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Egypt & the Pyramids => Gods of Egypt => Topic started by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 03:44:48 pm



Title: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 03:44:48 pm
           (http://www.stencilkingdom.com/images/designs/egypt46_large.gif)








                               
                                                    T H E   G R E A T   H Y M N





Thou arisest fair in the horizon of Heaven, O living Aten, Beginner of Life.

When thou dawnest in the East, thou fillest every land with thy beauty.

Thou art indeed comely, great, radiant and high over every land.

Thy rays embrace the lands to the full extent of all that thou hast made, for

thou art Re and thou attainest their limits and subduest them for thy beloved son.

Thou art remote, yet thy rays are upon the earth

Thou art in the sight of men, yet thy ways are not known.



When thou settest in the Western horizon,

the earth is in darkness after the manner of death.

Men spend the night indoors wth the head covered,

the eye not seeing its fellow.

Their possessions might be stolen, even under their heads,

and they would be unaware of it.

Every lion comes forth from its lair and all snakes bite.

Darkness lurks, and the earth is silent

when their Creator rests in his habitation.



The earth brightens when thou arisest in the Eastern horizon

and shinest forth as Aten in the daytime.

Thou drivest away the night when thou givest forth thy beams.

The Two Lands are in festival.

They awake and stand upon their feet for thou hast raised them up.

They wash their limbs, they put on raiment

and raise their arms in adoration at thy appearance.

The entire earth performs its labours.

All cattle are at peace in their pastures.

The trees and herbage grow green.

The birds fly from their nest, their wings [raised] in praise of thy spirit.

All animals gambol on their feet,

all the winged creation live when thou hast risen for them.

The boats sail upstream, and likewise downstream.

All ways open at thy dawning.

The fish in the river leap in thy presence.

Thy rays are in the midst of the sea.



Thou it is who causest women to conceive and makest seed into man,

who givest life to the child in the womb of its mother,

who comfortest him so that he cries not therein,

nurse that thou art, even in the womb,

who givest breath to quicken all that he hath made.

When the child comes forth from the body on the day of his birth,

then thou openest his mouth completely and thou furnishest his sustenance.

When the chick in the egg chirps within the shell,

thou givest him the breath within it to sustain him.

Thou createst for him his proper term within the egg,

so that he shall break it and come forth from it

to testify to his completion as he runs about on his two feet when he emergeth.



How manifold are thy works!  They are hidden from the sight of men,

O Sole God, like unto whom there is no other!

Thou didst fashion the earth according to thy desire when thou was alone

 - all men, all cattle great and small, all that are upon the earth

that run upon their feet or rise up on high, flying with their wings.

And the lands of Syria and Kush and Egypt -

thou appointest every man to his place and satisfiest his needs. 

Everyone receives his sustenance and his days are numbered.

Their tongues are diverse in speech and their qualities likewise,

and their colour is differentiated for thou hast distinguished the nations.



Thou makest the waters under the earth and thou bringest them forth

at thy pleasure to sustain the people of Egypt

even as thou hast made them live for thee,

O Divine Lord of them all, toiling for them,

The Lord of every land, shining forth for them,

The Aten Disk of the day time, great in majesty!



All distant foreign lands also, thou createst their life.

Thou hast placed a Nile in heaven to come forth for them

and make a flood upon the mountains
 
like the sea in order to water the fields of their villages.

How excellent are thy plans, O Lord of Eternity! - a Nile in the sky

is thy gift to foreigners and to beasts of their lands;

but the true Nile flows from under the earth for Egypt.



Thy beams nourish every field and when

thou shinest they live and grow for thee.

Thou makest the seasons in order to sustain all that thou hast made,

the winter to cool them, the summer heat that they may taste.

Thou hast made heaven afar off that thou mayest behold

all that thou hast made when thou wast alone,

appearing in thy aspect of the Living Aten, rising and shining forth.

Thou makest millions of forms out of thyself,

towns, villages, fields, roads, the river.

All eyes behold thee before them, for thou art the Aten of the daytime,

above all that thou has created.


Thou art in my heart, but there is none other who knows thee save thy son

Akhenaten.  Thou hast made him wise in thy plans and thy power.





Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 03:59:40 pm
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0104/images/feature2_main.jpg)







The character and deeds of Akhenaten, who for seventeen years directed the

fate of Egypt and the civilized world in the fourteenth century BC, continue to
 
engross and mystify the historians.  From being one whom his people did their

best to forget, he has become, thirty centuries later, the celebrated subject of

novels, operas and other works of the imagination.




In essence his doctrine rejected the universal concept of idolatry.  He taught that the graven images in which Egyptian gods revealed themselves had been invented by man and made by the skill of artisans.  He proclaimed a new god, unique, mysterious, whose forms could not be known and which were not fashioned by human hands.

The single-minded zealotry with which Akhenaten promoted the worship of a spirit, self-created daily, and transcendental, in place of a tangible repository of numinous power, reveals a self-assurance which has
provoked modern critics to class him and his chief queen Nefertiti, as religious fanatics; just as their subjects
in their day recognized their exceptional charisma with backs bent low in adoration.  Nevertheless, although the royal pair share in the divinity of their god, they recognize itssupremacy and prostrate themselves abjectly in its presence.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 04:16:15 pm
(http://www.egyptartsite.com/images/winged.gif)








This new found deity was yet a very old one - the sky god Horus, that since pre-historic times had been incarnate in the king and carried the Aten, the disk of the daytime sun, Re, across the heavens upon giant
falcon wings. 

In the Re-Herakhte of Akhenaten, however, the falcon was soon transformed from the bearer of the solar disk upon its vertex into the disk itself, shooting forth its rays, each ending in a human hand, thus manifesting
itself as an active force, a heavenly king like Re, reigning over the Horizon where lay the realms of light. 

Within a few months this solar symbol of deity had devoloped into an abstraction and a sole god. 

During the remainder of the reign it became increasingly regal, predominatly abstract and, at the last, 
brooked no rival.

This belief, however was almost as old as the pharaonate itself.  Every pharaoh was an incarnation of the
great sky god Horus, and since early times had borne the title "Son of Re", the active solar deity to whom
he would be assimilated at death.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 05:17:47 pm
(http://www.mideastweb.org/egypt_ancient_map.gif)







                          T H E   D I S C O V E R Y   O F   A K H E N A T E N     





Almost 300 Kilometres south of Cairo, about midway between ancient Memphis
and Thebes, on the west bank of the Nile, lie the ruins of Hermopolis.  This was the seat in pagan times of the
moongod Thoth, whom the Greek equated with their Hermes, and the capital of a thriving district that extended to  a depth of nearly 20 kilometres, to meet the verges of the Libyan Desert on the west.  By contrast with this still fertile and populous tract, the opposite bank presents an inhospitable face with sheer limestone cliffs, plunging headlong into the Nile and scarcely affording space for a continuous highway at the water's edge.  The vast escarpment extends further south for some 65 kilometres when, at Sheikh Sa'id, the bluffs recedes from
the river in an abrupt curve, for a distance of 12 kilometres and a maximum depth of five, before resuming their southward course.  This opening in the rocky wall forms the sandy plain of Amarna, a vast natural amphitheatre in which one of the great dramas of ancient Egypt was played out in little more than a decade in the fourteenth century BC, when it became "a chance bivouac in the march of history, fulled for a moment with all the movement and colour of intense life, and then was abandoned to a deeper silence, as the camp was hurriedly struck and the course of Egyptian history relapsed again into more wonted highways."

For this was the site to which Akhenaton, visionary and religious reformer, was directed by divine inspiration, in his fifth regnal year, as the place where his sole god, Re-Herakhte, immanent in the sunlight that streamed from the Aten, or disk of the sun, had manifested himself at the creation of the world.  It was here that the Pharaoh founded a capital city on virgin ground, which was built for the Aten, extended during the remaining twelve years of his reign, and forsaken soon after his death.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 05:36:39 pm
  (http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/92spring/images/p79.jpg)







                                      T H E   D I S C O V E R Y   O F   A K H E N A T E N





All this, of course was unknown to the European travellers who came to this spot in
the early years of the nineteenth century.  They found a desert tract covered with scrub and low mounds of pebble-strewn rubbish, sloping from the crescent of east-
ern hills to a narrow strip of cultivation, bordering the river and scored by shallow wadis.  This untamed place was not made any more inviting by the evil reputation of the inhabitants of the wretched villages, strung along the river bank from north to south at EtTil, El Hagg Qandil, El Amirya and El Hawata.  These were occupied by the sullen and quarrelsome descendants of the Beni Amran, nomads who had left the Eastern Desert in the early eighteenth century and settled on the river banks, giving their name to the whole region.  The full description of their northernmost village, Et Til el Amarna, was mis-heard by early travellers as Tell el Amarna, and still persists, though it is a misnomer, since there is no single 'tell' or great mound marking the ancient site.  Scholars have now generally agreed to call the place El Amarna, or more simply, Amarna.

Despite such deterrents, in 1824 the first of the notable modern explorers stopped at Et Eil and visited some of the open tombs cut in a terrace that extended half-way up the cliffs at the northern edge of the site.  This was John Gardner Wilkinson, who had come to Egypt three years earlier in search of a more congenial climate in which to cosset his fragile health, and stayed for a further decade investigating the monuments, particularly those at Thebes.

He returned to Amarna in 1826, this time in company with James Burton, an elder brother of the more famous architect Decimus and a member of a team that had made a geological survey of Egypt for Mohammed Ali in 1822.  Wilkinson and Burton copied scenes and made squeezes in the tombs of the High Steward of the Queen Mother, Huya; Pharaoh's Private Secretary, Ahmose;  the High Priest, MeryreI; the Chief Servitor, Pinhasy; the Cupbearer, Parennefer; the Chamberlain, Tutu and the Master of the Horse, Ay.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 05:58:53 pm
(http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Akhenaton/images/584_s.jpg)







THE DISCOVERY OF AKHENATON                                                              continued





Not that the two copyists were aware of the names and titles of the former owners of these tombs.  At this time, the knowledge of how to decipher hieroglyphs, follow-
ing upon Champollion's initial discoveries of 1822, had hardly been sufficiently developed to enable Wilkinson and Burton to read the names  of the ancient site, which they identified as the late Roman Alabastronopolis, from a nearby alabaster quarry, one of several in the northern hills.  It is under this name that Wilkinson published the source of his copies and extracts from the tomb scenes in his
"Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians", which in its various editions had such a profound influence on Victorian ideas of ancient Egypt.  Apart from this, and
a page in Burton's "Excerpta Hierogliphica", nothing was published from the site, although in subsequent years, several expeditions and individuals examined the monuments at Amarna.  The Scottish midshipman Robert Hay, later laird of Linplum, and his team of copyists worked there in 1830 and 1833 and, not only examined all the tombs that were open, but cleared others from beneath extensive drifts of sand in the foothills on the southern limits of the site.  In this way, they added to
the tally the tombs of the Overseer of the Royal Harim, another Meryre; and the Governor of the City, Neferkheperuhersekheper.  The careful and often exquisite copies of the scenes, that they secured with the aid of the camera lucida, have never been published, except in extracts.  The original drawings and notes have
survived in their portfolios, among the manuscripts of the British Library.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 06:25:55 pm
(http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Akhenaton/images/585_s.jpg)







THE DISCOVER OF AKHENATON                                                               continued





A similar fate befell the copies made by the French draughtsman Nestor L'Hote, who had accompanied Champollion on his expedition in 1828 and again, on his own account, ten years later.  His manuscripts and drawings are in the Bibliotheqe Nationale in Paris.  So are those of the Breton archaeologist and artist Prisse
d'Avennes, who went to Egypt to work as an engineer for Mohammed Ali and stayed on to excavate and explore.  He came to Amarna in the early 1840s and copied in the northern tombs there.

The attaction that brought these men and the general tourist to the private tombs at Amarna, in spite of hardships, was the unique nature of the reliefs with which they were decorated.  Unlike those of other tombs in Egypt, they were large, unified compositions, the subject-matter of which was exclusively concerned with the activities of a royal family, consisting of a king and queen and several of their infant daughters.  They were shown not in the formal attitudes of worship repeated so insistently on every temple wall, or as triumphant conquerors smiting the foreign foes, but in intimate and vivid detail as human beings engaged in every day domestic affairs, embracing their children, riding in their chariots to attend worship  in the local shrines, feasting in the privacy of their palaces, or honouring their followers with valuable rewards taken from their treasure chests.  In all these scenes there was an entire absence of that funerary ambiance which tinged the decoration of the painted tombs of Thebes, and even the reliefs in the stone mastabas of the Old Kingdom at Saqqara. 

Indeed, the scenes radiated a vibrancy in the pose of the participants in the drama, with onlookers expressing excitement and even ecstasy in the presence of their rulers, and joy and pride in the awards that were bestowed upon them.  There was also a fervency evident in the sacrifices which the royal pair offered up before a heaped altar under a radiant sun.  Everywhere strings by the expressive fingers of the musicians who were so much in evidence, in the dances of jubilation by onlookers and the waving of palm fronds and olive branches in the hands of those welcoming the subjects whom royalty had honoured


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 06:49:37 pm
(http://140.112.2.84/~theatre/course/th6_520/sty_egy/painting/paint-01x.jpg)








THE DISCOVERY OF AKHENATEN                                                              continued



There was also, however, a certain prevailing mystery.  The royal figures in the scenes were drawn in a style that differed markedly from what was generally
accepted as the ancient Egyptian mode.  The king and, to a lesser extent, the
queen, was represented as though his head were deformed, with a long nose, thick
lips, a hanging chin and  a long serpentine neck.  His physique, too, was distincti-
vely feminine, with its heavy breasts, swelling hips and ample thighs.  The question arose of whether a king and his consort were in question at Amarna, or two queens, one masquereding as a pharaoh.  This enigma, so far from discouraging
visitors, only enhanced the appeal of the place.

Despite such attractions, the tombs lying open on the northern hill terraces were in a sorry condition.  Most of them were badly damaged and polluted by the attentions of generations of squatters in early Christian times, and colonies of bats ever since.  The Christians had damaged the walls and built their rude houses in the forecourts: some of the innermost chambers had been used as burial places.  The tomb of Pinhas had even been extensively remodelled as a Coptic church, with a deep font for total immersion before the apse.  But, apart from such desecration, it was apparent to early visitors, that the reliefs had also suffered from the hammers of iconoclasts who had defaced the figures of the king and queen and removed their names from the inscriptions.  So throughly had this destruction been wrought , that it was not easy to find an intact cartouche bearing the name of the king or queen, and still less was it possible to come upon an undamaged portrait of the royal pair.  Nevertheless, there were oversights, in places difficult of access or evidently inaccessible by the time that the work of defacement began.





Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 07:16:28 pm
(http://www.bibleandscience.com/tours/images/akhenaten28.jpg)







THE DISCOVERY OF AKHENATEN                                                                  continued




In this predicament, is was customary for early visitors to Amarna to refer to the people represented on the reliefs as the "Disk Worshippers", from the image of the sun shooting forth a dozen or more rays, each ending in a hand, which dominated the upper part of nearly every scene and which was clearly a special symbol of veneration.  It did not require particularly acute perception to see that this rayed disk with its protective uraeus, had a special connection with the royal pair.  Its hands brought the ankh or sign of life to their nostrils, or clasped their limbs or persons as though to support them; but such privileges were denied to their subjects, however exalted.  It, too, was accompanied by two cartouches enclosing its names, like the two great names of a king, but they were larger than the cartouches of the pharaoh and surrounded by a double border.  The signs within these were difficult to interpret but were evidently the same as those which accompanied a representation of the sun-god, ReHerakhte, as a falcon-headed man, found on a few monuments elsewher, though not at Amarna. 

Eventually, following the opinion of German scholars, the contents of the two great cartouches were recognized as a 'didactic' name of an age-old kingly god in his aspect of the entire day-time sun, 'Re-Horus, who rejoices in the horizon in his name of the light which is in the sun-disk".

Whatever this name meant, and new interpretations were to appear with each generation of scholars, the important element was (hieroglyph), ATEN, the sun's disk, which was frequently used alone as though it were an abbreviated form of the longer name.  It did not go unobserved either that a different version of the didactic name also existed.

The excision of the names of the king and queen and, sporadically of the god himself, and of other members of the royal family, suggested that the "Disk Worshippers" had incurred some kind of odium.  Their names did not appear on the lists of pharaohs which about this time were coming to light at Saqqara, Karnak and elsewhere.  The family at Amarna bore all the signs of being figures and faces and names that were anathema.  Such marks of execration only added to the mistery of the place.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 07:35:18 pm
(http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/51245597.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=444ED34A869CB9706C16D804E17E2BE0284831B75F48EF45)







THE DISCOVERY OF AKHENATON                                                             continued





In 1842, however, fresh light was admitted to dispel some of the obscurities when the Prussian Epigraphic Expedition under Richard Lepsius, a disciple of Champollion and the foremost Egyptologist of his day, arrived
in Egypt to begin their immense survey.  The team paid two visits to Amarna in 1843 and 1845, where in the
course of a total of twelve phenomenally busy days, they copied scenes and inscriptions and took paper
squeezes of reliefs in the northern tombs and of those in the southern group, which had been opened by Hay
a dozen years earler. 

These records, still happily housed in Berlin, are invaluable, since not infrequently they are now the only
evidence we have of what existed on walls that have since been damaged or totally destroyed. 

Lepsius' explorations were mostly concerned with a more accurate and complete knowledge of monuments
already brought to light, rather than with an increase in the sum-total of new excavations and discoveries. 
But his main contribution to the advance of the subject was the worthy publication of results in the twelve
mighty volumes of the "Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopen", which were devoted solely to illustrations
and the five volumes of letter press, which appeared posthumously. 

It was this work that enabled scholars in subsequent years, with their increasing knowledge of ancient Egyptian archaeology and philology, to improve their understanding and elucidation of the Amarna monuments and to begin
a serious attempt to write the history of the site.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 02, 2007, 07:53:13 pm
(http://i76.photobucket.com/albums/j14/biopact/Aten.jpg)









THE DISCOVERY OF AKHENATEN                                                               continued






Notwithstanding the excised cartouches of the main actors in the drama, it soon became apparent that they were indeed a male pharaoh and his chief queen, whose names did not appear in the official king-lists.  His name was read as
Khuenaten, but by the end of the century this version had been corrected to Akhenaten.  Further study revealed that the king had at some stage in his career changed his nomen from Amenophis(Amenhotep), a name which was the same as that of his predecessor, though accompanied by a slightly different epithet, "Divine
ruler of Thebes', in place of "Ruler of thebe".  This revocation of the name of Amun seemed to have some connection with the excision of the name and figure of this god, wherever they appeared, though they had generally been restored at a later date, apart from oversights.

The chief queen, whose figure appeared inseparably with her husband's in most of their representations, retained her name of Nefertiti without alteration; but after a time she added an epither to it, Neferneferuaten (Fair in the Beauty of the Aten) in an expanded version.  The names of their six daughters were also recovered, as was that of the ancient township which had stood in the plain at Amarna and which
was still visible as a straggle of dark sandy mounds dappled with withe pebbles. 
This was found to be Akhentaten, "the Horizon (or seat) of the Aten", an appellation not encountered in the records, except for chance scribbles on the rocks at Aswan.

More than a century of study and exploration has torn the veil from the mystery, without however plucking out its heart; and Akhenaten, so far from being execrated and forgotten, bids fair to become the most over-exposed of all the pharaohs, while the features of his wife, Nefertiti, thanks to the much publicized painted bust found at Amarna, are probably more familiar now than Cleopatra's, that 'femme fatale' of the Hellenistic world.

Such a turn of Fortune's wheel would have appealed to the Egyptian of Roman days, who frequently offed his prayers to the gryphon of Nemesis.




FROM


AKHENATEN
King of Egypt


by Cyril Aldred


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on April 03, 2007, 12:19:06 pm
Akhenaton -- Encyclopaedia Britannica
In the god's honor, the pharaoh changed his name to Ikhnaton, which means “It is well with Aton.” Ikhnaton (also Akhenaton)


 Since the disappearance of Melchizedek in the flesh, no human being up to that time had possessed such an amazingly clear concept of the revealed religion of Salem as Ikhnaton. In some respects this young Egyptian king is one of the most remarkable persons in human history. During this time of increasing spiritual depression in Mesopotamia, he kept alive the doctrine of El Elyon, the One God, in Egypt, thus maintaining the philosophic monotheistic channel which was vital to the religious background of the then future bestowal of Michael. And it was in recognition of this exploit, among other reasons, that the child Jesus was taken to Egypt, where some of the spiritual successors of Ikhnaton saw him and to some extent understood certain phases of his divine mission.


Never in all history did any king so methodically proceed to swing a whole nation from polytheism to monotheism as did this extraordinary Ikhnaton. With the most amazing determination this young ruler broke with the past, changed his name, abandoned his capital, built an entirely new city, and created a new art and literature for a whole people. But he went too fast; he built too much, more than could stand when he had gone. Again, he failed to provide for the material stability and prosperity of his people, all of which reacted unfavorably against his religious teachings when the subsequent floods of adversity and oppression swept over the Egyptians.

Had this man of amazingly clear vision and extraordinary singleness of purpose had the political sagacity of Moses, he would have changed the whole history of the evolution of religion and the revelation of truth in the Occidental world. During his lifetime he was able to curb the activities of the priests, whom he generally discredited, but they maintained their cults in secret and sprang into action as soon as the young king passed from power; and they were not slow to connect all of Egypt's subsequent troubles with the establishment of monotheism during his reign.

Very wisely Ikhnaton sought to establish monotheism under the guise of the sun-god. This decision to approach the worship of the Universal Father by absorbing all gods into the worship of the sun was due to the counsel of the Salemite physician.  Ikhnaton took the generalized doctrines of the then existent Aton faith regarding the fatherhood and motherhood of Deity and created a religion which recognized an intimate worshipful relation between man and God.

Ikhnaton was wise enough to maintain the outward worship of Aton, the sun-god, while he led his associates in the disguised worship of the One God, creator of Aton and supreme Father of all. This young teacher-king was a prolific writer, being author of the exposition entitled "The One God," a book of thirty-one chapters, which the priests, when returned to power, utterly destroyed. Ikhnaton also wrote one hundred and thirty-seven hymns, twelve of which are now preserved in the Old Testament Book of Psalms, credited to Hebrew authorship.


The supreme word of Ikhnaton's religion in daily life was "righteousness," and he rapidly expanded the concept of right doing to embrace international as well as national ethics. This was a generation of amazing personal piety and was characterized by a genuine aspiration among the more intelligent men and women to find God and to know him. In those days social position or wealth gave no Egyptian any advantage in the eyes of the law. The family life of Egypt did much to preserve and augment moral culture and was the inspiration of the later superb family life of the Jews in Palestine.

The fatal weakness of Ikhnaton's gospel was its greatest truth, the teaching that Aton was not only the creator of Egypt but also of the "whole world, man and beasts, and all the foreign lands, even Syria and Kush, besides this land of Egypt. He sets all in their place and provides all with their needs." These concepts of Deity were high and exalted, but they were not nationalistic. Such sentiments of internationality in religion failed to augment the morale of the Egyptian army on the battlefield, while they provided effective weapons for the priests to use against the young king and his new religion. He had a Deity concept far above that of the later Hebrews, but it was too advanced to serve the purposes of a nation builder.


Though the monotheistic ideal suffered with the passing of Ikhnaton, the idea of one God persisted in the minds of many groups. The son-in-law of Ikhnaton went along with the priests, back to the worship of the old gods, changing his name to Tutankhamen. The capital returned to Thebes, and the priests waxed fat upon the land, eventually gaining possession of one seventh of all Egypt; and presently one of this same order of priests made bold to seize the crown.

But the priests could not fully overcome the monotheistic wave. Increasingly they were compelled to combine and hyphenate their gods; more and more the family of gods contracted. Ikhnaton had associated the flaming disk of the heavens with the creator God, and this idea continued to flame up in the hearts of men, even of the priests, long after the young reformer had passed on. Never did the concept of monotheism die out of the hearts of men in Egypt and in the world. It persisted even to the arrival of the Creator Son of that same divine Father, the one God whom Ikhnaton had so zealously proclaimed for the worship of all Egypt.

The weakness of Ikhnaton's doctrine lay in the fact that he proposed such an advanced religion that only the educated Egyptians could fully comprehend his teachings. The rank and file of the agricultural laborers never really grasped his gospel and were, therefore, ready to return with the priests to the old-time worship of Isis and her consort Osiris, who was supposed to have been miraculously resurrected from a cruel death at the hands of Set, the god of darkness and evil.

The teaching of immortality for all men was too advanced for the Egyptians. Only kings and the rich were promised a resurrection; therefore did they so carefully embalm and preserve their bodies in tombs against the day of judgment. But the democracy of salvation and resurrection as taught by Ikhnaton eventually prevailed, even to the extent that the Egyptians later believed in the survival of dumb animals.


Although the effort of this Egyptian ruler to impose the worship of one God upon his people appeared to fail, it should be recorded that the repercussions of his work persisted for centuries both in Palestine and Greece, and that Egypt thus became the agent for transmitting the combined evolutionary culture of the Nile and the revelatory religion of the Euphrates to all of the subsequent peoples of the Occident.

The glory of this great era of moral development and spiritual growth in the Nile valley was rapidly passing at about the time the national life of the Hebrews was beginning, and consequent upon their sojourn in Egypt these Bedouins carried away much of these teachings and perpetuated many of Ikhnaton's doctrines in their racial religion.

http://urantiabook.org/newbook/ub/ppr095_5.html


Ikhnaton-  (Akhenaton)
Luxor Museum

(http://www.maat.com.au/2005/LuxorMuseum/image/luxmus16.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on April 03, 2007, 08:13:00 pm
(http://www.planetanimals.com/frank-egypt/akhenaten.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 19, 2007, 05:00:46 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/files/akh17.jpg)







                                                                    The Aten
 



 
During the reign of Akhenaten The Aten was installed as the principal god of Egypt, and the worship of the old gods was rejected. The Aten was not a new god but an obscure aspect of the sun god, worshipped as early as the Old Kingdom. "Aten" was the traditional name for the sun-disk itself and so the name of the god is often translated as "the Aten" (for example, in the coffin texts of the Middle Kingdom) the word "Aten" represents the sun disc, and in the 'Story of Sinuhe' (also from the Middle Kingdom) Amenemhat I is described as soaring into the sky and uniting with Aten, his creator. During the New Kingdom, the Aten was considered to be an aspect of the composite deity Ra-Amun-Horus. (Ra represented the daytime sun, Amun represented the sun in the underworld and Horus represented the sunrise). Akhenaten proclaimed "the Aten" (the visible sun itself) to be the sole deity, taking sun worship a stage further. Because of the naturalistic qualities of some of the art works of the time, some have suggested that his religion was based on the scientific observation that the sun's energy is the ultimate source of all life.

In its early stages Atenism is best described as a henotheistic religion (a religion devoted to a single god while accepting the existence of other gods) but it developed into a proto-monotheistic system. The full extent of his religious reforms were not apparent until the ninth year of his reign. As well as proclaiming the Aten the only god, he banned the use of idols with the exception of a rayed solar disc. He also made it clear that the image of the Aten only represented the god, but that the god transcended creation and so could not be fully understood or represented. This aspect of his faith bears a notable resemblance to the religion of Moses, prompting Freud to suggest that Akhenaten was the first Monotheist.

A number of hymns to the Aten were composed during Akhenaten's reign, some apparently by the king himself. They describe the wonders of nature and hail the sun as the absolute and universal lord of all things. In particular, the Hymn to the Aten (recorded in the tomb of Ay, the vizier Akhenaten who became pharaoh after Tutankhamun) has become famous as many commentators have argued that it closely echoes Psalm 104 which describes the wonders of nature and ascribes ultimate power to Yahweh, the Hebrew God. There is indeed a certain similarity in the type of language and the content matter, but those who argue the two texts are the same are perhaps exaggerating slightly.

The Aten was worshipped in the open sunlight, rather than in dark temple enclosures, as the old gods had been.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 20, 2007, 04:53:07 pm
(http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320Hist&Civ/slides/10akhen/akhenaten4worshipingaten.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 20, 2007, 04:57:44 pm



                                               H Y M N   T O   T H E   A T E N



(http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Nook/7916/AtenStela2.JPG)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 20, 2007, 05:02:01 pm
                                             





 " A T E N "    C A R T O U C H E




(http://www.mfa.org/egypt/amarna/akh_worship_b/akh_worship_b_images/akh_worship_b_page1_02.jpg)








" A T E N "   H I R O G L Y P H



                (http://www.infis.univ.trieste.it/AppuntiLinux/126.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 20, 2007, 05:31:48 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/AmarnaEra-NefertitAndAkhenatenWorshippingAten-ROM.png/800px-AmarnaEra-NefertitAndAkhenatenWorshippingAten-ROM.png)
A talat of Nefertiti worshipping the Aten, from the Ancient Egyptian wing of the Royal Ontario Museum.

TORONTO, CANADA










Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 24, 2007, 06:20:13 pm



(http://www.archaeology.org/online/reviews/jpegs/amarna1.jpg)




Amarna at Penn   
by Tracy Spurrier 

A new exhibition tells the story of the pharaoh Akhenaten and his attempt to transform ancient Egypt.

 This monumental quartzite wall relief depicts the solar deity Aten as a disk hovering above the pharaoh Akhenaten (ruled 1353-1336 B.C.) and a female member of the royal family. Some time after the restoration of the traditional religion, this relief was cut down, placed face down on the ground, re-inscribed, and reused, probably as a base for a statue in the shape of a sphinx for the later pharaoh Merenptah (ruled 1213-1204 B.C.). Ironically, this recycling unintentionally preserved the decorated front of the relief from complete destruction. (Courtesy University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology





Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 25, 2007, 07:16:51 am



(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/abimages/tribute.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 25, 2007, 07:44:03 am
(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/abimages/parenefer.JPG)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 25, 2007, 03:13:51 pm
(http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Akhenaton/images/p68.jpg)

Hand of Akhenaten making an offering to the Aten


Sandstone - H 0.235
From Ashmunein

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 07:40:43 am
FROM


AKHENATON AND THE RELIGION OF LIGHT

Erik Hornung - Translated by David Lorton




                                (http://idata.over-blog.com/0/26/76/26/soleil-lumia-re.jpg)



                                    T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D



THE NEW SOLAR THEOLOGY



The religious ideas with which Akhenaten grew up were those of the "New Solar
Theology," which Jan Assman, in particular, has investigated.  It is to be encountered
in hymns and rituals and in the Books of the Netherworld of Dynasty 18.

At its core is the daily course of the sun, which guarantees the continued existence
of the Cosmos. 

The Sun god renews his creation every morning, but he also descends nightly into
the netherworld, where his revivifying light wakes the dead to new life in the depth
of the earth.

The entire Cosmos is dependent upon light and the sight of the God, but this light
must be continually regenerated into the darkness; it must overcome dangers and
hostile forces whose most powerful embodiment is the enormous serpent Apopis.

