants, (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1921, rep. Gloucester MA: P. Smith 1958)
Dana C. Munro, "Urban and the Crusaders", Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History, Vol 1:2, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1895)

Fulcher of Chartres
Latin
English trans. Martha E. McGinty, Fulcher of Chartres: Chronicle of the First Crusade, (London: Oxford University Press; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1941)
English trans. Frances R. Ryan, and H.S. Fink, Fulcher of Chartres: A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1969)

Gesta Francorum
Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolymitanorum.
English trans.
The first crusade, The deeds of the Franks and other Jerusalemites; "Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum", translated into English for the first time by Somerset de Chair, (London: The Golden Cockerel Press, 1945)
The deeds of the Franks and the other pilgrims to Jerusalem, trans. Rosalind Hill, Latin text and English translation, (London: New York: T. Nelson, 1962)

Ordericus Vitalis
1075-1143?
Histoire eccleciasticae libri
Latin
The ecclesiastical history of England and Normandy, trans Thomas Forester, 4 vols. (London, H. G. Bohn, 1853-56; reissued New York: AMS, 1968),
[translation was made from the edition of Auguste Le Prevost, Paris, 1838-55]
The ecclesiastical history of Orderic Vitalis, edited and translated with introduction and notes by Marjorie Chibnall, (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1969-1980)

Raimundus de Agiles (Raymond D'Aguilers)
Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem [by] Raymond D'Aguilers, trans. John Hugh Hill and Laurita L. Hill., (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1968)

Petrus Tudebodus (Peter Tudebode).
Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere [by] Peter Tudebode, trans. John Hugh Hill and Laurita L. Hill, (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1974)

William of Tyre
A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. Emily A. Babcock and A.C. Krey, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1943)

SECOND CRUSADE

Odo de Deuil, Abbot of Saint Denis, d. ca. 1162.
De profectione Ludovici VII in orientem, ed., with an English translation, by Virginia Gingerick Berry, (New York, Columbia Univ. Press, 1948)
Otto I, Bishop of Freising, d. 1158.
The deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, by Otto of Freising and his continuator, Rahewin; translated and annotated with an introd. by CharlesChristopher Mierow (with the collaboration of Richard Emery), (New York: Columbia University Press, 1953)
The two cities; a chronicle of universal history to the year 1146 A.D., by Otto, Bishop of Freising, trans. Charles Christopher Mierow, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1928)

Jacques de Vitry
ca. 1170-1240.
The history of Jerusalem. A.D. 1180, trans. Aubrey Stewart, (London, 1896 [1893?])

THIRD CRUSADE

Richard of Devizes
Chronicles of the Crusades : being contemporary narratives of the crusade of Richard Coeur de Lion / by Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey de Vinsauf ; and of the crusade of St. Louis, by Lord John de Joinville, (London ; H. G. Bohn, 1848; reissued New York: AMS, 1969)

FOURTH CRUSADE

Collection - Old French Chronicles
English trans.
Three Old French chronicles of the crusades : the History of the holy war, the History of them that took Constantinople, the Chronicle of Reims. Trans. Edward Noble Stone, (Seattle, Wash.: The University of Washington, 1939)
[Ambroise, fl. ca. 1196. Histoire de la guerre sainte. Clari, Robert de, 12th/13th cent. Conquete de Constantinople. Recits d'un menestrel de Reims]

Villehardouin, Geoffroi de, d. ca. 1212.
French
The Conquest of Cinstantinople
La conquete de Constantinople, Editee et traduite par Edmond Faral, (Paris, Societe d'edition "Les Belles lettres", 1938-)
Coulet, Noel, Ceux qui conquirent Constantinople : recits de la quatrieme Croisade. (Paris : Union general d'editions, 1966)
English trans.
Shaw, Margaret R. B. (Margaret Renee Bryers), Chronicles of the Crusades, (Baltimore: Penguin Books, [1963])
Chronicles of the crusades, by Villehardouin & De Joinville, translated by Sir Frank Marzials, (London, Dent; New York, Dutton [introd. 1908])
Available on the Internet at
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html]

