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Timelines of Ancient Europe => The Renaissance => Topic started by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 07:47:38 pm



Title: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 07:47:38 pm




(http://deoxy.org/gif/galileo.jpg)








                                      T H E   C R I M E   O F   G A L I L E O   G A L I L E I





Papal Condemnation (Sentence)
of Galileo

(June 22, 1633)



Whereas you, Galileo, son of the late Vincenzo Galilei, Florentine, aged seventy years, were in the year 1615 denounced to this Holy Office for holding as true the false doctrine taught by some that the Sun is the center
of the world and immovable and that the Earth moves, and also with a diurnal motion; for having disciples to
whom you taught the same doctrine; for holding correspondence with certain mathematicians of Germany concerning the same; for having printed certain letters,entitled "On the Sunspots," wherein you developed the same doctrine as true; and for replying to the objections from the Holy Scriptures, which from time to time were urged against it, by glossing the said Scriptures according to your own meaning: and whereas there was thereupon produced the copy of a document in the form of a letter, purporting to be written by you to one formerly your disciple, and in this divers propositions are set forth, following the position of Copernicus, which are contrary to the true sense and authority of Holy Scripture:

This Holy Tribunal being, therefore, of intention to proceed against the disorder and mischief thence resulting, which went on increasing to the prejudice of the Holy Faith, by command of His Holiness and of the Most Eminent Lords Cardinals of this supreme and universal Inquisition, the two propositions of the stability of the Sun and the motion of the Earth were by the theological Qualifiers qualified as follows:


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 07:51:46 pm








This Holy Tribunal being therefore of intention to proceed against the disorder and mischief thence resulting, which went on increasing to the prejudice of the Holy Faith, by command of His Holiness
and of the Most Eminent Lords Cardinals of this supreme and universal Inquisition, the two propo-
sitions of the stability of the Sun and the motion of the Earth were by the theological Qualifiers qualified as follows:

The proposition that the Sun is the center of the world and does not move from its place is absurd
and false philosophically and formally heretical, because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scripture.

The proposition that the Earth is not the center of the world and immovable but that it moves, and also with a diurnal motion, is equally absurd and false philosophically and theologically considered at least erroneous in faith.

But whereas it was desired at that time to deal leniently with you, it was decreed at the Holy Congregation held before His Holiness on the twenty-fifth of February, 1616, that his Eminence the Lord Cardinal Bellarmine should order you to abandon altogether the said false doctrine and, in the event of your refusal, that an injunction should be imposed upon you by the Commissary of the Holy Office to give up the said doctrine and not to teach it to others, not to defend it, nor even to discuss it; and your failing your acquiescence in this injunction, that you should be imprisoned. In execution of this decree, on the following day at the palace of and in the presence of the Cardinal Bellarmine, after being gently admonished by the said Lord Cardinal, the command was enjoined upon you by the Father Commissary of the Holy Office of that time, before a notary and witnesses, that you were altogether to abandon the said false opinion and not in the future to hold or defend or teach it in any way whatsoever, neither verbally nor in writing; and upon your promising to obey, you were dismissed.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 07:54:20 pm







And in order that a doctrine so pernicious might be wholly rooted out and not insinuate itself further to the grave prejudice of Catholic truth, a decree was issued by the Holy Congregation of the Index prohibiting the books which treat of this doctrine and declaring the doctrine itself to be false and wholly contrary to the sacred and divine Scripture.

And whereas a book appeared here recently, printed last year at Florence, the title of which shows that you were the author, this title being: “Dialogue of Galileo Galilei on the Great World System:”; and whereas the Holy Congregation was afterward informed that through the publication of said book the false opinion of the motion of the Earth and the stability of the Sun was daily gaining round, the said book was taken into careful consideration, and in it there was discovered a patent violation of
the aforesaid injunction that had been imposed upon you, for in this book you have defended the said opinion previously condemned and to your face declared to be so, although in the said book you strive by various devices to produce the impression that you leave it undecided, and in express terms as probably: which, however, is a most grievous error, as an opinion can in no wise be probable which has been declared and defined to be contrary to divine Scripture.

Therefore by our order you were cited before this Holy office, where, being examined upon our oath, you acknowledged the book to be written and published by you.  You confessed that you began to write the said book about ten or twelve years ago, after the command had been imposed upon you as above; that you requested license ot print it without, however, intimating to those who granted you this license that you had been commanded not to hold, defend, or teach the doctrine in question in any way whatever.

You likewise confessed that the writing of the said book is in many places drawn up in such a form that the reader might fancy that the arguments brought forward on the false side are calculated by their cogency to compel conviction rather than to be easy of refutation, excusing yourself for having fallen into an error, as you alleged, so foreign to your intention, by the fact that you had written in dialogue and by the natural complacency that every man feels in regard to his own subtleties and in showing himself more clever than the generality of men in devising, even on behalf of false propositions, ingenious and plausible arguments.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 07:56:13 pm








And a suitable term having been assigned to you to prepare your defense, you produced a certificate in the handwriting of his Eminence the Lord Cardinal Bellarmine, procured by you, as you asserted, in order to defend yourself against the calumnies of your enemies, who charged that you had abjured and had been punished by the Holy Office, in which certificate it is declared that you had not abjured and had not been punished but only that the declaration made by His Holiness and published by the Holy Congregation of the Index has been announced to you, wherein it is declared that the doctrine of the motion of the Earth and the stability of the Sun is contrary to the Holy Scriptures and therefore cannot be defended or held.  And, as in this certificate there is no mention of the two articles of the injunction, namely, the order not “to teach” and “in any way,” you represented that we ought to believe that in the course of fourteen or sixteen years you had lost all memory of them and that this was why you said nothing of the injunction when you requested permission to print your book.   And all this you urged not by way of excuse for your error but that it might be set down to a vainglorious ambitions rather than to malice.  But his certificate produced by you in your defense has only aggravated your delinquency, since, although it is there stated that said opinion is contrary to Holy Scripture, you have nevertheless dared to discuss and defend it and to argue its probability; nor does the license artfully and cunningly extorted by you avail you anything, since you did not notify the command imposed upon you.

And whereas it appeared to us that you had not stated the full truth with regard to your intention, we thought it necessary to subject you to a rigorous examination at which (without prejudice, however, to the matters confessed by you and set forth as above with regard to your said intention) you answered like a good Catholic.  Therefore, having seen and maturely considered the merits of this your cause, together with your confessions and excuses above-mentioned, and all that ought justly to be seen and considered, we have arrived at the underwritten final sentence against you:

Invoking, therefore, the most holy name of our Lord Jesus Christ and of His most glorious Mother, ever Virgin Mary, but this our final sentence, which sitting in judgment, with the counsel and advice of the Reverend Masters of sacred theology and Doctors of both Laws, our assessors, we deliver in these writings, in the cause and causes at present before us between the Magnificent Carlo Sinceri, Doctor of both Laws, Proctor Fiscal of this Holy Office, of the one part, and your Galileo Galilei, the defendant, here present, examined, tried, and confessed as shown above, of the other part—


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 07:57:55 pm








We say, pronounce, sentence, and declare that you, the said Galileo, by reason of the matters adduced in trial, and by you confessed as above, have rendered yourself in the judgment of this Holy Office vehemently suspected of heresy, namely, of having believed and held the doctrine—which is false and contrary to the sacred and divine Scriptures—that the Sun is the center of the world and does not move from east to west and that the Earth moves and is not the center of the world; and that an opinion may be held and defended as probably after it has been declared and defined to be contrary to the Holy Scripture; and that consequently you have incurred all the censures and penalties imposed and promulgated in the sacred canons and other constitutions, general and particular, against such delinquents.  From which we are content that you be absolved, provided that, first, with a sincere heart and unfeigned faith, you abjure, curse, and detest before use the aforesaid errors and heresies and every other error and heresy contrary to the Catholic and Apostolic Roman Church in the form to be prescribed by us for you.

And in  order that this your grave and pernicious error and transgression may not remain altogether unpunished and that you may be more cautious in the future and an example to others that they may abstain from similar delinquencies, we ordain that the book of the “Dialogues of Galileo Galilei” be prohibited by public edict.

We condemn you to the formal prison of this Holy office during our pleasure, and by way of salutary penance we enjoin that for three years to come you repeat once a week at the seven penitential Psalms. Reserving to ourselves liberty to moderate, commute or take off, in whole or in part, the aforesaid penalties and penance.

And so we say, pronounce, sentence, declare, ordain, and reserve in this an din any other better way and form which we can and may rightfully employ.


[Signed:]


     F. Cardinal of Ascoli
    B. Cardinal Gessi
   G. Cardinal Bentivoglio
  F. Cardinal Verospi
   Fr. D. Cardinal of Cremona
  M. Cardinal Ginetti
     Fr. Ant. s Cardinal of. S. Onofrio



[Three judges did not sign the sentence: Francesco Barberini, Caspar Borgia, and Laudivio Zacchia.]





Source:  Giorgio de Santillana, The Crime of Galileo (University of Chicago Press 1955), pp. 306-310.
 


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 07:59:40 pm
(http://www.fondazionegalileogalilei.it/web_lab_galileo/galileo/iconografia/ico_ver/riv_lib/riv_img/riv031m.jpg)








                                "EPPUR SI MUOVE" - ("And yet it does move")






Mumbling these words quietly to himself, or so the story goes, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) left the session of the Inquisition that had found him guilty after a trial for "grave suspicion of heresy".

The "heresy" was in connection with his publication of a book, "Dialogue on the Tides" in which his belief in the Copernican notion of a Sun centered universe had sort of "slipped in".

In Italy in 1633, suggesting that the earth, that rock solid center of God's universe actually moved around another body, the Sun, was not the wisest thing to do. In fact that idea could get you killed... or worse. Galileo got off easy since he was sentenced to life in prison which lucky for him, became permanent house arrest instead.

Oh, and in addition, he was commanded to never mention the idea again, his book was burned and the sentence against him was to be read publicly in every university.



                                                  "And yet it does move".



He may not actually have said it, in fact it would have been extremely dangerous for him to do that, but he no doubt thought it.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 08:01:00 pm



                 (http://www.guidadipisa.it/galleries/galileo.jpg)



                                                   (http://www.pisaturismo.it/site/img/Casa_Galilei.jpg)

                 PISA

                 THE HOUSE WHERE GALILEO WAS BORN








So who was Galileo really and why was the church court so upset about his claims? He was born near Pisa, on February 15, 1564. Although he wasn't overly radical in his views he was inclined to 'march to his own drummer' a trait evidently inherited from his father Vincenzo Galilei. After an elementary education he entered the University of Pisa in 1581 to study medicine. He didn't graduate, however, and in 1585 he left the university having studied mostly philosophy and mathematics instead.

After university he pursued an interest he had developed in natural motions and the behavior of bodies of water. It was the latter that got him going on his book on tides but I'm getting ahead of myself. In spite of not having earned a degree, Galileo did manage to get a teaching post at his old alma mater in 1589 but by 1592 that career path came to an abrupt end because he had the audacity to challenge one of the fundamental teachings of an old Greek, named Aristotle.

Aristotle's beliefs and principles had achieved the status of divine writ in the Christian Church which was especially ironic since he lived and died over 300 years before the birth of Christ in pagan Greece.

How this came about is a subject for another piece but getting back to our story, Galileo was inclined to doubt at least one of his assertions namely that objects of different weights fall to earth at different rates of speed.

He was interested in motion, remember. 


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 08:02:55 pm








As I said before, he wasn't all that radical and except for the odd assertion contradicting Aristotle and by extension God himself, Galileo pretty much kept most of his ideas to himself. This allowed him to neatly slip into another teaching post this time at the University of Padua. This one lasted eighteen years until 1610. During this period he further developed his interest in math and physics doing more extensive work on falling bodies and the like.

One subject that he did not pursue especially was astronomy. In spite of this he became interested in the theories of a Polish astronomer by the name of Nikolaj Kopernik (1473-1543) who is better known by his Latin name, Nicholaus Copernicus. Kopernik came up with the notion that the traditional model which placed the Earth at the center of the universe, was probably wrong and it was more likely that the Earth revolved around the Sun.

As we've already seen this was not exactly a popular idea with the Church establishment since it was in direct conflict with the Truth, namely Aristotle's idea that in God's perfect universe the Earth was the center of it all.

Copernicus was no fool and he made sure not to make his heresy public in his lifetime.

It should also be mentioned that his idea wasn't all that obviously superior. 


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 08:04:02 pm








If you are standing on the earth watching the Sun rise and set you can just as easily imagine the heavens revolving around you, as the earth rotating on its axis and revolving around the sun. Besides, the perfectly circular orbits described by Copernicus didn't really fit the true motion of the heavens all that much better than the traditional model. The real problem of course had to do not with science but with theology and that is what eventually got Galileo in trouble.

Underlying the tenacity with which the Church of Galileo's day clung to what to us were the utterly indefensible theories blamed on poor old Aristotle was a rather curious notion. It was this. The correct way to understand how the world functioned was to probe divine revelation. There really was only one truth and that was God's truth. If you should have any idea that did not square with God's truth then it obviously came from that other fellow, the Devil.