These menacing forces are defeated, and the New Solar Theology reflects deep
trust in the reliability of the sun.  This god, whose visible cult image was the sun and
whom the Egyptians worshipped under several names, was the creator of the other
gods; he was thus the unique God of the Gods, hidden and inscrutable in his essence,
and therefore especially worshipped as Amun, whose name means "Hidden One."

The remoteness of the god is constantly stressed, though he was also immanent in
his rays.  The visible light on which all creation depended shone upon a world filled
with mythic concepts, which Akhenaten would eliminate in their entirety.

The Creator renewed his work each night in the depths of the netherworld, where he
effected his own regeneration and, at the same time, wakened the dead to new life.

Setting each evening, he had a share in the fate of death; in the course of the New
Kingdom, it became customary to view Osiris, god of the dead, as a form of the Sun
god, so that he ruled not only this world, but the next one as well.

Next to this potent luminary, the other divine powers ran the risk of fading into insigni-
ficance.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 07:48:30 am
     



                                                  A M E N O P H I S   I I I



(http://escapade67.free.fr/egypte/louxor/photos/louxor02.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 08:06:26 am
       (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/af/Aten.svg/769px-Aten.svg.png)


                                                                                                                  continued





                                      T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D




HIS FATHER'S POLICIES



It appears that Amenophis III tried to prevent this single god from gaining the
upper hand by stressing the multiplicity of deities in Egypt, especially in connec-
tion with his festival of renewal.

In addition to the series of Sekhmet statues, he commissioned a further series of
statues, on whose bases he was designated as "beloved" of a very great variety
of deities, among them less important and specifically local ones.

Similar epithets occur on an extensive series of large scarabs connecting the king
with numerous deities. 

There were definitely tendencies - and not only at the royal court - that ran counter
to the New Solar Theology and its elevation of a single god over the entire pantheon,
in a manner that was altogether too one-sided and, in that respect, un-Egyptian.

But the plurality of deities was not replaced in principle by this unique and distant sun
god, and they remained in exestence along with the Aten in the early years of Akhen-
aten.

From a modern, strictly logical point of view, it would take only one small step to turn
this unique god, this God of All Gods, into a single one who tolerated no other deity be-
sides himself.

Akhenaten in fact took this step, though only as the final consequence of his reflec-
tions concerning the divine and the gods.  First, however, he made a RELIGION (as
Jan Assmann observes) out of the New Solar Theology with which he had grown up.






Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 08:11:19 am




                               


                                 AMENOPHIS III'S   COMMEMORATIVE   SCARABS




(http://www.insects.org/ced2/amenophis.jpeg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 08:43:15 am




                                                    S E K H M E T

(http://www.egyptology.com/reeder/egyptart/portfolio/pharaonic/sekhmet.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 09:20:17 am


HIS FATHER'S POLICIES                                                                              continued



Politically, the reign of Amenophis III was a period of stability and peace.

Akhenaten's grandfather Tuthmosis IV, had laid the foundations for it by bringing
an end to the decades of military conflict between the two great powers of that
era.

 A M E N O P H I S    I I I  
(http://www.crystalinks.com/amenhotep2.jpg)

The other power was the kingdom of Mitanni, whose center lay in the border area bet-
ween Syria and Iraq, and whose struggles with Egypt concerned control over northern
Syria, which was a matter of exercising sovereignty over the princes there.

During the regn of Akhenaten, the Hittite kingdom in Anatolia would establish itself as
yet another great power and intervene in this area.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 09:49:29 am



HIS FATHER'S POLICIES                                                                                     CONTINUED



Amenophis III had led only two rather symbolic campaigns into Nubia, while he
maintained Egyp's power in western Asia solely through diplomacy, marriage
alliances and rich consignment of gold and other products. 

Egypt perceived itself as a world power and Pharaoh's court became as an in-
ternational center where ambassadors of all lands came and went, where goods
from Asia and Crete were prized and where even Asiatic deities such as Reshef,
Baal, Astarte and Qudshu were worshipped. 

The geographical horizons of the Egyptians now also encompassed the more im-
portant cities of the Aegean, as shown by a list of place-names from the king's
mortuary temple.

(http://www.fisae.org/origins4web/BM4web.jpg)

The prevailing atmosphere was one of openness to the outside world and recep-
tiveness toward other religions.  a scene in the fifth hour of the night in the Book
of Gates, which originated at this time, places even the "wretched" Asiatics,
Nubians and Libyans under the protection of Egyptian deities in the afterlife, just
as the Great Hymn of the Aten would stress the care of Akhenaten's god for
foreign peoples.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 10:05:45 am



HIS FATHER'S POLICIES                                                                                continued



Amenophis III was one of the greatest builders in the history of Egypt. 

Witness to this is borne especially by the temple of Luxor, by the double temple of
Soleb and Sedeinga in Nubia and by his mortuary temple on the west bank of Thebes;
the latter exceeded all its predecessors in size, but it was soon severely damaged by
an earthquake.  Where the monumental entrance to the temple once stood, now only
the two huge Colossi of Memnon (below), each more than 65feet in height and weigh-
ing 720tons, testify to the temple's original size, as well as to the king's tendency to
megalomania.


(http://www.coulouris.net/george-jean/Egypt2001/luxor2/Colossi%20Memnon-pp.JPG)



This latter stamped out not only his architecture and royal statuary, but other objects
as well; never had such large 'shawabtis' and scarabs been made.

The officials of the royal court followed the king in this tendency, as shown by the huge,
though uncompleted, tomb of the vizier Amenhotpe on the Asasif.

The tendency to the colossal was complemented by a turn to unusual building material.

In a dedicatory inscription at the temple of Montu in the Karnak complex, the king men-
tions precious materials such as gold, silver, lapis lazuli, jasper, turquoise, bronze and
copper, which he used in its construction and decoration, noting with pride the exact
weights of each.

He attempted thus to capture, quite literally, the "weight of this monument," as the capt-
ion to another list on the Third Pylon at Karnak puts it.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 11:52:19 am


                             T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D



THE ROYAL "SED" - FESTIVAL



There seems to have been a "sed"-festival for as long as there was a pharaoh.

Representations of the king running the festival's course or sitting enthroned in its
chapel occur on sealings from the beginning of the pharaonic period, c. 3000BC.
These were two of the festival's most important rites, and they would be depicted
again and again in later times.

The object of the festival was a renewal of the reigning monarch, whose power
had become depleted over time, thus endangering the continued existence of the
state.

Instead of killing him and replacing him with a new ruler, it was considered sufficient
to effect a symbolic burial of the 'old' king in the form of a statue and accord him the
opportunity to repeat his coronation and continue to reign as a 'new' king.

The ritual course he ran before all the deities of the land also symbolized the conti-
nued strength that qualified him for the renewal of his rulership.



(http://montgomery.cas.muohio.edu/nimissa/PICS3/PA240073.jpg)

                             Amenophis III's Sed Festival Temple



In the Middle and New Kingdoms, this festival of renewal was celebrated before the
end of the thirtieth year of rule and then repeated at briefer intervals of three or four
years; in the case of Ramesses II, with his extremely long reign of over 66 years, we
know of a dozen repetitions.

In Egypt, 30 years was a round number signifying a generation, though our sources do
not as yet permit a confirmation of this criterion for the Old Kingdom and the Late Period.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 12:22:41 pm


                                      T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D



THE ROYAL 'SED' FESTIVAL                                                                        continued

(http://www.compulink.co.uk/~archaeology/civilisation/egypt/zoser/heb-sed%20%20court.jpg)

ONE OF THE BIGGEST AND BEST PRESERVED 'SED' ECLOSURES - IN FRONT OF THE STEP PYRAMID



Amenophis III, though, affords us the most abundant attestation of an actual
sed-festival in the thirtiesth regnal year, for many dated inscriptions are pre-
served on vessels from his palace at el-Malqata, on the west bank of Thebes.

These were part of the deliveries of supplies for the king's sed-festival and its
repetitions.

Akhenaten, who ruled less than thirty years and evidently celebrated his festi-
val shortly after the beginning of his reign, is one of the few exceptions to the
usual rule; this unusual celebration might have been connected with the theo-
cracy of the Aten.  In any case, this does not seem to have been a fictitious
festival.





Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 12:41:14 pm


                                           T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D



THE ROYAL 'SED' FESTIVAL                                                                                         continued




DJA - RUKHA
   
Dja-rukha, the residential palace complex built by Amenhotep III early in his long reign is located at Malkata (Malqata) on the West Bank of the Nile River at Thebes. It was here that Akhenaten spent his youth and where he may have ruled as co-regent, where Amenhotep III celebrated his three jubilee sed-festivals and where his reign came to an end. Over three and a half thousand years later, Dja-rukha lies in ruins, its once beautifully decorated mudbrick buildings transformed into colourful rubble easily crushed underfoot.

Known in Amenhotep’s time as pr Haj or ‘House of Rejoicing’ and also as the Palace of the Dazzling Aten, Dja-rukha was the king’s permanent Theban base. Covering over 80 hectares, the complex included four palaces, accommodation for relatives of the king and their large retinues, accommodation for the vizier and other high-ranking officials, three audience halls, parade grounds, a temple of Amun, an administrative section (the West Villas), at least two village areas for palace workmen and other buildings. His mortuary temple, no longer in existence, lay about a mile south-west of the complex. Dja-rukha was used by Amenhotep on an intermittent basis until the king 'retired' there in regnal year 29 ten years before he died.
 
The residential palace was serviced by its own large artificial harbour now known as the Birket Habu, a 200,000 square metre harbour basin, built by Amenhotep to enable easy passage to Waset across the Nile. The artificial hills still in existence around the Birket Habu are evidence of the massive undertaking to create it. The harbour also formed the part of the setting for Amenhotep’s Sed-festival which was celebrated three times in his reign, the first of which marked his newly deified state as Aten Tjehen or the Dazzling Aten. The desert altar at Kom al-Samak, which was probably connected to the residential palace by a causeway, was integral to the king’s Sed-festivals.


(http://www.ancientworlds.net/aworlds_media/ibase_1/00/04/87/00048790_000.jpg)
                  RUINS OF AMENOPHIS III'S DJA-RUKHA PALACE

Dja-rukha’s location on the West Bank was probably a strategic one. Unlike other rulers who had taken up temporary residence in courts connected with Karnak when festive and sacred occasions required their attendance, Amenhotep went against established custom by building a permanent residence across the river. Its location may have signified a calculated move to distance himself from the interference in his affairs by the increasingly powerful sect of Amun.

Due to Amenhotep’s practice of marrying foreign princesses to consolidate Egypt’s relations with its neighbours, the court would have been a relatively cosmopolitan one. Wives of royal birth such as the Mitannian princesses Gilukhepa and Tadukhepa brought with them hundreds of attendants. In addition, artisans from the Aegean islands who left a lasting legacy in the new stylistic conventions evidenced in the palace’s elegant murals must have brought with them other cultural influences. Combined, these things may have contributed to a polyglot domestic environment that affected the nature of the court at Dja-rukha in many subtle ways.

Built of painted mudbrick with wooden columns and roof beams, with stone used sparingly for the flooring of baths, column bases and door sills, the palace featured plastered walls that, in some rooms, were painted with murals depicting plants, animals and decorative motifs, their naturalistic style suggesting a direct Minoan influence. Existing fragments of the brilliantly coloured decorative murals that once graced the walls and now-fallen ceilings of the palace still suggest its beauty and elegance. Spiral patterns, rosettes and other repeating motifs hint at the Egyptian love of pattern and order.

Known in Arabic as the ‘place of debris’, the Malkata site was relatively intact until 1888. Poorly handled excavations at that time and the removal of much material between 1910 and 1920 by New York’s Metropolitan Museum seriously impoverished the site. Further excavation occurred in the 1970s under the aegis of the University of Pennsylvania. From the mid 1980’s, a team from Waseda University in Japan re-excavated a number of the rooms including the Pharaoh's bedchamber in the main palace. Some sections of the site are still to be investigated. In time no doubt others will come to prise yet a little more information from the dust and the cracked mud remains.

 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 02:08:30 pm



RUNNING AT THE SED-FESTIVAL


(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sedfestival3.jpg)PHARAOH DJOSER



(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sedfestival2.jpg)QUEEN HATSHEPSUT


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 06:34:59 pm
   



                                                T H E   'S E D' - F E S T I V A L



RENEWAL OF THE KING'S RULE AND HEALTH

by Jimmy Dunn
 

One of the most important festivals related to kingship was the heb sed Festival, also frequently referred to as the royal jubilee or simply the Sed-festival. This significant celebration was a ritual during which the king's right to rule and his royal powers were renewed. There are many representations of this festival, which normally depicts the king running alongside the Apis bull in order to prove his fitness to rule.

A very ancient jackal-like god, who may have been an independent deity or, alternatively, related in some way to the jackal god Wepwawet, was closely related to kingship ideology, and the ancient Sed-festival. Sed was also associated with Ma'at in certain ways and may have been viewed as a champion of justice similar to Ma'at herself.

Usually, this festival officially occurred after the king had held the throne for thirty years, but there is evidence that suggests that some kings, including those with relatively short reigns, celebrated their jubilee earlier. There is some evidence that seems to indicate that the king could, upon failing health or for other reasons, alter the normal span between such festivals, particularly after the first jubilee. 

We really do not know the origin of the Sed-festival, though there is some evidence to suggest that it was held from the very beginning of Egypt's recorded history and probably took place even in Predynastic times. The oldest possible example of this Sed-festival is believed to have been found on the decoration of the ritual mace head of Narmer, which is taken by some to be an indication that this king ruled for at least 30 years. However, it is possible that the decoration on this mace head does not represent the Heb Sed at all. What is clear is that evidence form of a small ebony label once attached to a jar of oil from the tomb of King Den at Abydos, on which is depicted a tiny stick-man figure of the king running around a clearly defined course and carrying the heb sed insignia. To the left of the figure is a platform approached by a short flight of steps, on which a double shrine has been erected. The king is once again depicted in the shrine, sitting on a throne and wearing the Double Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.

(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/egyptimage/11_luxor_museumAmenhIII.jpg)

AMENOPHIS III


The ritual continued to be practiced throughout Egypt's pharaonic history. At Karnak there are blocks from the reconstructed Red Chapel that show queen Hatshepsut as king, running with the Apis bull between the markers. On the inner walls of the hypostyle hall in the Temple of Amun at Karnak, there are also scenes depicting Ramesses II in one of his Jubilees, and the ceremony is also shown in the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III at Thebes. However, this latter king seems to have somewhat altered the ritual and its usual setting . He celebrated three Sed-festivals (years 30, 34 and 37) and descriptions of he ceremonies say that they took place on the great artificial lake he built at Malkata. He seems to have filled his mortuary temple, which was still under construction, with numerous odd animal sculptures that have recently been suggested as forming part of a massive astronomical tableau. Apparently, he and statues of various deities sailed along in barges in order to symbolically recreate the voyage of the sun god through the underworld. However, this also reminds us of a limestone relief now in the Petrie Museum in London that depicts Senusret I celebrating his Sed-festival, holding an oar. An inscription on this artifact reads, "hastening by boat to Min, the god in the midst of the city".

Even during the reign of the 18th Dynasty heretic king, Amenhotep IV (later Akhenaten), the heb sed festival was depicted in the colonnaded court of the Temple of Aten at Karnak. However, in this instance, and perhaps not so surprisingly, his wife Nefertiti and even the royal daughters seem to have taken part in the ceremony. Remarkably, the Aten is also seen taking part in a Sed-festival of its own. Gods were usually seen to give Sed-festivals to the king and were never, outside of these depictions, shown taking part in the ritual themselves. Amenhotep IV seems to be pointing out that because the god is king, so the king is also god. In this instance, the king apparently celebrated the Jubilee very early in his reign, perhaps around year two or three, even before he made the move to his new capital at Akhetaten (Amarna).

The festival continued through the very end of the pharaonic period. This is confirmed by scenes from the Temple of Bastet at Bubastis, where the 22nd Dynasty king, Osorkon II, is sown seated in his heb sed kiosk, wearing the typical robe of for the ceremony. Lasting into the Greek Period, at Kom Ombo, carved reliefs show Ptolemy VIII receiving heb sed symbols from the god Horus. 

There is also evidence that the Sed-festival was thought to continue after the physical death of the king. In the Step Pyramid complex of King Djoser at Saqqara, there were provisions for this ceremony to be eternally re-enacted. Within the Great Court are markers that indicated the course the king would have to run. This course may have represented the frontiers of Egypt and symbolized the extent of the king's dominion. The figure of the running king can be seen in the low relief in the chambers below the Southern Tomb and beneath the pyramid. On a beautiful alabaster vase that was discovered in one of the chamber beneath the pyramid is carved a figure of a man with arms upraised, holding aloft a square object, perhaps a canopy, although Jean-Philippe Lauer suggests that it is a platform on which the double shrine and two thrones would have been set up. Decorating the handles of this vase or reliefs of the thrones of the Two Lands. The figures represents the hieroglyph for millions of years and the thrones are those used by the king at his Sed-festival.

(http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/art/ucarchive/uc14209.gif)

KING SOBKEMSAF IN THE 'SED'FESTIVAL SPECIAL GARMENTS

One of the best preserved cycles of scenes is preserved from the Sun temple of King Niuserre in Abu Ghurab. The reliefs from the temple are now in different collections, some in the Petrie Museum (see the link below the following pictures). However, while it is tempting to consolidate our understanding of this festival from combined sources such as this and others from all period in order to create a comprehensive explanation for this particular ritual, it is very likely that how it was conducted changed over time, and the nuances of its meaning probably did as well. Yet, several aspects seem to have characterized the Sed-festival more than any other. The typical clothing for the king is was a short cloak which reaches the knees and leaves the shoulders almost free. He sits on a special dais provided with two thrones for an appearance as King of Upper and Lower Egypt. The thrones are normally shown back to back, but this may be an artistic device for rendering a pair which were actually side by side.

More elaborate scenes, later than the Early Dynastic Period, give as the setting for this ceremony a series of shrines pictured as constructions of wood and matting. This form of shrine probably originated as a type of temporary building, and in this context represented another pair of dual symbols, with one design for Lower Egypt and the other for Upper Egypt. Sometimes they were specifically for the cobra-goddess Wadjit of the Delta town of Buto, and the vulture goddess Nekhbet of el-Kab, but they were for other deities as well. There was hence a gathering of provincial images of deities in a series of temporary shrines beside the double throne of the king.

In the open space between the two rows of shrines, the king, attired alternately in the insignia of Upper and Lower Egypt, ran a ritual race around a course which was called "the field". The king would round the boundaries of the field four times as the ruler of Upper Egypt and four times as the ruler of Lower Egypt.

Other ceremonies also took place during the Sed festival, such as the act of homage to the king by the "Great Ones of Upper and Lower Egypt". This festival was also an occasion for the issue of commemorative objects, including stone vases bearing the king's titulature.
 

(http://www.bible-history.com/ancient_art/images/25b.jpg)


PANEL FROM THE 'SED'-FESTIVAL CHAIR OF TUTHMOSIS IV


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on May 27, 2007, 06:42:01 pm


Bianca,

did you notice the heads on the 3 babies in this picture you posted?

(http://i76.photobucket.com/albums/j14/biopact/Aten.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 07:01:20 pm



Majeston;

Oh, yes - I certainly have.  And a lot of more others, in pictures, etchings, statues

and mummies.  I have been compiling a future thread in my head about these skulls.......


Funny, I started this thread quite a while ago and nothing really happened.  Then,

in the last two weeks, it has gone from barely 200 to well over 600 'reads', so I kind of felt

"duty-bound" to continue it, especially now that (thanks to Elric's patience) I am

better "equipped" to do it justice.


It's also a "labour of love".........


Love and Peace,
B


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 27, 2007, 08:26:08 pm



                                     T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D



THE ROYAL SED FESTIVAL                                                                     continued


In many cases, mention of a sed-festival does not constitute evidence for an act-
ual celebration.  Every pharaoh hoped to complete 30 years of rule and to be re-
generated in a sed-festival, often articulating this wish in formulaic expressions from
the very beginning of his reign; real celebrations of the festival cannot be inferred
from such statements.

Kings especially counted on continuing their festivals of renewal after their deaths -
thus, for example, the young Tutankhamun was wished "millions of years and hund-
reds of thousands of sed-festivals" - and inscriptions containing such wishes were
often carved on buildings dedicated to their continued existence.



(http://www.luxor.gov.eg/english/Tomb%20Artist/m1.jpg)



FRESCO OF AMENOPHIS III' S SED-FESTIVAL



Pharaoh wore a special vestment during most of the ceremonies of the festival, a
mantle-like garment that also distinguished statues prepared for the sed-festival
from other statues.  Akhenaten affords the earliest example of a god who was also
able to celebrate a sed-festiva; later Osiris, in particular, was included in its sybol-
ism, for the desired regeneration played a special role in his case.

Otherwise, however, the festival was a renewal of rulership, a purely royal festival.

Officials participated as supernumeraries, but they could celebrate no sed-festivals
of their own.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 07:53:25 am




                                         T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D



THE FESTIVAL OF THE ELDER KING



In spite of everything, Amenophis III was not an "enlightened" and irreligious monarch;
rather, he was deeply rooted in traditional piety.

His last decade was characterized by multiple celebrations of the great royal festival of
renewal, the "sed"-festival, which was supposed to revive and ritually renew the waning
powers of a king after 30 years of rule; it was then repeated at briefer intervals of three
years each.

Since he ruled a full 38 years, Amenophis III was able to celebrate two repetitions before
his death.  All three celebrations took place in his palace at el-Malqata on the West bank
of Thebes, and they are richly attested through deliveries that arrived there in inscribed
and, often, dated jars. Japanese excavations have even uncovered a podium for a throne,
whose 30 steps stand for the 30 years that had gone by; representations from all periods
show that, at the midpoint of the festival, Pharaoh sat enthroned on such a podium, thus
repeating his coronation.

While a specific deification of the king was connected with the festival, every pharaoh was
already divine.

In the New Kingdom, this divinity was viewed above all as solar; the king not only was the
SON OF RE, but was himself the SUN, lighting the world and playing the role of the Sun God
on earth through his deeds.

Quite like Ramesses II at a later date, Amenohis III went a step further and had statues
erected in which he was revered as a god - specifically, the SUN GOD - during his lifetime;
thus, there exist cult scenes in which the king is portrayed praying or making offerings to
his own image!



   
(http://studentsoftheworld.free.fr/infopays/photos/EGY/orig/Temple_Amon_Ra.jpg)

    TEMPLE OF AMUN-RA BUILT BY AMENOPHIS III


Amenophis fell back on ancient models for the celebration of his festival, but he took special
care to raise it to new splendor.  The ritual rejuvenation of rulership it was supposed to
effect is documented by statues from the end of his reign which depict him with pronoun-
cedly youthful features.

He called himself the Dazzling Sun, while at his side his chief wife, Teye, played the role of
Hathor, the companion of the sun god who stood for all aspects of regeneration.

The important role played by the royal family in the late years of Amenophis III calls to mind
the prominence it would have in the Amarna Period, though the relaxed intimacy of the
scenes from the latter period are missing from the art of Amenophis.

It is striking, though, that the later "Heretic King", who became the successor to the throne,
upon the premature death of his older brother Tuthmosis, played no prominent role; he is
mentioned only once, on a delivery for the 'sed'-festival of his father.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 08:35:25 am



(http://web.ukonline.co.uk/gavin.egypt/images/scribe23.jpg)

                                        QUEEN TIYE


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 08:41:13 am
 



                                            P R I N C E S S   S I T A M U N



(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/egyptimage/sitamen2.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 08:51:01 am
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/files/akh17.jpg)

                                    A M E N O P H I S   I V   -   A K H E N A T O N





Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 09:42:53 am



                                           T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D



THE SEARCH FOR NEW INTERMEDIARIES



The times were filled with a quest for a new closeness to the divine and for new inter-
mediaries between the human and the divine realms

This is clear in the prominence of animal worship, the evidence for which increases
under Amenophis III.

The burials of the Apis bulls in the crypts at Saqqara began with him, and the croco-
dile sanctuary at el-Rizeiqat, south of Luxor, stems from his reign.

There are also numerous monumental representations of animals, such as the baboons
of Hermopolis and the scarab at Karnak, and there is also the sarcophagus for a cat
dedicated by the crown prince Tutmosis.



SOBEK - CROCODILE GOD PICTURED WITH AMENOPHIS III


(http://www.crystalinks.com/sobek2.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 10:27:35 am



"The Apis Bull", wrote Herodotus, "is the calf of a cow which is never able after to have another. The Egyptians believe that a flash of lightning strikes the cow from heaven, and thus causes her to conceive the Apis. It has distinctive marks. It is black, with a white diamond on its forehead, the image of an eagle on its back, two white hairs on its tail and a scarab-beetle mark under its tongue".



(http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/images/glos/apis.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 10:37:19 am




(http://egyptologist.org/discus/messages/11/6499.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 10:48:07 am



                         A M E N O P H I S   III - C O M M E M O R A T I V E   S C A R A B S


(http://www.insects.org/ced2/amenophis.jpeg)



Everything suggests that these are not popular trends now making their appear-
ance at the official level, but rather that they represent an express policy of the
royal court.

Later, Akhenaten would deliberately steer a different course, just as he would
counteract the tendency to the colossal.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 01:07:22 pm




                                T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D




THE SEARCH FOR NEW INTERMEDIARIES                                                      continued



The renewal that the sed-festival was supposed to effect was urgently needed,
for the king was evdently seriously ill in his later years.

This was known abroad, and his son-in-law Tushratta, the king of Mitanni, sent
him a healing statue of the goddess Ishtar as a means to recovery.



(http://altreligion.about.com/library/graphics/ishtar5.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 01:14:46 pm

                                  T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D



THE SEARCH FOR NEW INTERMEDIARIES                                                     continued


(http://www.aztriad.com/godess7.jpg)


But the aged king set greater store by the Egyptian Sakhmet, the dangerous
lion-headed goddess who was able to dispense illness as well as its cure.



(http://www.crystalinks.com/egyptsekhmet.jpg)



He had an apparent total of 730 statues of the goddess set up in various temples
at Thebes - a litany in stone, in which the mighty goddess was invoked in all her
names and cultic forms, to protect the king every day and every night of the year.


(http://www.theplatelady.com/egyptian/isis-horus-5078.jpg)
He died before the third repetition of his 'sed'-festival and his son, Amenophis IV,
began his rule.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 01:32:52 pm


                        A K H E N A T E N   A N D  T H E   R E L I G I O N   O F   L I G H T



THE FIRST STEPS



(http://khemet.online.fr/monuments/temples/img/karnak3.jpg)



...........There, at Karnak, arose the new king's first sanctuary. 

It was not dedicated, however, to the actual lord of the temple complex, Amun-Re,
King of the Gods, but to the sun god.

The latter was still represented with a falcon's head in the traditional manner, but in
addition to Re-Harakhty, he was also called ATEN, a designation that had previously
indicated the physical manifestation of the sun and only now enjoyed divine worship.

Early inscriptions of the new king in the sandstone quarries of Gebel el-Silsila, where
the blocks for Karnak were extracted, are concerned with the great construction pro-
ject for Re-Harakhty-Aten. 

There, the king still appears before Amun-Re in the traditional manner, even though
his building project was intended for Re-Harakhty.





Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 02:11:20 pm




THE FIRST STEPS                                                                                              continued




(http://www.galen-frysinger.ws/egypt/karnak59.jpg)



              K A R N A K - R U I N S   O F  T H E   T E M P L E   O F   A M E N O P H I S   I V


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 02:27:11 pm


(http://www.resurrectisis.org/IsisAmC2_files/Hwingcanopy.jpg)
THE FIRST STEPS                                                                                    continued



Though the king is designated as the one "whom Amun-Re chose from among millions"
on a scarab in the BritishMuseum, his reign clearly betrays, from its very beginning,
a bias against this heretofore preeminent god.

And while Egyptian kings normally endeavored to effectuate a comprehensive program
for their reigns, immediately upon ascending the throne, showing themselves to be
creator gods by means of construction works and military campaigns, repelling enemies
and "lighting" the world with their monuments, in the case of Akhenaten, we note curious-
ly little activity aside from his building project at Karnak.

One senses that he was expending all his energy on the formulation of his "teaching,"
his attempt to remodel the world.





Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 04:31:49 pm




                           A K H E N A T E N   A N D   T H E   R E L I G I O N   OF   L I G H T





(http://www.hotcakencyclopedia.com/Artifacts/image.Aten.jpeg)



THE ORIGIN OF A GOD


For the first time in history, we have a close-up view of how a deity originated.

It is as though the Aten suddenly emerged from the traditional form of the sun god
and then, quickly, shed the last vestiges of his origin.

At the beginning, he conformed to the traditional mixed form of a man with the
falcon's head of the solar deity  Re-Harkhty.

The falcon-headed god was at first still used as a hieroglyph in the throne name
of the king, and we can see that, in general, the king preferred the falcon as a
tutelary power.

From an altar to the sun at Karnak stems the first known representation of Pharaoh
in the company of the solar baboons and the animal-headed powers of Buto and
Hierakonpolis!

Later, however, the thriomorphic aspect of deities was discredited; only the uraeus
and the falcon continued to be tolerated, while the king remained a bull in his titu-
lary (every pharaoh of the New Kingdom was "a mighty bull" in his Horus name).
The ever-more dogmatic name of the god, which was enclosed in two cartouches,
clearly followed the model of the royal titulary, which also entailed two cartouches.

By the late Middle Kingdom, certain divine names could be highlited by placing them
in a cartouche, and in the New Kingdom, Amun-Ra was styled "king of the gods," but
until this time there had never been such a rigorous systematization of the royalty
of a god.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 09:00:02 pm



THE ORIGIN OF A GOD                                                                            continued



Nefertiti's religious role surpassed that of Teye with Amenophis III.  In group statues
she appears striding at the king's right, which was highly unusual for a queen.

She assisted the king in all his cultic activities, even the smiting of enemies and she,
herself, was even depicted in this triumphal pose.



