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Giuseppe Garibaldi - "Hero Of Two Worlds" - Born at Nice July 4, 1807

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« on: July 04, 2008, 09:21:33 am »

                                              G I U S E P P E    G A R I B A L D I

Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian military and political leader.

In his twenties, he joined the Carbonari Italian patriot revolutionaries, and had to flee Italy after a failed insurrection.

He then contributed to the independence of Uruguay, leading the Italian Legion in the Uruguayan Civil War, and afterwards returned to Italy as a commander in the conflicts of the Risorgimento.

He has been dubbed the "Hero of the Two Worlds" in tribute to his military expeditions in both South America and Europe.

He is considered an Italian national hero.

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« Reply #1 on: July 04, 2008, 09:28:31 am »

Garibaldi was born on July 4, 1807 in the city of Nice ("Nizza" in Italian), at that time the capital of the French department of Alpes-Maritimes, before it was given back to the Savoys, the rulers of the Kingdom of Sardinia,
in 1814 with Napoleon's defeat.

In 1860, however, the Savoys returned the city to France (an action opposed by Garibaldi), in order to get
French aid in Italy's unification wars.

Garibaldi's family was involved in coastal trade, and he was drawn to a life on the sea. He participated actively
in the community of the Nizzardo Italians and was certified in 1832 as a merchant marine captain.

A very influential day in Garibaldi's life came while visiting Taganrog, Russia, in April 1833, where he moored for
ten days with the schooner Clorinda and a shipment of oranges. In a seaport inn, he met Giovanni Battista Cuneo from Oneglia, a political immigrant from Italy and member of the secret movement La Giovine Italia ("Young Italy"), founded by Giuseppe Mazzini, an impassioned proponent of Italian unification as a liberal republic through political and social reforms. Garibaldi joined the society, and took an oath of dedicating his life to struggle for liberation of his homeland (Patria) from Austrian dominance.

In Geneva in November 1833, Garibaldi met Mazzini himself, starting a relationship which later would become
rather troublesome. He joined the Carbonari revolutionary association.

In February 1834 he participated in a failed Mazzinian insurrection in Piedmont, was sentenced to death in
absentia by a Genoese court, and fled to Marseilles.
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« Reply #2 on: July 04, 2008, 09:35:12 am »

Giuseppe and Anita Garibaldi

memorialized in Praça Garibaldi,

Porto Alegre,
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« Reply #3 on: July 04, 2008, 09:46:53 am »

Garibaldi first sailed to Tunisia before eventually finding his way to Brazil.

There he took up the cause of independence of the Republic of Rio Grande do Sul (the former
Brazilian province of São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul), joining the gaucho rebels known as the
farrapos (tatters) against the newly independent Brazilian nation (see War of Tatters).


During this war he encountered a woman, Ana Ribeiro da Silva (best known as "Anita"), when
the Tatter Army tried to proclaim another Republic in the Brazilian province of Santa Catarina.
In October 1839, Anita joined Garibaldi on his ship, the Rio Pardo. A month later, she fought
at her lover's side at the battles of Imbituba and Laguna.

In 1841, the couple moved to Montevideo, Uruguay, where Garibaldi worked as a trader and schoolmaster, and married there the following year. They had four children, Menotti (born 1840),
Rosita (born 1843), Teresita (born 1845) and Ricciotti (born 1847).

A skilled horsewoman, Anita is said to have taught Giuseppe about the gaucho culture of south-
ern Brazil and Uruguay. It was about this time he adopted his trademark clothing, the red shirt,
cloak, and sombrero (hat) used by the gauchos.

In 1842, Garibaldi took command of the Uruguayan fleet and raised an "Italian Legion" for the
Uruguayan Civil War, aligned with the liberal coalition of Uruguayan Colorados of Fructuoso
Rivera and Argentine Unitarios (with substantive support of France and United Kingdom) against
the conservative forces of former Uruguayan president Manuel Oribe's Blancos and Argentine
Federales under the rule of Buenos Aires Caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas.

The Legion adopted a black flag representing Italy in mourning, while the volcano at its center symbolized the dormant power in their homeland.

Though there is no contemporary mention of them, popular history asserts that it was in Uruguay
that the Legion first wore the red shirts, said to have been obtained from a factory in Montevideo
which had intended to export them to the slaughterhouses of Argentina.

It was to become the symbol of Garibaldi and his followers.

Between 1842 and 1848 Garibaldi defended Montevideo against forces led by Oribe.