In such a climate any theory you might dream up, even if it was supported by actual observation, had to be wrong if in some way it violated divine law. End of story! Galileo should have known better. He knew the rules but as I said before, he tended to march to his own drummer. For one thing, the Copernican model worked much better to explain his theory on tides (that book again, remember). So he made a bold decision. 


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 08:05:46 pm
(http://www.internetculturale.it/upload/exhibits3d/tribuna/Desc/images/004-1.jpg)








He had heard in 1609 that in Holland they had invented a crude telescope. Seizing on this idea, he set out to perfect this marvelous device. Don't forget, his interest lay in physics. Working feverishly he succeeded in building a successful model which he promptly presented to the Doge of Venice. The latter seeing its potential as a navigational device immediately doubled his salary.

By the end of the year he had managed to build a model with 20 times magnification. Then he made a fateful decision. He pointed it to the heavens. The first object to appear in his wonderful glass was the Moon. Poor old Galileo. What was he going to do? You see according to divine revelation a-la-Aristotle, the moon being part of the heavens was smooth and divinely perfect. Now here, right in his telescope it was plain to see that it was anything but.

Fortunately for him, his discoveries, which subsequently also included the fact that the planet Venus had phases like those of the moon and that another planet, Jupiter, had moons of its own did, not get him in trouble with the Church even when he published these findings in March 1610 in "The Starry Messenger". In fact it gained him an appointment as court mathematician at Florence. 


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 08:07:18 pm
(http://files.splinder.com/58a80348a069e3dda3ee090b7ca9417c.jpeg)

GALILEO'S HOUSE IN FLORENCE








His charmed existence did not last however.

Events overtook Galileo Galilei and, as we saw at the beginning of this article, his "wayward ways" eventually caught up with him. His story has been used to illustrate different things such as for example that the Church was a villain that for many years stood in the way of scientific progress. In some respects that was certainly the case.

However, was their position all that unreasonable? Given what was known at that time, the new ideas themselves required quite a leap of faith, never mind that accepting them would also mean risking the wrath of God. It should also be pointed out that the Church represented the establishment of its day and like the establishment of any age they had the weight and burden of their position to contend with.

I mention this, because as we look around us today we still see many examples of tradition-bound institutions that more often than not act as an impediment to the very endeavors they are supposed to promote. Not only do we see this in the creaky institutions of government, law enforcement and the like, even in the halls of science there are more examples of hide-bound intransigence than we like to admit.


http://www.scienceandyou.org/articles/ess_02.shtml


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 08:09:01 pm
(http://www.fondazionegalileogalilei.it/web_lab_galileo/galileo/iconografia/ico_ver/riv_lib/riv_img/riv006.jpg)







                                                         EPPUR SI MUOVE!





From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:


The Italian phrase "E pur si muove" or "Eppur si muove" means AND YET IT MOVES.
Pronunciation in IPA: [ep'pur si 'mwɔ:ve].

Legend has it that the Italian mathematician, physicist and philosopher Galileo Galilei muttered this phrase after being forced to recant in 1633, before the Inquisition, his belief that the earth moved around the sun.

At the time of Galileo's trial, the dominant view among theologians and philosophers was that the Earth is stationary, indeed the center of the universe. Galileo's adversaries brought the charge of heresy, then punishable by death, before the Inquisition. Since Galileo recanted, he was only put under house arrest until his death, nine years after the trial.

There is no contemporary evidence that Galileo uttered this expression at his trial; it would certainly have been highly imprudent for him to have done so. The earliest biography of Galileo, written by his disciple Vincenzio Viviani in 1717, does not mention this phrase, and depicts Galileo as having sincerely recanted.

The legend first became widely published in Querelles Litteraires (1761), recounting a tale published by an Italian living in London in 1757 (124 years after the supposed utterance).

In 1911, the famous line was found on a Spanish painting owned by a Belgian family, dated 1643 (1645?). The painting is obviously ahistorical, since it depicts Galileo in a dungeon, but nonetheless proves that some variants of the "Eppur si muove" legend had been circulating for over a century before it was published, perhaps even in his own lifetime.

Although the Galileo affair resulted in a temporary reverse for the cause of heliocentrism, the work of Galileo, Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, and Isaac Newton ultimately vindicated the theory.

Even if Galileo never uttered "Eppur si muove," the phrase accurately reflects the empiricist spirit he helped to foster in early modern Europe.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei
Post by: Bianca on March 26, 2008, 08:12:57 pm
(http://www.bibletopics.com/biblestudy/images/71.jpg)










                                         Pope Says Church To Seek Pardon For Past Errors





VATICAN CITY (Reuters) September 1, 1999 - Pope John Paul said Wednesday the Catholic Church would start a new page of its history in 2000 by publicly seeking forgiveness for the errors, injustices and human rights offences it committed in the past.

Speaking at his weekly general audience, the Pope did not specifically list the Church's past errors but previous Vatican documents have spoken of seeking forgiveness for its treatment of Jews, the Inquisition and human rights abuses.  "As the Church looks to the great Jubilee of the year 2000, she is aware of her continual need of purification and penance," he said.

"She therefore wishes to ask pardon for the sins and weaknesses of her children down the ages."

The Pope said the church intended to use the millennium to "start a new page of history."
 


Among the Church's past sins, he said, was "the use of force in order to impose the truth" -- an apparent reference to forced conversions of Jews and native peoples.

He also mentioned seeking pardon for "the failure to respect and defend human rights."

Catholics around the world are due to mark a day of "Request for Forgiveness" on March 8, 2000. It is one of the dozens of theme days the Church has chosen for millennium celebrations, which begin on December 24 and end on January 6, 2001.

"In seeking God's forgiveness at the threshold of the third millennium, the Church wishes to learn from the past," he said, adding that it did not fear the truth.

In a major document last year, the Vatican apologized for Catholics who failed to do enough to help Jews against Nazi persecution during the Holocaust and acknowledged centuries of Catholic preaching of contempt for Jews.

In an apparent reference to the Holocaust, the Pope Wednesday spoke of "the failure of not a few Christians to be discerning regarding situations of violations of human rights."

"The request for forgiveness is valid for what was not done or for the failure to speak out," he said.

Mitigating historical factors could not exonerate the Church from being "profoundly sorry for the weaknesses of so many of its sons and daughters which disfigured its image," he said.

The Pope has said in documents and speeches in the past that the Church needed to assume responsibility for the Inquisition, marked by the torture and killing of people branded as heretics.

One of the first steps of John Paul's papacy, which began in 1978, was to begin procedures leading to the rehabilitation in 1992 of Galileo, the Italian astronomer persecuted by the Church for teaching that the Earth revolved around the sun.

The Inquisition condemned Galileo in 1633 because his teachings clashed with the Bible, which read: "God fixed the earth upon its foundation, not to be moved forever." Galileo was rehabilitated after 359 years.



By Philip Pullella



Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:04:17 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Galileo.arp.300pix.jpg)

Portrait of Galileo Galilei
by Giusto Sustermans








Born February 15, 1564(1564-02-15)
Pisa, Tuscany - Italy

Died January 8, 1642 (aged 77)
Arcetri, Tuscany - Italy
 
Residence
Grand Duchy of Tuscany

Fields
Astronomy,
Physics and
Mathematics


Institutions
University of Padua

Alma mater
University of Pisa

Known for
Kinematics
Telescope
Solar System

Religious stance
Roman Catholic


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:10:36 pm








                                                  G A L I L E O   G A L I L E I





Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642)

was a Tuscan (Italian) physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major
role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include the first systematic studies of uniformly accelerated motion, improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism.



Galileo has been called the "Father Of Modern Observational Astronomy", the "Father Of Modern

Physics", the "Father of Science", and “the Father of Modern Science.”



The motion of uniformly accelerated objects, taught in nearly all high school and introductory college physics courses, was studied by Galileo as the subject of Kinematics.

His contributions to Observational Astronomy include the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, named the Galilean Moons in his honour, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, improving compass design.

Galileo's championing of Copernicanism was controversial within his lifetime.

The geocentric view had been dominant since the time of Aristotle, and the controversy engendered by Galileo's opposition to this view resulted in the Catholic Church's prohibiting the advocacy of heliocentrism as potentially factual, because that theory had no decisive proof and was contrary to the literal meaning of Scripture.

Galileo was eventually forced to recant his heliocentrism and spent the last years of his life under house arrest on orders of the Inquisition.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:19:24 pm










Life



Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany), the first of six children of
Vincenzo Galilei, a famous lutenist and music theorist, and Giulia Ammannati. At the age of 8,
his family moved to Florence, but he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years. He then was educated in the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa, 33 km southeast of Florence.

Although he seriously considered the priesthood as a young man, he enrolled for a medical degree
at the University of Pisa at his father's urging. He did not complete this degree, but instead studied mathematics.

In 1589, he was appointed to the chair of mathematics in Pisa. In 1591 his father died and he was entrusted with the care of his younger brother Michelagnolo. In 1592, he moved to the University of Padua, teaching Geometry, Mechanics, and Astronomy until 1610. During this period Galileo made significant discoveries in both pure science (for example, Kinematics of Motion, and Astronomy) and applied science (for example, strength of materials, improvement of the telescope). His multiple interests included the study of Astrology, which in pre-modern disciplinary practice was seen as correlated to the studies of Mathematics and Astronomy.

Although a devout Roman Catholic, Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba. They had two daughters (Virginia in 1600 and Livia in 1601) and one son (Vincenzio, in 1606).

Because of their illegitimate birth, their father considered the girls unmarriageable. Their only worthy alternative was the religious life. Both girls were sent to the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri and remained there for the rest of their lives. Virginia (b. 1600) took the name Maria Celeste upon entering the convent. She died on April 2, 1634, and is buried with Galileo at the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze. Livia (b. 1601) took the name Suor Arcangela and was ill for most of her life. Vincenzio (b. 1606) was later legitimized and married Sestilia Bocchineri.

In 1610 Galileo published an account of his telescopic observations of the moons of Jupiter, using
this observation to argue in favor of the sun-centered, Copernican theory of the universe against
the dominant earth-centered Ptolemaic and Aristotelian theories.

The next year Galileo visited Rome in order to demonstrate his telescope to the influential philosophers and mathematicians of the Jesuit Collegio Romano, and to let them see with their own eyes the reality of the four moons of Jupiter. While in Rome he was also made a member of the Accademia dei Lincei.

In 1612, opposition arose to the Sun-centered solar system which Galileo supported. In 1614, from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, Father Tommaso Caccini (1574–1648) denounced Galileo's opinions on the motion of the Earth, judging them dangerous and close to heresy.

Galileo went to Rome to defend himself against these accusations, but, in 1616, Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino personally handed Galileo an admonition enjoining him neither to advocate nor teach Copernican astronomy.

During 1621 and 1622 Galileo wrote his first book, The Assayer (Il Saggiatore), which was approved and published in 1623. In 1630, he returned to Rome to apply for a license to print the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, published in Florence in 1632. In October of that year, however, he was ordered to appear before the Holy Office in Rome.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:26:58 pm








Scientific methods



Galileo Galilei pioneered the use of quantitative experiments whose results could be analyzed with mathematical precision (More typical of science at the time were the qualitative studies of William Gilbert, on magnetism and electricity). Galileo's father, Vincenzo Galilei, a lutenist and music theorist, had performed experiments establishing perhaps the oldest known non-linear relation in physics: for a stretched string, the pitch varies as the square root of the tension. These observations lay within the framework of the Pythagorean tradition of music, well-known to instrument makers, which included the fact that subdividing a string by a whole number produces a harmonious scale.

Thus, a limited amount of mathematics had long related music and physical science, and young Galileo could see his own father's observations expand on that tradition. Galileo is perhaps the first to clearly state that the laws of nature are mathematical.



In The Assayer he wrote

"Philosophy is written in this grand book, the universe ... It is written in the language of mathematics,

and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometric figures; ...".



His mathematical analyses are a further development of a tradition employed by late scholastic natural philosophers, which Galileo learned when he studied philosophy.

Although he tried to remain loyal to the Catholic Church, his adherence to experimental results, and their most honest interpretation, led to a rejection of blind allegiance to authority, both philosophical and religious, in matters of science. In broader terms, this aided to separate science from both philosophy and religion;

                                      a major development in human thought.


By the standards of his time, Galileo was often willing to change his views in accordance with observation.

Philosopher of science Paul Feyerabend also noted the supposedly improper aspects of Galileo's methodology, but he argued that Galileo's methods could be justified retroactively by their results.
The bulk of Feyerabend's major work, Against Method (1975), was devoted to an analysis of Galileo, using his astronomical research as a case study to support Feyerabend's own anarchistic theory of scientific method. As he put it:

"Aristotelians ... demanded strong empirical support while the Galileans were content with far-reaching, unsupported and partially refuted theories. I do not criticize them for that; on the contrary, I favour Niels Bohr's "this is not crazy enough.   In order to perform his experiments, Galileo had to set up standards of length and time, so that measurements made on different days and in different laboratories could be compared in a reproducible fashion.

Galileo showed a remarkably modern appreciation for the proper relationship between mathematics, theoretical physics, and experimental physics.