(http://www.nilemuse.com/wings3.GIF)(http://www.ac-orleans-tours.fr/lettres/coin_prof/LOUVREDU/activ/Image16.gif)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 09:15:25 pm




                                             A K H E N A T E N   A S   A   S P H I N X



(http://www.thymos.com/monument/museums/boston75.jpg)



The Sphinx is an incarnation of Ra-Harakhty, the god of the rising sun.  It was an
appropriate image to use by Atenists.  Akhenaten was frequently depicted as a
Sphinx worshipping the Aten


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 09:43:34 pm








                    T A L A T A T   B L O C K S   F R O M   T H E   T E M P L E   A T   K A R N A K   


(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/egyptimage/03_luxor_talatat.jpg)



Akhenaten built several structures at Karnak (when he was still known as Amenhotep IV). The structures there include the Gempaaten which is a palace complex. It is believed that the royal family lived at the Gempaaten during the winter months (according to Aldred). A temple called the Rud-menu was erected (full name:Rud-menu-en-aten-er-neheh which means 'Enduring in monuments of Aten for eternity') . One of the structures within the Gempaaten complex is the Hut-benben ('Mansion of the Benben'). Aldred mentions that the Mansion of the Benben was a temple exclusively devoted to Nefertiti. Yet another structure was named the Teni-mehu (full name Teni-menu-en-aten-er-nehehwhich means 'Exalted is the monument of Aten for eternity')

 The remnants of these temples were found as filler in the 9th Pylon. The evidence shows that Horemheb broke down the temple of Aten at Karnak and useD the stones - called talatats - as filler. Horemheb may not have dismantled the entire complex. Some of the structures may have remained until the time of Ramses II.

 (http://www.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/dept/ant/egypt/collectionhistory/E.GA.2300.1943(2).jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 10:38:50 pm



(http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/2803/proto-religion/wing-disk.jpg)

At the outset of the reign relatively large blocks were used in the Sun Temple of
Re-Harakhty, but later the new sanctuaries of the Aten were erected from small,
easily carried sandstone blocks, called TALATAT ("three"-blocks) in the scholarly
literature, because they are one handbreadth in height and two in width.

Isolated blocks were already visible in the vicinity of the temples at Karnak and
Luxor in the nineteenth century, but since the beginning of the twentieth ex-
tensive restoration efforts by French and Egyptian Egyptologists have recovered
such 'taltat' by the tens of thousands from a great variety of structural elements.

(http://images.google.com/url?q=http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/images/RPM/_100/4572.jpg&usg=AFrqEzfNjWfsBurWFa9KfAwMi9KhkaJUuw)

A SMALL PIECE OF 'TALATAT' WITH THE 'ATEN' CLEARLY VISIBLE

Besides the temple complex of Karnak, the temples of Luxor, Tod, Nag el-Madamud
and Armant have yielded up still more blocks.  Together with those still in the Tenth
Pylon at Karnak, we must reckon with more than fifty thousand decorated blocks
that once constituted whole temple walls: a gigantic jigsaw puzzle to be reconstruct-
ed into scenes of the cult!

There was an early attempt to do this by computer, but the results were rather
disappointing.

Since 1965, when Ray Smith took on the project, only a small selection has been
published, and these are marked by dubious combinations and reconstructions.

Still, work on the blocks has brought to light a host of iconographic treasures that
enrich our knowledge of the early years of Akhenaten.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 11:00:24 pm




(http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/images/sized/16.48_240-l.jpg)



Akhenaten elevated the spoken language of the New Kingdom, which we call
Late Egyptian, into a new written language.

It was supposed to replace Middle Egyptian, which had developed at the end
of the Old Kingdom.

This reform outlasted Akhenaten, and a rich Late Egyptian Literature developed
soon after his reign, though Middle Egyptian remained the language of religious
texts and official royal inscriptions


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 28, 2007, 11:07:30 pm


THE FIRST STEPS                                                                                    continued



                                O N C E   A G A I N,   T H E   S E D    F E S T I V A L



On these blocks, an important role is played by the Sed-Festival that Akhenaten
celebrated together with his god Aten.

We have already mentioned this festival of royal renewal in connection with its
celebration by Amenophis III.  But, while the father endeavoured to gather all the
deities of the land for this festival and to perform its ceremonies in front of shrines
containing various divine images, his son strode from one shrine to another, each
containing only the Aten, depicted as the sun disk with its rays.  Along with tradi-
tional motifs like the dances for Hathor, there are novel and unusual scenes; one
depicts the king with a hammer in his hand.                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Therepresentation of the festival cannot itself attest to its celebration, for the
Egyptians always created reality through pictures alone.  Even Akhenaten had
himself and Nefertiti represented as felling enemies without having undertaken a
military campaign.

Yet, there is reason to think that Akhenaten inaugurated the royal status of his
god Aten with the celebration of a SED-festival.  Whether he celebrated his own
thirtieth birthday at the same time, as some have supposed, remains highly un-
certain.

(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sedfestival5.jpg)
             FAIENCE AMULET FROM AKHENATEN'S 'SED'-FESTIVAL

Though the king planned "millions" of sed-festivals in the text of the earlier bound-
ary stelae of his new capital and obliged himself to celebrate them there and no-
where else, he evidently did not celebrate any festival of renewal at Akhetaten;
at the least, there is no evidence for one.

An actual SED-Festival should have left traces in a great number of inscriptions
preserved on vessels.  Instead, there is only a single wish for the celebration of
sed-festivals, carved on a door-frame from the house of the officer Nekhuenpaaten.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2007, 04:36:12 pm



                         A K H E N A T E N   A N D   T H E   R E L I G I O N   O F   L I G H T




THE GROTESQUE PHARAOH



The reliefs carved on the 'talatat' and the colossal statues in the Gempaaten temple
are the earliest evidence for the realization of an entirely new artistic style on Akh-
enaten's part.

Heinrich Schaafer described the impression it makes on modern beholders in the follow-
ing words in 1931:  "Anyone who steps in front of certain of these representations for
the first time, recoils from this epitome of physical repulsiveness.......

(http://spanky.gmp.usyd.edu.au/hols/05-egyptian_museum/pic3-2-14.jpg)

His head seems to float atop his long, thin neck.  His chest is sunken, yet there is some-
thing feminine about its form.

Below his bloated paunch and his fat thighs, his skinny calves are a match for his spin-
dly arms.  His face is deeply lined, and he has a sharply receding forehead and a weak
chin."




Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2007, 05:00:02 pm




THE GROTESQUE PHARAOH                                                                        continued



Champollion had already employed the Italian term MORBIDEZZA (softness).

According to Alfred Wiedemann, these representations of the king "in a frightfully,
ugly form, with distorted features and a pendulous belly, are a complete caricature."

Walther Wolf invoked "sick ugliness and nervous decadence" in reference to the
colossal statues at Karnak, and many others have echoed this theme of caricature.

Naturally enough, modern writers have assumed that the contemporaries of the king
shared the horror that Schafer conjures up, and many have felt that Akhetaten want-
ed to shock, setting his repulsive ugliness in deliberate contrast to the beauty of tra-
ditional art. 

(http://)(http://www.egyptarchive.co.uk/images/cairo_museum/33_akhenaten_large.jpg)

We shall not enter into a stylistic analysis of Amarna art here, but rather lay stress on
some criteria that can yield, over and above his artistic taste, an insight into the over-
all mentality of this reformer.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2007, 08:27:11 pm



THE GROTESQUE PHARAOH                                                                      continued



The repose to which we are accustomed in Egyptian sculpture is here set aside
in a manner that can even be called frightful; movement, expression, emotion,
and disregard for reality are now the rule.

The essence of this art, which was at first designated despairingly as merely "ugly"
or even "sick," can be understood by comparing it with schools of modern art that
deal freely with the human form.

As early as 1926, Schafer called Amarna art "expressionistic," as did Alexander Scharff,
and it is doubtless more apt to employ this designation than to speak of "realism," on
the assumption that Akhenaten actually looked like his depictions.

This art is a manneristic distortion of reality, a rebellion against the classical ideal of
beauty established earlier in Dynasty 18.

(http://www.planetanimals.com/frank-egypt/akhenaten.jpg)

Everything that had been static, fixed in place for eternity, is now set in motion.  Vert-
ical axes become diagonal, stressed by receding foreheads and elongated crowns.   The
countours of the human figure swell and recede, creating the rhythmic play of the over-
ly swollen thighs and the scrawny, "chicken-like" calves (as Thomas Mann called them),
and even the chin and lips are swollen.

We also encounter new motion in the king's meeting the rays beamind down from the
solar disk.  And, finally, movement characterizes the playful, caressing intimacy of the
royal family, which is depicted in lively group scenes, and the fluttering bands of cloth
that dangle from clothes, crowns and articles of furniture.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2007, 09:14:32 pm
THE GROTESQUE PHARAOH                                                                   continued



Akhenaten introduced the chariot drawn by a pair of horses as a means of
expressing this new motion and he might well have intended it to imitate the
swift course of his god across the sky.

(http://www.crystalinks.com/amenhotep2stele.jpg)

In no other period did Egyptian art contain so many representations of char-
iots, and no longer just in battle or the hunt, but as the means of rapid trans-
portation evidently employed by the king on a regular basis.

(http://www.nilemuse.com/nefertiti/pics/amarna.jpg)

Only in the temple did he still tread respectfully.

An ecstasy of speed pervades the chariot scenes.  On one of the blocks from
Hermopolis, a team of horses races into an enormous open space; nothing
halts their rapid movement, and one of the horses turns its head, resulting in a
rare frontal view.

(http://web-owls.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/05/Egyptian_Museum_Tut_s_chariot.jpg)
TUTANKHAMEN'S GOLDEN CHARIOT

This movement also characterizes the representations of PROSKYNESIS so pop-
ular at this time; like the faithful praying in a mosque, whole rows of officials bow
down to the ground in prayerful adoration of the king, just as Akhenaten is, from
time to time, depicted lying outstretched on the ground before his god.


(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/egyptimage/prostrateakhenaten.jpg)


   The upper part of the stela from Hermopolis depicts the royal family on their knees
beneath the radiant Aten while, in the lower part, they are lying flat on the ground
"kissing the earth", as the Egyptians put it.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 29, 2007, 11:13:20 pm


NO FEAR OF EMOTION



Along with movement, there is emotion: the obligatory kissing, embracing and
caressing among the royal family, the mourning of the royal couple at the bier
of their daughter Meketaten, Nefertiti as a nursing mother and all the scenes of
intimacy that occur only in the art of Amarna.

All these are intended to depict how the love that emanated from the Aten de-
termined the togetherness of his creatures, as exemplified in Pharaoh's imme-
diate surroundings.  And with that, any inhibitions against depicting and empha-
sizing emotion has vanished.

(http://www.sofiatopia.org/maat/iaten4.jpg)

'HOLDING HANDS' -fragment of Akhenaten and Nefertiti Statue



A breath of previously unknown freedom seems to blow through this art and one has
the feeling that the artists must have done their work free of all former conventions.

But this is only one aspect, which was complemented by a strong commitment to the
principles, newly established by Akhenaten, as obligatory.

Even the "expressionism" of this art does not signify freedom, but rather represents
a binding obligation. 

It is constantly stressed in the texts that the king himself established the guidelines
for artistic production.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 30, 2007, 09:48:43 am


NO FEAR OF EMOTION                                                                               continued


Akhenaten did not shy from questioning even the basic principles of Egyptian
art.  His artists tried their hand at bold turns and frontal views, and on the re-
constructed temple wall in the Luxor Museum, it can be seen how even the
convention of scale was no longer binding; in the two lower registers the king,
making offerings in the temple, is depicted as smaller in size than the men walk-
ing to the temple behind him, carrying offerings and cult implements!

(http://www.maat.com.au/photogalleries/thebestombs/image/nobles2.2.jpg)

This entails the annulment of a strict rule that had determined pictorial composi-
tion since the beginnings of Egyptian art: the size of the individuals represented,
whether deities, humans,or animals, did not depend on the accident of their
appearance, but on their relative importance within the scene.

Akhenaten's artists otherwise adhered to this principle, especially representing the
Royal Family.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 30, 2007, 04:15:03 pm



ONLY ONE GOD



Aten's coexistence with the other deities lasted for only a short time.

The traditional divine multipicity was still fully present at the king's 'sed'-festival,
for their temples and domains were obliged to contribute to the financing of the
great festival and the new construction projects; the exclusivity of the Aten was
thus at first only a relative one - like many an Egyptian deity, he was UNIQUE, but
not EXCLUSIVE.

But in the representations, only the radiant Aten appears in the divine chapels of
the 'sed'-festival, while in a highly fragmentary inscription from the Ninth Pylon,
which reproduces a speech by the king, the new god is emphatically contrasted to
the other deities.

(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/abimages/parenefer.jpg)

REPRODUCTION OF THE MURAL IN THE TOMB OF PARENNEFER AT THEBES

In the Theban tomb of Parennefer ( who was still "overseer of the prophets of all
the gods'!) a text stresses that "one measures the payments to every (other) god

(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/abimages/ayereward-lt_1.jpg)

REPRODUCTION OF THE MURAL IN THE TOMB OF PARENNEFER AT THEBES

with a level measure, but for the Aten one measures so that it overflows" - this in
contrast to the warning in the popular "Story of the Eloquent Peasant" not to fill to
overflowing, or not to overdo Maat, as the sage Ptahhotpe had quite similarly advised.

(http://www.stencilkingdom.com/images/designs/egypt46_large.gif)

In the future, the Aten with his rays would be the only permissible icon of the god.  The
mixed form of a human body and an animal's head would vanish, and only the hands ema-
nating from the sun would serve as a reminder of his former human form.

At an early stage, these hands could still hold any sort of objects; thus, in smiting scenes,
they even held weapons that they extended to Pharaoh!

In connection with the 'sed'-festival, they held the hieroglyph designating this festival by
way of a wish for many repetitions of it.  But in the final form of the "radiant Aten" only
the ANKH sign, the hieroglyph for "life", remained, extended to the noses of the king and
the queen. 

The rays depicted in the art are mentioned again and again in the hymns to the "Aten", as
a token of the proximity of this "distant" god.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 30, 2007, 04:59:41 pm




AKHENATEN'S "PERESTROIKA"



From the third to the fifth year of his reign, Akhenaten carried out a "perestroika"
that affected every area of life and which cannot be compared to any phase in
Egyptian history.

The vast extent of the reorganization was unique - religion, art, language and lite-
rature were affected, and surely also the administration and the economy, for a
little later the temples of the traditional deities would be closed and their priests dis-
missed from state sevice or "reindoctrinated."

But there was no persecution at this time though, in year 4, the high priest of Amun
was sent literally "into the desert" on a quarrying expedition.

Only a few weeks before the founding of the new Residence, the administrator Ipi re-
ported to the king from Memphis that all was in order in the temple of Ptah and that
all the deities were receiving their prescribed offerings.


(http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/egypt/photos/amarna/tombs/pt/chariot.jpg)

INSIDE ONE OF THE TOMBS AT AMARNA


Though his measures were considered and gradual, there was certainly opposition.  In the
text of his boundary stelae, the king himself speaks of "bad things" he had heard in his
fourth and preceding regnal years, though without identifying the opposition by name; in
the highly damaged continuation of the text, he seems to be precluding future opposition.

Indicative is the military presence that we encounter already on the Theban TALATAT and
then later in the rock-cut tombs at Amarna.  Scurrying soldiers, predominantly a guard of
Asiatics and blacks, surround the king and prevent any resistance.

Indeed, Akhenaten was the only founder of a religion to have all the instruments of state
power at his disposal, and we should assume that he employed them ruthlessly to realize
his ideas.

Only underground opposition was possible, and "lamentations" gave expression to a wide-
spread sentiment among the common people and the former elite.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 30, 2007, 05:05:47 pm




AKHENATEN'S "PERESTROIKA"                                                             continued



It cannot be said how widespread approval of the new reorganization was, but
it probably was not crucial for the reformer's further course.

His next step brought a new royal titulary, from which were removed not only
the name of the hated Amun, but also references to his locales of Thebes and
Karnak; in his new NEBTY name, Karnak was replaced by the newly founded Re-
sidence of Akhetaten.

(http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/egypt/photos/amarna/tombs/pt/chariot01.jpg)

INSIDE OF ONE OF THE TOMBS AT AMARNA


Akhenaten could keep his former throne name NEFERKHEPRURE, just as he remained
"the sole one of Re" (WAENRE), but he changed his personal name Amenophis into
the name by which the world today knows him, and which in Egyptian sounded some-
thing like AKHANYATI - "He who is useful to Aten," or perhaps "Radiance of Aten";
the rendering "Soul of Aten" is less suitable because AKH actually denotes only the
soul of a deceased person, while Akhenaten's formulation "I am your son who is use-
ful to you and elevates your name" speaks in favour of the meaning "to be useful".

The exact nuance of the name escapes us, and in this volume we employ the con-
ventional form Akhenaten, rather than the more accurate Akhanyati - the precise
vocalization of ancient Egyptian is problematic, since the hieroglyphic writing system
did not indicate the vowels.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 30, 2007, 05:42:59 pm
(http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/5164CTBGM6L._SS500_.jpg)









                      " T H E   B E A U T I F U L   C H I L D   O F   T H E   L I V I N G   A T E N "



The traditional titles of Pharaoh remained unaltered, but the king was often pleased to style himself
"The Beautiful Child Of The Living Aten"; representations of the king as a child were popular at this
time and also served as amulets, replacements for the proscribed divine amulets of prior times.  The
Aten, Akhenaten's god, did not change his own royal titulary until some years later.

The assumption of the new titulary coincided with the solemn foundation of a new Residence; both
occurred in the fifth regnal year.  Akhenaten finally decided no longer to adorn Thebes with temples
for his new god Aten, and he sought out a place where he would not be hampered by monuments
constructed in the traditional style or dedicated to the traditional  deities.  He found this place in a
remote locale in Middle Egypt, where he would not be obliged to destroy anything but could simply
build.

In moving the Royal Residence, he could find a precedent in Amenemhet I, who inaugurated Dyna-
sty 12 in the 20th century BC and abandoned Thebes to found a new Residence just over 37 miles
south of Cairo, near the modern town of el-Lisht.  But this was done solely for political reasons, not
religious ones, whereas here the move was above all a religiously motivated HEGIRA on the part of
the religious reformer, one that did not take him to any of the old centers, but to this remote locale.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 30, 2007, 09:10:23 pm
(http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/religion/pictures/sun.jpg)


FROM

AKHENATEN AND THE RELIGION OF LIGHT

Erik Hornung
Translated by David Lorton                                                                      continued



                                                    A   N E W   R E L I G I O N




NO DIVINE REVELATION


Akhenaten left no holy scripture, so what he founded does not belong to the
religions of the book.  And a "Word of God" is altogether inconceivable in this
new religion, for the newly promulgated god remained silent.  The Aten himself                                                did not speak; rather, his preacher Akhenaten spoke about him.  We must thus
rely on evidence stemming from the inscriptions of the king and his officials.

The inscriptions frequently mention a "teaching" or "instruction" of Akhenaten's,
which he placed in the hearts of his subjects.  To be sure, the Egyptian word
used for it, SEBAYT, also designates the wisdom literature handed down in writ-
ing from as early as the late Old Kingdom, but in the Amarna Period it seems, in
fact, to be exclusively a matter of a teaching and instruction imparted orally by
the king; nowhere is there a trace of religious tractates.

For a monarch of the New Kingdom, it is astonishing how little Akhenaten has
left to us in writing; the boundary stelae of his new Residence with their two
different texts, the "Great Hymn to the Aten," which has been ascribed to him,
probably correctly, -  though it is recorded in the tomb of Aya - and a victory
stela in distant Nubia, which was undoubtedly erected in the king's name by his
viceroy there, are a few inscriptions from the beginning of his reign and further
hymns.  Thus, for written sources regarding Akhenate's religion, we can only con-
sult certain illuminating passages from the tomb inscriptions of his officials.

It speaks to the clarity and simplicity of this religion that such meager sources
nevertheless yield a general picture, allowing us to gain some familiarity with its
essential characteristics.  But there is also pictorial evidence: representations of
the god Aten and the royal family and lavish depictions of architecture and other
motifs in the tombs and palaces.

Akhenaten endeavoured to promulgate his teachings through menmonic images,
especially the sun disk with its rays, but also scenes of his family.  These motifs
were stipulated and obligatory, leaving the artists little latitude, but the abundan-
ce of new pictorial motifs must have aroused a feeling that anything could be ex-
ressed figuratively.  This continued to have an effect long after Akhenaten; an
unprecedented wealth of religious images was developed during the Ramesside
Period and later, in Dynasty 21.

New was the compulsory nature of the pictures and the divine names of the Amar-
na Period.  Previously, a considerable freedom prevailed in the designation of
deities with names and epithets in a cult scene; it was even a principle to seek a
lively variety, with as little repetition as possible.  There was also leeway in the
representation of deities and the constellations into which they were inserted. In-
deed, each divinity had a multiplicity of names, forms of manifestation and constella-
tions to be taken into account.  But now there was only ONE fixed name and ONE
fixed image of the Aten; all variation was excluded, and even his epithets were re-
duced to a few stereotypes.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 30, 2007, 09:27:24 pm




                                    G O D   A S   P H A R O A H



We have already indicated the rigor with which the royal status of the god was
now promulgated.  Aten ruled the world as king, he had a royal titulary and wore
the royal uraeus, and he even celebrated royal festival of renewal.  Just as offi-
cials often placed the name of their king on their statues, so now statues of the
royal couple bore the cartouches of their king and god.  And his univeral rule was
indicated pictorially by the many hands of the god, to which everything was access-
ible.  After earlier, tentative attempts to provide the sun disk with hands, the
perfected, brilliantly simple image of radiant Aten was developed in a single, bold
step.  But the decided, plastic bulge the disk often displays should not lead us to
interpret it as a solar orb.

(http://www.crystalinks.com/akhnatonsphinx.jpg)

The Aten was actually not the sun disk, but rather the LIGHT that is in the sun and
which, radiating from it, calls the world to life and keeps it alive.  Heinrich Brugsch
already emphasized that Aten was a god of light, and Jan Assmannhas managed a
fresh distillation of this view.  Indeed, from early times, the sun with its rays had ser-
ved in the writing system as a hieroglyph in writing words meaning "to shine" and the
like.

In contrast to the rich mythic frameworks in which Egyptian deities had otherwise been
embedded, the Aten remained free of such connections and constellations.  In fact, it
was said of him only that he ever and again created the world and maintains it in life;
but there was no longer an interest in the original creation of the world - Aten, "who
built himself with his own hands,"creates the world continually.

The nightly journey through the netherworld and the defeat of Apopis, the enemy of the
sun, were now gone; there is even no mention of the barque of the god, the vehicle of
the sun's course.  In Egypt, with its innumerable waterways, all deities traveled by boat!


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 30, 2007, 09:30:17 pm


                                P H A R A O H   A S   G O D



Aten (or Re-Harakhty) was the god of Akhenaten, but the personal god of the indi-
vidual was the king - as Assmann has put it, "He was the god who set out on pro-
cession, who performed signs and wonders, and who intervened in the destiny of the
individual, holding life and death in his hands."  The officials at Akhenaten's court cul-
tivated the topos of total dependence, in which themes from the "loyalist instructions"
of the Middle Kingdom were continued and expanded.  The king was appealed to as
the dispenser of all sustenance and the epithets of a creator god were heaped on
him; the mayor of the new capital conjured up the formula "Neferkheprure brings into
being" as a new name for himself.

This position vis-a-vis humankind was not simply the traditional role of a pharaoh; ra-
ther it had its origin in the status of Ahenaten as the beloved son of the Aten.  Pre-
viously Pharaoh had considered himself to be the "son of Re", thus stressing his divine
origin.
(http://www.bibleorigins.net/files/mvc_110s.jpg)
But Akhenaten was the son of his god in a much more personal manner, and in this lay
the seed of the failure of his teaching, for it stood and fell along with his own person.

For Egyptian theologians there also arose the question of the HOMOOUSIA of father and
son.

In the eighth scene of the Book of Gates, a new description of the Netherworld that ori-
ginated in the Amarna Period (before and after Akhenaten), Atum expresses his total uni-
ty with Re with the formulation "I am the son who emerged from his father, I am the
father who emerged from his son", at the same time alluding, in context, to the father-son
relationship of Osiris and Horus.
(http://www.bibleorigins.net/files/throneportableakhenaten.jpg)
While Aten was not just a national deity, but rather illuminated the entire world as the uni-
versal sun god, Akhenaten always remained pharaoh of Egypt and never became a prophet
for all humankind. 

On a purely superficial level,this is shown by his titulary.  Akhenaten was "lord of the Two
Lands", that is , Egypt, while the Aten was lord of the worldd, expressed concretely as
"Sky and Earth".

Personal piety at this time consisted exclusively in loyalty to the king, which meant to Akhe-
naten as a person; no other intermediary was conceivable.  We have already made the refe-
rence to the excessive appeals made by his officials; veritable hymns were sung to him, as
by Pabehsy:



"Praise to you, oh my god, who built me,
who determined good for me,
who made me come into being and gave me bread,
who cared for me with his KA!

....................................................................

I give praise to the height of the heavens,
I adore the lord of the Two Lands, Akhenaten:
god of fate, giver of life, lord of command,
light of every land,
on whose gaze one lives.
Nile of humankind,
on whose KA one is sated.
God who creates the great ones and builds
       the poor ones,
breath for every nose, by which one breathes!"



Akhenaten is constantly designated the Nile of Egypt, embodying the annual inunda-
tion and all the beneficence of nature and he is also called "mother who bears all, he
nourishes millions with his food," just as prior to Akhenaten, in the hymn of Suti and
Hor, the sun god Re was designated "mother of humans and deities," while he would
later often be called "mother and father."


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on May 31, 2007, 03:09:31 pm


The Female Element:      N E F E R T I T I


(http://z.about.com/d/womenshistory/1/7/k/I/nefertiti_400.jpg)

Akhenaten and his god thus partly accounted for the female sphere, but the third party in
the alliance was Nefertiti, whose importance was already noted above.  This importance was
not of a political but of a purely religious nature and thus had a different stress than in the
case of Teye, Akhenaten's mother.

Nefertiti shared in the rulership without being formally a coregent.  She was Akhenaten's per-
sonal goddess, and she, along with him and the Aten, comprised a divine trinity, like those
which so often occur in the pantheon of the New Kingdom.

The constellation that shines through here is that of Atum, the single god at the beginning of
creation and the pair Shu and Tefenet who emerged from him.

This is quite clear at the beginning of the reign when, for exampe, some of the colossal statues
of Akhenaten wear the four -feathered crown of Shu.  Later, the indications became more re-
condite, as when the royal couple "elevate" the names of the Aten.

(http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Akhenaton/images/p67.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: +Faith+ on June 01, 2007, 10:04:31 pm
What a marvelous thread you have made here, Bianca, excellent choice in pictures.

Akhenaton has long been a favorite of mine.  I believe he was divinely inspired and that he, too, found the message of the one true God, but that his people at the time, the Egyptians, weren't ready to hear it.

+Faith+


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 02, 2007, 08:19:20 am

Hi, Faith:

It's really nice to "meet" you personally.  Thank you for the appreciative remarks.  I am
especially fond of Akhenaten myself.  I do think that he was ahead of his time.  Not only
were the Egyptians not ready for his "message", but I think he had been too imbued in
the "role" of Pharaoh that it caused HIM to lose the message.

Love and Peace,
B


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 02, 2007, 08:20:13 am



(http://www.crystalinks.com/saqqaratomb.jpg)
ANCIENT TOMB DISCOVERED IN SAQQARA


February 12, 2001 - Cairo - Reuters

A tomb dating back to the reign of New Kingdom Pharaoh Amenhotep IV in the 14th century BC has been discovered in the Giza suburb of Sakkara, an antiquities official said on Sunday.

``This is a unique discovery because it is the first time we have uncovered a tomb in Sakkara from the reign of Akhenaton, who had his capital at Akhetaton (now called Tel al-Amarna) in Upper Egypt,'' Adel Hussein, director of Sakkara at the Supreme Antiquities Council, told Reuters.

The tomb once occupied by the high priest Meryneith, whose name means ``the beloved of Neith (goddess of war and hunting),'' was discovered by a Dutch-Egyptian archaeological mission on January 31 during excavation of New Kingdom tombs at Sakkara.

The excavation work, which is still under way, has so far uncovered two store rooms in the east of the tomb, three small chapels in the west, wall reliefs that include depictions of funeral rituals, five columns with hieroglyphic inscriptions and a burial chamber, Hussein noted.

``No mummies have yet been uncovered, but we have come across bones. There is a good chance we will find a mummy once excavation work on the burial chamber is complete,'' he added.

Hussein sees the discovery as an addition to our knowledge of the reign of Amenhotep IV and Sakkara, which was used as a site for pyramids and tombs from the first Pharaonic dynasties.

In his quest to unify Egypt in the worship of a single deity, Aton -- a form of the sun-god Ra --, the 18th dynasty ruler Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaton, meaning ``it pleases Aton,'' and built a new capital in Amarna dedicated to Aton and called it ``Akhetaton'' (the Horizon of Aton).

Akhenaton, a religious hard-liner who provoked the wrath of the powerful Amun priesthood, among others, for his reforms, is said by some scholars to have been the world's first monotheist. He ruled from 1353-36 BC.

Saqqara
Akhenaten


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 02, 2007, 08:30:33 am
(http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/saqqara/images/Excavation/Team/Raven_250(2).jpg)
February 10 - 16, 2007
 
Finally, finally we are allowed to tell you what you wanted to hear: the name of the tomb-owner of the new funerary monument we discovered this season! The Egyptians have now sent out a press release and therefore it is okay for us to talk about it. The news has already been published in all Egyptian newspapers and has been shown on the Egyptian television. This is because it is a really nice find: another tomb dating to the time of Akhenaten!
 
As you'll remember, in 2001 we found the first tomb dating to that period: the tomb of Meryneith. In 2003 we found the rear wall of the new tomb we are now excavating, and we already hoped it would be contemporary. This assumption has proved to be right. The tomb belongs to Ptahemwia, who was 'royal butler, clean of hands'. There are few inscriptions, but we already know there is a door jamb of this man in the Cairo Museum and a pilaster in Bologna. Otherwise, he was unknown from previous finds. The date is suggested by the characteristic style of the wall reliefs. I shall now describe the tomb in some detail.The tomb is built in mudbrick and measures 10.5 m wide by 16 m long. It consists of a massive entrance wall with gateway (perhaps originally shaped as a pylon), followed by a peristyle courtyard, and three chapels for the offering cult. Courtyard and central chapel have preserved a large part of the original limestone floor and wall revetment, and these wall panels again have beautiful coloured reliefs. Unfortunately, these have been robbed away for the left-hand part of the tomb, and only the northern part of the east wall, the north wall of the courtyard, and the north half of the central chapel have preserved a large part of the original relief slabs.
 
Those on the east wall are unfinished and show a lot of sketches in red ink which have never been carved. Can it be that the tomb-owner fell from grace because of his name (which means 'the god Ptah sits in his bark')? As you'll remember, Akhenaten banned most of the Egyptian gods and only wished to worship the sun god Aten. Meryneith faced the same problem and even had to change his name into Meryre, but there is no sign that Ptahemwia did something similar. Perhaps he just died untimely, and that is why the tomb is unfinished.
 