In 1845 he even managed to occupy Colonia del Sacramento and Isla Martín García and led the controversial sack of Gualeguaychú. Adopting skillful tactics of guerrilla warfare, he achieved two celebrated victories in the battles of Cerro and San Antonio del Santo in 1846.

The fate of his homeland, however, continued to concern Garibaldi.

The election of Pope Pius IX in 1846 had caused a sensation among Italian patriots, both at home
and in exile. When news of the pope's initial reforms (which seemed to identify him as the liberal
pope prophesied by Vincenzo Gioberti, who would provide the leadership for the unification of Italy) reached Montevideo, Garibaldi wrote the following letter:

"If these hands, used to fighting, would be acceptable to His Holiness, we most thankfully dedicate

them to the service of him who deserves so well of the Church and of the Fatherland (Patria).

Joyful indeed shall we and our companions in whose name we speak be, if we may be allowed to

shed our blood in defence of Pio Nono's work of redemption

—(October 12, 1847)[2]

Also Mazzini, from his exile, applauded the first reforms of Pius IX.

In 1847 Garibaldi offered the Apostolic Nuncio at Rio de Janeiro, Bedini, the service of his Italian
Legion for the liberation of the Peninsula.

News of the outbreak of revolution in Palermo in January 1848, and revolutionary agitation else-
where in Italy encouraged Garibaldi to lead some 60 members of his Legion home.
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« Reply #4 on: July 04, 2008, 09:48:26 am »

Garibaldi returned to Italy amongst the turmoils of the revolutions of 1848, and offered his services to
Charles Albert of Sardinia. The monarch displayed some liberal inclinations, but treated Garibaldi with
coolness and distrust.

Rebuffed by the Piedmontese, he and his followers crossed into Lombardy where they offered assistance
to the provisional government of Milan, which had rebelled against the Austrian occupation.

In the course of the following, unsuccessful First Italian War of Independence, he led his legion to two
minor victories at Luino and Morazzone. After the crushing Piedmontese defeat at Novara (March 23, 1849),
Garibaldi moved to Rome to support the Republic which had been proclaimed in the Papal States, but a
French force sent by Louis Napoleon (the future Napoleon III) threatened to topple it.

At Mazzini's urging, Garibaldi took up the command of the defence of Rome. In a fighting near Velletri, Achille
Cantoni saved his life.

On April 30, 1849 the Republican army, under the command of Garibaldi, defeated a numerically far superior
French army. Subsequently, additional French reinforcements arrived and the siege of Rome began on June 1. Despite the resistance of the Republican army, led by Garibaldi, the French prevailed on June 29.


On June 30 the Roman Assembly met and debated three options: to surrender; to continue fighting in the
streets of Rome; to retreat from Rome and continue the resistance from the Appennine mountains. Garibaldi
made a speech in which he favored the third option and then said:

                                                  "Dovunque saremo, colà sarà Roma."

                                              (Wherever we may be, there will be Rome).

A truce was negotiated on July 1, and on July 2 Garibaldi withdrew from Rome with 4,000 troops.

The French Army entered Rome on July 3 and reestablished the Holy See's temporal power.

Garibaldi and his forces, hunted by Austrian, French, Spanish, and Neapolitan troops, fled to the north with
the intention to reach Venice, where the Venetians were still resisting the Austrian siege.


After an epic march, Garibaldi took momentary refuge in San Marino, with only 250 men still following him.

Anita, who was carrying their fifth child, died near Comacchio during the retreat.

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« Reply #5 on: July 04, 2008, 09:56:07 am »

Garibaldi eventually managed to reach Portovenere, near La Spezia, but the Piedmontese government forced
him into exile abroad again.

After a stay in Tangier, he moved on to Staten Island, New York. He arrived on the 30th of July 1850, and
stayed in exile in an attempt to avoid publicity and exposure. His host was the inventor Antonio Meucci, where
he spent some time working as a candlemaker in his plant on Staten Island, but was dissatisfied by the result.

 Afterwards he made several voyages as sea captain to the Pacific, the longest of which took two years, from
April of 1851, during which he visited Andean revolutionary heroine Manuela Sáenz in Peru.

Garibaldi left New York City for the last time in November of 1853.

On 21 March 1854, Garibaldi sailed into to the mouth of the River Tyne in north eastern England, as Master of the sailing vessel Commonwealth. The ship had sailed from Baltimore and was flying the American flag when it docked and unloaded its cargo in South Shields.

Garibaldi, already a popular figure on Tyneside, was welcomed enthusiastically by the local working class, although the Newcastle Courant reported that he refused an invitation to dine with dignitaries
in nearby Newcastle.