He understood the parabola, both in terms of conic sections and in terms of the ordinate (y) varying as the square of the abscissa (x). Galilei further asserted that the parabola was the theoretically-ideal trajectory for uniformly accelerated motion, in the absence of friction and other disturbances. He also noted that there are limits to the validity of this theory, stating that it was appropriate only for laboratory-scale and battlefield-scale trajectories, and noting on theoretical grounds that the parabola could not possibly apply to a trajectory so large as to be comparable to the size of the planet.

Thirdly, Galilei recognized that his experimental data would never agree exactly with any theoretical or mathematical form, because of the imprecision of measurement, irreducible friction, and other factors."



According to Stephen Hawking, Galileo probably bears more of the responsibility for the birth of
Modern Science than anybody else, and Albert Einstein called him the father of Modern Science.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:28:19 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Galileo.script.arp.600pix.jpg.jpg/391px-Galileo.script.arp.600pix.jpg.jpg)



It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation
of the moons of Jupiter.

This observation upset the notion that all celestial bodies
must revolve around the Earth.

Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in
March 1610


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:37:18 pm








                                                         A S T R O N O M Y



                                                            Contributions




 

Based only on uncertain descriptions of the telescope, invented in the Netherlands in 1608, Galileo,
in that same year, made a telescope with about 3x magnification, and later made others with up to about 32x magnification.

With this improved device he could see magnified, upright images on the earth - it was what is now known as a terrestrial telescope, or spyglass. He could also use it to observe the sky; for a time he was one of very few who could construct telescopes good enough for that purpose. On 25 August 1609, he demonstrated his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.

His work on the device made for a profitable sideline with merchants who found it useful for their shipping businesses and trading issues. He published his initial telescopic astronomical observations
in March 1610 in a short treatise entitled Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger).

On January 7, 1610 Galileo observed with his telescope what he described at the time as


                            "three fixed stars, totally invisible by their smallness",


all within a short distance of Jupiter, and lying on a straight line through it.  Observations on subsequent nights showed that the positions of these "stars" relative to Jupiter were changing in a way that would have been inexplicable if they had really been fixed stars.

On January 10 Galileo noted that one of them had disappeared, an observation which he attributed to its being hidden behind Jupiter. Within a few days he concluded that they were orbiting Jupiter: he had discovered three of Jupiter's four largest satellites (moons):

                                                       Io, Europa, and Callisto.

He discovered the fourth, Ganymede, on January 13.

Galileo named the four satellites he had discovered Medicean stars, in honour of his future patron, Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Cosimo's three brothers. Later astronomers, however, renamed them Galilean satellites in honour of Galileo himself.

A planet with smaller planets orbiting it was problematic for the orderly, comprehensive picture of the geocentric model of the universe, in which everything was supposed to circle around the Earth. As a consequence, many astronomers and philosophers initially refused to believe that Galileo could have discovered such a thing.

Galileo continued to observe the satellites over the next eighteen months, and by mid 1611 he had obtained remarkably accurate estimates for their periods—a feat which Kepler had believed impossible.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:39:57 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Phases-of-Venus.svg/800px-Phases-of-Venus.svg.png)

PHASES OF VENUS


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:46:16 pm









From September 1610, Galileo observed that Venus exhibited a full set of phases similar to that
of the Moon.

The heliocentric model of the solar system developed by Nicolaus Copernicus predicted that all
phases would be visible since the orbit of Venus around the Sun would cause its illuminated hemi-
sphere to face the Earth when it was on the opposite side of the Sun and to face away from the
Earth when it was on the Earth-side of the Sun.

In contrast, the geocentric model of Ptolemy predicted that only crescent and new phases would
be seen, since Venus was thought to remain between the Sun and Earth during its orbit around the Earth.

Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus proved that it orbited the Sun and lent support to
(but did not prove) the heliocentric model.

Galileo also observed the planet Saturn, and at first mistook its rings for planets, thinking it was a three-bodied system. When he observed the planet later, Saturn's rings were directly oriented at Earth, causing him to think that two of the bodies had disappeared. The rings reappeared when he observed the planet in 1616, further confusing him.

Galileo was one of the first Europeans to observe sunspots. He also reinterpreted a sunspot observation from the time of Charlemagne, which formerly had been attributed (impossibly) to a
transit of Mercury. The very existence of sunspots showed another difficulty with the unchanging perfection of the heavens as assumed in the older philosophy. And the annual variations in their motions, first noticed by Francesco Sizzi, presented great difficulties for both the geocentric system and that of Tycho Brahe.

A dispute over priority in the discovery of sunspots, and in their interpretation, led Galileo to a long
and bitter feud with the Jesuit Christoph Scheiner; in fact, there is little doubt that both of them
were beaten by David Fabricius and his son Johannes. Scheiner quickly adopted Kepler's 1615 pro-
posal of the modern telescope design, which gave larger magnification at the cost of inverted images; Galileo apparently never changed to Kepler's design.

Galileo was the first to report lunar mountains and craters, whose existence he deduced from the patterns of light and shadow on the Moon's surface. He even estimated the mountains' heights from these observations. This led him to the conclusion that the Moon was



                          "rough and uneven, and just like the surface of the Earth itself,"


rather than a perfect sphere as Aristotle had claimed.

Galileo observed the Milky Way, previously believed to be nebulous, and found it to be a multitude
of stars packed so densely that they appeared to be clouds from Earth.

He located many other stars too distant to be visible with the naked eye.

Galileo also observed the planet Neptune in 1612, but did not realize that it was a planet and took
no particular notice of it. It appears in his notebooks as one of many unremarkable dim stars.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:51:38 pm








                                     Controversy over comets and The Assayer





The Assayer



In 1619 Galileo became embroiled in a controversy with Father Horatio Grassi, the professor of mathematics at the Jesuit Collegio Romano.

It began as a dispute over the nature of comets, but by the time Galileo had published The Assayer
(Il Saggiatore) in 1623, his last salvo in the dispute, it had become a much wider argument over the very nature of Science itself. Because The Assayer contains such a wealth of Galileo's ideas on how Science should be practised, it has been referred to as his Scientific Manifesto.

Early in 1619 Father Grassi had anonymously published a pamphlet, An Astronomical Disputation on the Three Comets of the Year 1618, which discussed the nature of a comet that had appeared late in November of the previous year. Grassi concluded that the comet was a fiery body which had moved along a segment of a great circle at a constant distance from the earth, and that it had been located well beyond the moon.

Grassi's arguments and conclusions were criticised in a subsequent article, Discourse on the Comets,published under the name of one of Galileo's disciples, a Florentine lawyer named Mario Guiducci, although it had been largely written by Galileo himself. Galileo and Guiducci offered no definitive theory of their own on the nature of comets, although they did present some tentative conjectures which we now know to be mistaken.

In its opening passage, Galileo and Guiducci's Discourse gratuitously insulted the Jesuit Christopher Scheiner, and various uncomplimentary remarks about the professors of the Collegio Romano were scattered throughout the work.

The Jesuits were offended, and Grassi soon replied with a polemical tract of his own, The Astrono-
mical and Philosophical Balance, under the pseudonym Lothario Sarsi, purporting to be one of his
own pupils.

The Assayer, was Galileo's devastating reply to the Astronomical Balance.

It has been widely regarded as a masterpiece of polemical literature, in which "Sarsi's" arguments
are subjected to withering scorn.  It was greeted with wide acclaim, and particularly pleased the
new pope, Urban VIII, to whom it had been dedicated.

Galileo's dispute with Grassi permanently alienated many of the Jesuits who had previously been sympathetic to his ideas, and Galileo and his friends were convinced that these Jesuits were responsible for bringing about his later condemnation. 

The evidence for this is at best equivocal, however.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Volitzer on April 02, 2008, 04:53:30 pm
Galileo  Galileo Magnifico oh oh oh...

mama mia mama mia

Beelzebub has a devil for a disciple...

oh me oh me oh me...........

[ guitar solo ]

 ;D


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 04:57:30 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Galileo_telescope_replica.jpg/800px-Galileo_telescope_replica.jpg)


REPLICA OF GALILEO'S TELESCOPE


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:03:24 pm









                                                        Technology
 




Galileo made a number of contributions to what is now known as technology, as distinct from pure physics, and suggested others.

This is not the same distinction as made by Aristotle, who would have considered all Galileo's physics as techne or useful knowledge, as opposed to episteme, or philosophical investigation into the causes of things.

Between 1595–1598, Galileo devised and improved a Geometric and Military Compass suitable for use
by gunners and surveyors. This expanded on earlier instruments designed by Niccolò Tartaglia and Guidobaldo del Monte. For gunners, it offered, in addition to a new and safer way of elevating cannons accurately, a way of quickly computing the charge of gunpowder for cannonballs of different sizes and materials. As a geometric instrument, it enabled the construction of any regular polygon, computation of the area of any polygon or circular sector, and a variety of other calculations. About 1593, Galileo constructed a thermometer, using the expansion and contraction of air in a bulb to move water in an attached tube.

In 1609, Galileo was among the first to use a refracting telescope as an instrument to observe stars, planets or moons. Galileo's telescope was the first instrument given that name by an unidentified Greek poet/theologian, present at a banquet held in 1611 by Prince Federico Cesi to make Galileo a member of his Accademia dei Lincei.

The name was derived from the Greek tele = 'far' and skopein = 'to look or see'. In 1610, he used a telescope at close range to magnify the parts of insects. By 1624 he had perfected a compound microscope.

He gave one of these instruments to Cardinal Zollern in May of that year for presentation to the Duke of Bavaria, and in September he sent another to Prince Cesi.The Linceans played a role again in naming the "microscope" a year later when fellow academy member Giovanni Faber coined the word for Galileo's invention from the Greek words μικρόν (micron) meaning "small", and σκοπεῖν (skopein) meaning "to look at". The word was meant to be analogous with "telescope".

Illustrations of insects made using one of Galileo's microscopes, and published in 1625, appear to
have been the first clear documentation of the use of a compound microscope.

In 1612, having determined the orbital periods of Jupiter's satellites, Galileo proposed that with sufficiently accurate knowledge of their orbits one could use their positions as a universal clock,
and this would make possible the determination of longitude. He worked on this problem from time to time during the remainder of his life; but the practical problems were severe.

The method was first successfully applied by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1681 and was later used extensively for large land surveys; this method, for example, was used by Lewis and Clark.

For sea navigation, where delicate telescopic observations were more difficult, the longitude problem eventually required development of a practical portable marine chronometer, such as that of John Harrison.

In his last year, when totally blind, he designed an escapement mechanism for a pendulum clock, a vectorial model of which may be seen here. The first fully operational pendulum clock was made by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s. Galilei created sketches of various inventions, such as a candle and mirror combination to reflect light throughout a building, an automatic tomato picker, a pocket comb that doubled as an eating utensil, and what appears to be a ballpoint pen.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:04:51 pm








                                                              Physics



Classical mechanics



Newton's second law

History of ... [show]Fundamental concepts
Space · Time · Mass · Force
Energy · Momentum
 



Formulations


Newtonian mechanics 

Lagrangian mechanics

Hamiltonian mechanics



 
Branches


Applied mechanics

Celestial mechanics

Continuum mechanics

Geometric optics



Statistical mechanics


Scientists

 
Galileo · Kepler · Newton

Laplace · Hamilton · d'Alembert

Cauchy · Lagrange · Euler
 




Galileo's theoretical and experimental work on the motions of bodies, along with the largely inde-
pendent work of Kepler and René Descartes, was a precursor of the classical mechanics develop-
ed by Sir Isaac Newton. He was a pioneer, at least in the European tradition, in performing rigorous experiments and insisting on a mathematical description of the laws of nature.

A biography by Galileo's pupil Vincenzo Viviani stated that Galileo had dropped balls of the same material, but different masses, from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to demonstrate that their time of descent was independent of their mass. This was contrary to what Aristotle had taught: that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones, in direct proportion to weight.

While this story has been retold in popular accounts, it is generally accepted by historians that there
is no account by Galileo himself of such an experiment, and that it was at most a thought experiment which did not actually take place.

Moreover, Giambattista Benedetti had reached the same scientific conclusion years before, in 1553.  However, Galileo did perform experiments which proved the same thing by rolling balls down inclined planes: falling or rolling objects (rolling is a slower version of falling, as long as the distribution of mass in the objects is the same) are accelerated independently of their mass.

Galileo was the first person to demonstrate this via experiment, but he was not—contrary to popular belief—the first to argue that it was true.

A number of scholars prior to Galileo wrote -- or showed by experiment -- that in a vacuum, bodies which are composed of the same substance but which have different masses, fall through equal distances in equal times:


Lucretius (ca. 99 - ca. 55 B.C.E., Roman poet)[,

John Philoponus (ca. 490 - ca. 570 C.E., Greek philosopher in Alexandria, Egypt),

Thomas Bradwardine (ca. 1290 - 1349, scholar at Merton College of Oxford University),

Albert of Saxony (1316 - 1390, German cleric and philosopher),

Pietro Monte (a.k.a. Petrus Montius, ca. 1457 - 1530, Spanish master at arms who resided
in N. Italy),

Benedetto Varchi (1502/3 - 1565, Italian historian and poet),

Domingo de Soto (1494 - 1560, Spanish cleric and theologian),

Giambattista Benedetti (1530 - 1590, Venetian mathematician),

Giuseppe Moletti (1531 - 1588, Italian mathematician), and

Simon Stevin (1548/9 - 1620, Flemish engineer and mathematician).