The best scenes occur on the north wall of the courtyard. On the right we see a landscape with farmers ploughing their fields. The adjacent scene shows Ptahemwia arriving at his house (depicted as a rectangle with a gabled roof), in which his wife is waiting for him. She is called the 'songstress of Amun' Maia, and a servant is pouring her a drink while she is waiting. But her husband is not ready yet: he is addressing a number of minor officials, while his charioteer, sandal-bearer and Nubian bodyguards stand at attention. Meanwhile, other servants come running to the open door of the house to greet their master, followed by some female musicians. Further to the left is a scene of the opening of the mouth ceremony and offerings in front of the seated couple. Under the chair of the wife there are two monkeys, depicted in a very vivid way while eating fruit.

The vivid style full of unique details (such as the posture of the deceased, who turns his head back to look at the officials), the characteristic elongated skulls and bulging stomachs, and the peculiar style of sunk relief (always a favourite of Akhenaten) point to a date in the Amarna period, and presumably in its early years. This would make the tomb contemporaneous with that of Meryneith. We have been very fortunate again!
 
Yesterday (Thursday 15th) we paid off our workmen: the work is done and we need two more weeks to study and record the finds. Our photographer Anneke is leaving coming Tuesday, so we have to organise everything for her. In the meantime, our artist Dorothea has almost finished drawing the large reliefs, thanks to the good weather we are enjoying. If this continues, we shall be able to finish our job this year. We already look forward to excavate the tomb shaft in 2008, although we already can see it has been entered in the 19th century.
 

(http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/saqqara/images/Friends/Digging_Diary_2007/058%20relief%20O-wall.jpg)

MAIA, TUTANKHAMUN'S NURSE


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 02, 2007, 09:21:16 am




                                            A K H E N A T E N   E R A  T O M B S


                                                            S A Q Q A R A




The New Kingdom Tombs from Saqqara


Compiled by Anneke Bart




Memphis (Mennefer) has always been an important city in Ancient Egypt. The necropolis at Saqqara dates back to early dynastic times. In recent decades many areas of the necropolis have been excavated yielding many new insights into the history of Egypt.

At the presents Saqqara is being investigated by many different teams.

•     The University of Leiden: lead by M. Raven and R van Walsem are excavating New Kingdom tombs located to the south of the pyramid of Unas and to the east of the step pyramid of Sekhemkhet.
•     The French archeologists from the Institute Francais d'Archeologie Orientale (IFAO), lead by A. Zivie, are excavating Old Kingdom tombs to the north-east of the Leiden team. They are also active at the Bubasteion. This team has also discovered some New Kingdom tombs.
•     The Scottish team of the Saqqara Geophysical Survey Project are excavating in the northern part of the necropolis. Under the direction of I. Matthieson, they have discovered an ancient Egyptian city which housed the workmen who built the pyramids at Saqqara.
•     The Japanesse mission from the University of Waseda and Tokai are excavating a New Kingdom necropolis at Dashur, which is part of the greater Saqqara area.


Below is a list of New Kingdom tombs. Some of the tombs have been located and excavated, while others are known to exist because objects or reliefs from the tomb have been found. The tombs are listed alphabetically.




List of Tombs from the 18th Dynasty


Alphabetically


Aperel (Aperia),      Time of Amenhotep III and Akhenaten.
Vizier, General of the Chariotry, and God's Father. Discovered in 1987 by the French under supervision of A. Zivie. The tomb is  designated at I.1 and is located  in the cliffs of the Bubasteion  (a sanctuary dedicated to Bastet).
Taweret, Aperia's wife,  may have been an important lady as  well considering the fact that she is the only New Kingdom woman to have been buried in a set of three coffins.  Their son Huy was buried in year 10 of Akhenaten or even later.
Wife: Taweret;Son: Huy (General); Also mentioned in the tomb are Aperel’s sons Seny and Hatiay.

Maia, ******Time of Akhenaten and Tutankhamen
Royal nurse of Tutankhamen. Discovered in 1996. Buried in tomb I.20 in the cliffs of the Bubasteion.


Meryneith (Meryre),         Time of Akhenaten
greatest of seers of the Aten', 'steward of the temple of Aten', 'scribe of the temple of Aten in Akhet-aten (and) in Memphis', and 'first prophet of the temple of Neith'
Found by the expedition in 2001 Father: Kawt, Wife: Anuia
http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/saqqara/Excavation/Tombs/Meryneith/Meryneith.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on June 02, 2007, 10:42:48 am

  I am
especially fond of Akhenaten myself.  I do think that he was ahead of his time.  Not only
were the Egyptians not ready for his "message", but I think he had been too imbued in
the "role" of Faraoh that it caused HIM to lose the message.

Love and Peace,
B


Bianca,

I don't get that impression,  why do you think that?

Remember this post?   This is how the "celestial beings"  who look back at the evolution of our spiritual history view the whole thing.




.

 Since the disappearance of Melchizedek in the flesh, no human being up to that time had possessed such an amazingly clear concept of the revealed religion of Salem as Ikhnaton. In some respects this young Egyptian king is one of the most remarkable persons in human history. During this time of increasing spiritual depression in Mesopotamia, he kept alive the doctrine of El Elyon, the One God, in Egypt, thus maintaining the philosophic monotheistic channel which was vital to the religious background of the then future bestowal of Michael. And it was in recognition of this exploit, among other reasons, that the child Jesus was taken to Egypt, where some of the spiritual successors of Ikhnaton saw him and to some extent understood certain phases of his divine mission.


Never in all history did any king so methodically proceed to swing a whole nation from polytheism to monotheism as did this extraordinary Ikhnaton. With the most amazing determination this young ruler broke with the past, changed his name, abandoned his capital, built an entirely new city, and created a new art and literature for a whole people. But he went too fast; he built too much, more than could stand when he had gone. Again, he failed to provide for the material stability and prosperity of his people, all of which reacted unfavorably against his religious teachings when the subsequent floods of adversity and oppression swept over the Egyptians.

Had this man of amazingly clear vision and extraordinary singleness of purpose had the political sagacity of Moses, he would have changed the whole history of the evolution of religion and the revelation of truth in the Occidental world. During his lifetime he was able to curb the activities of the priests, whom he generally discredited, but they maintained their cults in secret and sprang into action as soon as the young king passed from power; and they were not slow to connect all of Egypt's subsequent troubles with the establishment of monotheism during his reign.

Very wisely Ikhnaton sought to establish monotheism under the guise of the sun-god. This decision to approach the worship of the Universal Father by absorbing all gods into the worship of the sun was due to the counsel of the Salemite physician.  Ikhnaton took the generalized doctrines of the then existent Aton faith regarding the fatherhood and motherhood of Deity and created a religion which recognized an intimate worshipful relation between man and God.

Ikhnaton was wise enough to maintain the outward worship of Aton, the sun-god, while he led his associates in the disguised worship of the One God, creator of Aton and supreme Father of all. This young teacher-king was a prolific writer, being author of the exposition entitled "The One God," a book of thirty-one chapters, which the priests, when returned to power, utterly destroyed. Ikhnaton also wrote one hundred and thirty-seven hymns, twelve of which are now preserved in the Old Testament Book of Psalms, credited to Hebrew authorship.


The supreme word of Ikhnaton's religion in daily life was "righteousness," and he rapidly expanded the concept of right doing to embrace international as well as national ethics. This was a generation of amazing personal piety and was characterized by a genuine aspiration among the more intelligent men and women to find God and to know him. In those days social position or wealth gave no Egyptian any advantage in the eyes of the law. The family life of Egypt did much to preserve and augment moral culture and was the inspiration of the later superb family life of the Jews in Palestine.

The fatal weakness of Ikhnaton's gospel was its greatest truth, the teaching that Aton was not only the creator of Egypt but also of the "whole world, man and beasts, and all the foreign lands, even Syria and Kush, besides this land of Egypt. He sets all in their place and provides all with their needs." These concepts of Deity were high and exalted, but they were not nationalistic. Such sentiments of internationality in religion failed to augment the morale of the Egyptian army on the battlefield, while they provided effective weapons for the priests to use against the young king and his new religion. He had a Deity concept far above that of the later Hebrews, but it was too advanced to serve the purposes of a nation builder.


Though the monotheistic ideal suffered with the passing of Ikhnaton, the idea of one God persisted in the minds of many groups. The son-in-law of Ikhnaton went along with the priests, back to the worship of the old gods, changing his name to Tutankhamen.   The capital returned to Thebes, and the priests waxed fat upon the land, eventually gaining possession of one seventh of all Egypt; and presently one of this same order of priests made bold to seize the crown.

But the priests could not fully overcome the monotheistic wave. Increasingly they were compelled to combine and hyphenate their gods; more and more the family of gods contracted. Ikhnaton had associated the flaming disk of the heavens with the creator God, and this idea continued to flame up in the hearts of men, even of the priests, long after the young reformer had passed on. Never did the concept of monotheism die out of the hearts of men in Egypt and in the world. It persisted even to the arrival of the Creator Son of that same divine Father, the one God whom Ikhnaton had so zealously proclaimed for the worship of all Egypt.

The weakness of Ikhnaton's doctrine lay in the fact that he proposed such an advanced religion that only the educated Egyptians could fully comprehend his teachings. The rank and file of the agricultural laborers never really grasped his gospel and were, therefore, ready to return with the priests to the old-time worship of Isis and her consort Osiris, who was supposed to have been miraculously resurrected from a cruel death at the hands of Set, the god of darkness and evil.

The teaching of immortality for all men was too advanced for the Egyptians. Only kings and the rich were promised a resurrection; therefore did they so carefully embalm and preserve their bodies in tombs against the day of judgment. But the democracy of salvation and resurrection as taught by Ikhnaton eventually prevailed, even to the extent that the Egyptians later believed in the survival of dumb animals.


Although the effort of this Egyptian ruler to impose the worship of one God upon his people appeared to fail, it should be recorded that the repercussions of his work persisted for centuries both in Palestine and Greece, and that Egypt thus became the agent for transmitting the combined evolutionary culture of the Nile and the revelatory religion of the Euphrates to all of the subsequent peoples of the Occident.

The glory of this great era of moral development and spiritual growth in the Nile valley was rapidly passing at about the time the national life of the Hebrews was beginning, and consequent upon their sojourn in Egypt these Bedouins carried away much of these teachings and perpetuated many of Ikhnaton's doctrines in their racial religion.

http://urantiabook.org/newbook/ub/ppr095_5.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on June 02, 2007, 03:12:33 pm
Hi Bianca,

It appears that Egypt does not know who the father of boy King Tut (Tutankhamen) was.

Many believe Akhenaten (Ikhnaton) was his father.  The Urantia papers

reveal that Tut was his son-in-law.

"The son-in-law of Ikhnaton went along with the priests, back to the worship of the old gods, changing his name to Tutankhamen. "

Should we tell Zawi Hawas ? 

 ;D
               

       


       
       
               
Egypt Feature Story

               

Who Was King Tut

               

by Jimmy Dunn

       

       

Who  exactly was King Tut,  known during his early life as Tutankhuaten (or Tutankhaten), reflecting his Amarna  roots, and later as Tutankhamun, reflecting the return to Egypt's traditional  religion? Despite the richness of his burial, King Tutankhamun remains somewhat  of an enigmatic figure, even though he has been the subject of much  investigation. Presumably, he was born in Akhetaten (modern  el-Amarna), during the latter half of the reign of Akhenaten, the Heretic king  who attempted to establish a radical departure from traditional Egyptian  religion. We believe that he died in his late teens, judging from various  analyses of his mummy.

Although his royal lineage has sometimes been questioned, an inscription  unearthed at el-Ahsmunein across the river from el-Amarna confirms that  Tutankhuaten (as he was known at that time) was indeed the son of a king. Not  surprisingly, official policy during the boy's reign  seems to have been to  stress his association with Amenhotep III,  who we actually presume to be his grandfather. Given the absence of a long  co-regency between Amenhotep III and Amenhotep  IV (later Akhenaten), it probably must be that Tutankhamun was  the son of the latter.



Though it seems that Akhenaten  must have been King Tut's father, much less evidence exists as to his mother.  However, a degree of informed speculation is possible. For example, we can  probably eliminate Nefertiti, since she appears to have provided her husband, Akhenaten, with  no sons. Of course, she was not his only wife. Among the king's secondary wives  and concubines, one in particular stands out. She is lady Kiya, identified by  some with the Mitannian princess Tadukhepa, daughter of Tushratta, sent to Egypt  to cement treaty relations between the two countries at the start of the reign.



Kiya is peculiarly prominent in the sculptural record at el-Amarna and  her special position in the king's favor is reflected in her unique title,  "Greatly Beloved Wife". In a number of Amarna reliefs, Kiya is shown in the  company of a daughter. Many believe that she might have also borne a son.  Chronological considerations by no means rule out the possibility. There are  indications that Kiya was a favorite of the Amarna court prior to years nine and  ten of Akhenaten's reign, but  after year eleven, about the time of Tutankhamun's  birth, she disappears from the the record and her monuments at el-Amarna were  appropriated by Nefertiti's daughter, Meritaten. One possible explanation is that Kiya died  in childbirth, as a fragmentary mourning scene in Akhenaten's tomb perhaps  suggests.



However, it is equally possible that Kiya fell from grace, the victim of  court intrigue engineered by the jealous Nefertiti.  Indeed, it may be no coincidence that the meteoric rise in the status of  Nefertiti seems to have begun in earnest only after Kiya's disappearance.



Irregardless of his mother's identity, Tutankhamun came  to the throne in about 1333 BC, then a young child still burdened with the name,  Tutankhaten. He married Ankhesenpaaten, the somewhat older third daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, a  match perhaps made to unite opposing royal factions. He would rule Egypt  for only nine or so years, though there can be little doubt that for most of  this time, the reigns of the government were firmly in the hands of others, such  as Ay, his  successor and perhaps a relative of the king, and General Horemheb, who would  succeed Ay to the throne.



Hard  facts related to Tutankhamun's reign are few, but it is clear that the principal event of his  reign related to the reestablishment of the traditional Egyptian religion, as  well as the relocation of the Capital back to Memphis and the  reestablishment of the country's religious center at Thebes. When  the royal couple abandoned the "aten" forms of their name during year two of the  king's reign, it signaled the formal resurgence of Amun, away  from the worship of Aten, and the traditional pantheon. Promulgated by a decree at Memphis and  recorded in the retrospectively dated "Restoration  Stela", this one event marks the reign as pivotal to the subsequent course  of Egyptian History.



Hence, while it is frequently said that Tutankhamun was a  relatively insignificant king (we too have been guilty of this), despite the  wealth of his tomb, his reign was not. Whether the changes that were brought  about were his, Ay's  or Horemheb's, his was a very  important time in the history of Egypt.




Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 02, 2007, 08:16:21 pm
Majeston:

Akhenaten's "problems":

1. Advocating a GLOBAL BELIEF, then moving to a remote area, 100 or
    more miles away from where the bulk of the Egyptians were.  Only with
    those who believed like himself (most of whom did it for gain - check
    tomb inscriptions and murals).
 
    Any New Movement of any kind is NOT promulgated by 'going into exile'.


2.  The Egyptian belief that transition to the afterlife was only for the
     Elite.  And that it could ONLY be accomplished through Pharaoh, which
     isolated Akhenaten even more and further convinced him of his own
     divinity (Pharaonic 'hubris').


3.  His obsession with the "New Religion" caused him to ignore the
     SPREADING of it.  It lasted such a short time, that it was easy for
     his successors to almost totally erase his memory and that of the
     Aten for 2000 years and more.


      I am not going to discuss here what I think resulted from his beliefs and how they
were consequently distorted.



AS FOR TUTANKHAMUN:

He was only a little boy when he rose to the throne.  I can't believe anybody would expect
HIM to carry on where Akhenaten left off.  I do not think Akhenaten left any instructions,
save for his hymns, which do not help in power struggles.

I do believe that he was Akhenaten's son, perhaps by another wife.  For personal reasons, I
have researched Tutankhamun more than Akhenaten.  Even today, tracking down material
on his WetNurse MAYA - whose tomb has recently been found at Saqqara -  (See:Lion Skeleton
Story), everywhere I find statements that Akhenaten referred to him as "from my own loins",
(paraphrasing),  just like he did to his daughters by Nefertiti.

Of course he was also Akhanaten's son-in-law, he married his daughter Ankhesenpaaten, did he
not?  He reverted to the Pharaonic custom of marrying sister/half sister, as one could only
legitimately inherit the throne through the FEMALE line!

And, as for Tutankhamun not believing in the Aten, try to picture some of the items found in
his tomb, like:


(http://thinkertoy.com/ancient/Ttegypt10.jpg)
FRONT OF CHAIR/THRONE

(http://homepage.ntlworld.com/g.parkincotterill/Tupics/Throne%20Back.jpg)
BACK OF CHAIR/THRONE - NOTE THE 'ATEN' DISKS

B


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: +Faith+ on June 03, 2007, 12:40:14 am

Hi, Faith:

It's really nice to "meet" you personally.  Thank you for the appreciative remarks.  I am
especially fond of Akhenaten myself.  I do think that he was ahead of his time.  Not only
were the Egyptians not ready for his "message", but I think he had been too imbued in
the "role" of Pharaoh that it caused HIM to lose the message.

Love and Peace,
B

Hi Bianca,

It's nice to meet you, too. You have done a lot of nice work in the forum, and I didn't know anyone else shared my interest in Alhenaton.

You think lost his message.  Yes, it caused some resentment, but what makes you say that he himself was lost?

God Bless,

+Faith+


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: +Faith+ on June 03, 2007, 12:42:42 am
(http://thinkertoy.com/ancient/Ttegypt10.jpg)

Wonderful picture of Tut's throne!  I had no idea that he worshipped the Aton. Perhaps the religion lasted longer than Egyptologists give it credit for currently.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 03, 2007, 06:20:31 am




Hi, Faith:

See my answer to Majeston above, especially point #3. 

Love and Peace,
B


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 03, 2007, 04:41:10 pm


(http://www.victoria-adventure.org/water_gardening/history/tutankhamun.jpg)

TUTANKHAMUN



[img(http://])http://cdn.channel.aol.com/aolnews_photos/01/00/20050511134909990006[/img]

CT SCAN OF TUTANKHAMUN'S SKULL


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 03, 2007, 04:45:44 pm

(http://www.biped.info/images/longhead8.jpg)


ONE OF AKHENATEN'S DAUGHTERS


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 03, 2007, 04:48:13 pm




(http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~rgrosser/amarna/neywetaten/daughters.jpg)

TWO OF AKHANATEN'S DAUGHTERS


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 03, 2007, 04:50:32 pm


MAJESTON:

LOOK AT THE THREE PICTURES ABOVE.  TUTANKHAMUN STILL NOT A BLOOD RELATIVE OF

AKHENATEN............?

Bianca


PS - D., make sure you read the next post also.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 03, 2007, 05:09:18 pm

(http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/images/amarna_wetnurse.gif)



http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/images/amarna_wetnurse.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/amarna_04.shtml&h=190&w=200&sz=7&hl=en&start=30&tbnid=am-szV6dZQH-PM:&tbnh=99&tbnw=104&prev=/images%3Fq%3DAKHENATEN%2BDAUGHTERS%26start%3D20%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN

   
The End of the Amarna Period
By Dr Marc Gabolde

 TUTANKHAMUN PARENTAGE

A line drawing showing a small child in the arms of a wet-nurse Until recently, it was thought that the six daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti were the couple's only offspring. However, in one chamber of the Royal Tomb, just outside the room devoted to the funeral vigil for Akhenaten's second daughter, Meketaten, a small child is depicted in the arms of a wet-nurse.

'So we must be dealing with a seventh child of Nefertiti.'
It has long been believed that Meketaten died in childbirth and that this infant was hers. However, she was only about nine years old at the time of her death and her sarcophagus proves that she was scarcely taller than one metre.

What remains of the inscription referring to the child reads:

'(1) [...] born of (2) [...] Neferneferua[ten] Nefertiti, who lives now and forever more'
((1) and (2) indicate two columns; [...] indicates missing text.)

Given the length of the missing parts of the inscription and the similarity in composition to the titles given to other royal offspring at Amarna it is clear that we are dealing with a child of Nefertiti. And given that by the time of the birth of this child, we know that the six daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti were already born and that, moreover, three of them were dead, the baby is necessarily different from any of the known princesses. So we must be dealing with a seventh child of Nefertiti.

The most likely candidate is Tutankhamun, known during this period as Tutankhaten. Indeed, a block, now split in two, from the nearby site of Hermopolis still bears the insignia of the prince Tutankhaten accompanied by that of a princess whose name, unfortunately, is missing.

'...it is probable that Akhenaten and Nefertiti were the parents of Tutankhamun.'
Another block at Hermopolis confirms that Tutankhaten had at least one sister and probably two. On this block, a prince, identifiable by his loincloth, can be seen sitting on an adult's lap, together with traces of the figures of two other children. It was a rule in the official monuments of Amarna, that Nefertiti's children should never be shown alongside those of any other wife of Akhenaten. As Nefertiti is the only one of his wives known to have had more than one child, it is probable that Akhenaten and Nefertiti were the parents of Tutankhamun.


Published: 2002-09-05
Tutankhamun
Timeline of Ancient Egypt
BBC Links
BBC News - Country Profile of Egypt


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on June 04, 2007, 01:28:41 am


MAJESTON:

LOOK AT THE THREE PICTURES ABOVE.  TUTANKHAMUN STILL NOT A BLOOD RELATIVE OF

AKHENATEN............?

Bianca


PS - D., make sure you read the next post also.


Don't believe it and don't trust it dear,

"son-in-law"


.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: sevens on June 04, 2007, 03:46:27 am
Hi I was reading about the thought adjuster

This inst about Iknanten  but it about his Father Amenhotep111

Here is an excerpt out of the Urantia Book

Just checkout the Bold

http://mercy.urantia.org/papers/paper111.html

Quote
In the conception of the atman the Hindu teachers really approximated an appreciation of the nature and presence of the Adjuster, but they failed to distinguish the copresence of the evolving and potentially immortal soul. The Chinese, however, recognized two aspects of a human being, the yang and the yin, the soul and the spirit. The Egyptians and many African tribes also believed in two factors, the ka and the ba; the soul was not usually believed to be pre-existent, only the spirit.

The inhabitants of the Nile valley believed that each favored individual had bestowed upon him at birth, or soon thereafter, a protecting spirit which they called the ka. They taught that this guardian spirit remained with the mortal subject throughout life and passed before him into the future estate. On the walls of a temple at Luxor, where is depicted the birth of Amenhotep III, the little prince is pictured on the arm of the Nile god, and near him is another child, in appearance identical with the prince, which is a symbol of that entity which the Egyptians called the ka. This sculpture was completed in the fifteenth century before Christ.

The ka was thought to be a superior spirit genius which desired to guide the associated mortal soul into the better paths of temporal living but more especially to influence the fortunes of the human subject in the hereafter. When an Egyptian of this period died, it was expected that his ka would be waiting for him on the other side of the Great River. At first, only kings were supposed to have kas, but presently all righteous men were believed to possess them.

Here is an relief that came out of the temple of Luxor I wonder if this image spoken about in the UB

(http://www.sevenfoldbooks.com/amenhotep111.jpg)

I'm not sure if this the exact image the Ub is talking about.  There maybe some other images displaying the the description in the UB.

Actually it could be a little different to what I thought.

But this could be the image displaying the Ka and Ba.  It comes from a Papyrus and I'm not sure of the origins but it seems to describe the Ub account.

I found this on one of Bianca's threads

(http://www.sevenfoldbooks.com/images/egypti16.jpg)

Looks very close to the birth of Amenhotep111



sevens


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 04, 2007, 07:03:34 am




(http://www.crystalinks.com/oldnefertiti.jpg)


Don't believe my "lieing eyes", Majeston?  Look at this statue of Nefertiti in later life.
See the shape of the skull?  They all have THAT in common!  YOU know that!

As for the SON-IN-LAW:  I have already said Tutankhamun WAS Akhanaten's son-in-
law ALSO.  He married his own sister/half-sister, as was the custom of Pharaohs un-
til his grand-father Amenophis III married Queen Tiye (obviously NOT a relation) and
maybe Akhenaten who married Nefertiti, who may or may not be his relative.
  Nefertiti's origins are still not established.

Love and Peace,
b
and they are still being researched.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 04, 2007, 07:20:14 am


Hi, Sevens:

Thank you for your input.  I am not sure that that picture makes things any clearer.

The Ka is usually pictured in Funerary Rites. 

We could compare the Ka to the Roman Catholic belief in a "Guardian Angel'.  Or, in Greek
times, Socrates' "Daemon".

Among "New Agers" it is referred to as the "Etheric Body".

Who knows, maybe it's Psychiatry's "Id" or "Anima". 

Love and Peace,
b


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on June 04, 2007, 10:34:43 am




(http://www.crystalinks.com/oldnefertiti.jpg)


Don't believe my "lieing eyes", Majeston?  Look at this statue of Nefertiti in later life.
See the shape of the skull?  They all have THAT in common!  YOU know that!

As for the SON-IN-LAW:  I have already said Tutankhamun WAS Akhanaten's son-in-
law ALSO.  He married his own sister/half-sister, as was the custom of Pharaohs un-
til his grand-father Amenophis III married Queen Tiye (obviously NOT a relation) and
maybe Akhenaten who married Nefertiti, who may or may not be his relative.
  Nefertiti's origins are still not established.

Love and Peace,
b
and they are still being researched.

Bianca,

gotta love that head !
too many maybe's and may's and may not's.  Nobody describes a person as the son-in-law

when he is actually the son as well;  not even celestial beings.  "son"  always takes priority

over son-in-law.  Obviously Tut was not his son but also had the "head" of the royal line denoting

his genetic inheritance through another father and mother.  Iknahton was not the only one with

the enlongated head.  Trust revelation for truth  Bianca and you will find truth.

(http://www.robertschoch.net/MSkl4.jpg)
Figure 4. Ancient Maya ‘ upper class’  adult skull. Photograph: Colette M. Dowell
 Courtesy: National Museum of Anthropology, Merida, Yucatan.
 

(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/egyptimage/aye-as-vizier%3F.jpg)
The figure is dressed as a vizier.this image which is said to be of Aye.
 It looks like it stems from the Amarna age.
 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 04, 2007, 12:49:03 pm

Majeston:

TO EACH HIS OWN.......

"Truth" is what resonates in one's soul......

B


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 05, 2007, 11:04:02 am





                                                        A K H E T A T E N


                                         HORIZON - PLACE OF THE LIGHT OF ATEN




                            (http://members.aol.com/dhwtymwia/rwentrancec.jpg)




Legend has it that Akhenaton was sure that the site he had chosen for the Aten's new city was the right

one when he witnessed the sunrise between two hills at its Eastern Horizon........





    (http://www-scf.usc.edu/~cipolla/AmarnaMap.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 05, 2007, 11:24:28 am
FROM


AKHENATEN AND THE RELIGION OF LIGHT

Erik Hornung
Translated by David Lorton




(http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~rgrosser/amarna/neywetaten/gri-88.gif)

STELA S




A   C I T Y   F O R   A   G O D



First, Akhenaten set up Boundary Stelae around the place he had chosen for his future royal
Residence, so as to delineate its intended area with du solemnity.  The fourteen stelae - three
on the west bank of the Nile and eleven on the east bank - staked out an extensive area,
though the actual city would lie only on the eastern bank, where the cemeteries are also to be
found.

The "Beautiful West," up to then the realm of the dead, would no longer play a role.

The date on the three earlier stelae can be reconstructed as the thirteenth day of the fourth
month of the season PERET, in the fifth regnal year of the king.  It thus falls only one brief month
after that of a letter sent from Memphis by the administator Ipi, a nephew of the vizier Ramose,
to the king, who was probably already encamped at Amarna. 

In this letter, Ipi informs the monarch, who was still called AMENOPHIS, that all was well in the
temple of Ptah at Memphis and that the prescribed offerings were being carried out in their en-
tirety for all the gods and goddesses of Memphis, with nothing being withheld from them.


All this was being done in the name of the king, and Ipi designated the king's relationship to PTAH
 
as :          'YOUR TRUE FATHER, FROM WHOM YOU EMERGED'


                                 (http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/images/sized/Magic_m.jpg)

                                                               P T A H


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 05, 2007, 11:59:01 am




(http://www.narmer.pl/amarna/ima/amarna_en.gif)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 05, 2007, 12:12:27 pm
A CITY FOR A GOD



                      (http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/egyptfoto/bound-stela-clup.jpg)
                                   Boundary Stela - Year 5

We owe a scenario for the founding of the new capital to the American astronomer Ronald
Wells, who has studied the orientation of Egyptian temples.  According to him, the date chosen
was that on which, for an observer, the rising sun shone directly into the length of a small tem-
ple, that is, the mortuary temple of the king, from an indentation in the eastern horizon, where
the desert valley that was to contain the royal tomb opened up into the broad plain of Amarna;
around 1350BC this day was March 4 in the Julian Calendar, or February 20 in the Gregorian.

It well suited Akhenaten's religion of light that the foundation date occurred when the Aten emer-
ged from the valley that the king had earmarked for his own and his family's tomb, flooding with his
light the plain where the city was to lie.  Well's assumption is, thus, attractive, but it has also
found objections: the temple axis has in no way been established that exactly, nor is it clear just
how sunrise was defined in those ancient timeS. Still, the very name of the new Residence, AKHETATEN
or "Place of the Light of Aten" is programmatic, referring to the sun as a HEAVENLY BODY.

           (http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Akhenaton/images/585_s.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: BlueHue on June 05, 2007, 02:55:10 pm
DEAR... BIANCAS2001,

NICE book, nice layout archaeologist Fletcher also made a similar book, the Title King of the Sun may be erroneous this Athen was the Moon which was encircling Earth as a captured sattelite before it 'settled'down remember ther are Myths of a 'Moonless'Earth

"BlueHue" ( Sad isn't it ??)  :(=  :(


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 05, 2007, 04:03:32 pm




Thank you, BlueHue.
B


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 05, 2007, 04:24:03 pm


                  (http://www.sandiegohistory.org/journal/92spring/images/p88a.jpg)


The remaining boundary stelae are dated exactly a year later, on the same date in year 6; three of them delineate a broad district on the west bank of the Nile, though nothing was ever built on it.  The entire extended district was solemnly dedicated to the new god, "with (its) hills, deserts, fields and towns, with (its) people, animals and vegetation", as the texts  of the stelae put it. 

This presentation to the god was reinforced by a solemn oath that the king swore by the life of the Aten, and also by that of his wife and his children.

He dedicated the new capital to the Aten "as a monument to his name for all time"-thanks to divine inspira-
tion, for the god himself had shown him this place, that fulfilled his ideal requirements. 

No god and no goddess, no ruler of olden times, could lay claim to this place, which was entirely unspoiled,
a pure environment for the rays of the Aten.