As a memento of his stay in the area, an inscribed sword, paid for through public subscriptions, was presented to Garibaldi. His grandson carried the sword to South Africa with him almost half a century later, when he volunteered to fight for the British Army in the Boer War.

In total, Garibaldi stayed in Tyneside for over a month, departing at the end of April 1854.
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« Reply #6 on: July 04, 2008, 10:02:10 am »


Garibaldi returned again to Italy in 1854.

Using a small legacy from the death of his brother, he bought half of the Italian island of Caprera (northern Sardinia), devoting himself to agriculture.


In 1859, the Second Italian War of Independence (also known as the Austro-Sardinian War) broke
out in the midst of internal plots at the Sardinian government. Garibaldi was appointed major general, and formed a volunteer unit named the Hunters of the Alps.

Thenceforth, Garibaldi abandoned Mazzini's republican ideal of the liberation of Italy, assuming that
only the Piedmontese Monarchy could effectively achieve it.

With his volunteers, he won victories over the Austrians at Varese, Como, and other places.

Garibaldi was, however, very displeased as his home city of Nice (Nizza in Italian) was surrendered
to the French, in return for crucial military assistance. In April 1860, as deputy for Nice in the Piedmontese parliament at Turin, he vehemently attacked Cavour for ceding Nice and the Nizzardi
to Louis Napoleon, Emperor of the French.

In the following years Garibaldi (with other passionate Nizzardi Italians) promoted the Irredentism

of his Nizza, even with riots (in 1872).
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« Reply #7 on: July 04, 2008, 10:10:59 am »


On 24 January 1860, Garibaldi married a Lombard noblewoman, Giuseppina Raimondi, but left her
immediately after the wedding ceremony due to her infidelities.

At the beginning of April 1860, uprisings in Messina and Palermo in the absolutist Kingdom of the
Two Sicilies provided Garibaldi with an opportunity. He gathered about a thousand volunteers
(called "I MILLE", or, as popularly known, the Redshirts) in two ships, and landed at Marsala, on
the westernmost point of Sicily, on May 11.


Swelling the ranks of his army with scattered bands of local rebels, Garibaldi led 800 of his volunt-
eers to victory over a 1500-strong enemy force on the hill of Calatafimi on May 15.

He used the counter-intuItive tactic of an uphill bayonet charge; however, he had seen that the
hill on which the enemy had taken position was terraced, and the terraces gave shelter to his ad-
vancing men.

Although small by comparison with the coming clashes at Palermo, Milazzo and Volturno, this battle
was decisive in terms of establishing Garibaldi's power in the island; an apocryphal but realistic story
had him say to his lieutenant Nino Bixio,

                                                    "Qui si fa l'Italia o si muore"

                                               Today we'll unite Italy, or die trying.

The next day, he declared himself dictator of Sicily in the name of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy.

He advanced then to Palermo, the capital of the island, and launched a siege on May 27. He had
the support of many of the inhabitants, who rose up against the garrison, but before the city could
be taken, reinforcements arrived and bombarded the city nearly to ruins. At this time, a British
admiral intervened and facilitated an armistice, by which the Neapolitan royal troops and warships
surrendered the city and departed.

Garibaldi had won a signal victory.

He gained worldwide renown and the adulation of Italians.

Faith in his prowess was so strong that doubt, confusion, and dismay seized even the Neapolitan

Six weeks later, he marched against Messina in the east of the island. There was a ferocious and
difficult battle at Milazzo, but Garibaldi won through. By the end of July, only the citadel resisted.

Having finished the conquest of Sicily, he crossed the Strait of Messina, under the nose of the
Neapolitan fleet, and marched northward.

Garibaldi's progress was met with more celebration than resistance, and on September 7 he entered
the capital city of Naples. However, despite taking Naples, he had not to this point defeated the
Neapolitan army.

Garibaldi's volunteer army of 24,000 was able to defeat the Neapolitan army (50,000 men including
large drafts of Bavarian mercenaries) on September 30th at the Battle of Volturno. This was the
largest battle he ever fought and a genuine masterpiece of defence and counter-attack; although
the final decision was made by the enemy commander, King Francis II, who refused to fight a second
day against the advice of all his commanders: a classic case of one commander gaining psychological
predominance over another.

Following this success, Garibaldi's plans were to march on to Rome, but he was blocked by the
Piedmontese, technically his ally but unwilling to risk war with France, whose army protected the
Pope. (The Piedmontese themselves had conquered most of the Pope's territories in their march
south to meet Garibaldi, but they had deliberately avoided Rome, his capital.)