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:16:25 pm








Galileo arrived at the correct mathematical law for uniform acceleration: the total distance covered, starting from rest, is proportional to the square of the time (), already discovered by Domingo de Soto in the 16th century. He expressed this law using geometrical constructions and mathematically-precise words, adhering to the standards of the day. (It remained for others to re-express the law in algebraic terms).

But he erroneously claimed gravitational free-fall universally is uniformly accelerated as thefundamental law of motion of his cosmology and cosmogony, a claim that was never generally accepted and soon refuted by the 1660s discovery that it is exponentially increasingly accelerated (a difform motion in scholastic terms) and inversely proportional to distance from its gravitational centre.

He also concluded that objects retain their velocity unless a force—often friction—acts upon them, refuting the generally accepted Aristotelian hypothesis that objects "naturally" slow down and stop unless a force acts upon them (philosophical ideas relating to inertia had been proposed by Ibn al-Haytham centuries earlier, as had Jean Buridan, and according to Joseph Needham, Mo Tzu had proposed it centuries before either of them, but this was the first time that it had been mathematically expressed, verified experimentally, and introduced the idea of frictional force, the key breakthrough in validating inertia). Galileo's Principle of Inertia stated:


"A body moving on a level surface will continue in the same direction at constant speed unless disturbed."


This principle was incorporated into Newton's laws of motion (first law).

 
Galileo also noted that a pendulum's swings always take the same amount of time, independently of
the amplitude. The story goes that he came to this conclusion by watching the swings of the bronze chandelier in the cathedral of Pisa, using his pulse to time it. While Galileo believed this equality of period to be exact, it is only an approximation appropriate to small amplitudes. It is good enough to regulate a clock, however, as Galileo may have been the first to realize. (See Technology above)


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:18:28 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Pisa.Duomo.dome.Riminaldi01.jpg/558px-Pisa.Duomo.dome.Riminaldi01.jpg)

THE LAMP OF GALILEO

DUOMO DI PISA


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:30:25 pm








In 1638 Galileo described an experimental method to measure the speed of light by arranging that
two observers, each having lanterns equipped with shutters, observe each other's lanterns at some distance. The first observer opens the shutter of his lamp, and, the second, upon seeing the light, immediately opens the shutter of his own lantern. The time between the first observer's opening his shutter and seeing the light from the second observer's lamp indicates the time it takes light to travel back and forth between the two observers. Galileo reported that when he tried this at a distance of less than a mile, he was unable to determine whether or not the light appeared instantaneously.

Sometime between Galileo's death and 1667, the members of the Florentine Accademia del Cimento repeated the experiment over a distance of about a mile and obtained a similarly inconclusive result.

Galileo is lesser known for, yet still credited with, being one of the first to understand sound frequency. By scraping a chisel at different speeds, he linked the pitch of the sound produced to the spacing of the chisel's skips, a measure of frequency.

In his 1632 Dialogue Galileo presented a physical theory to account for tides, based on the motion of the Earth. If correct, this would have been a strong argument for the reality of the Earth's motion. In fact, the original title for the book described it as a dialogue on the tides; the reference to tides was removed by order of the Inquisition. His theory gave the first insight into the importance of the shapes of ocean basins in the size and timing of tides; he correctly accounted, for instance, for the negligible tides halfway along the Adriatic Sea compared to those at the ends. As a general account of the cause of tides, however, his theory was a failure. Kepler and others correctly associated the Moon with an influence over the tides, based on empirical data; a proper physical theory of the tides, however, was not available until Newton.

Galileo also put forward the basic principle of relativity, that the laws of physics are the same in any system that is moving at a constant speed in a straight line, regardless of its particular speed or direction. Hence, there is no absolute motion or absolute rest. This principle provided the basic framework for Newton's laws of motion and is central to Einstein's special Theory of Relativity.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:31:39 pm








Mathematics



While Galileo's application of mathematics to experimental physics was innovative, his mathematical methods were the standard ones of the day. The analysis and proofs relied heavily on the Eudoxian theory of proportion, as set forth in the fifth book of Euclid's Elements. This theory had become available only a century before, thanks to accurate translations by Tartaglia and others; but by the end of Galileo's life it was being superseded by the algebraic methods of Descartes.

Galileo produced one piece of original and even prophetic work in mathematics: Galileo's paradox, which shows that there are as many perfect squares as there are whole numbers, even though most numbers are not perfect squares.

Such seeming contradictions were brought under control 250 years later in the work of Georg Cantor.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:33:31 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/88/Galileo_facing_the_Roman_Inquisition.jpg)

GALILEO FACING THE INQUISITION

Cristiano Banti - 1857









                                                              Church controversy




 
Western Christian biblical references


                                       Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30


include text stating that



                                     "the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved."



In the same tradition,



Psalm 104:5 says,


                              "the LORD set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved."



Further,

Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that



                                      "And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place, etc."



Galileo defended heliocentrism, and claimed it was not contrary to those Scripture passages.

He took Augustine's position on Scripture: not to take every passage literally, particularly when the scripture in question is a book of poetry and songs, not a book of instructions or history. The writers of the Scripture wrote from the perspective of the terrestrial world, and from that vantage point the sun does rise and set.
In fact, it is the earth's rotation which gives the impression of the sun in motion across the sky.

By 1616 the attacks on Galileo had reached a head, and he went to Rome to try to persuade the Church authorities not to ban his ideas. In the end, Cardinal Bellarmine, acting on directives from the Inquisition, delivered him an order not to "hold or defend" the idea that the Earth moves and the Sun stands still at the centre. The decree did not prevent Galileo from discussing heliocentrism hypothetically. For the next several years Galileo stayed well away from the controversy. He revived his project of writing a book on the subject, encouraged by the election of Cardinal Barberini as Pope Urban VIII in 1623. Barberini was a friend and admirer of Galileo, and had opposed the condemnation of Galileo in 1616. The book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was published in 1632, with formal authorization from the Inquisition and papal permission.

Pope Urban VIII personally asked Galileo to give arguments for and against heliocentrism in the book, and to be careful not to advocate heliocentrism. He made another request, that his own views on the matter be included in Galileo's book. Only the latter of those requests was fulfilled by Galileo. Whether unknowingly or deliberate, Simplicius, the defender of the Aristotelian Geocentric view in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was often caught in his own errors and sometimes came across as a fool. This fact made Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems appear as an advocacy book; an attack on Aristotelian geocentrism and defense of the Copernican theory.

To add insult to injury, Galileo put the words of Pope Urban VIII into the mouth of Simplicius.

Most historians agree Galileo did not act out of malice and felt blindsided by the reaction to his book.

However, the Pope did not take the suspected public ridicule lightly, nor the blatant bias. Galileo had alienated one of his biggest and most powerful supporters, the Pope, and was called to Rome to defend
his writings.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:45:41 pm








With the loss of many of his defenders in Rome because of "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief
World Systems", Galileo was ordered to stand trial on suspicion of heresy in 1633.

The sentence of the Inquisition was in three essential parts:

Galileo was required to abjure the opinion that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, and that the Earth is not at its centre and moves; the idea that the Sun is stationary was condemned as "formally heretical."

However, while there is no doubt that Pope Urban VIII and the vast majority of Church officials did
not believe in heliocentrism, heliocentrism was never formally or officially condemned by the Catholic Church, except insofar as it held (for instance, in the formal condemnation of Galileo) that


"The proposition that the sun is in the center of the world and immovable from its place is absurd, philosophically false, and formally heretical; because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scriptures",


and the converse as to the Sun's not revolving around the Earth.


 
He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest.

His offending Dialogue was banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future.
 
According to popular legend, after recanting his theory that the Earth moved around the Sun, Galileo allegedly muttered the rebellious phrase


                                                       "And yet it moves",


but there is no evidence that he actually said this or anything similarly impertinent.

After a period with the friendly Ascanio Piccolomini (the Archbishop of Siena), Galileo was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri near Florence, where he spent the remainder of his life under house arrest, and where he later became blind.

It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he dedicated his time to one of his finest works, "Two New Sciences". Here he summarized work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called Kinematics and Strength of Materials.

This book has received high praise from both Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. As a result of this work, Galileo is often called, the "Father Of Modern Physics."


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:47:46 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/bd/Tomb_of_Galileo_Galilei.JPG/800px-Tomb_of_Galileo_Galilei.JPG)
GALILEO GALILEI'S TOMB

CHURCH OF SANTA CROCE


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:56:13 pm








Galileo died on January 8, 1642.

The Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II, wished to bury him in the main body of the Basilica of Santa Croce, next to the tombs of his father and other ancestors, and to erect a marble mausoleum in his honour.

These plans were scrapped, however, after Pope Urban VIII and his nephew, Cardinal Francesco Barberini, protested.

He was instead buried in a small room next to the novices' chapel at the end of a corridor from the southern transept of the basilica to the sacristy.

He was reburied in the main body of the basilica in 1737 after a monument had been erected there in his honour.

The Inquisition's ban on reprinting Galileo's works was lifted in 1718 when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works (excluding the condemned Dialogue) in Florence.

In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV authorized the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific workswhich included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue.

In 1758 the general prohibition against works advocating heliocentrism was removed from the Index of prohibited books, although the specific ban on uncensored versions of the Dialogue and Copernicus's De Revolutionibus remained.

All traces of official opposition to heliocentrism by the Church disappeared in 1835 when these works were finally dropped from the Index.

In 1939 Pope Pius XII, in his first speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, within a few months
of his election to the papacy, described Galileo as being among the



"most audacious heroes of research … not afraid of the stumbling blocks and the risks on the way,

nor fearful of the funereal monuments"



His close advisor of 40 years, Professor Robert Leiber wrote: "Pius XII was very careful not to close any doors (to science) prematurely. He was energetic on this point and regretted that in the case of Galileo."

On February 15, 1990, in a speech delivered at the Sapienza University of Rome, Cardinal Ratzinger cited some current views on the Galileo affair as forming what he called "a symptomatic case that permits us to see how deep the self-doubt of the modern age, of science and technology goes today." Some of the views he cited were those of the philosopher Paul Feyerabend, whom he quoted as saying “The Church at the time of Galileo kept much more closely to reason than did Galileo himself, and she took into consideration the ethical and social consequences of Galileo's teaching too. Her verdict against Galileo was rational and just and the revision of this verdict can be justified only on the grounds of what is politically opportune.”  The Cardinal did not clearly indicate whether he agreed or disagreed with Feyerabend's assertions. He did, however, say "It would be foolish to construct an impulsive apologetic on the basis of such views".(1)

On 31 October 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled, and officially conceded that the Earth was not stationary, as the result of a study conducted by the Pontifical Council for Culture.



(1)  Ratzinger, the current pope, was at this time head of the current "Office of the Inquisition"
      (Bianca)


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 05:58:53 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/Galileo_Galilei01.jpg/333px-Galileo_Galilei01.jpg)








                                                              Galileo's writings




 
The Little Balance (1586)

The Starry Messenger (1610; in Latin, Sidereus Nuncius)

Letters on Sunspots (1613)

Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615; published in 1636)

Discourse on the Tides (1616; in Italian, Discorso del flusso e reflusso del mare)
 
Discourse on the Comets (1619; in Italian, Discorso Delle Comete)

The Assayer (1623; in Italian, Il Saggiatore)

Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632; in Italian Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo)

Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (1638; in Italian, Discorsi e

Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze)







                                                              Legacy





The four large moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) are often referred to as the 'Galilean moons'.
 
The Galileo spacecraft was the first spacecraft to enter orbit around Jupiter, where it investigated the planet and its moons for years.
 
Galileo is also the name of a proposed, European satellite navigation system.

A transformation between inertial systems in classical mechanics is called a Galilean transformation.

The gal, sometimes called galileo, (symbol Gal) is a non-SI unit of acceleration named after Galileo. The gal is defined as 1 centimeter per second squared (1 cm/s²).


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2008, 06:07:07 pm









                                                             References





Allan-Olney, Mary. The private Life of Galileo: Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, (nun in the Franciscan convent of St. Matthew, in Arcetri), 1870, Boston : Nichols and Noyes. -

Google Books: The private Life of Galileo - The Internet Archive

Biagioli, Mario (1993). Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Consolmagno, Guy; Schaefer, Marta (1994). Worlds Apart, A Textbook in Planetary Science.

Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN 0-13-964131-9

Brodrick, James, S.J. [c1964] (1965). Galileo : the man, his work, his misfortunes. London: G. Chapman. 

Coyne, George V., S.J. (2005). The Church's Most Recent Attempt to Dispel the Galileo Myth, In McMullin (2005, pp.340–359). 

Drake, Stillman (translator) (1953). Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 

Drake, Stillman (1957). Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. New York: Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0-385-09239-3

Drake, Stillman (1960). Introduction to the Controversy on the Comets of 1618, In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.vii–xxv). 

Drake, Stillman (1973). "Galileo's Discovery of the Law of Free Fall". Scientific American v. 228, #5, pp. 84–92.

Drake, Stillman (1978). Galileo At Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-16226-5

Drake, Stillman, and O'Malley, C.D. (translators) (1960). The Controversy on the Comets of 1618. Philadelphia, PA: University of Philadelphia Press.
 