This was a place where the Aten and his beloved son and preacher could rule alone, where its inhabitants could devote themselves entirely to the service of the pharaoh and his god, unburdened by any traces of the past.  Here, the perfect realization of the new religion was at last possible; in the years that followed,
it would become ever purer, but also ever more extreme. 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 05, 2007, 04:44:05 pm
                   (http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~rgrosser/amarna/balloon-temple.jpg)

                   Remains of the Great Temple at Amarna - Columns are reconstructed

The desert terrace on the east bank, crisscrossed by a few shallow depressions, offered a site well suited to the indented metropolis.  First, a camp was set up, as noted in the later text of the stelae of year 6; from there, the king was able to inspect the construction work when he visited.  The work progressed quickly, the
repetition of the king's oath in his eighth regnal year might indicate the court's move to the new Residence at that early date.  We must imagine a gigantic construction site already in year 5, and this was the year when the regular deliveries of wine to the Aten's city commenced.  In year 6, Amun's domains in the delta still parti-
cipated in the supply.

                     (http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~rgrosser/amarna/aerialtemple.jpg)
                               
                       Digital reconstruction of the Great Temple


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 08:03:51 am




              (http://www.assemblage.group.shef.ac.uk/issue7/images/ThomasFig2-1.jpg)
                WELL AT AMARNA


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 08:06:50 am



(http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/hisar/people/pn/AmarnaExperiment.jpeg)

GLASS KILNS

(http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/hisar/people/pn/Amarna-kilns2,3and4.1994.jpeg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 08:14:45 am



(http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~rgrosser/amarna/34.jpg)

AMARNA - GREAT PALACE AND THE RIVERBANK OF THE NILE - Digital Reconstruction


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 08:24:22 am




(http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Akhenaton/images/site2.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 08:36:04 am




(http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Akhenaton/images/p69_s.jpg)

AMARNA - RUINS OF THE NORTH PALACE


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 08:55:36 am




(http://www.georges-millet.com/photos/egypte/amarna1.jpg)

AMARNA


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 08:57:56 am




(http://www.georges-millet.com/photos/egypte/amarna6.jpg)

AMARNA


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 08:59:44 am




(http://www.georges-millet.com/photos/egypte/amarna5.jpg)

AMARNA


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 09:04:32 am




(http://www.georges-millet.com/photos/egypte/amarna4.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 09:09:01 am




(http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320Hist&Civ/slides/10akhen/elamarna.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 10:44:49 am



(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0104/images/feature2_3.jpg)

From the National Geographic issue FARAOHS OF THE SUN


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 10:47:58 am




(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0104/images/feature2_4.jpg)

From the National Geographic issue PHARAOHS OF THE SUN


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 06, 2007, 10:51:16 am



(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0104/images/feature2_5.jpg)                                 From the National Geographic issue PHARAOHS OF THE SUN


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 07, 2007, 12:22:43 pm


                (http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0104/images/feature2_main.jpg)



                              N A T I O N A L   G E O G R A P H I C   M A G A Z I N E



 

PHARAOHS OF THE SUN


 
By Rick Gore
 
On a morning in the year 1353 B.C. a young pharaoh of Egypt rose before dawn to greet the sun with a poem he loved and perhaps had written: "Beautifully you appear from the horizon of heaven," he prayed as sunlight began to flood Egypt's capital city of Thebes. To him the rays of the sun were the embodiment of an ancient god named Aten, whom he passionately revered. "Oh living Aten, who initiates life. . . . Oh sole god, without another beside him! You create the Earth according to your wish. . . . You are in my heart, and there is none who knows you except your son."
 
This was no ordinary morning for the king—nor for ancient Egypt. Pharaoh Amenhotep III had died, and this teenage son now had the power to elevate Aten above all the other gods in Egypt's pantheon, even above the all-powerful Amun, who for hundreds of years had ruled in Thebes as king of the gods.
 
Soon this enigmatic young man would change his name to Akhenaten, "he who is effective for Aten." With his queen, the fabled Nefertiti, he would plunge Egypt into a religious revolution that shattered centuries of tradition. He would elevate Nefertiti to divine status, giving her more influence than perhaps any other queen had known. And he would abandon Thebes to build a huge new capital, today known as Amarna.
 
Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and the boy pharaoh Tutankhamun—perhaps Akhenaten's son born to a secondary wife—have been called the Pharaohs of the Sun. Their reign was brief. Akhenaten ruled just 17 years, and within a few years after his death in 1336 B.C., the old orthodoxy was restored. Akhenaten's enemies soon smashed his statues, dismantled his temples, and set out to expunge all memory of him and Nefertiti from Egypt's historical record.
 
But the controversy the couple created lives on. Egyptologists still struggle to piece together the story of this renegade pair. Swept up in religious passion, they brought the vast and powerful Egyptian empire to the brink of collapse.
 
"You're never going to find two Egyptologists who agree on this period," said Nicholas Reeves, a British Egyptologist.
 
Barry Kemp, an archaeologist at Cambridge University, is even more pessimistic: "The minute you begin to write about those people you begin to write fiction."
 
The same may be true of the likenesses left of them. Some of the finest ever made of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, excavated by German archaeologists between 1911 and 1914, reside in the Egyptian Museum in Berlin.
 
"See, she is as beautiful as ever," says Rolf Krauss, a curator, as we enter a room dedicated to a painted bust of Nefertiti recognizable the world over. Spotlights in the darkened room set the queen's long, graceful neck, flawlessly symmetrical face, and tall blue crown aglow.
 
Krauss and others debate whether Nefertiti actually looked like this bust—some think that it served mainly as a model for artists making other statues of the queen. But Nefertiti seldom looks the same in any of the numerous portraits of her. Krauss shows me one statue of her as an older woman. The face is lined, and the breasts sag. "We call this the 'tired Nefertiti,' " he says.
 
In the Egyptian Museum in Cairo are colossal statues—troubling and mesmerizing—of Akhenaten. His face is elongated and angular with a long chin. His eyes are mystical and brooding. His lips are huge and fleshy. Although he wears a pharaoh's headdress and holds the traditional symbols of kingship, the crook and flail, across his chest, the chest is spindly, and the torso flows into a voluptuous belly and enormous feminine hips.
 
Because of the strangeness of these and so many other images of Akhenaten, scholars speculated for decades that the pharaoh had a deforming disease. But now many believe that the seeming bisexuality of the colossi might be rooted in Akhenaten's new religion, for Aten had both male and female aspects. They also point out that in the early years of his reign, when Akhenaten was a young radical fighting an established religion, he had reasons for the exaggeration. He wanted to break down more than a thousand years of artistic tradition, so he instructed his artists to portray the world as it really was.
 
Instead of the standard static depictions of physically perfect pharaohs smiting enemies or making offerings to the gods, artists gave the new king a much more realistic appearance. "Akhenaten probably didn't have the greatest physique by American standards," says James Allen, a specialist on the period at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. "He had the easy life in the palace."
 
For the first time, artists routinely portrayed the pharaoh in informal situations—being affectionate with Nefertiti or playing with his children. They also painted scenes of life and nature—wheat rippling in the wind, farmers plowing, birds taking flight. In truth, Akhenaten unleashed a creative furor that gave rise to perhaps the finest era of Egyptian art.
 
"You could compare him to a cult leader," says Rita Freed, an Egyptologist from the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Experts continue to argue whether he was the world's first monotheist. He insisted on one supreme god—an all-powerful creator who manifested himself in the sunlight. But he perceived himself and Nefertiti as extensions of that god—also deserving of worship.
 
Akhenaten's rebellion began with his father, the strong-willed pharaoh Amenhotep III, who ruled for 37 years during a golden age of Egyptian empire. Amenhotep III tapped the wealth of that empire to build an unprecedented series of monuments. These included elaborate constructions at Karnak and Luxor, religious centers of the god Amun, patron of Thebes.
 
Amun became increasingly powerful after Thebes regained control of Egypt around 1520 B.C. His name means Hidden One, and he resided in the inner sanctum of his temple at Karnak, where his priests fed, washed, and clothed a statue of him. Amun soon merged with the ancient sun god Re and became Amun-Re. Pharaoh himself was regarded as the son of Amun-Re. His divine authority could be renewed only by the Hidden One each year in a festival called Opet.
 
Late in his reign, and perhaps chafing from political friction with the priests of Amun, Amenhotep III decided that he was not only the son of Amun but also the incarnation of Re—and thus at least equal to Amun. He began building monuments to his own divinity, including a vast funerary temple across the Nile from Thebes. This temple featured two 65-foot-high (20 meter), 720-ton (653 metric ton) quartzite statues of himself that he declared should gleam into people's eyes like the rising Aten. The ruins of those statues are famed as the Colossi of Memnon.
 
The stage was thus set for the entrance of Akhenaten, who came to the throne as Amenhotep IV. Some scholars argue that Akhenaten and his father ruled together as co-regents for several years. Ray Johnson, a specialist at the University of Chicago, believes the father lived on for many years, yielding power to his son and accompanying him to Amarna. But most now contend that Akhenaten ruled without his father, perhaps driven to outdo him.
 
Akhenaten was probably already married to Nefertiti when he ascended the throne. Perhaps both were children when they wed, as Akhenaten's father and mother, Queen Tiye, had been. No one knows where Nefertiti came from. Her name means "the beautiful one has come," which once led scholars to assume she was foreign-born. Today many believe she was from a town now called Akhmim and belonged to the same influential family as Queen Tiye. Wherever Nefertiti was born, she was a part of Akhenaten's revolution from the beginning.
 
"This is where he started," says Rita Freed as we stand outside the towering gates, or pylons, of Karnak, which sprawls across some 250 acres (101.2 hectares) near the modern city of Luxor. The sun beats down on us as once it did on Akhenaten, an inescapable force that infuses the bricks and walls and statues and enervates the throngs of visitors who trudge between the pylons.
 
"By the time Akhenaten came to the throne, this was the greatest shrine in the land," Freed says, explaining that each pharaoh was obliged to make an addition to the Karnak complex.
 
We walk to a 40-foot-high (12.2 meter) relief Akhenaten had carved on a wall of Amun-Re's temple soon after taking power. It's a traditional "smiting scene" for pharaohs. Akhenaten holds his enemies by their hair and is about to kill them. "This was a major project," says Freed. "But it's unfinished. At some point Akhenaten said, 'Hold everything.'"
 
"His was a strange new vision," says Robert Vergnieux of the University of Bordeaux in France. "Since the Egyptians' god was now the sunlight, they didn't need statues in dark inner sanctums. So they built temples without roofs and performed their rituals directly under the sun."
 
"For a short time the Egyptians believed the sun god had come back to Earth in the form of the royal family," says Ray Johnson. "There was a collective excitement that becomes tangible in the art and architecture. The whole country was in jubilee. It's one of the most astonishing periods in world history."
 
But no one can say how broad Akhenaten's popular support actually was. Some scholars, including Sigmund Freud, have suggested Akhenaten was a visionary, a prophet whose form of monotheism somehow inspired Moses, who lived a century later. Others, such as Rolf Krauss, scoff at that. "He was a horrible tyrant who happened to have very good taste in art," says Krauss.
 
Whether by faith or force Akhenaten turned Thebes upside down in his first four years as king, building four new temples to Aten around Amun's temple at Karnak. Some believe that he may have been trying to merge the two gods into one.
 
To build great edifices quickly, Akhenaten's engineers invented a new construction technique. Because the Aten temples had no roofs, their walls did not need to be as sturdy as before. Instead of hauling huge pieces of stone, the builders cut blocks light enough for one person to carry. Excavation workers in the early 20th century named these blocks—roughly 20 inches long by 10 inches (50.8 centimeters by 25.4 centimeters) wide and high—talatat, after talata, the Arabic word for three. Each talatat measured about three hands in length. Ancient stoneworkers used the talatat like bricks to build Akhenaten's immense, open-air structures. Many bore colorful painted scenes from the lives of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Other talatat bore images of everyday life in Egypt—ordinary Egyptians feeding a cow, baking bread, making beer.
 
The cut blocks first came to light in the 1840s. Scattered here and there at Karnak, they gave Egyptologists some of the earliest clues to Akhenaten's existence, so thoroughly had he been exorcised from ancient historical records.
 
The new pharaoh had enemies from the start—despite the excitement that surrounded him. Akhenaten spent lavishly on his early monuments to Aten and taxed Amun's temples as he demoted the former king of the gods. By the fourth year of his reign tension was high. A turning point came in year five.
 
"Akhenaten can't bring himself to say what actually occurred, but it really ticked him off," says Bill Murnane, an Amarna specialist at the University of Memphis. "He rants about 'it' in an inscription at Amarna, saying 'it' was worse than anything he or his ancestors had experienced.
 
"I think the priests were fed up. They got together and drew a line in the sand. So he picked up his marbles and abandoned Thebes."
 
The site Akhenaten chose for his new capital lay 180 miles (290 kilometers) to the north on the eastern bank of the Nile, sheltered by a ring of steep limestone cliffs in a desert valley. He had visited the place once, and the sun rising above the cliffs must have moved the young king. He named his new capital Akhetaten, meaning "horizon of Aten." On decrees carved into stelae there, the king tells how Aten revealed this desolate land to him and told him it was the place where the creation of the world occurred. Within a year or two a huge new city with 20,000 or more residents sprouted along the river.
 
Today archaeologists call the area Amarna, after a modern village nearby. Despite the name change, sailing to Amarna remains a voyage into a realm of religious fervor. The site lies in a region where Islamic fundamentalists have waged terrorist warfare against Egypt's government, sometimes attacking tourists. I traveled there with a group organized by the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. We were escorted by two tanks and stern-faced soldiers with automatic rifles. When we pushed off from the river's west bank in a ferry that would take us to the ruins, a police boat with sailors manning machine guns preceded us.
 
But at Amarna all was peaceful, the shore lined with date palms and mud-brick homes, many of them whitewashed and decorated with paints of many colors. A sign bearing stylized heads of Nefertiti and Akhenaten greeted us at the dock. "Welcome," it read. "Civilization started here."
 
Amarna does not overwhelm with dramatic monuments as Karnak does. "After the Amarna period was over, gangs of workmen were sent to remove and reuse the stone," says Barry Kemp, who has worked the site since 1977. But in its prime Amarna stretched for about eight miles along the Nile and as much as three miles inland. A wide road ran parallel to the river, leading to the temples and palaces of the king. The royal family paraded down this road in chariots en route to rituals. The most spectacular of the temples was 2,500 feet (762 meters) long and 950 feet (260 meters) wide. Its vast, open courtyard was filled with offering tables and lined with statues of the king.
 
Amarna has been called the Pompeii of Egypt. Its monuments and houses are gone, but the foundations are largely intact. No one built new structures over its ruins, as in most ancient cities. So Amarna offers a time capsule look at how ancient Egyptians laid out their cities during the New Kingdom. "It's the only place you can go and walk the streets of an ancient Egyptian city," says Michael Mallinson, an architect working with the Egypt Exploration Society.
 
Barry Kemp's research team has spent more than two decades exploring the economic life of the town. By painstakingly sifting through the sand and recovering potsherds, pieces of glass, resins, pollen, hog bristles, and insect remains, they have learned much about day-to-day life. They have located districts where textiles and glassware were made, where cattle were penned and hogs butchered. They have determined which incenses were burned and what fish were caught—even which beetles crawled through the grain the residents stored and used. Termites may have been a severe problem, undermining the timbers that held up many structures.
 
One of the most important finds at Amarna was a collection of about 350 diplomatic letters written on clay tablets, discovered around 1887 by peasants digging in the ruins of a building known as the House of Correspondence of Pharaoh. These so-called Amarna Letters give a nearly complete record of correspondence between Egypt's court and various rulers of western Asia.
 
One of the most notable writers was Tushratta, king of the Mesopotamian state of Mitanni, a vital ally that regularly sent royal daughters to the pharaoh's harem. A mysterious secondary wife of Akhenaten named Kiya may have been one of those daughters. Little is known about Kiya except that she earned the title Greatly Beloved. The pharaoh may have built a large building, known as the North Palace, to honor her. Some scholars believe she achieved such prominence because she gave birth to a male heir—Tut. Nefertiti, as far as we know, bore only daughters (although the pharaohs customarily did not mention their possible male successors).
 
Kiya disappears around year 12 of Akhenaten's reign, and the name of Akhenaten's oldest daughter, Meritaten, is inscribed over Kiya's on stone fragments found at the North Palace. Kiya may have stolen Akhenaten's affections and been done away with by a jealous Nefertiti. After Kiya disappears, Nefertiti rises to new power, perhaps as Akhenaten's co-regent.
 
In one Amarna letter, written to Akhenaten's mother, Tiye, the Mitannian king complains that Akhenaten has not sent gifts that his father had promised: "I had asked your husband for statues of solid cast gold. . . . But now . . . your son has [sent me] plated statues of wood. With gold being dirt in your son's country, why have they been a source of such distress to your son that he has not given them to me? . . . Is this love?"
 
Why did Tushratta write to Tiye instead of to the pharaoh himself? Perhaps Akhenaten was so preoccupied with religion that he was neglecting foreign affairs. Tushratta's pleas were not always greedy; in fact they gradually became desperate. Mitanni was besieged by the Hittites, who threatened Egypt's empire in the north. Toward the end of his reign Akhenaten sent troops, but his response came too late. Tushratta was overthrown and murdered by his own son.
 
Meanwhile Akhenaten faced growing unrest at home. Around year nine of his reign the priests of Amun must have provoked him further. In a rage Akhenaten closed Amun's temples, and all over Egypt the name and image of the former king of the gods was hacked out of tombs and monuments
 
Around year 12, about the same time Kiya disappeared, Akhenaten's second daughter, Meketaten, died. Queen Tiye, two other daughters, and perhaps even Nefertiti died in the next few years. All those deaths in such a short time suggest to some scholars that Egypt was racked by plague, an affliction Akhenaten's enemies could have used to fire political dissent, saying the gods were angry at this heretic pharaoh.
 
On the military front the Hittites were toppling Egypt's allies. In the midst of growing chaos Akhenaten died. No one knows when or how, but inscriptions indicate that his 17th year as king was his last. He was buried in a lavish tomb cut into the cliffs east
of Amarna.
 
The years following Akhenaten's death provoke enormous argument. The debate is confused by the Egyptian tradition of giving pharaohs a throne name and a personal name. Until recently scholars assumed that there was only one immediate successor, a pharaoh with the throne name of Ankhkheprure and the personal name Smenkhkare. He supposedly married Akhenaten's eldest daughter, Meritaten. Now some suspect there were actually two pharaohs with the throne name Ankhkheprure. The other pharaoh's personal name was Nefernefruaten, which is identical to a longer variation of Nefertiti's name. Did Nefertiti survive and rule briefly as pharaoh?
 
Whoever Nefernefruaten was, she was a woman, according to inscriptions recently identified by a young French scholar, Marc Gabolde of the University of Montpellier. Gabolde also thinks this female pharaoh made an audacious political move.
 
Archives found in the Hittite capital of Hattusa in Anatolia indicate an Egyptian queen of that era wrote a desperate letter to the Hittite king saying her husband had died and begging him to send her one of his sons so that she would not have to wed a "servant." The English scholar Nicholas Reeves argues that Nefertiti wrote that plea. Marc Gabolde believes it was her daughter Meritaten. Gabolde believes that the Hittite king sent his son Zannanza, who ruled briefly as Smenkhkare before dying.
 
Whoever the intermediate pharaohs were, Tut assumed power about four years after Akhenaten's death. Most scholars suspect he was about ten at the time and was guided by two men: the general Horemheb and a courtier named Aye, perhaps Nefertiti's father. Tut recognized Amun as the king of the gods and within two years moved the religious capital back to Thebes. Soon the names of Akhenaten and his god were eradicated and their temples torn down. Amarna was gradually abandoned.
 
Tut ruled for about ten years before he died in 1322 B.C. X-rays of his mummy have revealed a wound on his skull. Some scholars have suggested he was assassinated. Perhaps by the time he was in his late teens, Tut, like his father, was starting to have ideas of his own. His mentors could not tolerate another heretic. Aye succeeded Tut but died within three years in 1319. Horemheb followed Aye to the throne and ruled for 27 years, obliterating every record of Nefertiti and Akhenaten that he could.
 
What happened to the royal family after Akhenaten's death continues to inspire serious archaeological dispute. Nicholas Reeves believes that Tut brought all the royal mummies from Amarna back to the Valley of the Kings, which lies across the Nile from Thebes, to be reburied. In the transfer it seems that Tut managed to confiscate some of their lavish funeral equipment for his own tomb. He was buried in a coffin that may have been originally intended for Nefertiti.
 
Reeves argues that a mummy found in a tomb very close to Tut's own belongs to Akhenaten. The tomb was given the catalog name KV (Valley of the Kings) 55 early in the 20th century. Other specialists strongly reject that claim, contending that the body was too young—only around 20 according to x-ray analysis. They believe the mummy in KV 55 was Smenkhkare, one of Akhenaten's successors before Tut. Yet Reeves is most interested in the whereabouts of another family member.
 
"Nefertiti is missing," the archaeologist says, his eyes gleaming with the appetite of a detective tackling a complex murder mystery. We are peering down a 20-foot-deep (6 meter) shaft that leads into another ancient tomb—KV 56—across the valley from KV 55. The musty smell of the ages wafts from the dark tomb, which archaeologists discovered in 1908. About a dozen Egyptian workmen, some dressed in turbans and loose-fitting blue robes and others in baseball caps and T-shirts, dig with picks and hoes along the tourist path.
 
A principal goal of Reeves's excavation, named the Amarna Tombs Project, is to determine the ancient level of the Valley of the Kings—before centuries of flash floods washed in many feet of sediment. Reeves is also hoping to find some new clue to the whereabouts of Nefertiti, whose mummy has never been found. KV 56 was first opened 14 years before King Tut's tomb, but its discovery scarcely excited the world. Though the excavator, Edward Russell Ayrton, did find a cache of gold jewelry from a later dynasty, grave robbers had thoroughly looted the tomb's original contents.
 
Although fueled by hope, archaeologists need evidence—and even a few scraps this season would make Reeves happy. Perhaps a fragment of a burial jar or an inscription etched into a tomb wall will prove Tut had Nefertiti reburied in KV 56. As I follow him down a ladder into the gloom of KV 56, Reeves tells me that the shaft itself gives a clue. The opening is surprisingly large—about 10 by 12 feet (3 by 3.7meters).
 
"I suspect they made it so big so they could get royal burial shrines down," he says.
 
A royal mummy was usually encased in a series of highly decorated wooden shrines, one inside the next. At least three of the gold-covered shrines found in Tut's tomb, the largest of which measured about 17 feet (5.2 meters) long, 11 feet (3.4 meters) wide, and 9 feet (2.7 meters) high, were perhaps originally made for Akhenaten and Nefertiti.
 
The inside of KV 56 is underwhelming—just diggers sorting through sediments for artifacts. But to Reeves this tomb is beautiful. "The cutting of the walls was meticulously done—fit for a queen," he says. He suspects that the chamber was intended to be much larger but was left incomplete. The far corner looks unfinished, and Reeves believes the stoneworkers had been planning to cut a central column for a much larger tomb. Central columns are typical features of queenly tombs.
 
Weeks later I meet Reeves in London, and he remains excited about his theory that KV 56 was Nefertiti's tomb. But he cautions that there are other queens who could have qualified. Compelling evidence remains to be found. "Nefertiti is still missing," he says as we part.
 
His words linger later that night as I walk through London's theater district. The marquee lights remind me how I got started on this quest. I first became interested in Nefertiti more than a dozen years ago. My late brother, a playwright, wrote a romantic musical about her that was mounted for Broadway in 1977. It never got there, closing in Chicago, but it left me wondering who this romantic woman really was. Was she the heroic spirit my brother portrayed? I had hoped the world's leading experts would resolve that mystery for me, but as much as I have learned, she remains elusive. For me, too, Nefertiti is still missing.



www.national geographic.com


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2007, 11:49:25 am




FROM


                        A K H E N A T E N   A N D   T H E   R E L I G I O N   O F   L I G H T



Erik Hornung
Translated by David Lorton



                                             T H E   P U R E   T E A C H I N G


        (http://www.grammarmudge.cityslide.com/i/Maine%20Album/Sunrise_7-500crp.jpg)I.


NEW SANCTUARIES FOR THE ATEN

In the new Residence, the Aten's followers found themselves in an ideal setting for their endeavours,
one where they could devote themselves undisturbed to the service of the new teaching, which now attained its perfection.

Temples and tombs were not rendered superfluous by Akhenaten's teaching, despite the many innova-
tions it entailed.  The sanctuaries of the Aten constituted the spiritual center of the new Residence of
Akhetaten, while on his boundary stelae the king made specific provisions for the preparation of tombs in the eastern mountain.  But the structure and meaning of these constructions differed fundamentally from those of the past.

Previously, every Egyptian temple had been understood as a shrine for the cult image of a deity.  Since
the Aten had no image aside from the radiant sun, the whole world was in fact his shrine.  And since his cult image was accessible only to prayers and offerings, all the richness of the daily cult ritual that had been celebrated in each of the innumerable temples, with its purification, anointing, and clothing of the divine image, no longer applied.  This was not without consequences for the forms assumed by the new cultic structures.

Along with the introduction of the new artistic style, we discern in the representations a new type of architecture: the Aten temple.  Like all Egyptian sanctuaries, it was sheltered from the outside world by high walls (this was true, at least, of the temple at Amarna), but it was open above to the sunlight, which had previously had only limited access to the columned halls and chambers.  Even the doorways now had broken lintels, while the processional way through the middle of the columned halls was unroofed.  To diminish the play of shadows, doorways were provided with raised thresholds.

Thus, wherever he strode, the king was in contact with his god.  Every cultic act actually did take place
under the radiant sun.  And because there was sunlight everywhere, even in the interiors of the buildings, it was practical to employ only sunk relief, which heretofore had been reserved for exterior walls.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 09, 2007, 12:10:16 pm


NEW SANCTUARIES FOR THE ATEN                                                          continued



                      (http://www.lovethosekids.com/dcpics/sky/sunbeam11.jpg)v


A further consequence of the new beliefs was that there was no longer a need for a holy of holies, a
sanctuary for an earthly cult image of the god fahioned out of costly materials.  As soon as the Aten rose in the morning, he filled the temple completely with his presence, as stressed in the text of the earlier boundary stelae: "by means of his rays, he fills it with himself."  The temple thus now had no real axis, and the king's processional way ended at an elevated altar dedicated to the cult of the sun.

The Aten's effect on his temple and the world was not worked through words he spoke to Pharaoh, but through his rays.  His life-maintaining and life-giving hands were present everywhere in the sanctuary.
And so that they might take hold of offerings everywhere they touched, the sanctuary was now overfilled with altars on which food lay ready for the god.  Among these (we must not deceive our-
selves) there were still sacrificial offerings, cattle and geese and the Aten temple had its own slaughter
house.  But all these were decked with flowers, which were now the preferred offering.  And the offering was still always accompanied by the singing of hymns and by music and incense.

However much the king stressed that he lived on Maat, he was now obliged to abstain from representing
Maat as a goddess and, with that, from the heretofore popular scene, laden with symbolism, of the presentation of Maat.  Its replacement was probably the proffering of votive figures that tended to be decorated with feathers, producing again a reference to Maat, for her name could also be written with the hieroglyph of a feather.  The figures tended to be connected with cartouches, and this practice would later be continued in the Ramesside Period, when the king offered his throne name, compounded with the concept of Maat, to a deity.  As so often, Nefertiti took an active part in these cult scenes-in no other period was a queen so intensively involved in the divine cult of Amarna.  She was a member of the triad that the royal couple formed along with Aten, and which replaced the triads of Thebes (Amun-Mut-Khons) and Memphis (Ptah-Sakhmet-Nefertem), which had previously stood at the head of the
pantheon.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 10, 2007, 07:40:59 am




                   (http://louis.ucsd.edu/~dturnbul/XCountryAlbum/sunshine.jpg) II



A HOLY FAMILY


Family scenes, in which all six daughter now often appear, also displaced earlier scenes of deities and their mythological constellations.  Intimately and emphatically, the royal family display the love that reigns among its members-a love that, because it is pleasing to the Aten, is supposed to emanate over all the world.  The daughters caress one another or are affectionately tended to by their parents.  They sit on their parents's laps, and once, on a fragment in the Louvre, Nefertititi appears on Ahenaten's lap.  In any other period, it would have been unthinkable to represent Pharaoh eating and
drinking, as happens in the tombs at Amarna.

As far as its ground plan and its conception are concerned, the temple remained a processional route with a stress on its central axis-though no longer a route for a deity whose image would leave the temple, but rather one for the king who entered it.  The royal family's departure by chariot replaced the divine barque processions on festival days.

Like its predecessors, the processional temple was made up of pylons, courtyards and columned halls.  Representations show that the facade of the great Aten temple at Amarna was adorned with ten flag-
poles, thus surpassing the temple of Karnak with its eight.  Innumerable statues of the royal couple filled the empty spaces between the columns, but it seems that the statues of officials were no longer set up in the temple to share in the daily cult and its offerings.

Such a share in the cult was not possible for the officials, for their place was outside the temple.  An unusual tomb scene depicts the police chief Mahu kneeling before heaped-up offerings after being rewarded by the king and praying to Aten for the king's health; exceptionally, an official prays here directly to the god, but the scene takes place in front of the closed pylon of the great temple, not inside the sancturary.  For the rest, small places of worship were found in the houses of Akhenaten's followers, where a sort of household altar depicted the royal family under the radiant Aten.  Here, they could turn to the holy trinity and venerate Akhenaten as their personal god.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 10, 2007, 08:05:09 am




                      (http://www.lovethosekids.com/dcpics/sky/sunbeam8.jpg)VI



A CHANGE OF NAME


About four years after the king, the god Aten also received a new royal titulary, one that mirrored the continuing developements in the teaching. There were harbingers of this in new writings of the old name in a strictly phonetic form, avoiding Horus and Re.  The divine names Horus and Shu were removed from the new double cartouche, leaving only Aten and Re.  The new creed-for this "dogmatic" name is just that!-reads: "Live Re, the ruler of the horizon, who rejoices in the horizon in his name Re the father (?), who returns as Aten". 

The god (and the king as well) is otherwise designated as "ruler", an additional stress on the royal rule exercised by light over all the world.  In private letters from the new capital, such as those of the "oil-boiler" Ramose to his siblings, the full name of the god was avoided, but even the short form "Aten" was enclosed in a cartouche.

Nothing changed in the representations, and the sole, obligatory icon of the god of light remained the sun disk with its rays and hands.  Since he was in the sky, the image of the god is ABOVE the king in all scenes depicting the cult, not in front of him.  And as indicated by the protective uraeus-serpent in the middle of the disk-previously it had appeared on its side-the sun in the sky and thus also the god of light.  There could be no statues of this god-"sculptors do not know him", as it is stated in the earlier text of the boundary stalae-for how could the light that ruled the world be represented in sculpture in the round?  A statue in the Brooklyn Museum published by Robert S. Bianchi in 1990, which he wished to connect with Aten (though he argued that it was created under Amenophis III), is no exception.  The
disk (without a uraeus!) that replaces its head has parallels in relief sculpture, all relating to the sun god, so that we doubtless have here an image of the traditional god.  In the New Kindom, it was possible to replace the head of a deity with an object, thus further intensifying the symbolic possibilities of "mixed forms".