Robert de Clari, fl 1200-1216.
The Conquest of Constantinople
La conquete de Constantinople, ed. par Phipipe Lauer, (Paris, E. Champion, 1956)
La Conquete de Constantinople. Traduction par Pierre Charlot., (Paris, E. de Boccard, 1939)
Coulet, Noel., Ceux qui conquirent Constantinople : recits de la quatrieme Croisade. (Paris : Union general d'editions, 1966).
English trans.
The Conquest of Constantinople, trans. E. H.McNeal, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1936)
Three Old French chronicles of the crusades : the History of the holy war, the History of them that took Constantinople, the Chronicle of Reims. Trans. Edward Noble Stone, (Seattle, Wash.: The University of Washington, 1939)
Italian trans.
La conquista di Constantinopoli (1198-1216) [di] Roberto di Clari. Studio critico, traduzione e note, by Anna Maria Nada Patrone, (Genova, 1972)


FIFTH AND LATER CRUSADES

Jean de Joinville
c.1224-c1317
Life of St. Louis.
Histoire de saint Louis. [Ed. revue et presentee par Regine Pernoud. (Paris: Club des libraires de France [1960])
English trans.
Chronicles of the Crusades : being contemporary narratives of the crusade of Richard Coeur de Lion / by Richard of Devizes and Geoffrey de Vinsauf ; and of the crusade of St. Louis, by Lord John de Joinville, (London ; H. G. Bohn, 1848)
Chronicles of the crusades, by Villehardouin & De Joinville, translated by Sir Frank Marzials, (London, Dent; New York, Dutton [introd. 1908])
The history of Saint Louis, translated from the French text edited by Natalis de Wailly, by Joan Evans, (Newtown, Montgomeryshire [Wales] : Gregynog Press, 1937)
The life of St. Louis, translated by Rene Hague from the text edited by Natalis de Wailly, (New York : Sheed and Ward, 1955)
Shaw, Margaret R. B. (Margaret Renee Bryers), Chronicles of the Crusades, (Baltimore: Penguin Books, [1963])

Makrisi, Essulouk li Mariset il Muluk [The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings], in Chronicles of the Crusades, ed. H.G.B. (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848: reissued New York: AMS Press, 1969), pp. 535-556

OTHER CRUSADE SOURCES

Assizes of Romania
Liber consuetudinum Imperii Romaniae. Feudal institutions as revealed in the Assizes of Romania, the law code of Frankish Greece : translation of the text of the Assizes with a commentary on feudal institutions in Greece and in medieval Europe, by Peter W. Topping, (New York : AMS Press, [1980] c1949.) Series title: University of Pennsylvania. Dept. of History Translations and reprints from the original sources of history ; ser. 3, v. 3.



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(c)Paul Halsall, 1997
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/cdesource.html
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Starla St. Germaine
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« Reply #1 on: January 11, 2009, 03:11:42 am »


Contents

General
Background
The First Crusade
Urban II's Speech, 1095
Attacks on the Jews
The Journeys and Battles of the Crusade
The Historians of the First Crusade
The Kingdom of Jerusalem
Government
Economics
Cultures
Christian Muslim Interaction
The Crusader Orders
General
Templars
Hospitallers
Teutonic Knights
The Second Crusade and Aftermath
Calling the Crusade
Successes and Failures
Criticism of the Crusade
The Third Crusade
Latin Problems
The Loss of Jerusalem
The Failure of Europe's Monarchs
The German Crusade of 1197
The Fourth Crusade
The Fifth and Later Crusades
St Louis' Crusades
The Fall of the Latin East
The Effects of the Crusade Ideal in the West

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General

WEB ORB: Crusades [At ORB] for a brief modern account of the crusading movement.
WEB Crusader Sources in Translation
WEB The Crusades: Bibliography by Paul Halsall [At Internet Archive, from UNF]
WEB The Crusades, online course material by Paul Halsall [At Internet Archive, from UNF]
WEB The Crusades, online account by Skip Knox [At Boise State]
WEB Les Croisades: Sources, images et histoire
Excellent source of primary texts, modern narratives, and images -- all in French.
Evolution of Crusader Privileges, 1095-1270.
Background