Einstein, Albert (1952). Foreword to (Drake, 1953)

Einstein, Albert (1954). Ideas and Opinions, translated by Sonja Bargmann, London: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-285-64724-5.
 
Fantoli, Annibale (2003). Galileo — For Copernicanism and the Church, third English edition. Vatican Observatory Publications. ISBN 88-209-7427-4

Favaro, Antonio (1890–1909), ed.[1]. Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale (Italian). (The Works of Galileo Galilei, National Edition, 20 vols.), Florence: Barbera, 1890–1909; reprinted 1929–1939 and 1964–1966. ISBN 88-09-20881-1. Searchable online copy from the Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence . Brief overview of Le Opere @ Finns Fine Books, [2] and here [3]

Feyerabend, Paul (1995). Killing Time: The Autobiography of Paul Feyerabend. Chicago, MI: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-24531-4. 

Fillmore, Charles (1931, 17th printing July 2004). Metaphysical Bible Dictionary. Unity Village, Missouri: Unity House. ISBN 0-87159-067-0

Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (1989). The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06662-6.
 
Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (Fall 2007), "Book Review—The Person of the Millennium: The Unique Impact of Galileo on World History", The Historian 69 (3): 601–602

Galilei, Galileo [1623] (1960). The Assayer, translated by Stillman Drake. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.151–336). 

Galilei, Galileo 1638,1914 (1954), Henry Crew and Alfonso de Salvio, translators, Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, Dover Publications Inc., New York, NY. ISBN 486-60099-8

Galilei, Galileo, and Guiducci, Mario [1619] (1960). Discourse on the Comets, translated by Stillman Drake. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.21–65). 

Gebler, Karl von. Galileo Galilei and the Roman Curia : from authentic sources, London, C.K. Paul & co., 1879; Merrick, N.Y. : Richwood Pub. Co., 1977. - Google Books ISBN 0-915172-11-9

Geymonat, Ludovico (1965), Galileo Galilei, A biography and inquiry into his philosophy and science, translation of the 1957 Italian edition, with notes and appendix by Stillman Drake, McGraw-Hill

Grassi, Horatio [1619] (1960a). On the Three Comets of the Year MDCXIII, translated by C.D. O'Malley. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.3–19).
 
Grassi, Horatio [1619] (1960b). The Astronomical and Philosophical Balance, translated by C.D. O'Malley. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.67–132).
 
Grisar, Hartmann, S.J., Professor of Church history at the University of Innsbruck (1882). Historisch theologische Untersuchungen über die Urtheile Römischen Congegationen im Galileiprocess (Historico-theological Discussions concerning the Decisions of the Roman Congregations in the case of Galileo), Regensburg: Pustet. - Google Books ISBN 0-7905-6229-4. (LCC# QB36 - microfiche) Reviewed here (1883), pp.211–213

Hawking, Stephen (1988). A Brief History of Time. New York, NY: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-34614-8.
 
Heilbron, John L. (2005). Censorship of Astronomy in Italy after Galileo, In McMullin (2005, pp.279–322). 

Hellman, Hal (1988). Great Feuds in Science. Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever. New York: Wiley
Kelter, Irving A. (2005). The Refusal to Accommodate. Jesuit Exegetes and the Copernican System, In McMullin (2005, pp.38–53). 

Koestler, Arthur [1959] (1990). The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-019246-8.  Original edition published by Hutchinson (1959, London).

Lattis, James M. (1994). Between Copernicus and Galileo: Christopher Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic Cosmology, Chicago: the University of Chicago Press

Langford, Jerome K., O.P. [1966] (1998). Galileo, Science and the Church, third edition, St. Augustine's Press. ISBN 1-890318-25-6. . Original edition by Desclee (New York, NY, 1966)

Lessl, Thomas, "[[Arthur Koestler Koestler, Arthur. The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe 1958, Penguin (Non-Classics); Reprint edition (June 5, 1990). ISBN 0-14-019246-8ologetics/ap0138.html The Galileo Legend]". New Oxford Review, 27–33 (June 2000).

McMullin, Ernan, ed. (2005). The Church and Galileo. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-03483-4. 

McMullin, Ernan, (2005a). The Church's Ban on Copernicanism, 1616, In McMullin (2005, pp.150–190). 

Naylor, Ronald H. (1990). "Galileo's Method of Analysis and Synthesis," Isis, 81: 695–707

Newall, Paul (2004). "The Galileo Affair"

Remmert, Volker R. (2005). Galileo, God, and Mathematics. In: Bergmans, Luc/Koetsier, Teun (eds.): Mathematics and the Divine. A Historical Study, Amsterdam et al., 347–360

Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal (1994). Turning point for Europe? The Church in the Modern World—Assessment and Forecast, translated from the 1991 German edition by Brian McNeil, San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-461-8. OCLC 60292876. 

Seeger, Raymond J. (1966). Galileo Galilei, his life and his works. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 

Settle, Thomas B. (1961). "An Experiment in the History of Science". Science, 133:19–23

Shea, William R. and Arigas, Mario (2003). Galileo in Rome: The Rise and Fall of a Troublesome Genius. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516598-5. 

Sharratt, Michael (1996), Galileo: Decisive Innovator. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-56671-1

Sobel, Dava [1999] (2000). Galileo's Daughter. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-85702-712-4. 
Wallace, William A. (1984) Galileo and His Sources: The Heritage of the Collegio Romano in Galileo's Science, (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Pr.), ISBN 0-691-08355-X

White, Andrew Dickson (1898). A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. New York 1898.

White, Michael. (2007). Galileo: Antichrist: A Biography. Weidenfeld & Nicolson:London, ISBN 978-0-297-84868-4.

Wisan, Winifred Lovell (1984). "Galileo and the Process of Scientific Creation," Isis, 75: 269–286.
Zik Yaakov, "Science and Instruments: The telescope as a scientific instrument at the beginning of the seventeenth century", Perspectives on Science 2001, Vol. 9, 3, 259–284.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 04, 2008, 05:56:29 pm








                                               Row over Galileo's remains




 
By Mark Duff
BBC News, Milan 





(http://www.antiquars.com/Pittura800/_images/Benvenuti/Benvenuti%20-%20ritratto%20di%20Galileo%20Galilei.jpg)

 
Galileo's views saw him accused of heresy



The Renaissance genius Galileo Galilei is once again at the centre of a row between Church and
science more than 360 years after his death.

Italian researchers want to exhume his body for DNA tests to find the cause of the blindness that afflicted him.

They also want to confirm whether the body that shares his grave is that of Galileo's beloved daughter.

Galileo fell foul of the religious authorities of the day when he argued that the Earth revolved around the Sun.

For that he was accused of heresy and condemned to see out his life under house arrest at his villa
in the hills outside Florence.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on April 04, 2008, 05:58:56 pm
(http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/514T15WR1ML._SS500_.jpg)







Everyone knows that Galileo Galilei dropped cannonballs off the leaning tower of Pisa, developed the
first reliable telescope, and was convicted by the Inquisition for holding a heretical belief--that the earth revolved around the sun.

But did you know he had a daughter?

In Galileo's Daughter, Dava Sobel (author of the bestselling Longitude) tells the story of the famous scientist and his illegitimate daughter, Sister Maria Celeste.

Sobel bases her book on 124 surviving letters to the scientist from the nun, whom Galileo described as
"a woman of exquisite mind, singular goodness, and tenderly attached to me." Their loving correspondence revealed much about their world: the agonies of the bubonic plague, the hardships of monastic life, even Galileo's occasional forgetfulness ("The little basket, which I sent you recently with several pastries, is not mine, and therefore I wish you to return it to me").


While Galileo tangled with the Church, Maria Celeste--whose adopted name was a tribute to her father's fascination with the heavens--provided moral and emotional support with her frequent letters, approving of his work because she knew the depth of his faith. As Sobel notes, "It is difficult today ... to see the Earth at the center of the Universe. Yet that is where Galileo found it."

With her fluid prose and graceful turn of phrase, Sobel breathes life into Galileo, his daughter, and the earth-centered world in which they lived. --Sunny Delaney --.






From Publishers Weekly



Despite its title, this impressive book proves to be less the story of Galileo's elder daughter, the oldest
of his three illegitimate children, and more the story of Galileo himself and his trial before the Inquisition for arguing that Earth moves around the Sun.

That familiar tale is given a new slant by Sobel's translationAfor the first time into EnglishAof the 124 surviving letters to Galileo by his daughter, Suor Maria Celeste, a Clarisse nun who died at age 33; his letters to her are lost, presumably destroyed by Maria Celeste's convent after her death.

Her letters may not in themselves justify a book; they are devout, full of pious love for the father she addresses as "Sire," only rarely offering information or insight. But Sobel uses them as the accompaniment to, rather than the core of, her story, sounding the element of faith and piety so often missing in other retellings of Galileo's story. For Sobel shows that, in renouncing his discoveries, Galileo acted not just to save his skin but also out of a genuine need to align himself with his church.

With impressive skill and economy, she portrays the social and psychological forces at work in Galileo's trial, particularly the political pressures of the Thirty Years' War, and the passage of the plague through Italy, which cut off travel between Florence, where Galileo lived, and Rome, the seat of the Pope and the Inquisition, delaying Galileo's appearance there and giving his enemies time to conspire.

In a particularly memorable way, Sobel vivifies the hard life of the "Poor Clares," who lived in such abject poverty and seclusion that many were driven mad by their confinement.

It's a wholly involving tale, a worthy follow-up (after four years) to Sobel's surprise bestseller.




   
   
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http://www.amazon.com/Galileos-Daughter-Historical-Memoir-Science/dp/0140280553/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1204830891&sr=8-1


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2008, 08:37:36 am








                                                     Vatican to erect statue of Galileo






March 05, 2008
Vatican City

The Vatican will be erecting a statue of Galileo Galilei inside the city's walls - 400 years after the scientist was
tried for heresy.

The Times reports the Vatican hopes that by putting up the statue, it will "close the Galileo affair and reach a definitive understanding not only of his legacy but between science and faith."

The planned statue is to stand in the Vatican gardens near the apartment in which Galileo was incarcerated while awaiting trial in 1633 for advocating heliocentrism - the Copernican doctrine that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

Pontifical Academy of Sciences head and a nuclear physicist Nicola Cabibbo said the statue - paid for by private donations - was appropriate because Galileo had been one of the founders of the Lincei Academy, a forerunner of the papal body, in 1603.

He had not been tortured or burned at the stake, as many believed, though he was forced to recant by the Inquisition.

A series of celebrations will take place in the lead to next year's 400th anniversary of Galilieo's development of the telescope including a a Vatican conference on Galileo to be attended by 40 international scientists and a re-examination of his trial at an institute in Florence run by the Jesuits, who were among Galileo's fiercest opponents in the Inquisition.

In January Pope Benedict called off a visit to Sapienza University, in Rome after staff and students accused him of defending the Inquisition's condemnation of Galileo.

They cited a speech he made at La Sapienza in 1990, while still a cardinal, in which he quoted a description of the trial of Galileo as fair. The Vatican said that the Pope had been misquoted.

The Vatican's repentance over its treatment of Galileo began in 1979, when John Paul II invited the Church to rethink the trial of Galileo.

 

SOURCE

Vatican recants with a statue of Galileo (The Times 04/03/08)



http://www.cathnews.com/article.aspx?aeid=6123


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2008, 08:39:16 am
(http://www.timesonline.co.uk/multimedia/archive/00295/galileo185_295170a.jpg)








                                         Vatican recants with a statue of Galileo






Richard Owen
in Rome
and Sarah Delaney
in Florence
March 2008
timesonline.co.uk

Four hundred years after it put Galileo on trial for heresy the Vatican is to complete its rehabilitation of the great scientist by erecting a statue of him inside the Vatican walls.

The planned statue is to stand in the Vatican gardens near the apartment in which Galileo was incarcerated while awaiting trial in 1633 for advocating heliocentrism, the Copernican doctrine that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

Nicola Cabibbo, head of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and a nuclear physicist, said: “The Church wants to close the Galileo affair and reach a definitive understanding not only of his great legacy but also of the relationship between science and faith.”

Professor Cabibbo said that the statue - paid for by private donations - was appropriate because Galileo had been one of the founders of the Lincei Academy, a forerunner of the papal body, in 1603. He had not been tortured or burned at the stake, as many believed, though he was forced to recant by the Inquisition.

The move coincides with a series of celebrations in Rome, Pisa, Florence and Padua in the run-up to next year's 400th anniversary of Galileo's development of the telescope. Events include a Vatican conference on Galileo to be attended by 40 international scientists and a re-examination of his trial at an institute in Florence run by the Jesuits, who were among Galileo's fiercest opponents in the Inquisition.

The celebrations begin today with the opening of an exhibition on Galileo's telescope entitled “The Instrument Which Changed the World” at the Museum of the History of Science in Florence. The museum, which is undergoing an 8 million (£6 million) renovation, contains many of Galileo's own scientific instruments.

Paolo Galluzzi, head of the Florence museum, said that “even if Galileo had been wrong, you cannot judge scientific errors in an ecclesisatical court”. Giorgio Ierano, a cultural historian, said: “The wrong done to Galileo is being put right on the territory of his historic enemies. Wherever Galileo is in the afterlife, he must be enjoying this moment.”