The essence of this god is the special concern of Akhenaten's "Great Hymnb to the Aten", which is perhaps to be ascribed to him personally.  It was recorded in the rock tomb of Aye, where it survived through the ages until 1890, when a portion of it was maliciously destroyed during a quarrel among local inhabitants, though it is preserved in a copy made earlier by Urbain Bouriant.  We thus have the comp-
lete text of this poem, in which Akhenaten's ideas found their purest expression.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 10, 2007, 08:11:19 am
     



                                                H Y M N   T O   T H E   A T E N



                    (http://www.sofiatopia.org/maat/hieroglyphs/iatenhymn.jpg)





THE GREAT HYMN TO THE ATEN



The first lines of the text contain the title and names of Aten, Akhenaten and Nefertiti.  The actual
hymn begins with the words "he says" (referring to Akhenaten).



"Beautiful, you appear
in the horizon of the sky, oh living sun, who determines life!
You have appeared on the eastern horizon
and filled every land with your beauty.
You are beautiful, great and shining,
high over all the land.

Your rays embrace the lands
to the limit of all you have created.
You are Re when you reach their borders
and bow them down to your beloved son.
You are distant, though your rays are on earth;
you are in their face, though your course is inscrutable.

When you set in the western horizon,
the world is in darkness,
in  a state of death.
Sleepers are in their rooms,
heads covered, no eye sees the other.
Were all the possessions under their heads robbed,
they would not notice.
Every beast of prey emerges from its den,
and all the serpents bite.
The darkness is a tomb,
the earth lies numb,
its creator has indeed set in his horizon.

In the morning, you rise on the horizon
and are radiant as the sun in the daytime;
you drive off the darkness and cast your rays.
The Two Lands are in festival daily,
the people awaken
and stand on their feet, for you have roused them.
Clean is their body, they have clothed themselves,
and their arms are (raised) in prayer when you appear,
the whole land does its work.

All cattle are satisfied with their fodder,
trees and foliage bloom.
The birds have flown from their nests,
their wings praise your KA.
All the game animals frisk on their hooves,
all that fly and flutter live
when you have risen for them.
Freighters fare downstream
and back upstream,
every road is open through your rising.
The fish in the river leap before your face,
your rays are within the sea.

Oh you who cause semen to develop in women,
who make "liquid" into people,
who keep a son alive in his mother's womb
and quiet him so that his tears dry up-
you nurse in the womb!-
who give breath
to keep all creation alive.
When (the child) emerges from the womb
to breathe on the day of his birth,
you open wide his mouth
and provide for his needs.

The chick in the egg,
which speaks already in the shell-
you give it breath therin to bring it to life.
You have set its due time
to break (the shell) in the egg;
it emerges from the egg
to speak at its due time,
it is already running about on its feet when it
emerges from it.

How manifold are your works
which are hidden from sight,
you sole god without equal!
You have created the earth as you desired, quite alone,
with people, cattle and all creatures,
with everything upon earth
that walks about on feet
and all that is on high and flies with its wings.
The foreign lands of Syria and Nubia,
and the land of Egypt-
you set all in their place and care for their needs,
they all have their nourishment, their lifetimes
are determined.
Tongues differ in speech,
their characters as well,
their skin colors differ, for you distinguish the peoples.

You create the Nile in the netherworld
and bring it up according to your will
to keep humankind alive, for you have created them.
You are lord of them all, who toils for them,
oh lord of all lands, who rises for them,
oh sun of the daytime, great of majesty!
All the distant foreign lands, you yourself keep them alive,
you have placed a Nile in the sky,
that it might descend to them,
with waves beating on the muntains like the sea,
to water their fields with what they need.
How effective are your plans, oh lord of eternity!
The Nile in the sky, which you give to foreign peoples
and all the creatures of the desert that go on legs;
but the true Nile comes from the netherworld to Egypt.

Your rays nurse all the fields-
when you rise, they live and grow for you.
You create the seasons to make all creation develop-
the winter to cool them,
the heat of summer that they might sense you.
You made the sky far in order to ascend to it
and gaze upon what you have created.

You are unique when you have risen
in all your manifestations as the living Aten
who shines and gleams,
distances himself and comes near;
you create millions of forms from yourself alone-
cities, towns, and fields,
roads and river.
All eyes find themselves facing you,
when you are above the land as the sun of the daytime.

When you have gone, there no longer remains your eye,
which you have created for their sake,
so that you do not behold yourself as the sole one
of what you have created-
even then you remain in my heart,
and there is no one else who knows you,
except for your son, Neferkheperure Waenre,
whom you have taught your nature and your might.

The world comes into being from your gesture, as
you have created it.
When you rise, they live,
when you set, they die;
you are lifetime itself, one lives through you.
Eyes rest on beauty until you set,
all work is laid down when you set in the west.
The rising one strengthens all arms for the king,
and speed is in every foot.

Since you founded the world, you rouse them
for your son, who emerged from your body,
the king of the two Egypts, who lives on Maat,
Neferkheperure Waenre,
the son of Re, who lives on Maat,
the lord of diadems, Akhenaten, great in his lifetime,
and the great king's wife, whom he loves,
the mistress of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten Nefertiti,
who lives and is rejuvenated
for ever and ever.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 11, 2007, 09:28:45 am



        (http://www.samos.be/there/autumn-on-samos/images/sunrise-ireon-samos.jpg) III



THE PURE TEACHING                                                                                      continued



Comparing the "Great Hymn to the Aten" with traditional solar hymns, it is striking how the plenitude of mythic images that characterizes the latter has been replaced by the pure contemplation of nature.  The
hymn of Suti and Hor from the reign of Amenophis III anticipates this to some extent, but now there is no longer an interest in the primeval creation of the cosmos - Aten, "who built himself with his own hands", continually creates the world by means of his light, which is pure presence and thus is no need of mythical past or a distant primeval time.  In contrast to earlier hymns, there is also a lack of any comparisons, for this god can be compared with nothing and no one.

Before and after the Amarna Period, Pharaoh was wished the lifetime of Re, the years of Atum, or the jubilees of Tatenen.  Now the wish was for jubilees like "the sand on the shore, the scales of fish and the hairs of cattle" (in his tomb, Aye also adds "the feathers of birds and the leaves of the trees") and the king was supposed to remain "here", in his new Residence of Akhetaten, "until the swan turns black and the raven turns white, until the mountains get up and walk, and until water runs upstream."  Undesirable associations were eliminated even in designating the boundaries of the king's sovereignity. 

Previously, his northern boundary had extended "as far as the darkness", but now it reached "as far as the sun (Aten) shines", for darkness would have been too reminiscent of older mythological concepts.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 11, 2007, 09:49:18 am


                        (http://www.myexpression.com/ProdImages/MSMEDIUM/972792.jpg) VII


THE UNIVERSAL DEITY : LIGHT



As depicted in the "Great Hymn to the Aten", the god's care extends to distant lands beyond Egypt - "each one has his nourishment, his lifetime is determined".  This sentiment was a product of the times, for in the "Book of Gates", which might have been composed in the reign of Amenophis III and is first attested under Haremhab, we have the famed representation of the four races of humankind in the afterlife and there, too, they are all accorded their lifetimes and their provisions.

Ramesses II would later take up the theme when, after concluding a treaty with the Hittites, he spoke of the friendship of the two previously inimical great powers; on his "marriage stela" it is said, "They ate and they drank together and were of ONE accord, like brothers, ....peace reigned among them".

Akhenaten's Aten, who shone on ALL humankind, was especially suited to be a universal god, whom all lands could worship.

The omnipresence and the effect of light has also inspired some to a belief in the divine in more modern times.  In their last conversation on March 11, 1832, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe confided to his assistant Johannn Peter Eckermann that he was prepared to "revere the Sun....for he is likewise a manifestation of the highest Being and, indeed, the most powerful which we, the children of the earth, are allowed to behold.  I adore in him the light and the productive power of God; by which we all live, move and have our being - we, and all the plants and animals with us".  And in his MEMORIES, DREAMS, RE-FLECTIONS, after depicting the rejoicing of African baboons at sunrise, Carl Gustav Jung states, " The MOMENT in which it become light IS  God.  That moment brings redemption, release.  To say that the SUN is God, is to blur and forget the archetypal experience of that moment".


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 11, 2007, 10:10:04 am




                     (http://www.therealmartha.com/Navymisc/sunrise.JPG) IV



THE UNIVERSAL DEITY:  LIGHT                                                                  continued



Was Akhenaten planning a universal religion, as Breasted thought?  A universal picture of godhead perhaps
emerges from the Great Hymn and, at the beginning of his reign, the king in any case had a sanctuary with the name Gempaaten ("the Aten has been found") erected in Nubia and perhaps one in Syria as well.

Thus, at the beginning, he actually did wish to announce the glad tidings that the Aten had been "found" to all the world under Egyptian sovereignity; Jan Assmann has shown that at Amarna this "discovery" represented  the revelation of the god.  Alexandre Moret saw in Aten a god of all humankind, who corresponded to Egypt's international empire in the New Kingdom.  But the sources from later in the reign in no way point in this direction.

With the construction of Akhetaten, which also had a Gempaaten temple of its own and constituted a
"horizon" for the god, the area in which the new religion was valid became a highly restricted one, for all practical purposes circumscribed by the boundary stelae of the new Residence.  The king seems to have erected few buildings, such as those at Memphis and Helkopolis, outside this sacred precinct dedicated
to the Aten.  Not once is it stated that he had the intention of converting all of Egypt to belief in Aten
and, less still, is there talk of a mission beyond the borders of Egypt.

In the documentation from the archive of diplomatic correspondence, faith in the Aten remains a concern of Egypt alone.

We also see no indication that the existing temples of the gods were converted into sanctuaries of the Aten; the worship of the god had its unequivocal center in the new capital.  At the same time, only fifteen miles away in Neferusi, Khnum, Thoth and Osiris were still being worshipped!

It would certainly be interesting and instructive to know what was happening during Akhenaten's later years in, for example, the sanctuaries at Elephantine, whether a cult was being celebrated there and for whom; but our sources allow no anwer to such questions.

We must imagine that the suppression of the old cults was not altogether consistent in the distant provinces and that Thebes surely was a special case.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 11, 2007, 12:52:38 pm



                       (http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/pictures/nmsunbeam.jpg) VIII



                                 T H E   Q U E S T I O N   O F   M O N O T H E I S M



PERSECUTION OF THE OLD DEITIES


 At the time the god's name was changed, or just a little later, Akhenaten took the final and most
radical step in the development of his teaching.  Now there would be no gods but Aten, and the physical existence of the old deities would be obliterated by the erasure of their names and sometimes of their representations as well.  The persecution that now ensued was directed especially against Amun and his consort Mut, but it sporadically affected a number of other deities as well and even the writing of the plural noun "gods".

It appears that Thoth, the god of the moon, of wisdom and of the scribal arts was not affected and the persecution was otherwise not especially consistent.   But care was taken to erase the name of Amun, even from the letters in the diplomatic archive, commemorative scarabs and the tips of obelisks and pyramids; the distant regions of Nubia were also affected, as far as Gebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. 

In some instances Akhenaten even had his own original personal name Amenophis mutilated, in his effort to do harm to the hated Amun. 

This ferocity was surely aimed not only at the heretofore predominant state god, but at the "refuge
of the poor", which Amun had increasingly become - in the Ramesside Period, he would become a special focus of personal piety, thus occupying the very position claimed by Akhenaten.

The persecution also affected theriomorphic symbols of deities, such as the vulture of Mut and the goose of Amun.  Only the falcon and the uraeus-serpent were still allowed and we hear nothing more
of the Mnevis bull of the sun god, for which Akhenaten had made provisions in the text of the bounda-
ry stelae.

It is indicative that all representations of Akhenaten as a sphinx are connected with the earlier name of the Aten; later, this theriomorphic representation of the king was also abandoned.

Egypt had never experienced an iconoclasm of such dimensions, though the erasure of names had rather often served as a political means, for the name was an inseparable component of a personality,
in which and by means of which a person could suffer harm.  Erasure of a name meant consignment
to oblivion and, because depictions embodied reality in Egypt,erasures were entailed in any persecution.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 12, 2007, 07:19:01 am



        (http://www.grammarmudge.cityslide.com/i/Maine%20Album/Sunrise_7-500crp.jpg) I



EGYPT AS THE "CRADLE OF MONOTHEISM"?



The blow struck at the many deities of the traditional pantheon was a clear sign that Akhenaten was now
intent on the uncompromising realization of a more or less strict monotheism.  To this extent, the characteri-
zation of Egypt as the "cradle of monotheism" has its justification.

But there has been debate as to whether monotheism already existed in Egypt before Akhenaten.  To clarify this question, we must reach back in time a little.  And in this connection, it is helpful to speak in terms of a
"concept of the 'one' (as Jan Assmann called it, following Werner Beierwaltes), rather than the problematic
concept "monotheism" and to inquire into the role of the "one" in the history of Egyptian religion.

At the beginning of the modern era, there was a naive belief that God had revealed himself as the One to
Adam and thus to the first man, with the result that monotheism existed from the very beginning and that
polytheism appeared only later, as the result of a "break" with God.

In the early days of Egyptology there was a generally held opinion that at the idealized beginning of history, there was worship of a single deity in Egypt as well, a beneficent counterweight to the "jackal-headed" gods of the supposedly abtruse polytheism that represented a later degeneration.

Ancient Egypt could thus already count as "rational" in the eyes of the Enlightenment.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 12, 2007, 07:35:15 am



                       (http://www.lovethosekids.com/dcpics/sky/sunbeam11.jpg) V



EGYPT AS THE "CRADLE OF MONOTHEISM"?                                                        continued



Later, however, the discovery and study of the Pyramid Texts, from 1881 on, made it clear that there was a plenitude of divine names and forms in these earliest religious texts and that a deity whom the Egyptians addressed and revered as the "one" over against the many was nowhere to be found.

Gaston Maspero, who discovered these texts, was thus the first to support the idea of an original poly-
theism in Egypt.  But the use of the absolute, singular noun "god" in personal names, in generalizing statements and in wisdom literature remained a source of confusion.  Statements like "(the) god punishes", "(the) god loves", "(the) god gives" and the like, made it seem as though, in these contexts at least, there were Egyptians who subscribed to a monotheism "for the initiated", while on a more superficial level, the people subscribed to an erroneous multiplicity of divine figures. 

In this, it was overlooked that the plural noun "gods" and actual divine names also occur in the very same sources.  There is thus no question of a monotheism in these texts, but rather of generally valid state-
ments that, for various reasons, were not to be restricted to any particular deity.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 12, 2007, 07:57:32 am


                     (http://louis.ucsd.edu/~dturnbul/XCountryAlbum/sunshine.jpg) II



EGYPT AS THE "CRADLE OF MONOTHEISM"?                                                         continued



Nevertheless, the notion of an original monotheism gained respectability yet again, especially in the monumental work DER URSPRUNG DER GOTTESIDEE:EINE HISTORISCH-KRITISCHE UND POSITIVE STUDIE
[The Origin of the Idea of God: A Historical-Critical and Positive Study] by Father Wilhelm Schmidt, which appeared in twelve volumes from 1926 to 1949 and was supplemented by essays in the journal
ANTHROPOS.

In the field of Egyptology, Hermann Junker adopted Schmidt's ideas and attempted to establish the existence of an anonymous high god (called the "Great  One") in the Old Kingdom.  But he met with little assent and it was not until Etienne Drioton attempted in 1948 to demonstrate the existence of monotheism long before Akhenaten's reform in his LE MONOTHEISME DE L'ANCIENNE EGYPTE [Monotheism
in Ancient Egypt] that the hypothesis again became popular.

Thus, when Joachim Spiegel wrote in 1953 in his WERDEN DER ALTAGYPTISCHEN HOCHKULTUR [Develpment
of Egyptian Civilization] that "pure monotheism was thus the reigning form of Egyptian religiosity from the beginning of the historical period" he was expressing a notion that had been widespread prior to 1880, and which would once again determine characterizations of Egyptian beliefs regarding the divine until the appearance in 1971 of my book DER EINE UND DIE VIELEN [Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many, 1996), which attempted to investigate the question on a broader basis.

Since that time, the hypothesis of an original monotheism has not reappeared; perhaps it now belongs definitively to the "history" of ideas, along with the idea of a "monotheism for the initiated".


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 12, 2007, 08:22:25 am


                     (http://www.lovethosekids.com/dcpics/sky/sunbeam8.jpg) VI


THE QUESTION OF MONOTHEISM                                                                       continued



But discussion of Egyptian religious belief is ongoing and the concept of an "idea about the 'one' " has
opened up new avenues of approach.

With the "one", Egyptian thinking concerned itself above all with understanding creation and in this re-
spect we can speak with a certain justification of an "original monotheism", for the divine was supposed to have been originally one and then differentiated himself only in the process of creation: "the one who became millions", as it is stated in a formulation popular after the time of Akhenaten.

The Egyptians were always fascinated by the attempt to understand this derivation of multiplicity from an
original unity and they tended to describe this ultimately incomprehensible process by means of paradoxical statements regarding the unity.

A wealth of such statements is to be found as early as the Coffin Texts of the Middle Kingdom.  There, the god Khepri created his own parents ("I engendered my father and was pregnant with my mother") and Horus was born
 "when Isis (his mother!) did not yet exist";  similarly, Orion could state regarding the divine role of a deceased person, "He is my son, older than I." 

In the New Kingdom hymns to the sun god, statements of this sort were applied to Amun, Re or Ptah:
the creator god was "the one", who engendered his engenderers, who "bore his mother" or "the one who bears without having been born."  Along these lines, there is Akhenaten's address to the Aten:
                                          "You Are the One Who Created What Does Not Exist".

The solution to this paradox regarding the beginning of creation was that the original divine unity secreted
something of his substance, whether as spittle, sweat, tears, semen or even as the word that went forth
from his mouth.

The first divine pair and thus plurality resulted from this original emanation.  As early as the Coffin Texts,
this process was described with a "trinitarian' formula: "When He Was One, When He Became Three".
Multiplicity and the plurality of divine forms were thus derived from an original unity.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 13, 2007, 07:12:44 am



        (http://www.samos.be/there/autumn-on-samos/images/sunrise-ireon-samos.jpg) III



THE QUESTION OF MONOTHEISM                                                                continued




THE MONOTHEISTIC "COSMIC FORMULA"



Akhenaten "found" (as he formulated it) the Aten by means of intellectual endeavor or intuition - that is, he discovered the world'd dependence on light and believed it could be understood as the central principle from which all could be understood as the central principle from which all could be derived, a cosmic formula that embraced everything in itself.

But, with light, he committed himself to the visible and was constrained to deny everything that did not be-
long to the visible world: darkness, the afterlife and the deities of the pantheon, especially Amun, the
"Hidden One".!

In the early years of Akhenaten, it was said of the sun god that "there is no other god like him", while in the tombs of the new Residence we read that "there is no other but him".  Therein lies the decisive step toward monotheism and its exclusivity.  Correspondingly, the king was now "unique like Aten, there being no other great one but him" (from the tomb of Aye), while in the "Great Hymn to the Aten", the king proclaims "There is no other who knows you" - in biblical language, "You shall have no other gods before me" and "No one comes to the Father but by me"! (Revised Standard Edition).


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 13, 2007, 07:33:43 am



                            (http://www.myexpression.com/ProdImages/MSMEDIUM/972792.jpg) VII



THE MONOTHEISTIC "COSMIC FORMULA"                                                     continued



There has been constant debate as to whether we have to do here with a "true", consistent monotheism
for, even the Aten formed a trinity with the royal couple, which relativizes the oneness of the god.

Like so many concepts, monotheism cannot be defined with absolute strictness or affectuated in reality.
But, with its relentless rigor, this religion of light was the simplest and clearest religion that had ever been
devised!

The Aten's monotheistic character is desplayed on three levels.  One is to be seen in formulations such as "no other but him", which lay claim to exclusivity; additionally, he had neither a female partner nor an
opponent, so that nothing existed besides him.

Here, Akhenaten's thinking is more radical than that of Deutero-Isaiah ("Besides me there is no god", Isaiah
44.6) or that of Islam; in its rigor, it has been surpassed only by tendencies in Islamic mysticism, for which
existence itself is incompatible with the existence of God, for there can be nothing besides God.

The second, more tangible level consists of the persecution of the old deities, which clearly signaled that
there was to be no god but Aten.  Not until Christianity was there a renewed attempt to eliminate the plethora of deities in favour of the One!

And the third level is that of the "cult", which from the beginning of Akhenaten's reign was directed solely and exclusively to the Aten (also in his names of Re and Re-Harakhty) on all official monuments.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 14, 2007, 11:57:59 am


                        (http://www.therealmartha.com/Navymisc/sunrise.JPG) IV



             B E L I E F   I N   A N    A F T E R L I F E   W I T H O U T   A   H E R E A F T E R




OSIRIS IN THE SHADOW OF THE NEW LIGHT


Amun, the state god who was later to suffer so much persecution, still appeared on early monuments of
Akhenaten; but from the very beginning there was a striking abstinence "vis-a`-vis" Osiris, the ruler of the dead and of the netherworld, the realm of the afterlife.

This points to  a profound change in beliefs regarding the afterlife, one in which there no longer was room
for Osiris.  At Amarna, even the title "Osiris" disappeared, which heretofore every deceased person had borne and would bear again later.

This system of thought, which made light its absolute reference point, had great difficulty with the dark side of the world.  Nighttime negated the Aten and signified death - :They sleep, as though dead", as it is formulated in the Great Hymn and, still more concisely, "When you rise, they live and when you set, they die!"

The total dependence of all existence on light, which is the Aten, was now a given.  Previously, the night
had also been filled with life and traditional solar belief had pictured the nightly journey of the sun through the netherworld in loving detail.

But now the nocturnal phase no longer meant the regeneration of light in the darkness, but merely its absence. When the sun tarries so long is never stated; the Aten is quite simply "gone", though his normal location is "in the sky".  The moment of his return is the critical one, which all creation jubilantly greets and which ends his nightly absence.

The wakening of the dead to new life was no longer accomplished nocturnally in the netherworld, but in the morning, in the light of the rising sun and at the same time as those still alive.  All was now oriented
toward the east and, indeed, even the tombs lay in the eastern mountain of Akhetaten - in the text of the earlier boundary stelae Akhenaten gave directions to prepare his tomb there, "where the sun rises"'.

The "West", previously the mortuary realm on whose "beautiful ways" the blessed dead had walked, disappeared from the concept of the world. 

Generally, insofar as hymns to the setting sun were written (an example is furnished by the tomb of the overseer of the harem, Meryre), the talk is not of the sun's stay in the netherworld, but only of Akhetaten


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 14, 2007, 01:19:07 pm




                   (http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/pictures/nmsunbeam.jpg) VIII



THE AFTERLIFE BECOMES THIS-WORLDY



Like the form of the mummy, the tombs were now mere shells for the body.  The dead did not live in
their tombs, but on earth.

Only very seldom is there mention of the DUAT, the traditional realm of the dead; thus, Suti expresses a wish to leave the Duat in the morning to gaze upon the sun as it rises daily, "without ceasing". Basi-
cally, there was no longer a "here-after" and, especially, no "netherwordly realm" of the dead.  The world of the dead was not distinct from that of the living and the Aten of the daytime shone over both.

The boundary between this life and the next was also blurred by the door frames of the dwellings.  From as early as the Old Kingdom, it was common to display the titles and name of the owner of a tomb on its entrance, so that he would be visible to all who passed by.

Now, such "calling cards" in stone also marked the entrances to living quarters, transferring the afterlife  into the "this-worldly" environment of Akhetaten.

When the Aten rose in the morning,, he filled the temple with his light and his presence, received the offerings made by the royal couple and cared for the needs of both the livind and the dead - for the
BA-souls of the deceased also drew near at that moment to receive their food, which they continued to need, in the form of offerings. 

In their tomb inscriptions, Huy and other officials describe how their BAS  are summoned to eat in the temple, where they receive bread, beer, roasted meats, cool water, wine and milk, while the Aten continues to supply them with the necessary breath of life.  This new role of the BA-soul, which enters the temple freely, able to receive all sorts of offerings "without being blocked from what it desires", is specific to the Amarna Period, but did have some influence thereafter.

One such effect was on the popular scene with the tree goddess, where the BA, in the form of a bird, would be given food and drink along with the deceased, a charming extension of the motif.  In the
tomb now one could do without the false door, which had heretofore been the actual cult place: it was
meaningless for the BA, with its freedom of movement and even the corpse had no need of it, for it no longer made the crossing between this world and the next.

Pure, corporeal continued existence or regeneration was entirely irrelevant at Amarna; what was crucial was existence as a "living BA".  Nevertheless, there remained the wish that the BA might
again unite witht the corpse, for only thus could the totality of a person be established.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 14, 2007, 01:55:54 pm




                      (http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/pictures/nmsunbeam.jpg) VIII



THE AFTER - LIFE BECOMES THIS - WORLDLY                                               continued



In his  tomb, Tutu makes an express reference to the analogy between life and death: You stand up in your tomb in the morning to see the Aten when he rises.  You wash yourself and clothe yourself as you did when you were on earth....You arise and forget weariness"; afterwards, freshly animated by the rays of the Aten, he would accompany the god "like the blessed in the hall of the House of the BenBen
(a temple)". 

The pricipal yearning of mortal beings was to gaze upon the Aten and follow him and to breathe the "sweet breath of the north wind (or of life)"; the decisive moment of existence was awakening in
the morning, which signified the renewal of life.

On the lintel of Hatiay in the Louvre, which probably stems from the early years of Akhenaten, when the old deities were still worshipped, the deceased prays before Osiris, Isis, Sokar and Hathor, expressing the wish that he might go out (from the tomb or the netherworld) as a living BA "to see the Aten on earth".  In a longer prayer, Osiris is invoked as the sun; his essence has merged fully with that of the sun god Re, for "his disk is you disk, his image is your image, his majesty (SHFYT) is your
majesty".  This solution builds on intimations in the Litany of Re and it would result in a total amalgamation of the two gods on the coffins of Dynasty 21,

In the Litany of Re, whose ancient Egyptian title was "Book of Adoring Re in the West" and which originated at the beginning of the New Kingdom, seventy-five invocations of the sun god in his night
netherworldy aspects are illustrated with figures that serve to depict the epithets and functions that are invoked.  These include depictions of Osiris, who was becoming ever more widely perceived as the sun at night and connected with Re as the "united" deity, as he is called in the title and text of the Litany.

In a next step, this "United One" received the ram's head of the nocturnal sun god - in a hymn from the Memphite tomb of Haremhab and, thus. shortly after Akhenaten, Osiris is already called "ram-headed" and , beginning with the tomb of Nefertary, he could also be represented as such.

But, despite this close affinity with the sun god, Akhenated preferred to banish Osiris entirely from his concept of the afterlife; he did not allow him to serve even as the nocturnal manifestation of the sun, for his popularity would easily have made him a competitor to the worship of Aten.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: BlueHue on June 14, 2007, 04:53:35 pm
DEAR BIANCA,

During my observation of the Socalled SUN-Disc ATEN, I seemed to notice that this is not the SUN, but the Midnight Moon, or Night-Sun, by watching his ACHNATON is Squinting and nearsighted.
:'(


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 15, 2007, 07:05:40 am



          (http://www.grammarmudge.cityslide.com/i/Maine%20Album/Sunrise_7-500crp.jpg) I




LIVING ON IN THE TEMPLE



The realm of the dead, as Akhenaten and his intimates saw it, lay in the temple of the Aten at Akhetaten; for this reason Meryre, the overseer of the harem, called himself "justified in Akhetaten", while the general Ramose was styled "possessor of provisions (IMAKH) in Akhetaten".  One was no longer obliged to trust in a distant "Field of Reeds" or "Field of Offerings" to feel certain of provisioning after death. 

All the spells that had previously been needed for orientation, suppplies and protection in the fields of the hereafter became unnecessary - there was no Book of the Dead in the actual Amarna Period, just as the royal books of the netherworld were no longer used.

And we now understand why architecture played such a role in the decoration of the tombs of the officials at Amarna - temple and palace were indeed the new realm of the dead, one located in this world!

The question arises, "What sort of next-worldly destiny was conceivable outiside Akhetaten?"  In his tomb at Saqqara the vizier Aper-El was called "justified in the west of Memphis"; he thus counted
on a continued existence there, though in this case we are quite likely dealing with the early years
of Akhenaten.

In the provinces there are no tombs dating with certainty to his later years.  But we can imagine that the BA-soul, as a human component endowed with freedom of movement, visited the nearest Aten temple or, even better, the chief temple at Akhetaten, in order to participate in the regular offerings and the proximity of the king; Akhenaten was now in fact present only in his Residence.

By way of comparison, we may cite the older concept that all human BAS would probably accompany
the sun god in his barque, just as they all now made their way to the temple.  Thus, in its beliefs re-
garding the afterlife, the Aten religion embraced no universal outlook, but rather a narrowly bounded
regionalism.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 15, 2007, 07:08:31 am



                     (http://www.lovethosekids.com/dcpics/sky/sunbeam11.jpg) V



EXTERNAL FORMS


Although the concept of life after death experienced a radical change, existing funerary customs and
forms, such as burial rites and the traditional grave goods, were preserved

But mourning and burial in the form of a mummy are represented in only one official's tomb at Amarna,
that of Huy, on the east wall!  Since only daytime existence, in the light of the Aten, counted now, a mummy was in fact unnecessary and regeneration of the body in the afterlife no longer played a role.  For this reason, the scarab beetle, the most important symbol of regeneration, disappeared from the output of the royal workshops; in its place, there was the neutral form of the finger ring. 

Scarabs bearing the name of Akhenaten are thus extremely rare.  On the other hand, many royal
SHAWABTIS - in an unmistakable Amarna style are preserved to us - mortuary figurines that served
as workers who were supposed to carry out burdensome labor that migh be required of the deceased in the afterlife.

Traditionally, they were inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead, which designated the deceased as an
"Osiris"; Akhenaten's figurines bore only the title and name of the king.  Of the relatively few private SHAWABTIS
from this period, some are inscribed in the traditional manner - even in the case of a "chantress of the Aten"!
while some bear an offering formula containing the name of the Aten.

We must assume that a royal tomb at Thebes had been planned for Akhenaten at the beginning of his reign, though until now it has not been located with certainty.  "Magical bricks" on which the king was still designated as "Osiris" were probably intended for this burial place.

In the royal tomb at Tell el-Amarna fragments of several coffins of pink granite were found; they bear prayers by
Akhenaten to the radiant Aten instead of the heretofore usual protective gods, the "Sons of Horus" and Anubis.
It is significant that the queen stood at all four corner of his sarcophagus: under Tutankhamun, she would be replaced by the protective goddesses Isis, Nephthys, Neith and Selkis.