Leo IV (r.847-855): Forgiveness of Sins for Those Who Dies in Battle, c.850.
John VIII (r. 872-882): Indulgence for Fighting the Heathen, 878.
Letaldus of Micy: Journey of the Relics of St. Junianus, including a description of the Peace Council of Charroux in 989. Trans. by Thomas Head [At ORB]
Andrew of Fleury: Miracles of St. Benedict. Trans. by Thomas Head [At ORB]
A description of the Peace League of Bourges and its campaign in 1038.
For pilgrimage to Jerusalem, see Ralph Glaber (d.c.1044): The Year 1000 AD from the Miracles de Saint-Benoit.
Gregory VII: Call for a "Crusade", 1074.
Annalist of Nieder-Altaich: The Great German Pilgrimage of 1064-65.
The First Crusade

There are many translations of texts about the First Crusade. Dana C. Munro ["Urban and the Crusaders", Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History, Vol 1:2, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1895)] and August. C. Krey, [The First Crusade: The Accounts of Eyewitnesses and Participants, (Princeton: 1921)] both translated selections of crusader sources organized around events. There have been more recent translation of many of these texts [see WEB Crusader Sources in Translation], but they are still copyrighted. Here the texts by Krey and Munro are presented in two ways: first as printed - with collected texts from various historians on a specific issue; and then with all the available texts from each historian collected together.

Urban II's Speech, 1095
Urban II: Speech at Clermont: Five Versions.
Accounts by Fulcher of Chartres, Robert the Monk, The Gesta, Balderic of Dol, and Guibert of Nogent. Plus Urban's Letter of December 1095.
See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Bl. Urban II and Catholic Encyclopedia: Crusades.
[Tierney 39, Geary 28.1] Fulcher of Chartres: Chronicle of the First Crusade - Urban II's Speech at Clermont. [Geary includes a copyrighted account of the course of the crusade.]
Robert the Monk: Urban II's Speech at Clermont.
Ekkehard of Aurach: On the Opening of the First Crusade .
Attacks on the Jews
Albert of Aix and Ekkehard of Aura: Emico and the Slaughter of the Rhineland Jews.
[Geary 28.2] Solomon Bar Simson: Account of First Crusade, copyrighted
Soloman bar Samson: The Crusaders in Mainz, 1096, written in mid 12th century.
The horrific attacks on Rhineland Jewry.
The Journeys and Battles of the Crusade
Peter the Hermit and the Popular Crusade: Collected Accounts.
Accounts of Guibert de Nogent, William of Tyre, Albert of Aix, Ekkhard of Aura, Anna Comnena, and the Gesta.
The Crusaders Journey to Constantinople: Collected Accounts.
Accounts of the Gesta, Albert of Aix, and Raymond d'Aguiliers.
The Crusaders at Constantinople: Collected Accounts.
Accounts of Anna Comnena, the Gesta, Albert of Aix, and Raymond d'Aguiliers.
[Geary 28.4] Anna Comnena: On A Rude Crusader . (Geary includes more (copyrighted) material than this extract.)
The Siege and Capture of Nicea: Collected Accounts.
Accounts of The Gesta, Raymond d'Aguiliers, Anna Comnena, and Alexius I' Letter to Abbot of Monte Cassino.
The Siege and Capture of Antioch: Collected Accounts.
Accounts of The Gesta and Raymond d'Aguiliers.
The Siege and Capture of Jerusalem: Collected Accounts.
Accounts of The Gesta, Raymond d'Aguiliers, Letters of Manasses II, Pope Paschal II, and account of Fulcher of Chartres.
[Tierney 40, Geary 28.1] Fulcher (Fulk) of Chartres: The Capture of Jerusalem, 1099. [Longer extracts in Geary]
Crusader Letters.
The Historians of the First Crusade
Fulcher (Fulk) of Chartres: Chronicle.
Guibert of Nogent (1053-1124): Historia quae dicitur Gesta Dei per Francos.
Albert of Aix: Chronicle.
Ekkehard of Aura: Hierosolymita and World Chronicle.
Anna Comnena (1083-after 1148): The Alexiad. [Full text]
The account of her father, the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I, by Princess Anna Comnena is perhaps the most important historical work by a woman writer written before the modern period.
Anna Comnena (1083-after 1148): The Alexiad [Books 10 and 11].
See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Anna Comnena.
Gesta Francorum.
Raymund d'Aguiliers: Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem.
William of Tyre (c.1130- 1190): History of Deeds done Beyond the Sea, excerpts..
William of Tyre's account extends here to the the 1180s.
Guillame de Tyr (William of Tyre) (c.1130- 1190): Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum [History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea], full text of Old French version (13th century)
Books 1-9 the Old French translation from the edition of Paulin.
Books 10-16 ditto
Books 17-22 ditto
Books 23-34, the continuation, from the Recueil des historiens des croisades
Chronique du Templier de Tyr, from Les gestes des Chiprois as edited by Gaston Raynaud.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem

Government
William of Tyre: Godfrey Of Bouillon Becomes "Defender Of The Holy Sepulcher.
The Latin Kings of Jerusalem (chronology).
Economics
The Taxes of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Cultures
Fulcher (Fulk) of Chartres: The Latins in the East (Chronicle, Bk III).
Christian Muslim Interaction
[Geary 28.3] Ibn Al-Athir: Account of First Crusade, copyrighted
[Tierney 41] Usamah (1095-1188): Autobiography - on the Crusades, copyrighted: see next items
Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095-1188): Autobiography: Excerpts on the Franks, c.1175 CE.
Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095-1188): On European Piracy, c.1175 CE. [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095-1188): On Muslim and Christian Piety, c.1175 CE. [At CCNY]
The Tale of Two Hashish-Easters (Traditional),  and another Hashish Tale, from Arabian Nights [At Drug Library]
Philip K. Hitti : The Assasins [At Drug Library]
A Christian-Muslim Debate [12th Century].
Bills of Sale for Saracen Slave Girls, 1248
The Crusader Orders

General
WEB ORB Military Orders Page.
Catholic Encyclopedia: The Military Orders
Templars
St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153): In Praise of the New Knighthood, early 12th Century, on the Templars.
See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Bernard of Clairvaux, The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge: Bernard of Clairvaux, Catholic Encyclopedia: The Knights Templars, and Catholic Encyclopedia: Hospitallers of St. John Of Jerusalems (Knights of Malta).
William of Tyre: The Foundation of the Order of Knights Templar.
Primitive Rule of the Templars, 1129. [At ORB]
Hospitallers
Catholic Encyclopedia: The Military Orders
Teutonic Knights
The Rule and Statutes of the Teutonic Knights, 1264. [At ORB]
See the ORB Military Orders Page on this.
The Second Crusade and Aftermath

Calling the Crusade
William of Tyre: The Fall of Edessa.
Otto of Freising: The Legend of Prester John.
Eugenius III: Call for Second Crusade, Dec. 1, 1146. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Blessed Eugene III.
Successes and Failures
Osbernus: De expugnatione Lyxbonensi [The Capture of Lisbon], 1147.
The first, and most lasting, military encounter of the Second Crusade was the Capture of Lisbon.
Conrad II: Letters to the Abbot of Corvey, 1148.
On the failures of the Germans' Crusade.
Odo of Deuil: The Crusade of Louis VII.
Odo, Louis VII's chaplain, recounts the preaching of St. Bernard, and the journey of the army.
William of Tyre: The Fiasco at Damascus, 1148.
Criticism of the Crusade
Annales Herbipolenses, s.a. 1147: A Hostile View of the Crusade.
St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153): Apologia for the Second Crusade.
The Third Crusade