In January Pope Benedict XVI called off a visit to Sapienza University, Rome, after staff and students accused him of defending the Inquisition's condemnation of Galileo. They cited a speech he made at La Sapienza in 1990, while still a cardinal, in which he quoted a description of the trial of Galileo as fair. The Vatican said that the Pope had been misquoted.

The Vatican's repentance over its treatment of Galileo began in 1979, when John Paul II invited the Church to rethink the trial of Galileo.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2008, 08:40:37 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Galileo.script.arp.600pix.jpg.jpg/391px-Galileo.script.arp.600pix.jpg.jpg)



It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation
of the moons of Jupiter.

This observation upset the notion that all celestial bodies
must revolve around the Earth.

Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in
March 1610









Faith in science



— Born in Pisa in 1564, Galileo Galilei built his first telescope in 1609 after a Dutch optician invented a device that made distant objects seem near at hand (at first called the spyglass)

— Galileo used his telescopes to observe the Moon, which he found to be “uneven, rough, full of cavities and prominences”, and then in 1610 Jupiter and its satellites

— His subsequent Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in which he asserted categorically that the Earth revolved round the Sun, was held to be offensive to Pope Urban VIII and he was ordered to stand trial for heresy in 1633

— His views were found to be “absurd, philosophically false, and formally heretical because expressly contrary to Holy Scriptures”

— He recanted to save his life, and lived under house arrest until his death in 1642


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2008, 08:41:41 am

                          (http://boomeria.org/physicslectures/lawsmotion/condemmed.jpg)


(http://boomeria.org/physicslectures/lawsmotion/inquisition2.jpg)








Galileo's abjuration



“Wishing to remove from the minds of your Eminences and all faithful Christians this vehement suspicion reasonably conceived against me, I abjure with sincere heart and unfeigned faith, I curse and detest the said errors and heresies, and generally all and every error and sect contrary to the Holy Catholic Church.

And I swear that for the future I will neither say nor assert in speaking or writing such things as may bring upon me similar suspicion; and if I know any heretic, or one suspected of heresy, I will denounce him to this Holy Office, or to the Inquisitor and Ordinary of the place in which I may be."



— Source: Solange Strong Hertz: Beyond Politics: A Meta-Political View of History. 


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on December 22, 2008, 09:01:11 am










                                                  Recantation of Galileo (June 22, 1633)






(http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/galileo/recantation.jpg)

Concluding portion of Galileo's Recantation
(or Abjuration)



I, Galileo, son of the late Vincenzo Galilei, Florentine, aged seventy years, arraigned personally before this tribunal, and kneeling before you, Most Eminent and Reverend Lord Cardinals, Inquisitors-General against heretical depravity throughout the entire Christian commonwealth, having before my eyes and touching with my hands, the Holy Gospels, swear that I have always believed, do believe, and by God's help will in  the future believe, all that is held, preached, and taught by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. But whereas -- after an injunction had been judicially intimated to me by this Holy Office, to the effect that I must altogether abandon the false opinion that the sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center of the world, and moves, and that I must not hold, defend, or teach in any way whatsoever, verbally or in writing, the said false doctrine, and after it had been notified to me that the said doctrine was contrary to Holy Scripture -- I wrote and printed a book in which I discuss this new doctrine already condemned, and adduce arguments of great cogency in its favor, without presenting any solution of these, and for this reason I have been pronounced by the Holy Office to be vehemently suspected of heresy, that is to say, of having held and believed that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center and moves: 


Therefore, desiring to remove from the minds of your Eminences, and of all faithful Christians, this vehement suspicion, justly conceived against me, with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies, and generally every other error, heresy,  and sect whatsoever contrary to the said Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert, verbally or in writing, anything that might furnish occasion for a similar suspicion regarding me; but that should I know any heretic, or person suspected of heresy, I will denounce him to this Holy Office, or to the Inquisitor or Ordinary of the place where I may be. Further, I swear and promise to fulfill and observe in their integrity all penances that have been, or that shall be, imposed upon me by this Holy Office. And, in the event of my contravening, (which God forbid) any of these my promises and oaths, I submit myself to all the pains and penalties imposed and promulgated in the sacred canons and other constitutions, general and particular, against such delinquents. So help me God, and these His Holy Gospels, which I touch with my hands. 



I, the said Galileo Galilei, have abjured, sworn, promised, and bound myself as above; and in witness of the truth thereof I have with my own hand subscribed the present document of my abjuration, and recited it word for word at Rome, in the Convent of Minerva, this twenty-second day of June, 1633. 

I, Galileo Galilei, have abjured as above with my own hand.
 




[Galileo's Recantation excludes two points included in the original formula for abjuration presented to him by the Cardinals.  These two points, objected to by Galileo, would have had him declare that he was not a good Catholic and that he deceived others in publishing his book.]



Source: 

Giorgio de Santillana,

The Crime of Galileo

(University of Chicago Press 1955),
pp. 312-313.
Trial of Galileo Homepage


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 04, 2009, 11:47:02 pm











                                                         Galileo's library recreated


                                         Volumes that formed his personal collection on show






 (ANSA)
- Florence,
December 23, 2008

- The books that shaped one of the greatest scientific minds in Western history are the focus of a new exhibition
in this Tuscan city.

The National Library of Florence is showcasing 70 volumes that were once part of the personal collection of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642).

''The material on display was selected from the Galileo collection stored in our library,'' explained library director Antonia Idea Fontana. ''They were the source of his research and bear witness to his successes but also show the polemics, the legal arguments and the trials linked to his work''.

The renowned Tuscan astronomer, scientist and mathematician had eclectic taste in reading material, the exhibition shows.

His collection not only included scientific treatises but also copies of Dante's Divine Comedy, the romantic epic poem Orlando Furioso and works by Petrarch. In addition, the show features a number of Galileo's scientific sketches, as well as original ideas and notes he jotted down while reading the various volumes.

''While this is not the first time these books have been displayed, the idea of reconstructing Galileo's personal library is completely new,'' added Fontana. The exhibition is part of a series of events this year commemorating 400 years since Galileo produced his first telescope, revolutionising conceptions of the universe and sparking religious uproar.

He created the device in 1608, initially producing a lens able to magnify objects threefold and soon after 32-fold.

This put him in a nearly unique position, as he was one of the few people at the time with a lens powerful enough to observe the sky.

His discovery of three of Jupiter's moons and his observation of Venus's phases helped him conclude that the sun was at the centre of the universe, rather than the Earth, as was commonly believed at the time.

Church opposition to Galileo's sun-centred model flared up immediately in 1612 and would dog Galileo for the rest of his life.

An exhibition at the Museum of the History of Science in Florence until the end of December explores this discovery, showing the only two surviving telescopes created by Galileo, as well as dozens of original documents and instruments.

The exhibition on Galileo's personal book collection can be visited at the National Library of Florence until February 28.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:14:58 am


















                                          Pope praises Galileo, celebrates the Solstice



                                                             Galileo magnifico?






By Joe Fay •
Posted in
Science,
22nd December 2008

The Pope tipped his hat to long-time Vatican bugbear Galileo this weekend as he helped kick off the 2009 International Year of Astronomy.

Pope Benedict also gave some comfort to pagans by acknowledging the connection between the date of Christmas and the Winter Solstice.

Pope Benedict's predecessor, John Paul II, formally apologised for the Church's hounding of Galileo for pointing out that the Earth - and therefore man - was not at the centre of the Universe, never mind the solar system. But the relationship between Benedict and the sciences in general and astronomy in particular, has been somewhat pricklier.

So, it might have seemed perverse that the pope this weekend decided to highlight Unesco's International Year of Astronomy, which marks 400 years since Galileo first used the telescope. Still, the occasionally surprising Benedict - he wears Prada after all - rose to the occasion, paying tribute to Galileo and his ilk for promoting further understanding of the laws of nature.

Of course, in the Vatican's world, it doesn't stop there. Understanding the laws of nature therefore stimulates an appreciation of God's work. This would normally be the point at which we kick off an unholy row by asking whether the pope is then saying the laws of nature were laid down by God, and are not independent of him, whether he exists or not.

But instead, we're going to marvel at how Benedict, after veering into science, then seems to have swerved into Dan Brown territory. After pointing how Christmas uncannily coincides with the Winter solstice, he gave an account of how astronomy, and the solstice, underlie the very architecture of the Vatican.

According to AsiaNews.it, Benedict pointed out that "not everyone knows that St Peter's Square is also a meridian: the obelisk, in fact, casts its shadow along a line that runs along the pavement toward the fountain under this window, and in these days the shadow is at its longest of the year.

"This reminds us of the function of astronomy in marking out the rhythm of prayer. The Angelus, for example, is recited in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, and with the meridian, which was used in ancient times to identify 'true noon', clocks were adjusted."





Of course, this is what the Pope wants you to think. As any good conspiracy theorist knows, he is clearly trying to distract attention from the fact that the obelisk naturally points to the grave of Mary Magdalene, who is interred with the Templar's gold, the Ark of the Covenant and the outline for Dan Brown's next novel. ®


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:19:39 am








                                                             Italy fetes Galileo



                                   Events mark 400th aniversary of Italian's breakthroughs






 (ANSA)
- Florence,
January 15, 2009

- A wave of events marking 400 years since Galileo Galilei's first landmark observations of the night sky kicks off here on Thursday, part of global celebrations for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA).

The two-day official launch of IYA takes place in Paris but Tuscany will play a special part in the yearlong initiative as the birthplace and home of the 'father of modern science'.

Speaking at the official inauguration ceremony, the president of Italy's National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF), Tommaso Maccacaro, said the decision to hold the IYA in 2009 was perfect. ''There can be no doubt that 2009 was the right year to celebrate astronomy as it is exactly 400 years since Galileo made his first observations by telescope,'' said Maccacaro. ''These observations revolutionized our culture and our conception of the role of humankind within the universe''. The Tuscan initiatives will include the opening of a new museum, guided observations of the night sky, the laying of a marker stone commemorating the scientist and three exhibitions, part of 12-million-euro 'Galileo Package'. The biggest show of the year is a multimedia event at Florence's Palazzo Strozzi, opening in March, entitled 'Galileo: Images of the Universe from Antiquity to the Telescope'.

This will examine the history of conceptions of the cosmos, with archaeological finds, scientific instruments, star maps, drawings, paintings and precious manuscripts from around the world.

''The multidisciplinary nature of this show and the use of different multimedia will provide an absolutely first-rate experience for visitors,'' said Florence museum superintendent, Cristina Acidini.

''It will bring to life the instruments and models used by scientists that have studied the sky and the planets over the years''.

Outside Italy, a series of international events have been lined up for the IYA.

April 2-5 will see '100 Hours of Astronomy', an event bringing together people from around the world to observe and share astronomical events during a 100-hour period.

'Galileoscope', running all year round, aims to give 10 million people their first look through an astronomical telescope in 2009. It will do this by encouraging amateur astronomers to introduce others to the experience and by developing a simple telescope that is easy to assemble and use, which can be distributed for free.

'Universe Awareness' will introduce kids from deprived backgrounds to ''the scale and beauty of the Universe'', teaching them about the background of modern astronomy and trying to spark an interest in science. IYA will also see the launch of 'The Portal To The Universe' website, containing a host of news, photographs, videos and information open to everyone, allowing users to tap and share live data.

Galileo (1564-1642) created his first telescope in 1608, based on descriptions from the Netherlands where the device was invented.

He initially produced a lens able to magnify objects threefold and soon after created a lens with a magnification of 32.

This put him in a nearly unique position, as he was one of the few people at the time with a lens powerful enough to observe the sky.

He started making regular recorded observations in 1609 and in 1610, discovered three of Jupiter's moons. He initially thought they were stars but observing their changing position, soon concluded they were orbiting Jupiter.

Galileo later used his powerful telescope to observe the various phases of Venus.

Both sets of observations played a crucial role in his conclusion that the sun was at the centre of the universe, rather than the Earth, as was commonly believed at the time.

Church opposition to Galileo's sun-centred model flared up immediately in 1612 and would dog Galileo for the rest of his life.

In 1633 he was tried and convicted of heresy and a ban was imposed on the publication or reprinting of any of his works. He was then placed under house arrest, where he spent the remaining nine years of his life.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:21:34 am









                                Scientists to solve astronomical riddle using Galileo DNA






     
Mon Jan 19, 2009
ROME
(AFP)

– Italian scientists are trying to get Galileo's DNA in order to figure out how the astronomer forged groundbreaking theories on the universe while gradually becoming blind, a historian said Monday.

Scientists at Florence's Institute and Museum of the History of Science want to exhume the body of 17th Century astronomer Galileo Galilei to find out exactly what he could see through his telescope.

The Italian astronomer -- who built on the work of predecessor Nicolaus Copernicus to develop modern astronomy with the sun as the centre of the universe -- had a degenerative eye disease that eventually left him blind.

"If we succeed, thanks to DNA, in understanding how this disease distorted his sight, it could bring about important discoveries for the history of science," said the institute's director, Paolo Galluzzi.

"We could explain certain mistakes that Galileo made: why he described the planet Saturn as having 'lateral ears' rather than having seen it encircled by rings for example," said Galluzzi.