Garibaldi chose to hand over all his territorial gains in the south to the Piedmontese and withdrew
to Caprera and temporary retirement.


Some modern historians consider the handover of his gains to the Piedmontese as a political defeat,

but he seemed willing to see Italian unity brought about under the Piedmontese crown. The meeting at

Teano between Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II is the most important event in modern Italian history,

but it is so shrouded in controversy that even the exact site where it took place is in doubt.
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« Reply #8 on: July 04, 2008, 10:21:13 am »

Garibaldi deeply disliked the Piedmontese Prime Minister, Camillo Benso Conte di Cavour.

To an extent, he simply mistrusted Cavour's pragmatism and 'realpolitik', but he also bore a per-
sonal grudge for trading away his home city of Nice to the French the previous year.

On the other hand, he felt attracted toward the Piedmontese monarch, who in his opinion had
been chosen by Providence for the liberation of Italy.

In his famous meeting with Victor Emmanuel II at Teano on October 26, 1860, Garibaldi greeted
him as "King of Italy" and shook his hand.


Garibaldi "Casa Bianca"

Garibaldi rode into Naples at the king's side on November 7, then retired to the rocky island of

Caprera, refusing to accept any reward for his services.

On October 5 Garibaldi set up the International Legion, bringing together different national divisions
of French, Poles, Swiss, German and other nationalities, with a view not just of finishing the liberation
of Italy, but also of their homelands. With the motto

                                           "Free from the Alps to the Adriatic",

the Unification Movement set its gaze on Rome and Venice.

Mazzini was discontented with the perpetuation of Monarchic Government, and continued to agitate
for a Republic. Garibaldi, frustrated at inaction by the king, and bristling over perceived snubs, orga-nized a new venture.

This time, he intended to take on the Papal States.

At the outbreak of the American Civil War (in 1861), Garibaldi volunteered his services to President Abraham Lincoln and was invited to serve as a Major General in the Union Army.

Garibaldi then reconsidered saying that he would only serve on two conditions:

That slavery would definitely be abolished

That he would be given full command of the army.

These conditions were impossible for Lincoln to accept and so the offer was quietly withdrawn.[
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« Reply #9 on: July 04, 2008, 10:26:58 am »

A challenge against the Pope's temporal domain was viewed with great distrust by Catholics around
the world and the French emperor Napoleon III had guaranteed the independence of Rome from Italy
by stationing a French garrison in Rome.

Victor Emmanuel was wary of the international repercussions of attacking the Papal States, and discouraged his subjects from participating in revolutionary ventures with such intentions. Nonethe-
less, Garibaldi believed he had the secret support of his government.

In June of 1862, he sailed from Genoa and landed at Palermo, seeking to gather volunteers for the impending campaign under the slogan

                                                            "Roma o Morte"

                                                            (Rome or Death)

An enthusiastic party quickly joined him, and he turned for Messina, hoping to cross to the mainland there. When he arrived, he had a force of some two thousand, but the garrison proved loyal to the king's instructions and barred his passage. They turned south and set sail from Catania, where
Garibaldi declared that he would enter Rome as a victor or perish beneath its walls.

He landed at Melito on August 14, and marched at once into the Calabrian mountains.

Far from supporting this endeavor, the Italian government was quite disapproving.

General Cialdini dispatched a division of the regular army, under Colonel Pallavicino, against the volunteer bands. On August 28 the two forces met in the rugged Aspromonte. One of the regulars
fired a chance shot, and several volleys followed, killing a few of the volunteers. The fighting ended quickly, as Garibaldi forbade his men to return fire on fellow subjects of the Kingdom of Italy. Many of the volunteers were taken prisoner, including Garibaldi, who had been wounded by a shot in the foot.

A government steamer took him to Varignano, where he was held in a sort of honorable imprisonment, and was compelled to undergo a tedious and painful operation for the healing of his wound. His venture had failed, but he was at least consoled by Europe's sympathy and continued interest. After being restored to health, he was released and allowed to return to Caprera.

In 1864 he visited London, where his presence was received with enthusiasm by the population.

He met the British Prime Minister Henry Palmerston, as well as other revolutionaries then living in
exile in the city.

At that time, his ambitious international project included the liberation of a range of occupied nations, such as Croatia, Greece, Hungary, but none of them turned into reality.
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« Reply #10 on: July 04, 2008, 10:36:40 am »

Garibaldi took up arms again in 1866, this time with the full support of the Italian government. The Austro-Prussian War had broken out, and Italy had allied with Prussia against Austria-Hungary in the hope of taking Venetia from Austrian rule (Third Italian War of Independence). Garibaldi gathered again his "Hunters of the Alps", now some 40,000 strong, and led them into the Trentino. He defeated the Austrians at Bezzecca and made for Trento.