Nefertititi was thus Akhenaten's protective goddess, who wished him pleasant breath for his mouth and nose.  On
the other hand, he employed the canopic shrine, for the traditional vulture was too loaded with associations with the old religion.  The smaller Aten temple at Akhetaten was presumably intended for his mortuary cult; like the mortuary temples at Thebes, it lay in the immediate vicinity of a palace and bore the designation HUWET.

The king's precedent of replacing the protective deities with the queen on his coffin was immediately imitated. The
coffin of Taat from Deir el-Medina is an important, although thus far unique, attestation of this; here as well, the
protective deities are replaced by members of the deceased's family.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 15, 2007, 07:50:10 am




                (http://louis.ucsd.edu/~dturnbul/XCountryAlbum/sunshine.jpg) II



THE KING'S GRACE REPLACES THE JUDGMENT OF THE DEAD



 Since the afterlife no longer entailed a realm of the dead, the concepts of a general judgment of the Dead as vindication in the afterlife were no longer suited to the times.  The ethical basis for a blessed afterlife was now the grace and mercy of the king, who "lived on Maat' and thus embodied for his officials, the plumb line of her scale of justice. 

In the next life, as in this one, provisions could be received only from the king.  Whoever was loyally devoted to him would survive death as a MAATY: one who was an adherent of Maat and thus vindi-
cated.  Without this loyalty, there was no life after death, for Akhenaten was the "god of fate (Shai),
who grants every lifetime and a burial (after) old age in his favour", as stated by the general Ramose in an inscription from his home at Akhetaten. 

In their tombs, officials were still always designated as "vindicated" (MAA-KHERU).  Immediately after the Amarna Period, pictorial representations of the Judgment of the dead would receive an important new element in the form of "Swallower-of-the-Dead", a female monster composed of a crocodile, a
lion and a hippopotamus; she embodied the very jaws of hell that devoured the "enemies".

Beliefs regarding the afterlife at Amarna can thus be summarized quite simply: the dead slept at night and in the daytime they accompanied the Aten and the royal family to the Great Temple, where all were provisioned. 

There was thus still life after death,but the king was responsible for it as lord of provisions both in this life and the next; the Aten tended personally only to the continued existence of the king.  The temple
and the palace, with all their painted architectural detail, ruled the new tomb decoration, for they mirrored the new, thoroughly earthly afterlife of the deceased; the departure of the royal family from the palace and the daily offerings made by the king in the temple were also popular themes. 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 15, 2007, 08:39:52 am





                     (http://www.lovethosekids.com/dcpics/sky/sunbeam8.jpg) VI



BELIEF IN AN AFTERLIFE WITHOUT A HEREAFTER                                              continued


Instead of the usual pillars, columns were now employed in the tombs - Aya had an actual columned hall in his-and in this way, too, the realm of the dead took on architectonic form as something belong-
ing to this world, though this particular usage was a continuation of developments under
Amenophis III.

In a somewhat murky formulation in the Great Hymn,we learn that even when the Aten has "gone
away he, nevertheless, remains in the heart of the king.  That was his enduring place and the community, together with his prophet, mitigated the solitude that surrounded him in his daily course acress the sky.

The afterlife of traditional belief, which the sun now no longer touched and illuminated, lost much of its luster.  In the tomb of an artisan whose name Paatenemheb points to the Amarna Period, there is the earliest copy of the "Inyotef Song", which was once dated to the Middle Kingdom because of its ficti-
tuous ascription to a king named Inyotef.

Its skeptical stance 'vis-a`-vis the afterlife, which characterizes the entire new genre of harpers' songs as well as the new laments over the dead, is a product of Akhenaten's religion of light and the deep shadows it cast.


****************************************************************************




THE INYOTEF SONG



I have heard the words of Imhotep and Hardedef
whose maxims are cited everywhere.
Where are their places?  Their walls have collapsed,
their places do not exist, as though they had
    never been made.
No one comes from there to describe their condition
and give tidings of their needs
and calm our hearts
until we, too, arrive where they have gone.

So let your heart rejoice, so as to forget all that -
it is good for you to follow your heart as long as you live.
Place myrrh on your head, clothe yourself in finest linen,
anoint yourself with genuine oil of the god's property.
Increase your well-being andl let your will not grow slack!
Follow your heart together with your beloved,
do your work on earth and let your heart grieve not,
until that day of mourning comes to you.
But the "Weary of Heart" (Osiris) does not hear their cries,
and their laments save no human heart from
   the netherworld.
Again: Spend a happy day, do not weary of it!
Remember: no one can take his goods with him.
Remember: no one who has passed away returns!



****************************************************************************

The entire text is preserved on Papyrus Harris 500 (=Brithis Museum 10060) from Dynasty 19.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 16, 2007, 06:00:36 am



        (http://www.samos.be/there/autumn-on-samos/images/sunrise-ireon-samos.jpg)



FROM

AKHENATEN AND THE RELIGION OF LIGHT



Erik Hornung

Translated by David Lorton



                                                        D A R K   Y E A R S



THE EVENTFUL YEAR 12



With the persecution of the old deities, the new religion reached its acme and, at the same time, went
too far.  Thus began a final phase, which Donald B. Redford has characterized as a "sunset".

The last two official monuments of the king stem from his twelfth year and both have to do with his foreign
policy.  One is a victory stela, several copies of which were probably set up in Nubia; some fragments of one such copy, later reused at the temple of Buhen, were partially published only in 1976, while another
was located at Amada. 

The topic of their inscription is a military expedition against the Nubian land of Ikaita, which Akhenaten entrusted to his viceroy Tuthmosis.  The text follows a long-standing mode, according to which the "re-
bellion" of this land is reported to the king, affording him the pretext for a military intervention.  This assu-
med a scale of a relatively modest punitive expedition, as shown by the list of spoils at the end of the in-
scription: 145 enemies were captured and eighty were killed, some of them in battle and some "on the stake", that is execution.

This is the only expedition attested to date for Akhenaten and he surely did not lead it himself; he thus
evaded the established model according to which every pharaoh lead an expedition, often only a symbolic
one, at the beginning of his reign, so as to fulfill his role as a victorious monarch.  In other ways, as well, he avoided warlike attributes, such as we still find in the reign of his father Amenophis III and the representation of the triumphal scene of "smiting the enemies" seems to have been absent from the pylon
towers of the temple at Amarna.

In the correspondece from the Amarna archive, his loyal vassals constantly implore him, in vain, to inter-
vene militarily in western Asia; this is the origin of the cliche` of the "pacifistic" king who remained inactive
abroad while wrapped up in his fantasy world at Akhetaten.  But toward the end of his reign, we encounter
lively foreign policy activity in connection with the visit of the prince Aziru of Amurru to Akhetaten.

The other monument of year 12 is the "tribute of the foreign lands", which is represented in the tombs of two officials of the new Residence.  Previously, the "tribute" (actually trade goods) of foreign peoples had
been depicted in the tombs of viziers; nominally the highest civil officials, they also had oversight of
foreign trade.  Nothing of the sort is found in the tombs of Akhenaten's viziers, Ramose and Aper-El.

This stress on foreign policy was probably important to the king, because of increasing difficulties on the domestic front, the intensification of his religious policy doubtless incurred reactions and, along with those,
there were family problems as well.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 16, 2007, 06:49:43 am


                   (http://www.myexpression.com/ProdImages/MSMEDIUM/972792.jpg) VII



KIYA, THE BELOVED



The royal family idyll we find so compelling in the "intimate" scenes from Amarna art has for some time had it Achilles' heel - ever since we learned of Kiya, the king's favourite.


                                  (http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/kiya000.jpg)

She was mentioned briefly in the scholarly literature for the first time in 1959 and 1961 and, in the
meanwhile, we have learned more about her through the work of Yuri Y. Perepelkin Reiner Hanke, Wolf-
gang Helck and Rolf Krauss. 

Her name is a shortened form, behind which lies a different name, perhaps a foreign one.  Kiya might have come from the kingdom of Mitanni, for we know of an "administrator of the woman from Naharin"
from a funerary cone of the period, though the woman is not identified by name; Kiya is often called simply "the lady" (TA SHEPSET) which has led to the suggestion that there is a recollection of her in the anonymous "lady" of the "Tale of Two Brothers" from the Ramesside Period. 

(http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/amarna/archive/uc601.gif)
PART OF A KHOL TUBE BELONGING TO KIYA

Even if she was a Mitannian, she cannot have been identical to the princess Tadukhepa, whom Akhan-
aten inherited from the harem of his father, though she might have been a dsitinguised and beautiful
Asiatic in her retinue; from the text on the commemorative scarab that Amenophis III had issued on the occasion of his marriage to Gilukhepa, we learn this Mitannian princess was accompanied to Egypt
by 317 ladies in waiting.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 16, 2007, 07:08:06 am


                       (http://www.therealmartha.com/Navymisc/sunrise.JPG) IV



In any event, Kiya is attested side by side with Nefertiti for several years, though the two women are
carefully distinguished by their official titles.

In the royal harem, there had always been only one "great royal wife" and, in the case of Akhenaten,
this was Nefertiti.

Kiya, on the other hand, bore the highly unusual official title "great beloved wife of the King", which elevated her above all the other women of the harem, but without assigning her any religious significance, such as Nefertitit had.

Kiya is also carefully distinguished from Nefertiti in the repressentations.  She never appears wearing a crown or the royal uraeus-serpent and her name is not enclosed in a cartouche.  Additionally, there is never more than one daughter behind her, in contrast to the usually larger number who appear behing
Akhenaten and Nefertiti.
                                         (http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/files/eg30.8.54.l.jpg)
Whether or not we must reckon with a "disappearance" of Nefertiti from the scene, and however that
would have to be explained, Kiya stood out for a time as the predominant wife at the royal court.  In
a representation preserved only in fragmentary form, she appears, along with her own daughter, be-
hind Akhenaten under the radiant Aten, while at the same time, Nefertiti's daughters Merytaten and
Anhesenpaaten are lying on the ground in proskynesis and are thus clearly relegated to second rank.

Akhenaten apparently had another, seventh daughter by Kiya and it can be imagined that the latter
established her own daughter as heir to the throne instead of Merytaten.  But it can only be left to
speculation whether we must reckon with a formal power struggle between Kiya and Merytaten (who,
in the end, bore the title of a queen) in the later years of Akhenaten.  It seems certain only that in many instances the name if Kiya replaced by that of (Princess, not Queen) Merytaten and that part of the burial equipment in the "ominous" tomb 55 was originally intended for Kiya.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 16, 2007, 07:25:43 am



                       (http://www.therealmartha.com/Navymisc/sunrise.JPG) VIII




THE DAKHAMANZU AFFAIR



On the other hand,it is unlikely that Kiya wrote the highly political letter to Suppiluliumas in which a widowed Egyptian queen requested a Hittite prince to be her consort. The Hittite sources speak of an actual queen regnant, a "female king of Egypt", which Kiya certainly was not.
                                 (http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/kiya.jpg)
This letter is preserved only in Hittite sources and identifies the Egyptian queen only by her title,
"Dakhamanzu", not by name.  She wrote to Suppiluliumas that her royal husband had died without leaving a son.  This excludes Merytaten, who did not outlive Smenkhare, leaving only Nefertiti, Akhen-
aten's widow, or Ankhesenamun, the widow of Tutankhamun, as the potential author of the letter.

The request for a Hittite prince initially succeeded, but the murder of Prince Zananza while he was en
route to Egypt prevented a diplomatic marriage and an alliance of the two great powers at this early date; this was not to be accomplished until nearly a century later under Ramesses II.

Now, however, the assassination of the prince triggered a retaliatory attack on the part of the Hittites,
its unforturnate result was an outbreak of pestilence, to which the great Hittite king Suppiluliumas
succumbed and it has been suspected that this plague was the cause of the early deaths of several other leading figures of the Amarna Period.





Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 16, 2007, 07:47:38 am




        (http://www.grammarmudge.cityslide.com/i/Maine%20Album/Sunrise_7-500crp.jpg) I



A "SUNSET" FILLED WITH MYSTERY



The later years of Akhenaten are filled with puzzles and problems and none of the proposed recon-
structions of this period is entirely workable.

The supposed disappearance of Nefertitti, which has now again been called into question; the position
of Kiya, Akhenaten's favourite; his "marriages" to his older daughters, which served to elevate their status; the problem of a coregency with a female partner or with his son-in-law Smnkhakare; the
alleged brief sole rule of Merytaten after the death of her father; and the authorship of the above-
mentioned letter to Suppiluliumas - new reconstructions keep surfacing for these eventful, but poorly documented, years.  The lack of sources has proven favourable to a luxuriant overgrowth of specula-
tions.

To note some highlights from these later years, we can draw on inscriptions on the vessels found in
great abundance at Tell el-Amarna.  They give the exact year and, more rarely, the month, when they
were created and filled with perishable products such as wine, oil and honey.

Their distribution over the individual regnal years if quite uneven and indicates what are clearly high
points: year 9-10 (new titulary of the god and further changes?), year 12 (tribute of the foreign lands)
and year 14 (arrangements for the succession?). The origin of these deliveries is noted, but not their
purposes, so that it remains unclear what occasioned them.

Consumption of large quantities of products usually points to divine festivals, but there can have been no question of these at Amarna.

Jan Assmann has pointed to the impoverishment of social and religious life which this discontinuance of festivals entailed.  Previously, festivals continually afforded fresh opportunities to approach the divine
and beseech care and salvation from all sorts of afflictions.

Public rewards - the awarding of gold to meritorious officials - could be no substitute for this and
Akhenaten's expectations in this regard would prove to be of no avail: the worship of the traditional
deities would flower again in his immediate vicinity and even satire of the king and his "holy family"
would flourish.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 17, 2007, 06:57:15 am



                      (http://www.lovethosekids.com/dcpics/sky/sunbeam11.jpg) V



MOCKERY OF THE "HERETIC KING"?



The two dozen limestone figurines of monkeys found at Akhetaten might point in this direction.
Scenes of chariotry and kissing recall popular motifs in the representationso of the royal family; in the
Ramesside Period the satiric, theriomorphic distancing of Pharaoh would become quite familiar. 
Akhenaten's officials might thus have found an outlet, in these groups of monkeys, for expressing their inner distance from the "heretic King". 

The discovery of figurines of traditional deities in the houses at Amarna is significant.  They must stem from a time when these deities were officially persecuted, thus testifying to their continuing, albeit
secret, worship; at the same time, they touch on the area of magic, which was totally excluded from
official religion in the Amarna period. 

                          (http://www.guardians.net/egypt/images/logos/goodeye-new.jpg)

Predominant are figurines of the popular tutelary deities Bes and Taweret, while other deities are
attested less often or in only one instance; Sobek, Isis, Thoth, Ptah, Mut and even the hated Amun,
as well as Osiris.  Along with the amulets (including the especially popular UDJAT -eye), representations of Bes, Taweret and Amun were also present in the houses; by way of texts, "laments" are attested, in particualr a graffito left behind in a relatively obscure spot in Theban Tomb 139 by Pawah, the "scribe of the divine offerings of Amun" in the mortuary temple of Smenkhakare.  In it, he praises his god Amun in terms that in part are reminiscent of the poems of the "Dialogue of a Man Weary of Life with His Soul" and their praise of death - the works of the "critical literature" of the Middle Kingdom were now being circulated anew and are mostly attested to us in copies of the late New Kingdom, such as our only copy of the "Admonitions of Ipuwer" with its impressive depiction of widespread change and even revolution.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 17, 2007, 07:01:00 am



                     (http://louis.ucsd.edu/~dturnbul/XCountryAlbum/sunshine.jpg) II



After this period of suppression, laments were now transformed into praises of the god who had triumphantly survived all his persecution:



"You give satisfaction without eating, you give drunkenness without drinking....
oh Amun, champion of the poor!
You are father to the motherless,
husband to the widow.
How lovely it is to speak your name,
it is like the taste of life,
it is like the taste of bread for a child,
like a garment for the naked,
like the scent of a flowering twig at
the time of summer's heat.

Turn to us, oh lord of eternity!
You were here when nothing had yet come into being,
and you will be here when it is at an end.
You make me see the darkness that you give -
give me light, that I may see you!"


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 17, 2007, 07:24:33 am

                      (http://www.lovethosekids.com/dcpics/sky/sunbeam8.jpg) VI



From the fact that Smenkhkare had a mortuary temple with an Amun cult at Thebes, and that Amun was once again mentioned next to the Aten in two late tomb chapels at Tell el-Amarna, it has been concluded that Akhenaten relented and partially mitigated his reform, while he was still alive.  Since
his coregency with Smenkhkare is once again the subject of debate, this supposition now rests on a shaky foundation.  It is possible that Aten's renewed coexistence with the traditional deities began only after the death of Akhenaten and ended some years later, when Tutankhaten changed his name.

In any case, there is no indication of a fall from power or a violent end to the "Heretic King", so his
accomplishments did not come to a halt immediately upon his death. 

During a transition period that lasted for some years, there was a cautious attempt to carry on his work; it was only then that the pressure of opposing forces proved too strong, leading to the abandoning of the Aten and his sacred precinct of Akhetaten.  But what was given up immediately
was the sole worship of the Aten (along with the ban on the remainder of the pantheon) and the
denial of an afterlife in the netherworld.

Everything else could wait, and what was decisive was probably a feeling of relief from a heavy
burden, a breath of fresh air, after the death of the "Heretic King".



                 (http://www.seattleartmuseum.org/Exhibit/Archive/Egypt/info/images/amun.gif)

                 AMUN - XVIII DYNASTY


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 18, 2007, 06:52:34 am
(http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/5164CTBGM6L._SS500_.jpg)

         






FROM


AKHENATEN AND THE RELIGION OF LIGHT

Erik Hornung
Translated by David Lorton



                                                 T H E   S U C C E S S O R S



MANY WOMEN, BUT NO HEIR


The "long lifetime" that Akhenaten reguarly bore as an epithet was not granted him:

the king died in the prime of life probably in July 1336 BCE.  Above all, he died withoutleaving behind a son who xould fill his political and religious role.

Nefertiti and Kiya had borne him only daughters; of his siblings, only a sister, Baketamun (later
Baketaten) had lived to see his coronation; and Nefertiti seems also to have had only one sister.
There was thus a large selection of royal women, but no unequivocal male heir to the throne.

The succession problem was especially tricky on this occasion, because not just a new pharaoh was
needed, but rather a prophet to preserve and to promulgate the pure teaching of the god of light.

It is difficult to imagine how the "crown princess" Merytaten, for instance, could have played such
a role, one that even the king's two young relatives, Smenkhkare and Tutankhaten (still a child), were
obliged to grow into.  The "king makers" elevated each of these two young men in turn to the throne,
demonstrating in the process that they were seeking no radical break with the ruling dynasty.

In the case of Smenkhkare, it remains unclear wheter he had already been appointed coregent by
Akhenaten or whether his rule of about three years began only after the death of the "heretic king".
A few monuments heretofore cited in favor of a coregency can be interpreted otherwise.  On the
stela Berlin 1783, for instance, two kings appear together in full regalia, but they have only three
courtouches, as the royal couple Akhenaten and Nefertiti do, so that the "coregent" (wearing the
Double Crown!) might rather be the "great royal wife"; on another stela in Berlin (20716) she wears
the Brue crown and is handing Akhenaten a cup of wine. 

Thus, there is only a single official representation depicting Smenkhakare, with Merytaten as his
wife, rewarding Meryre in his tomb.  It is possible that the official inserted them immediately after
Akhenaten's death, when the abandonment of Akhetaten and its tombs had not yet been decided
on, so that even this representation does not afford proof of a coregency.

A very fragmentary stela in University College, London, does indeed display four cartouches, thus
indicating a coregencey, but even here the identity of Akhenaten's partner is debatable.  The
epithet "beloved of Neferkheprure" or "beloved of Waenre" (both names refer to Akhenaten) is no more than circumstantial evidence that one might choose to connect with a still living "heretic king" and
thus with a coregency, as opposed to a posthumous worship of Akhenaten.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 18, 2007, 07:00:31 am


TUTANKHATEN MAKES HIS APPEARANCE



                         (http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/gif-files/gri-106a.gif)



We are not on firm ground until the reign of Tutankhaten, though his origin remains uncertain.

His designation "beloved king's son" on a block from Hermopolis has often been taken as a justification for viewing him as the son of Amenophis III or Akhenaten, but this Egyptian princely title is too vague to allow any conclusions.  Several years ago, near the Red Monastery at Sohag, the tomb of a "god's father", Sennedjem, to whom the upbringing of the young Tutankhaten was evidently entrusted, was discovered; are we to conclude from this that the prince spent his early childhood in the region of Akhmim,the home of that prominent family from which Teye, Yuya and Aya stemmed?

On the back of his throne, the new royal couple is represented beneath the radiant Aten, thus continuing
the idea of a divine triad which had been realized by Akhenaten, Nefertiti and the Aten.  But this attempt to maintain basic elements of Akhenaten's religion lasted only a short time, for a direct continuation of his reform proved impossible.  A first sign of this was the abandonment of the icon of the sun disk with its rays.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 18, 2007, 07:37:12 am



RETURN TO AMUN AND PTAH


(http://www.egyptianmuseum.gov.eg/Gods/amun.JPG)
A M U N

The new king's name was evidently changed to Tutankhamun in his third regnal year, and immediately thereafter, Akhenaten's "Horizon of Aten" was abandoned.  The court was moved to Memphis, whence the text of the "Reformation Stela" proclaimed the end of the reform and the renewal of the old cults that had been "forgotten" for so long that gods and goddesses no longer drew nigh when called upon.

At the very beginning of the inscription, the young king is designated as "beloved" of Amun-Re, Atum of Heliopolis, Re-Harakhty, Ptah and Thoth - an unusual assemblage intended to do justice to all the important cults.  There was a prevailing sense that the land had undergone an illness and was finally healed.  But there was also the matter of restoring Maat in the wake of that very king who had constantly maintained that "he lived in Maat".

The course of religious developments immediately after Akhenaten can perhaps best be seen in hymns employed by Haremhab during the reign of Tutankhamun, in particular on his stela 551 in the BritishMuseum.  There, the regent prays to Atum-Harakhty, commencing with turns of expression that could have come directly from a hymn to the Aten:

"You have appeared on the horizon of the sky
perfect and youthful as Aten......."

Here, "Aten" is written with a divine determinative, as though Akhenaten's teaching were still in force, though the sentence continues with

"in the embrace of your mother Hathor"

thus returning, with this mythic reference,to the traditional embedding of the sun god in "constellations"
of deities.

Akhenaten's Aten had no mother, while Haremhab's hymn mentions both Hathor and the sky goddess Nut as the mother of the god.

A few verses later, the god is extolled as "king of sky and earth" - which the Aten had also been! - but also as "ruler of the netherworld (DUAT) and chief of the desert, the realm of the dead" and thus, once again, as lord of the hereafter and as the "one who raised himself from the Primeval water (NUN)".


                                        (http://touregypt.net/featurestories/ptah9.jpg)

                                                PTAH


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 18, 2007, 07:57:10 am




RETURN TO AMUN AND PTAH                                                                       continued



Following this, cultic reality and the mythology of the course of the sun once again make their appearance:



                        (http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/ramesses/solar_barque.jpg)



"August god in his chapel,
Lord of time in his barque!
Those in the horizon row you....
Tha bas of the west rejoice at you......."

The conclusion is rich in mythological allusions, all in the style of traditional hymns: "Perfect youth whom Ptah created, ......who emerged as Horus.....ruler of time and sovereign of the gods of eternity, .....your mother Nut lifts you up".

There is appended a praise of Thoth, the god of wisdom and the moon, with whom Haremhab directly compares himself - like the moon by the sun, he stands at the side of his king, Tutankhamun.  There is also praise for the goddess Maat, who grants him the breath of life.  The conclusion contains the traditional mortuary wish to enter and leave the "Field of Reeds" - the Egyptian paradise in the here-after - and to be in the following of Sokar, the Memphite god of the dead.

The hereafter, banned under Akhenaten, has thus made a complete comeback!

At about the same time, the high priest Parennefer presided over the renewal of the cult of Amun at Karnak; a procession bearing the vase sacred to the god, whose origin lay in the traditional cult, played an important role in this.

His tomb at Thebes was discovered not many years ago by Friederike Kampp and Karl-Joachim Seyfried; its model is clearly the royal tomb at Amarna and the tombs of the officials there.  There is no longer a radiant Aten, but the scene of sun worship, with its rejoicing on the part of all creation, is drawn from the imagistic realm of Akhenaten's tomb.  Its indulgence in the representation of chariots is also derived from Amarna.

The spirit of the times is manifest in the solution found for the decoration of Tutankhamun's tomb upon his premature death.  It in no way represents a return to tradition, to the time before Akhenaten; rather, referential derivations from tradition were combined with radical innovations worthy of the Amarna Period and in part taken from the decoration of private tombs. 

This is also true of the tomb of his successor Aya, which was decorated only four years later.
 
On the walls of both tombs are excerpts from the "Amduat", an old Book of the Netherworld, as well as extracts from the Book of the Dead in the tomb of Aya.  Along with the Amduat and the Book of the Dead, the gilded shrines of Tutankhamun offer new compositions, among them the "Book of the Heavenly Cow".


                                (http://www.rainbowcrystal.com/egypt/E-116horus.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 18, 2007, 07:47:48 pm




THE END OF THE DYNASTY:   AYA AND HAREMHAB



In the inscription on the stela of his rock-cut tomb in the vicinity of Akhmim, Aya settles the score with
"evil" and the "destruction of Right" and he provides that each person can again make offerings to "his own god," and that "all the deities" will be satisfied that their sancturaries have been restored.

The emphasis is thus quite similar to that of Tutankhamun, and his successor Haremhab also makes an
emphatic reference to destruction - he provided for the divine temples, which had become "ruin heaps"
and he restored the world to its ideal condition:

"He organized this land and gave it instructions that corresponded to (those of) the time of Re.  He renewed the temples of the gods from the delta marshes to Nubia.  He fashioned all their images, distinct from what had been earlier, with greater perfection....

He didstinguished their temples he created their statues in their correct form from all sorts of precious stones.  He searched out all the holy, divine precincts that were ruin heaps in this land and he founded
them anew, as they had been at the beginning of primeval time.  He dedicated divine offerings to them as regular daily offerings, along with all sorts of vessels for their temples, cast in gold and silver.  He
equipped them with WAB-priests and lector priests from the elite of the army.  He assigned them fields and cattle".

Haremhab was closely connected by marriage (to a sister of Nefertiti?) to the royal house of Dynasty 18, but he intentionally made himself out to be the first legitimate ruler since Amenophis III, who served as his principal model.

(http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320Hist&Civ/slides/10akhen/talatat2bluepaintsmall.JPG)
 
During his reign, lively building activity commenced anew in the temple of Amun at Karnak and a a great number of TALATAT-blocks from Akhenaten's constructions were reused in his own buildings.  Egypt also launched a new and active foreign policy that led to the regaining of lost territories in Syria.

                           (http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320Hist&Civ/slides/10akhen/talatat1reconsmall.JPG)


The Ramesside Period that followed was taking shape.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 19, 2007, 07:12:02 am




FROM

AKHENATEN AND THE RELIGION OF LIGHT

by Erik Hornung - 1995

Translated by David Lorton



                                                            E P I L O G U E



FAILURE AND CONTINUITY



What was left?  Akhenaten had founded no congregation; he had no disciples or apostles to carry on his work after his death.

There was only his small circle of followers, who were now bereft of a reference point.  Akhenaten had concentrated his teaching so exclusively upon himself as the only one who knew the Aten, that it was doomed to perish along with him - in any case, in the extreme form in which he had promulgated it.

And yet, he had set in motion changes that would endure after his passing and exercise influence in
several areas.


                 (http://www.zwoje-scrolls.com/zwoje39/Merire_12a.jpg)


After a brief setback, Late Egyptian survived as the new written language, in which a rich literature soon
unfolded, reaching previously unknown heights with its harpers' songs and love lyrics.

In art, the zest for motion and the depiction of emotion initiated by Akhenaten remained in force for de-
cades and the visual joy of Amarna art rippled in ever-widening circles through the centuries that followed.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 21, 2007, 06:37:01 am




FAILURE AND CONTINUITY                                                                                       continued



In the area of religion, Amun did not entirely recover his paramount status and his city of Thebes would never again be the capital.

But monotheism had to wait half a millennium and longer to receive a fresh chance in Judaism. 

In this connection, there has been debate as to whether Akhenaten's monotheistic ideas had an influence on Palestine, as was assumed by Sigmund Freud in particular.

The temporal interval is too great to infer a direct influence from the Amarna Period on the monotheism of the
Hebrew Bible.

But undercurrents that remain hidden to us might certainly have exercised an influence; perhaps the author of
Psalm 104 indeed drew upon the Great Hymn to the Aten.
                                                                                                                               


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 21, 2007, 09:37:58 am



                                                                    E P I L O G U E




                                  (http://old.handzon.com/Iands/images/akhenaten.jpg)                                                                                                                           



MORE THAN AN EPISODE



Akhenaten and the religion he founded were not just transitory phenomena, as they are so often made out to be.

The challenge he posed compelled succeeding generations to rethink questions that had seemed resolved, just as
art received new impulses from this debate.

As Jan Assmann has put it  "The effects of Amarna religion was to clarify, not to reform.  The traditional religion be-
came only ever more self-conscious as a result of this confrontation with its antithesis".

This is especially evident in the case of beliefs about the afterlife.  The denial of a hereafter and the realm of
Osiris compelled a rethinking of the meaning of the dark half of the cosmos.

Light remained dependent on darkness and the positive value of the latter was never felt as clearly as it was after
Akhenaten.

There can be no greater contrast to his religion of light than this statement in a solar hymn of Tjanefer, a high
priest of Amun, in early Dynasty 20, regarding the sun god when he descends to the realm of the dead:


"WHEN YOU COME TO THEM ....YOU ARE SMOKY AND DARK, FOR YOUR ABOMINATION IS LIGHT"!


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 21, 2007, 10:19:06 am




MORE THAN AN EPISODE                                                                                           continued



On the one hand, the dependence of all life on light, Akhenaten's positive view of light as salvation; on the other
hand, light as an ABOMINATION - the two are exact polar opposites.

For renewal and rejuvination, light  and all  life require darkness; it was the ENTIRE course of the sun, including its
nocturnal, netherworldly portion, which replenished the energy of the sun.

It is only logical that in the immediate wake of Akhenaten, there was a veritable outpouring of symbolic represent-
ations of the daily course of the sun.



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                                          T H E   B O O K   O F   T H E   H E A V E N L Y   C O W



This spell is to be recited over the (picture of) a cow, with  "the Infinite Ones who are" (inscribed) on her chest, and over whose back is (inscribed) "the Infinite Ones who are". Whose four hoofs are filled out in paint and upon whose belly are nine stars, issuing from its hindquarters in front of its hind legs, while beneath its belly stands Shu, painted in yellow ocher, his arms support these stars, and inscribed with his name between them, which says "Shu is himself".