In an effort to recreate what Galileo -- who lived from 1564 to 1642 -- saw, the scientific team has made an exact replica of his telescope.

They now want to get DNA proof of what ophthalmologists have said was a genetic eye disease and thereby more fully understand the conditions under which he made observations that revolutionised our understanding of the cosmos.

It will take the team one year to raise the 300,000 euros (390,000 dollars) needed to finance the project and clear administrative hurdles to open Galileo's tomb in Florence's Santa Croce Basilica, Galluzzi said.

The United Nations proclaimed 2009 the International Year of Astronomy, marking the 400th anniversary of Galileo's observations.

In 1609, he discovered spots on the Sun, craters and peaks on the surface of the Moon and satellites orbiting Jupiter, thereby confirming Copernicus's theory that planets orbit the Sun rather than the Earth.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:22:45 am
 (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/Tomba_di_Galileo_Galilei.jpg)


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:37:06 am







                                 Astronomers view heavens through Galileo's eyes



                              Replica 'scope celebrates four centuries of heliocentrism






By Lester Haines
Posted in Space,
The Register
8th January 2009

Astronomers are celebrating 400 years since Galileo made his famous observations, which were fundamental in proving the heliocentric hypothesis, by pointing a replica of one of his original telescopes at the heavens to recreate his original stargaze.

In 1609, Galileo critically discovered four satellites orbiting Jupiter, which removed "major doubt about the heliocentric model - namely that the Earth appeared at the centre of things because only it had a satellite", as Physics World puts it.

Galileo's contribution to science was made possible by the invention of the telescope in the Netherlands in 1608, which he improved for use as an astronomical instrument. Now, scientists from the Institute and Museum of the History of Science and the Arcetri Observatory, both in Florence, have built a replica of one of his 'scopes and are "using it to generate the images that, to the best of their estimations, Galileo himself would have seen".

In fact, the telescope is not a replica of the instrument used to make the historic observations which appeared in 1610 in the Sidereus Nuncius (“Starry Messenger”), since only one lens survives. Rather, it's an "exact replica of the device that Galileo gave to his patron the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo II, in about 1610" - a 93cm-long device boasting two lenses and a magnification factor of around 20.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:39:11 am



                (http://regmedia.co.uk/2009/01/08/galileo_scope.jpg)








The Arcetri Observatory then constructed the instrument's body, behind which the team placed a 2300 × 3400 pixel CCD to generate "digital versions of the images that would form on the retina of a human eye placed behind the telescope".

The ultimate plan is to observe all of the bodies which appear in the Sidereus Nuncius. So far, the team has spied the Moon and Saturn, and has now turned its attention to Jupiter’s moons and the phases of Venus. The latter also proved instrumental in backing the heliocentric hypothesis by disproving the Ptolemaic assertion that "we would never see more than half of the surface of Venus illuminated by sunlight".

In carrying out its observations, the team has overcome the problems of modern light pollution and the relatively low sensitivity of the CCD compared to the human eye by finding "a suitable location in the hills beyond the city" of Florence and placing the 'scope on a rotating mount to allow "an exposure of several seconds", respectively.

The astronomers' efforts to recreate exactly what Galileo saw has, though, hit a slight occular snag. Physics World explains: "The researchers also want to work out what Galileo’s eye would have done with those images. And for that, they need access to his body."

Paolo Galluzzi, director of the Florence museum, explained: “We know that Galileo died blind, so he must have had visual problems. We want to look at his DNA to try and work out what these problems were.”

Unfortunately, the rector of Florence's Basilica of the Holy Cross, where Galileo's remains lie, is apparently none too keen on his tomb being opened. Galluzzi is described as "determined" to press the matter, and insisted: “Building the replica telescope and acquiring the digital images are the first two parts of the project. Understanding the physiology of Galileo’s eye is the third part. If we can achieve this, then we will be in a position to really understand how Galileo viewed the universe.”

The researchers' images will, Physics World notes, appear online at some stage. Whether or not they have been adjusted to take into account the state of Galileo's eyesight in 1609 remains to be seen. ®





Bootnote


This year is officially "International Year of Astronomy" - principally designed to "mark the 400th anniversary of Galileo’s first use of the telescope for astronomical observations", but also hoping to "generate interest in astronomy and science, especially in young people". Physics World has further details and event listings at the bottom of its Galileo 'scope piece.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:40:41 am








                                       Let the global astronomy celebrations begin






Jan. 5, 2009

The International Year of Astronomy marks the 400th anniversary of the first use of an astronomical telescope by Galileo Galilei. As the 2009 celebrations kick off, Edwin Cartlidge explains how one of Galileo’s telescopes is being rebuilt by researchers in Italy, while Michael Banks looks at some of the events taking place this year


StargazingOf the many achievements of Galileo Galilei, among the most famous is a series of astronomical observations that he started in 1609 and announced in March 1610 in a publication entitled Sidereus Nuncius (“Starry Messenger”). These included radical new views of the Moon and the stars, as well as the discovery of four satellites orbiting Jupiter. By removing a major doubt about the heliocentric model — namely that the Earth appeared at the centre of things because only it had a satellite — the observation of the Jovian moons led to a new view of the universe and in the process brought Galileo considerable fame.

What had made these observations possible was the telescope. Invented in the Netherlands in 1608 (although there have been claims that it was first built a few years earlier), the telescope was initially seen as a useful new aid to warfare. However, once news of the device spread south, Galileo was able to use his considerable skills as an instrument maker to multiply the magnifying power of the basic spyglass so that he could use it as an astronomical tool.

Now, staff at the Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy, together with the Arcetri Observatory, also in Florence, have built a replica of one of Galileo’s telescopes and are using it to generate the images that, to the best of their estimations, Galileo himself would have seen. The aim, explains museum curator Giorgio Strano, is to understand exactly what Galileo observed and how he made his observations. “We are trying to distinguish precisely between what Galileo was potentially able to see ‘objectively’ with the telescope and what was, instead, the product of physiological, psychological and cultural factors,” he says.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:42:18 am








The Moon, Saturn and beyond



The telescope being built by the Florence team is not actually a replica of the one used by Galileo to make the observations he reported in Sidereus Nuncius. It is likely, instead, that these results were obtained using a telescope with a magnification of about 30. What the team is building is an exact replica of the device that Galileo gave to his patron the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo II, in about 1610. The 93 cm long instrument consists of two lenses — a converging one, the objective, and a diverging one, the eyepiece — that can magnify distant objects by up to a factor of about 20. Whereas this more modest instrument has survived intact, sadly the only part that remains of the more powerful device is the objective lens, making it impossible to remake.

Reproducing Cosimo II’s telescope has involved a painstaking investigation of the original lenses — with the National Institute of Applied Optics in Florence having measured their shape and refractive index, and the National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Florence using X-ray fluorescence to determine the composition of the glass. The Arcetri Observatory, on the other hand, built a mechanical structure to house the lenses and regulate the distance between them. This structure was then linked up to a charge coupled device of 2300 × 3400 pixels, which transforms incoming photons to electrical signals and thereby generates digital versions of the images that would form on the retina of a human eye placed behind the telescope. The plan is to make these images accessible online.

Astronomers at the Arcetri Observatory are now using this apparatus to image all the objects recorded in Sidereus Nuncius and in other works by Galileo. The Moon and Saturn have already been observed, and these observations have demonstrated the effects of chromatic aberration in Galileo’s instrument. The focal length of a lens depends on the wavelength of light passing through it, so in practice it is impossible to bring white light to a precise focus, and this defocusing can be seen in the images of Saturn and of the Moon.

Arcetri Observatory director Francesco Palla says that he and his colleagues are now obtaining images of Jupiter’s moons and the phases of Venus, which provided another crucial piece of evidence in favour of the heliocentric hypothesis (with the Ptolemaic alternative incorrectly maintaining that we would never see more than half of the surface of Venus illuminated by sunlight). The researchers are also observing the Pleiades and Orion star fields, which Galileo found had scores of stars in addition to the few already known at that time. Sunspots permitting, observations will also be made of the changing face of the Sun — a hammer blow against the idea of the immutability of the heavens when originally revealed by Galileo.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:44:02 am







The Galilean eye



Michele Camerota, a historian of science at the University of Cagliari in Italy, believes that the observing project will provide a valuable source of new data on the performance of Galileo’s telescopes and that it will permit an “extremely faithful” reconstruction of what Galileo saw. However, performing these observations has proved tricky. Aside from having to work with a very limited field of view (Galileo’s combination of convex objective and concave eyepiece producing a field of view of about one quarter of a degree), the researchers in Florence have also struggled to find somewhere dark enough to observe Jupiter — Arcetri nowadays being swamped by light from the city.


(http://images.iop.org/objects/physicsweb/world/thumb/22/1/25/thumbmoon.jpg)

Moonstruck


Having eventually found a suitable location in the hills beyond the city, Palla and colleagues then had to introduce what he describes as an “inevitable trick” in order to observe the Jovian moons. Because the moons reflect so little sunlight, their imaging requires an exposure of several seconds, during which time they move appreciably across the sky. The telescope therefore needs to be placed on a rotating mount in order to track the moons — a problem that Galileo would not have encountered because the eye can make do with less light than a CCD needs.

However, even when all of the imaging has been completed, the project will not be over. That is because to work out what Galileo saw it is not enough to simply find out what kind of images his telescope created. The researchers also want to work out what Galileo’s eye would have done with those images. And for that, they need access to his body. “We know that Galileo died blind, so he must have had visual problems,” says Paolo Galluzzi, director of the Florence museum. “We want to look at his DNA to try and work out what these problems were.”

Galluzzi does not yet have permission to open Galileo’s tomb, which lies in the Basilica of the Holy Cross in Florence, because the basilica’s rector opposes such a move. But Galluzzi is determined to keep trying. “Building the replica telescope and acquiring the digital images are the first two parts of the project,” he says. “Understanding the physiology of Galileo’s eye is the third part. If we can achieve this, then we will be in a position to really understand how Galileo viewed the universe.”


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:45:32 am










IYA2009: a taste of things to come



January marks the start of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) as designated by the United Nations, and endorsed by UNESCO — its body responsible for education, science and culture. IYA2009 is intended to mark the 400th anniversary of Galileo’s first use of the telescope for astronomical observations.

The aim of the initiative is to generate interest in astronomy and science, especially in young people, under the central theme of “The universe, yours to discover”. I

YA2009 is a global celebration of astronomy with more than 100 countries involved in preparing activities.

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) and UNESCO are coordinating events throughout the year, which are happening regionally, nationally and internationally. National events can be found at the IYA2009 individual country websites.

Although this list is not exhaustive, here is a sample of what is coming up around the world during the year. Meanwhile, Physics World will be publishing a special astronomy issue in March, and there will be additional astronomy coverage on physicsworld.com throughout 2009.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:46:55 am


            (http://images.iop.org/objects/physicsweb/world/thumb/22/1/25/thumbIYA.jpg)

             2009

             INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF ASTRONOMY










                                                                        Cosmic diary






International Year of AstronomyAll year round, worldwide
www.iya2009.org
Professional astronomers around the world will be blogging about their day to day activities and what it is like to be an astronomer. Researchers from NASA, the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory will be blogging as part of this project

Portal to the universe
All year round, worldwide
www.portaltotheuniverse.org
A website built for IYA2009 will feature rolling news, new images taken by telescopes, blogs by astronomers, and videos, as well as links to other astronomy websites. It will also contain a directory of observatories, facilities and astronomical societies.

IYA2009 opening ceremony
15–16 January, UNESCO Headquarters, Paris
Hundreds of people are expected to attend the official launch, such as government ministers and Nobel-prize winners, including Robert Wilson, who shared one half of the 1978 prize with Arno Penzias for the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation. There will be exhibitions as well as talks by leading figures in astronomy.

Conference on the role of astronomy in society and culture
19–23 January, UNESCO Headquarters, Paris
Examining the relationship that astronomy has established with different cultures around the world. There will also be an accompanying art exhibition.

GLOBE at night
16–28 March, worldwide
This project lets students, teachers and parents take part in a global campaign to observe and record the magnitude of visible stars to measure light pollution in a given location. After the observations are collected, a map will be produced showing the levels of light pollution around the world.

100 hours of astronomy
2–5 April, worldwide
One of the cornerstone projects of IYA2009, this event will try to make as many people as possible use a telescope and look up the stars.

International Astronomy Day
2 May, worldwide
Local astronomical societies, planetariums, museums and observatories will be giving presentations and workshops to help increase public awareness about astronomy.

IAU general assembly
3–14 August, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Leading astronomers will head to Brazil for a two-week conference to discuss everything from dark matter and galaxy clusters to whether the fundamental constants change with time.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:50:02 am









Kepler’s heritage in the space age
24–27 August, Prague, Czech Republic
Celebrating the 400th anniversary of the publication of Johannes Kepler’s 1609 book Astronomia Nova, in which he provided the formulation of the first two laws of planetary motion in the solar system. The conference at the National Technical Museum in Prague celebrates Kepler’s contribution to astronomy.

Astronomy and its instruments before and after Galileo
28 September – 3 October, Venice, Italy
The conference will examine at how astronomical instruments have changed with time and the differences between countries when exploring the universe.