The Italian regular forces were defeated at Lissa on the sea, and made little progress on land after the disaster of Custoza. An armistice was signed, by which Austria did cede Venetia to Italy, but this result was largely due to Prussia's successes on the northern front. Garibaldi's advance through Trentino was for nought and he was ordered to stop his advance to Trento.

Garibaldi answered with a short telegram from the main square of Bezzecca with the famous motto:


                                                                ("I obey!").

After the war, Garibaldi led a political party that agitated for the capture of Rome, the Peninsula's ancient capital. In 1867, he again marched on the city, but the Papal army, supported by a French auxiliary force, proved a match for his badly-armed volunteers.

He was taken prisoner, held captive for a time, and then again returned to Caprera.

When the Franco-Prussian War broke out in July 1870, Italian public opinion heavily favored the Prussians, and many Italians attempted to sign up as volunteers at the Prussian embassy in

After the French garrison was recalled from Rome, the Italian Army captured the Papal States with-
out Garibaldi's assistance. Following the wartime collapse of the Second French Empire at the battle
of Sedan, Garibaldi, undaunted by the recent hostility shown to him by the men of Napoleon III, switched his support to the newly-declared French Third Republic.

On 7 September [1870], within three days of the revolution of 4 September in Paris, he wrote to the Movimento of Genoa:

"Yesterday I said to you: war to the death to Bonaparte. Today I say to you: rescue the French

Republic by every means."

Subsequently, Garibaldi went to France and assumed command of the Army of the Vosges, an army
of volunteers that was never defeated by the Prussians.
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« Reply #11 on: July 04, 2008, 10:40:17 am »

                           SUNSET AT CAPRERA

Despite being elected again to the Italian parliament, Garibaldi spent much of his late years in Caprera.

 He however supported an ambitious project of land reclamation in the marshy areas of southern Lazio.

In 1879 he founded the "League of Democracy", pushing forward the universal suffrage, the abolition of the ecclesiastical property, and of the standing army.

Ill and confined to a bed by arthritis, he made trips to Calabria and Sicily.


In 1880 he had married Francesca Armosino, with whom he had previously had three children.

He retired to Caprera.

On his deathbed, Garibaldi asked that his bed be moved to where he could gaze at the emerald and

sapphire sea.

Upon his death on the evening of June 2nd 1882, at the age of almost 75, his wishes for a simple funeral

and cremation were not respected.





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« Reply #12 on: July 04, 2008, 10:49:11 am »


                                                                     C A P R E R A 

Caprera is a small island of 6 square miles (15.5 km²) off the coast of Sardinia, Italy, located in the Maddalena archipelago.

In the area of La Maddalena island in the Strait of Bonifacio, it is a tourist destination and is famous
as the place to which Giuseppe Garibaldi retired (1856–82)and died.

This island has been declared a natural reserve for the particular species of seabirds living on it
(royal seagull, cormorant and peregrine falcon).

The island's name is linked to that of Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian Patriot and fighter who lived in
the 19th century and was one of the Fathers of the Italian independence. He bought the island in
1855 and died there in 1882.

His house is now a museum and a memorial chapel and the island itself is a National Monument.

Caprera is linked to La Maddalena island by a 600 metre long causeway.

The island was probably given its name because of the numerous wild goats living on it

(Capra means goat in Italian).

It is the second largest island in the archipelago and has a surface of 16 km² and 45 kilometres of coastline. Monte Tejalone is the highest point (212 m). On the south-western side there is a very important sailing centre and the many coves and anchorages which can be found along the coastline make the landing easy. There are no hotels but only a resort with bungalows. The seabeds are a must both for naturalists and underwater archaeology fans. Many remains of Roman cargo ships as well as of the boat of Garibaldi were found there. History informs us that after the Roman occupation Caprera remained deserted for centuries before being inhabited by groups of shepherds. Later in 1855 the Hero of the Two Worlds (Garibaldi) decided to settle there and planted the first trees of the blooming pinewood which covers the island today. A century after Garibaldi's death the island was freed from the numerous existing military restrictions and is now completely open to the public.
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« Reply #13 on: July 04, 2008, 11:02:55 am »

Cala Garibaldi - Isola di Caprera



Is 5th on the 10 Most Beautiful Islands of the World List
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« Reply #14 on: July 04, 2008, 01:10:52 pm »


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