Latin Problems
William of Tyre: Latin Disarray, 1150-1185.
Aymeric, patriarch of Antioch: The Decline of Christian Power in the Holy Land, 1164, Letter to Louis VII of France. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Ansbert: Letter from the East to the Master of the Hospitallers, 1187.
The Loss of Jerusalem
Ernoul, a Frank: The Battle of Hattin, 1187. [At Hillsdale]
Ernoul: The Battle of Hattin, 1187.
De Expugatione Terrae Sanctae: The Battle of Hattin, 1187.
De Expugatione Terrae Sanctae: The Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, 1187.
Roger of Hoveden: The Fall Of Jerusalem, 1187.
The Failure of Europe's Monarchs
Henry II, King of England: The Saladin Tithe, 1188
The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: Letters, 1189.
Letters by Frederick I and Ex-Queen Sibylla blaming the Byzantine Emperor for problems.
Historia de Expeditione Frederici Imperatoris: Death of Frederick Barbarossa, 1190.
Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: Richard the Lion-Hearted Conquers Cyprus, 1191.
Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: The Siege and Capture of Acre, 1191.
Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: Philip Augustus Returns to France, 1191.
Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: Muslim Hostages Slain at Acre, 1191.
Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi: Richard the Lionheart Makes Peace with Saladin, 1192.
The German Crusade of 1197
The German Crusade, 1197.
Letter of the Duke of Lorrain to the Archbishop of Cologne, 1197 - before the crusade was checked by the death of Henry VI.
The Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade 1204: Collected Sources.
Texts from Villehardoun, Robert de Clari, Choniates, etc.
Geoffry de Villehardouin: Chronicle of the Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople, full text
Robert de Clari: The Capture of Constantinople, selections.
Nicetas Choniates: Capture of Constantinople, 1204.
Innocent III: Letter 136: Reprimand of Papal Legate, 1204.
The Fifth and Later Crusades

After the Fourth Crusade, the nature of the movement changed. Never again was there a general multinational crusade directed at the Holy Land. The experiences of 1187-92 had shown that Egypt was the base of Muslim power, and so expeditions were directed there. It would be a mistake to see the end of crusading fervour however. During the thirteenth century there were eight large expeditions, as well as other manifestations of crusading ideas. None of these expeditions could avoid the effects of the rise of the Mongols and Mamelukes in the Middle East - where armies increased in size and made the small Western units meaningless. The eight thirteenth-century expeditions were:

1218, Andrew of Hungary's Crusade
1218-21, The Fifth Crusade
1228-29, Frederick II's Crusade
1239, Thibaut of Navarre's Crusade
1240-41, Richard of Cornwall's Crusade
1248-54, The Sixth Crusade - St. Louis's Crusade
1270-72, Edward of England's (Later Edward II) Crusade
1270 St. Louis's second Crusade [To Tunis]
Cologne Chronicle: The Children's Crusade, 1212.
Innocent III: Summons to a Crusade, 1215.
Philip de Novare: The Crusade of Frederick II, 1228-29.
Frederick II's Crusade: Letters, 1229.
Letters by Frederick II: To Henry III of England, and by Gerold, Patriarch of Jerusalem, To All the Faithful, 1229.
The Capture of Jerusalem, 1244.
Letter from the Master of the Hospitalers at Jerusalem, to Lord De Lamaye.
St. Louis's Crusades
Jean de Joinville: Memoirs , full text. [At Virginia]
Al-Makrisi: Arab Account of the Crusade of St. Louis.
Guy, A Knight: Letter from the Sixth Crusade, 1249.
The Fall of the Latin East
Ludolph of Suchem: The Fall of Acre, 1291 Philip de Novare: The Crusade of Frederick II, 1228-29.
The Effects of the Crusade Ideal in the West

Battle of Lepanto
Allenby in Jerusalem

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NOTES:

copyrighted means the text is not available for free distribution. In some cases alternate versions are available, and are working through the pipeline.

Dates of accession of material can be seen in the New Accessions Page. The date of inception was 1/20/1996.

Links to files at other site are indicated by [At some indication of the site name or location]. No indication means that the text file is local.

WEB  indicates a link to one of small number of high quality web sites which provide either more texts or an especially valuable overview.


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