Great worldwide star count
9–23 October, worldwide
This event encourages everyone to go outside, look skywards after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and then report their findings online.

European Society for Astronomy in Culture (SEAC) conference
25–31 October, Alexandria, Egypt
The SEAC, which includes archaeologists, historians and astronomers as its members, will meet to discuss the practice, use and meaning of astronomy in culture.






About the author



Edwin Cartlidge is a freelance science writer based in Rome.

Michael Banks is news editor of Physics World



http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/37157


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:52:42 am








                                           Is that two moons around Saturn I see?







Philip Pullella
– Thu Jan 22, 2009
Reuters
ROME

– Italian and British scientists want to exhume the body of 16th century astronomer Galileo for DNA tests to determine if his severe vision problems may have affected some of his findings.

The scientists told Reuters on Thursday that DNA tests would help answer some unresolved questions about the health of the man known as the father of astronomy, whom the Vatican condemned for teaching that the earth revolves around the sun.

"If we knew exactly what was wrong with his eyes we could use computer models to recreate what he saw in his telescope," said Paolo Galluzzi, director of the Museum of History and Science in Florence, the city where Galileo is buried.

Galileo, who lived from 1564 to 1642, is known to have had intermittent eye problems for the second half of his life and was totally blind for his last two years.

"There were periods when he saw very well and periods when he did not see very well," said Dr. Peter Watson, president of the Academia Ophthalmologica Internationalis and consultant to Addenbrooke's University Hospital, Cambridge.

Watson, who has studied Galileo's handwriting, letters and portraits of the astronomer, suspects he may have had unilateral myopia, uveitis -- an inflammation of the eye's middle layer -- or a condition called creeping angle closure glaucoma.

Watson believes Galileo did not acquire his eye problems by looking at the sun but by systemic illnesses, including an attack when he was young that left him temporarily deaf and bloody discharges and arthritis so severe he was bedridden for weeks.

He was under particular stress when he was tried for heresy by the Inquisition because the Copernican theory he supported conflicted with the Bible.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 24, 2009, 08:54:03 am










ERROR OF A GENIUS?



One of the "errors" that Galileo made, which Galluzzi suspects may have been attributed to his bad eyesight, is that he believed Saturn was not perfectly round but may have had an irregular, inflated side.

With his 20-power telescope and with his eyes in bad shape he might have mistaken Saturn's gaseous ring to surmise that it was formed of one planet with two moons as satellites.

"This was probably a combination of errors. He probably expected to find satellites and his eyesight may have contributed to some confusion," said Galluzzi.

"A DNA test will allow us to determine to what measure the pathology of the eye may have 'tricked' him," he said.

"If we discover the pathology he suffered, we can formulate a mathematical model that simulates the effects it would have had on what he saw and using the same type of telescope he used we can get closer to what he actually saw," Galluzzi said.

"We only have sketches of what he saw. If we were able to see what he saw that would be extraordinary," he added.

Galileo was buried in Florence's Santa Croce Basilica about 100 years after his death. Before, his remains were hidden in a bell tower room because the Church opposed a proper burial.

His bones were stored together with those of one of his disciples, Vincenzo Viviani, and those of an anonymous woman.

Galluzzi and others believe the bones belong to the most beloved of Galileo's three illegitimate children, Sister Maria Celeste, a nun who died when she was 33. She was the subject of the 1999 international bestseller "Galileo's Daughter," by Dava Sobel. DNA would determine if she is his daughter.

Galluzzi said he was waiting for permission from the Church to exhume the body and then would form a committee of historians, scientists and doctors to oversee the project.



(Editing by
Katie Nguyen)


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on January 29, 2009, 06:00:46 pm








                                               Galileo Vatican statue 'shelved'


                                         But 'time is ripe' for 'fresh reconsideration'






 (ANSA)
- Vatican City,
January 29, 2009

- The Vatican has shelved plans to put up a statue to Galileo Galilei, the Italian astronomer famously forced to recant his discovery that the earth moves around the sun.

''The project has been shelved for the moment,'' the Vatican's culture chief Msgr Gianfranco Ravasi told reporters as he outlined events for World Astronomy Year.

Confirming press reports, Ravasi said a preparatory sketch for the statue had been made before it was decided not to make the statue.

He did not elaborate on the decision apart from saying that there was a sponsor who was then told to spend the money on a scientific project in Africa.

The statue to Galileo was to have stood outside the Pontifical Academy of Science, according to reports. Ravasi went on to say that the Church was ready to ''further reconsider the Galileo case'', 17 years after Pope John Paul II admitted it had erred in condemning him.

''The time is now ripe for a fresh reconsideration of the figure of Galileo and the whole Galileo case,'' he said, presenting a conference that will take place in Florence later this year.

''Galileo deserves all our appreciation and gratitude,'' Ravasi said.

The conference, entitled The Galileo Case, An Historical, Philosophical and Theological Re-reading, will take place at Florence's Stensen Institue on May 26-30.

Galileo (1564-1642), is regarded as the father of modern astronomy.

He created his first telescope in 1608 and discovered three of Jupiter's moons and the various phases of Venus.

The two sets of observations played a crucial role in his conclusion that the sun was at the centre of the universe, rather than the Earth, as was commonly believed at the time.

Church opposition to Galileo's sun-centred model flared up immediately in 1612 and would dog Galileo for the rest of his life.

In 1633 he was tried and convicted of heresy and a ban was imposed on the publication or reprinting of any of his works. He was then placed under house arrest, where he spent the remaining nine years of his life as the world returned to the comfortable idea of an immovable earth.

Galileo is said to have muttered the famous phrase 'Eppure si muove' (''But it does move'') as he left his trial.

In 1992, after a 13-year reconsideration of the case, Pope John Paul II admitted that the Church had made a ''tragic mistake'' in rejecting Galileo's heliocentric views.

But he also exculpated the astronomer's chief accuser, who was later canonised, as only doing his duty.

Pope Benedict XVI, who succeeded John Paul in 2005, last year had to cancel a visit to Rome University after a protest by academics against his defence, while still a cardinal, of Galileo's trial.

Speaking in Parma in 1990, Benedict said the trial was ''reasonable and just''.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on March 15, 2009, 11:28:21 am









                                                 Galileo telescope recreated



                                Murano glassmakers help reproduce exact copy of lens






 (ANSA)
- Rome,
February 25, 2009

- A team of astronomers, scientists and historians have recreated the original telescope used by Galileo Galilei, allowing them to see the night sky through the eyes of the 17th-century astronomer for the first time.

The interdisciplinary team from Florence's Museum of the History of Science and the national institutes of applied optics, nuclear physics and astrophysics spent two years reconstructing the telescope for the International Year of Astronomy, which marks the 400th anniversary of Galileo's landmark discoveries.

The team worked with the Experimental Glass Station in Murano to recreate the exact composition of the glass for the lense of the telescope Galileo created and described in his 1610 treatise Sidereus Nuncius ('Starry Messenger'), where he also recorded his first observations.

''It was immediately clear that the telescope is not at all easy to use,'' said Giorgio Strano of the Museum of the History of Science.

Francesco Palla, director of the National Institute of Astrophysics' Arcetri Observatory, said the team's astronomers had nevertheless ''almost finished'' observations of the celestial objects that Galileo would have seen in 1609 using the replica.

''We have observed the moon, the satellites of Jupiter and the phases of Venus,'' Palla said, adding that the Pleiades star cluster and the constellation of Orion had also been studied.

All of the images observed with the replica telescope will be transferred to digital format and published online by the end of the year. Galileo (1564-1642) created his first telescope in 1608, based on descriptions from the Netherlands where the device was invented.

He initially produced a lens able to magnify objects threefold and soon after created a lens with a magnification of 32.

This put him in a nearly unique position, as he was one of the few people at the time with a lens powerful enough to observe the sky.

He started making regular recorded observations in 1609 and discovered three of Jupiter's moons in 1610. He initially thought they were stars but observing their changing position, soon concluded they were orbiting Jupiter.

Galileo later used his powerful telescope to observe the various phases of Venus.

Both sets of observations played a crucial role in his conclusion that the sun was at the centre of the universe, rather than the Earth, as was commonly believed at the time.

Church opposition to Galileo's sun-centred model flared up immediately in 1612 and would dog Galileo for the rest of his life.

In 1633 he was tried and convicted of heresy and a ban was imposed on the publication or reprinting of any of his works. He was then placed under house arrest, where he spent the remaining nine years of his life.

A host of initiatives has been planned this year to celebrate the International Year of Astronomy in Italy and abroad.


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on March 15, 2009, 11:32:13 am









                                                Florence show stars Galileo



                                    Exhibit celebrates his groundbreaking discoveries






 (ANSA)
- Florence,
March 13, 2009

- A sweeping exhibition of art, scientific instruments, star maps and ancient artefacts opened in Florence on Friday, celebrating conceptions of the cosmos and the groundbreaking discoveries of Galileo Galilei. 'Images of the Universe from Antiquity to the Telescope' promises a dazzling array of exhibits, carrying visitors on a voyage through centuries of ideas about the universe and the cosmos.

More than 250 precious objects are on display from an array of fields, with paintings, drawings, telescopes, star charts, archaeological finds, mosaics, sculptures, illuminated manuscripts and functioning cosmological models. The exhibition, a key event in international celebrations marking 400 years since Galileo's first observations of the night sky, is divided into eight sections. The first looks back to the dawn of astronomy, focusing on Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt and the Biblical cosmos. The second and third parts explore Ancient Greek conceptions of the cosmos, the spherical model developed by Plato and Aristotle and the geometrical vision of Ptolemy. The fourth, fifth and six parts respectively spotlight Islamic visions of the universe, their Christianization and the rebirth of astronomy with Copernicus and his sun-centred theory. The seventh section focuses on Galileo, featuring one of his two surviving telescopes, while the exhibition concludes with progress made by Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton in legitimising his theories.

Also on display will be the middle finger from Galileo's right hand, mounted on a marble base and encased in a crystal jar. The digit was removed from his body in 1737, nearly a century after his death, when his remains were exhumed from an unconsecrated grave and transferred to Florence's principal Franciscan church, the Basilica of the Holy Cross. The general excitement surrounding the anniversary of Galileo's discoveries has also revived talk of a second exhumation. Last year, a team of Italian and British scientists said they had requested permission from the Catholic Church to open the mausoleum in order to carry out DNA tests. The researchers said they were seeking further information on the degenerative eye condition that eventually left Galileo blind, as well as confirmation that the remains of the woman sharing his tomb are those of his daughter. Sister Maria Celeste, one of the scientist's illegitimate children with his long-time mistress Marina Gamba, was sent to a convent at age 13 but remained close to her father throughout her life. But the church's director, Father Antonio Di Marcantonio, said ''an official request of this nature has not been received''. ''Furthermore, I have always made it clear I am opposed to the idea,'' he said. ''I see no point in breaking a tomb to disturb the final rest of a figure of the past. ''Besides which, exhumations entail extensive bureaucracy, requiring permission both from the Church and Florence's Superintendent's Office''. 


Title: Re: The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography
Post by: Bianca on July 02, 2009, 12:21:26 pm









                                Vatican should learn from Galileo mess, prelate says





 
Philip Pullella
July 1, 2009
VATICAN CITY
(Reuters)

– The Catholic Church should not fear scientific progress and possibly repeat the mistake it made when it condemned astronomer Galileo in the 17th century, a Vatican official said on Thursday in a rare self-criticism.

Galileo, who lived from 1564 to 1642, was condemned by the Inquisition in 1633 for asserting that the earth revolved around the sun.

Known as the father of astronomy, he wasn't fully rehabilitated by the Vatican until 1992, nearly 360 years later.

At a news conference presenting a new volume of documents on the Galileo case, Monsignor Sergio Pagano, head of the Vatican's secret archives, said today's Church and Vatican officials can learn from past mistakes and shed their diffidence toward science.

"Can this teach us something today? I certainly think so," he said, in a rare display of self-criticism for the Vatican.

"We should be careful, when we read the Sacred Scriptures and have to deal with scientific questions, to not make the same mistake now that was made then," he said.

"I am thinking of stem cells, I am thinking of eugenics, I am thinking of scientific research in these fields. Sometimes I have the impression that they are condemned with the same preconceptions that were used back then for the Copernican theory," he said.

The Inquisition, which sought out heresies, condemned Galileo for backing a theory of astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus because it clashed with the Bible which said: "God fixed the Earth upon its foundation, not to be moved forever."

Pagano said it was necessary for today's Church leaders and Vatican officials "to study more, to be more prudent, evaluate things" when dealing with scientific advances.

He said that while scientists should not presume they can teach the Church about faith, the Church should not be afraid to approach scientific issues with "much humility and circumspection."

The Catholic Church, other religious groups and anti-abortion advocates oppose embryonic stem cell research -- which scientists hope can lead to cures for diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's -- because it involves the destruction of embryos.

But the Church supports adult stem cell research, which has made advances in recent years.

The relationship between religion and science has been tense and tricky for centuries.

For example, Christian Churches were long hostile to the evolutionist theories of Charles Darwin because they conflicted with the literal biblical account of God creating the world in six days.




(Editing by
Sonya Hepinstall)