A barque, on which are a steering-oar and a shrine with a Solar disk over it and Re in it, is in front of Shu, close to his hand, while another version (of a barque) is behind him, close to his (other) hand. Her two udders are placed in the middle of her left leg, one half of them being drawn in paint in the middle of this hind leg with the following words outside in retrograde : "I am who I am. I will not let them take action." What is (written) beneath the barque that is in front is : "You shall not grow weary, my son." - in retrograde, and as follows : "Your condition is like that of one who lives forever." and as follows : "Your son is in me. Life, prosperity and health be for your nose !"

What is (written) behind Shu, close to his arm, is as follows : "Guard them !" What is behind him at his flank is (written) in retrograde as follows : "It is right that they should enter when I retire each day." What is (written) under the arm of the figure below the left hind leg and behind it is as follows : "Everything is sealed." What is (written) above his head, below the hindquarters of the cow and what is between its hind legs is as follows : "May he come out." What is (written) behind the two figures that are between its hind legs and above their heads : "The aged one is in the realm of the dead. Praise is given to him when he enters." What is (written) over the heads of the two figures that are between its forelegs : "He who procreates, he who adores, support of the sky."



**************************************************************************************


                                (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic7.jpg)


One of the earliest occurs in the  ENIGMATIC BOOK OF THE NETHERWORRLD on one of Tutankhamun's gilded shrines, which until now has remained without parallels.  Its dependence on Amarna is visible in the streams of light which link
the individual figures in the netherworld to one another and enter into the bodies of the deceased.

                                 (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic8.jpg)



                                 (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic9.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 23, 2007, 10:15:23 am


                                                       E P I L O G U E




THE SUN ENDURES


The scenes of the course of the sun demonstrate, moreove, how much importance was ascribed to the
sun, even after Akhenaten's failure.

Traditional beliefs about the sun experienced no setback, despite the astonishingly massive reaction to
Akhenaten's provocation.

But, now greater attention was devoted to the combination of Re AND Osiris. 


                             (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutshrine2.jpg)


In contrast to the reformer's attempt to draw the sun god entirely into THIS world and fill it entirely with his presence, denying all that was next-wordly, the BOOK OF THE HEAVENLY COW (first attested
under Tutankhamun) makes the mythic statement that, because of the rebellion of humankind, the sun
god withdrew for all time from this world to the sky, while at the same time he established the netherworld for the dead.

                         (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutshrine6a.jpg)



Here, there is once again stress on the DISTANCE  and the otherworldly aspect of the divine


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 23, 2007, 10:30:33 am






                                                       E P I L O G U E




THE SUN ENDURES                                                                                       continued



The other clear return was in the royal ideology.

After Akhenaten there were only a few tentative attemps at the worship of Pharaoh as a personal god.

An example is Huy, Tutankhamun's Nubian viceroy, who entreated his king to dispel the "darkness' that
meant distance from him. 

It was now AMUN who now became the god of the poor and the oppressed, the refuge of the simple in their prayers - the reaction in favour of Amun was thus sustained less by his priesthood than by ordinary
folk.

As Sun God, Amun was both distant and near: distant as a beholder, but near as a hearer who stood by those who prayed to him.

In the official theology of the Ramesside Period, which was a continuation of the "New Solar Theology",
he became a god who filled the entire world with himself ( as Aten had filled his sancturay), the ONE who
made himself "INTO MILLIONS", but without displacing the other deities.



            (http://www.resurrectisis.org/IsisAmC2_files/Hwingcanopy.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 23, 2007, 10:35:14 am






                                                           E P I L O G U E



THE SUN ENDURES                                                                                                continued  

                                                                                    

(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/shed1.jpg)


The figure of SHED, the "Saviour", the powerful and youthful god who intervened and helped in time of need was another heir to the Amarna Period.

Here, in a time of crisis and anxiety, human yearning intensified into a new deity, who was able to step forth, along with Amun, as a personification of help for the needy in this age of personal piety.

Basically he was the young, militant Horus who stood by his father Osiris, but this function was blended with that of the sun god triumphant over his enemies.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 23, 2007, 10:39:56 am




                                                        E P I L O G U E
 
 
                           (http://www.burlingtonnews.net/SunWings.jpg)



THE SUN ENDURES                                                                                          continued



The Egyptians evidently accepted the god of light about whom Akhenaten preached in his own creative development of the NEW SOLAR THEOLOGY of Dynasty 18, and they continued to tolerate him for a brief time after the king's reign.

ATEN was never outlawed as a designation of the sun, but what was immediately withdrawn was the exclusiveness with which this new god had made his appearance.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 23, 2007, 10:59:57 am



                                                          E P I L O G U E



ROOTS OF FUNDAMENTALISM


Here, we come to the critical point.

In Amarna religion, for the first time in history, an attempt was made to explain the entire natural and
human world on the basis of a SINGLE  priciple.

Like Einstein, Akhenaten made light the absolute reference point and it is astonishing how clearly and consistently he pursued this concept in the Fourteenth Century BCE, making him, in fact, the first
MODERN human being.

Indeed, modernity also strives to describe the universe with a single formula, to explain it on the basis of a SINGLE principle; the attempts to do so do not cease.

But Akhenaten demonstrated with unusual clarity that such one-sideness is doomed to failure.

All we repress and ignore will overtake and overshadow us.

Akhenaten was perhaps the first fundamentalist in history and, for this reason, he remains, even today,  a very contemporary figure who can scarcely be denied respect and sympathy in any critique of him.

But there is a lesson for us in his fate and his failure: FUNDAMENTALISM, in whatever form, solves no
problems, but only suppresses them.

We must not succumb to the temptation that, from time to time, emerges from it and its apparently simple and clear solutions. 

With its intolerance, it can have no future: things must not be reduced to a single, isolated principle, be it ever so noble and elevated.

Always and, above all, the whole is at stake.

No grim reaction followed Akhenaten, but rather a cautious attempt to join old to new, so as not to give
up - straight away - what had been achieved on the positive side.

The Amarna Period exercised a stimulating and fertilizing influence on the intellectual and spiritual history of ancient Egypt and of all humankind, and, for our own time, it continues to offer a model instance from which we can learn.



FROM

AKHENATEN AND THE RELIGION OF LIGHT

Erik Hornung

Translated by David Lorton



                                            (http://maat.sofiatopia.org/iaten2.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 23, 2007, 11:06:38 am

The Book of the Heavenly (Celestial) Cow

(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/cow5.jpg)

by Roland Mastaff
 
The first rendering of the Book of the Heavenly Cow was produced on the outermost of the four gilded shrines of Tutankhamun discovered in his tomb, though it was incomplete. However, we do find fairly complete versions of the book in the tombs of Seti I (KV17), Ramesses II (KV7) and Ramesses III (KV11). In each of these instances, the book is exclusively depicted in an annex off of the burial chamber. We also find brief excerpts from the book in the left niche of the third corridor in the tomb of Ramesses VI, and another even shorter version on a papyrus from the Ramesside Period now in Turin.  While this book does not seem to appear after the New Kingdom, it was incorporated into the Book of the Fayoum during the Roman Period.
Within the first part of the text in this book, a parallel to the biblical narrative of the great Flood has inspired considerable interest both within and outside of Egyptology. The heavenly cow in the tomb of Seti I was noted by early adventurers who visited the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank of Luxor (ancient Thebes) such as Henry Salt and Robert Hay. In 1876, Edouard Naville published the version of the Book of the Heavenly Cow found in the tomb of Seti I, translating it into French. He supplied the first translation into English in 1876. Later, in 1885, he also published the version found in the tomb of Ramesses III. Heinrich Brugsch published the first translation into German in 1881.

In 1941, Charles Maystre published the first synoptic version of the book, taking into account the text discovered in the tomb of Ramesses II (though he omitted the text from Tutankhamun). In 1983, Erik Hornung, taking into account all of the versions of the book including that found in the tomb of  Ramesses III, published an improved version of the text, which included a metrical transliteration by Gerhard Fecht, which saw a second edition with four pages of supplemental material and corrections in 1991.

The Book of the Divine Cow is not a manual of spiritual instruction, or a guidebook through the Duat, as are the other funerary text of the New Kingdom. Rather, it tells a story that mixes magic spells with the exact details of the Divine Cow herself. It is purely mythological in nature, and in fact, it is difficult to see how this particular book fits into the evolutionary framework of the other funerary text.

The central theme of The Book of the Heavenly Cow is mankind's rebellion against the elder sun god, Re, resulting in the punishment of humans by the fiery "eye" of Re in the form of the goddess Hathor. It takes place after Re's long rule on earth. The first part places considerable emphasis on the royal role of the sun god, who bears the royal title and whose name is surrounded by a cartouche. He is specifically given rulership over both the deities and the humans.

Prior to the rebellion, which required a complete reordering of the world, there had been a golden age where the various deities and humans were both under the sovereignty of the sun god. During this previous age, the sun god had not yet begun his daily course through the sky and the netherworld. Hence, there was no cycle of day and night, nor was there a netherworld and death did not exist.

When mankind's rebellion took place, the sun god first consulted with the primeval deities, including Shu, Tefnut and Geb but particularly the goddess Nun and Hathor in the Great House in Heliopolis. These gods were to come to Re in secrecy, as not to alert mankind about their meeting. Re then addressing Nu, the father of the first-born gods, told him to give heed to what men were doing, for they whom he had created were murmuring against him. And he said " Tell me what you would do. Consider the matter, invent a plan for me, and I will not slay them until I have heard what you shall say concerning this thing." Nu replied, " You O my son Ra, are greater than the god who made You (i.e. Nu himself), you are the king of those who were created with you, your throne is established, and the fear of you is great, Let shine Eye (Hathor) attack those who blaspheme you. " And Rw said, " Lo, they have fled to the mountains for their hearts are afraid because of what they have said." The gods replied, " Let shine Eye go forth and destroy those who blasphemed you, for no eye can resist shine when it goes forth in the form of Hathor."

Afterwards, Hathor was sent to inflict her punishment. For three nights the goddess Hathor-Sekhmet waded about in the blood of men, the slaughter beginning at Hensu (Herakleopolis Magna).. But the sun god took pity on those humans who were left. He saved  them by causing Hathor to become drunk on blood red beer.

                                (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/cow2.jpg)

 
Afterwards, the sun god, Re, withdrew to the sky on the back of the celestial cow who is the Goddess Nut transformed. The cow is supported by Shu, the eight Heh-gods along with the Pharaoh. This would account for the importance of the book for the king, who was the "son" and successor of Re, and who withdraws to the sky upon his death, like Re, on the back of the heavenly cow. Now, humankind could suffer death, and so from his position in the sky, Re constructed the netherworld as their realm (third section of book). Within the netherworld, Re placed many serpents that were entrusted to the care of Geb, the earth god. He also sets the moon in the sky and appoints Thoth lord of the moon and deputy over creation. Now, through Thoth, people will know Re.

The final, or fourth part of the Book of the Heavenly Cow is devoted to the power of magic. It contains the theology of ba and explains the various deities and sacred animals that are bas of other divinities.

References:

Title Author Date Publisher Reference Number
Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife, The - Hornung, Erik 1999 Cornell University Press ISBN 0-8014-3515-3
Gods of the Egyptians, The (Studies in Egyptian Mythology) Budge, E. A. Wallis 1969 Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 486-22056-7
Traveler's Key to Ancient Egypt, The West, John Anthony 1995 Theosophical Publishing House, the ISBN 0-8356-0724-0
Valley of the Kings Weeks, Kent R. 2001 Friedman/Fairfax ISBN 1-5866-3295-7


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 23, 2007, 11:38:50 am




                                               T H E   H E A V E N L Y   C O W




                                   (http://www.sofiatopia.org/maat/inut.jpg)


FROM TUTANKHAMUN'S OUTER (FIRST) COFFIN



This spell is to be recited over the (picture of) a cow, with  "the Infinite Ones who are" (inscribed) on her chest, and over whose back is (inscribed) "the Infinite Ones who are". Whose four hoofs are filled out in paint and upon whose belly are nine stars, issuing from its hindquarters in front of its hind legs, while beneath its belly stands Shu, painted in yellow ocher, his arms support these stars, and inscribed with his name between them, which says "Shu is himself".

A barque, on which are a steering-oar and a shrine with a Solar disk over it and Re in it, is in front of Shu, close to his hand, while another version (of a barque) is behind him, close to his (other) hand. Her two udders are placed in the middle of her left leg, one half of them being drawn in paint in the middle of this hind leg with the following words outside in retrograde : "I am who I am. I will not let them take action." What is (written) beneath the barque that is in front is : "You shall not grow weary, my son." - in retrograde, and as follows : "Your condition is like that of one who lives forever." and as follows : "Your son is in me. Life, prosperity and health be for your nose !"

What is (written) behind Shu, close to his arm, is as follows : "Guard them !" What is behind him at his flank is (written) in retrograde as follows : "It is right that they should enter when I retire each day." What is (written) under the arm of the figure below the left hind leg and behind it is as follows : "Everything is sealed." What is (written) above his head, below the hindquarters of the cow and what is between its hind legs is as follows : "May he come out." What is (written) behind the two figures that are between its hind legs and above their heads : "The aged one is in the realm of the dead. Praise is given to him when he enters." What is (written) over the heads of the two figures that are between its forelegs : "He who procreates, he who adores, support of the sky."


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on June 23, 2007, 11:47:43 am
                       (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic10.jpg)
                              TUTANKHAMUN'S SECOND SHRINE



AN ENIGMATIC BOOK OF THE NETHERWORLD



From A Shrine of Tutankhamun



by Taylor Ray Ellison
 
Engraved on the second gilded shrine of Tutankhamun, discovered in his tomb by Howard Carter, was two parts of a book that is completely unique, though they do seem to have similarities to two scenes from the Amduat which were depicted on the child king's third shrine. In fact, these texts are designated as an "amduat", which here for the very first time the term is used to describe a netherworld text in general rather than the specific text to which it is normally applied. This is also the first instance of a composition describing the creation of the new solar disk. 

No real title has been found for the book. Amduat. Winfried Barta described the text as a "Kryptograph". However, because of its obscure nature, with text that was not translated into normal hieroglyphs, most Egyptologists refer to

                                  (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic1.jpg)


it as the Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld. That is, in the outer panels, the texts which accompany some of the illustrations are  cryptographic in order to preserve the secrecy of the formulas. Indeed, this leads to some controversies where the meaning of the text is certainly not clear. However, it should be noted that other compositions exist that are also labeled "enigmatic" mostly from 20th Dynasty tombs such as KV6 (Ramesses IX) and KV9 (Ramesses V / VI).

The written portions of text that are spread amongst the registers seem to stem from the Book of the Dead, making it a unique book of the Netherworld at this point in time. Only as late as the 21st Dynasty would we again see portions of the Amduat and the Book of the Dead occasionally combined. 

Egyptologists believe that this composition deals with the creation and refilling of the solar disk with fire during the night. The conception that the sun loses its heat by day and has to be replenished by night is very similar to the view of Heraclitus, much later, who believed that the solar 'trough,' or disk, was automatically replenished during the night by fumes which rose from the earth and which became ignited every morning, when the trough was full. Here, in the region of death, the sun passes by, or through, the bodies of the gods who reside there. Their bodies remain in the dark while their souls, or essence, follow the sun in its journey. In other words, in the region of death the sun collects new energy for his rebirth in the morning.

This text is divided into three registers, similar to the more familiar Amduat and within, the solar barque is absent. However, just as in the Book of Caverns, the sun god's presence is represented by ram-headed birds within a sun disk in the first section, and by only a sun disk in the second part.

The order of the two sections of the book is defined by two boundary posts prior to the so called first section, because they also proceed the first hour of the Book of Gates. This prelude consists of a "head of Re" and the jackal-headed "neck of Re", which symbolize the sun god's creative power. Another indication of the order of the two sections is that darkness and the Place of Annihilation dominate section A, which has only two large sun disks containing ram-headed bas, whereas light plays a major role in section B, which is dominated by rays of light that emanate from disks, stars, or serpents. We really do not know if there were additional sections to the book. 

(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic2.jpg)


Section A of the Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld

The first two scenes in section A in the upper and lower register each display eight deities. Those in the upper register are in the "caverns of the Duat (?)" and reside in darkness, while those of the lower register are in the Place of Annihilation, though it seems that their ba-souls are able to accompany the sun god. Piankoff believes that these beings symbolize the different transformations undergone by the sun god while passing through the Netherworld. He appears to believe that those in the bottom register, which are split between two groups of four with the chests of the four in front having the shape of the scarab, a symbol of renewal, indicate that the process of transformation is complete. Section A is split at its central point by a huge figure that spans the entire height of the three registers, which John C. Darnell sees as a union of Re and Osiris. However, Piankoff, perhaps more correctly, sees it as the mummiform figure of the king, Tutankhamun. The figure is named "He who hides the Hours". Both the head and feet of this figure are surrounded by an ouroboros-serpent, that is designated as Mehen, the Enveloper. This is the earliest representation of the ouroboros that we know. It, along with the text, refers to the beginning (genesis) and the end of time. A rope upheld by seven adoring gods in the center register evidently serves to pull the disk from the body of the mummiform figure.


(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic6.jpg)


After the central division of section A, there are three scenes arranged vertically. In the upper register, seven goddesses within their coffins gaze upon the rays of the sun and follow the sun god with their ba-souls, as their bodies remain in place. Depicted in the middle register are seven beings, turned in the opposite direction from those in the upper register, praising the solar ba and receiving the rays of his disk with raised arms. The lower register is flanked by two guardians, and its caption again refers to the Place of Annihilation. However, Re lights up this region "with his voice", so that its inhabitants may breathe. There is also a serpent, with the head of a human, that is coiled several times about two sarcophagi that contain the corpses of Osiris and Re. Here, a large oval containing hands has been read as "coffer".


(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic5.jpg)


Section A of the Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld

In the second part of the composition referred to as section B, we find three registers that each contain three scenes. Here, Re is represented by means of sun disks in each scene, and even to each figure within the scenes, for the disks are usually connected to the figures by rays of light. This is a graphic representation of text referring to the light of Re that enters their bodies. 


(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic7.jpg)


Both the upper and lower registers begin with a spitting cobra. Within the top most register, each of six gods is fronted by a ba-bird, and the god receives light from a star, though the first of these figures receives it directly from the initial cobra. According to the caption, this is the light of Re, which enters them. 

After this, the second scene in the upper register begins with a cat. Next, there are seven headless figures. They are fronted by faces, however, in each case inserted between a star and a sun disk with rays. They are flooded with light from the rays of the sun disks above. Apparently, this scene refers to the separation and rejoining of the head and the body. In the final scene of the upper register, six gods each stands on a Mehen-serpent, which helps with his regeneration, aided by light from a disk in front of them. 


(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic8.jpg)


The caption of the beginning scene of the middle register mentions the ram-headed solar ba, and here, we find depicted a mummy that has turned itself over and is extending a hand to the solar ba. A serpent that is flooded by light springs from the feet of the mummy. After this, there are four beings with lion heads. We cannot see their arms, and from similar material in the sixth hour of the Book of Gates, we may conclude that they are carrying the corpse of the sun. The last scene in the middle register is almost identical to the second scene, though now with six lion-headed figures. In each of these scenes, light from a sun disk surmounting a pair of legs enters the mouths of all these beings. 

At the beginning of the lower register of section B, the cobra spits light that in every case is received by a lion's head and, in turn, is emitted again by a cobra next to it. This light floods  over six Osiris figures that, we are informed by the caption, are "clothed" with the light of Re, while their ba-souls follow them. Sail hieroglyphs that signify wind or breath in front of them indicate that the Osiris figures have been granted breath. 


(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/enigmatic9.jpg)


The middle scene of the lower register starts out with a lion that, like the cat in the upper register, is rising out of the earth, which hides a serpent.  Afterwards, there are six mummiform figures with ram heads, and the caption here indicates that the deceased king is the object of their attention. In the last scene we see six goddesses. Each of them receives light from a disk and in turn, lets it pour from their hands onto the head of a serpent named "Evil of Face". Though these goddesses carry the sun, represented as a star and disk, in their wombs, their names designate them as punishing beings. It should be remembered that Tutankhamun's reign followed that of the heretic king, Akhenaten, and the significant and striking role of light in the realm of the dead may stem from that king's theological realm.   

Section B is terminated by the appearance a doubled sun disk with its ram-headed ba. Here, it is part of a symbolic summary of the daily course of the sun, which is kept in motion by four pairs of arms. At the very end of the scene, we find serpents, the heads of four negau-cattle, together with goddesses making a gesture of praise, an Osiris figure and an "arm of Re". Some scholars recognize all this as the end of the composition, though Darnell prefers to see it as a beginning, because of a very similar depiction on the ceiling of corridor G in the tomb of Ramesses VI.

References:

Title Author Date Publisher Reference Number
Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife, The Hornung, Erik 1999 Cornell University Press ISBN 0-8014-3515-3
The Shrines of Tut-Ankh-Amon Plankoff, Alexandre 1962 Harper and Row   
Life and Death of a Pharaoh: Tutankhamen Desrochnes-Noblecourt, Christiane 1963 New York Graphic Soci


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:16:14 pm

http://subhashkak.voiceofdharma.com/articles/akhena.htm





Akhenaten, Surya, and the Rigveda

Subhash Kak

July 17, 2003

A sad consequence of the colonialist historiography of the 19th century Indologists is the comparative neglect of India’s interaction with Africa. Cyril Hromnik’s Indo-Africa1 (1981) is the only book on the Indian contribution to the history of sub-Saharan Africa that I am aware of, but it is just an exploratory study. The story of India’s interaction with Egypt is better known, if only to scholars. Two important figures in this story are the Mitanni king Tushratta and the New Kingdom pharaoh Akhenaten. But even this encounter between the Indoaryan speaking Tushratta and the Egyptian Pharaoh is not well understood although it was to have far-reaching impli­cations for world history.

The Sun King Akhenaten of Egypt (ruled 1352-1336 BC according to the mainstream view) was a son-in-law of Tushratta, the Mitanni king of North Syria, through queen Kiya. 2 (The name Tushratta is spelled Tuiˇsrata in the Hittite cuneiform script, which does not distinguish between “d” and “t” very well. Some have suggested that the Sanskrit original is Da´saratha,a fewothersthatitis Tvesaratha (having splendid chariots), a name which is attested in the Rgveda. Letters exchanged between Akhenaten and Tushratta have been found in Amarna in Egypt3 and other evidence comes from the tombs of the period, which have been discovered in excellent condition.

The Amarna age is one of the best-known and most romantic periods of ancient Egypt. Akhenaten was revolutionary in his religious beliefs, and many argue that his ideas mark the beginnings of the Western monotheistic tradition. This period also saw the fabulously beautiful Nefertiti, Akhen-aton’s first queen who came from a mixed Mitanni family, palace intrigues, artistic triumph and great personal tragedy.

In this essay, I shall investigate the question whether the worship of the Sun introduced by Akhenaten might have had connections with the Indic beliefs of the Mitannis. Implications of this early encounter between the Indic and the Western worlds will also be examined in view of the widely accepted opinion amongst biblical scholars that Akhenaten’s beliefs were the model for the later Jewish and Christian beliefs.4 I shall present evidence indicating that the famous hymn to Aten by Akhenaten which is seen as a precursor to Psalm 104 of the Bible was influenced by the “Vedic” hymns that were a part of the Mitanni heritage.

In view of the important role that biblical ideas have played in history, the question of the relationship between Akhenaten’s monotheism and Vedic ideas is of great significance. It provides a lesson that the past consists of unexpected complexity and that influences have flowed in different directions. I am not suggesting that the encounter between India and West Asia was one-sided; India must also have been changed in many ways.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:18:46 pm
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                                                             T H E   M I T A N N I


 

The Mitanni, who worshiped Vedic gods, were an Indic kingdom that had bonds of marriage across several generations with the Egyptian 18th dynasty to which Akhenaten belonged. The Mitanni were known to the Egyptians as the Naharin (N’h’ryn’), connected to the river (nahar), very probably referring to the Euphrates. At its peak, the Mitanni empire stretched from Kirkuk (ancient Arrapkha) and the Zagros mountains in western Iran in the east, through Assyria to the Mediterranean sea in the west. Its center was in the region of the Khabur River, where its capital, Wassukkani was probably located.

The first Mitanni king was Sutarna I (good sun). He was followed by Baratarna I (Paratarna, great sun), Para´suksatra (ruler with axe), Saus­tatar (Sauksatra, son of Suksatra, the good ruler), Paratarna II, Artad ama (Rtadh aman, abiding in cosmic law), Sutarna II, Tushratta (Da´saratha), and finally Matiwazza (Mativ aja, whose wealth is thought) during whose lifetime the Mitanni state appears to have become a vassal to Assyria. The early years of the Mitanni empire were occupied in the struggle with Egypt for control of Syria. The greatest Mitanni king was Sauksatra who reigned during the time of Tuthmose III. He was said to have looted the Assyrian palace at Ashur. Under the reign of Tuthmose IV, more friendly relations were established between the Egyptians and the Mitanni.

The daughter of King Artad ama was married to Tuthmose IV, Akhen-aten’s grandfather, and the daughter of Sutarna II (Gilukhipa) was married to his father, Amenhotep III, the great builder of temples who ruled during 1390-1352 BC (“khipa” of these names is the Sanskrit ksip a, night). In his old age, Amenhotep wrote to Tushratta many times wishing to marry his daugh­ter, Tadukhipa. It appears that by the time she arrived Amenhotep III was dead. Tadukhipa was now married to the new king Akhenaten, becoming famous as the queen Kiya (short for Khipa).
                                       (http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/kiya.jpg)
                                              QUEEN KIYA
                                                                                 
The Egyptian kings had other wives as well. Akhenaten’s mother, Tiye, was the daughter of Yuya, who was a Mitanni married to a Nubian. It appears that Nefertiti was the daughter of Tiye’s brother Ay, who was to become king himself. The 18th dynasty had a liberal dose of Indic blood.

But how could an Indic kingdom be so far from India, near Egypt? A plausible scenario is that after catastrophic earthquakes dried up the Saras­vati river around 1900 BC, many groups of Indic people started moving West.  This idea of westward movement of Indic people is preserved in the Vedic and Pur anic texts.

We see Kassites, a somewhat shadowy aristocracy with Indic names and worshiping Surya and the Maruts, in Western Iran about 1800 BC. They captured power in Babylon in 1600 BC, which they were to rule for over 500 years. The Mitanni, another group that originated thus, ruled northern Mesopotamia (including Syria) for about 300 years, starting 1600 BC, out of their capital of Vasukh ani. (For Mitanni names, I give standard Sanskrit spellings rather than the form that we find in inscriptions in the inadequate cuneiform script, such as Wassukkani for Vasukh ani, “a mine of wealth”.) Their warriors were called marya, which is the proper Sanskrit term for it. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, Indic deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and N asatya (A´svins) are invoked. A text by a Mitannian named Kikkuli uses words such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (panca, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava,nine),vartana (vartana, round). Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pi ˙ngala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of vi´suva (solstice) very much like in India. It is not only the kings who had Sanskrit names; a large number of other Sanskrit names have been unearthed in the records from the area.

Documents and contract agreements in Syria mention a warrior caste that constituted the elite in the cities. The ownership of land appears to have been inalienable. Consequently, no documents on the selling of landed property are to be found in the great archives of Akkadian documents and letters discovered in Nuzi. The prohibition against selling landed property was dodged with the stratagem of ”adopting” a willing buyer against an appropriate sum of money.

Information of the mythology of the Hurrians of the Mitanni is known from related Hittite and Ugaritic myths. The king of the gods was the weather god Teshub who had violently deposed Kumarbi paralleling the killing of Vrtra by Indra. Major sanctuaries of Teshub were located at Arrap­kha (modern Kirkuk) and at Halab (modern Aleppo) in Syria. Like Indra, Teshub also had a solar aspect. In the east his consort was the goddess of love and war Shaushka (Venus), and in the west the goddess Hebat (Hepat). In addition, a considerable importance was attributed to impersonal gods such as heaven and earth as well as to deities of mountains and rivers. Temple monuments of modest dimensions have been unearthed.

The general Indic influence in the area may also be seen in the comprehen­siveness of the god lists. The most “official” god list, in two Ugaritic copies and one Akkadian translation, consists of 33 items, exactly as is true of the count of Vedic gods. These gods are categorized into three classes, some­what like the three classes of the Vedic gods, although there are difference in details.

Greek accounts tell us that the Ugaritic believed in a cosmic egg out of which the earth emerged which is reminiscent of brahm anna of the Vedic view.

How do we know that the Mitanni were Indic and not Iranian? There are several reasons, but to be brief, I shall only give three: the deities Indra, Mitra, Varuna, and N asatya are Indian deities and not Iranian ones, because in Iran Varuna is unknown and Indra and N asatya appear as demons; the name Vasukh ani makes sense in Sanskrit as a “mine of wealth” whereas in Iranian it means “good mine” which is much less likely; satta, or sapta, for seven, rather than the Iranian word hapta, where the initial ‘s’ has been changed to ‘h’.

Why could not the Mitanni be the descendents of a pre-Vedic people as in the Gimbutas model8 of the spread of the Indo-Iranian people from the Kurgan culture of the steppes of Central Asia? They would then have had no particular affinity for Indic deities. If the pre-Vedic people in Central Asia already had Indin deities, how would these small bands of people impose their culture and language over what was perhaps the most densely populated region of the ancient world. Furthermore, that view does not square with our knowledge of the astronomical tradition within India. The Vedic Samhitas have very early astronomical and its geography is squarely within India. The Vednga Jyotisa, a late Vedic text, already belongs to the middle of the second millennium BC. The earlier texts remember events within the Indic geographical area going back to the third and the fourth millennia BC.  The theory of a proto-Indoaryan people in Iran from whom the Aryans of India descended10 in the second millennium BC does not work for the same reasons.

The idea of invasion or large-scale immigration of outsiders into India displacing the original population in the middle of the second millennium BC has been rejected since it is not in accord with archaeological facts, skeletal records, and the continuity of the cultural tradition.11 In a recent synthesis12, it was concluded that “there is no archaeological or biological evidence for invasions or mass migrations into the Indus Valley between the end of the Harappan Phase, about 1900 BC and the beginning of the Early Historic period around 600 BC.” Other scholars see no break in the cultural tradition between 4500 BC and 600 BC.

The Indian textual tradition also does not permit us to accept the Gimbu­tas model because of the length of time required for the rise of the voluminous Indian literature.  Pini already in the 500 BC knows14 of the Bh anarata and the Maharata in one of his s abhutras (6.2.38). This means that the epic was substantially complete by 500 BC, although it may have undergone further modifications and interpolations in subsequent centuries. The evidence of the sanutra by Panini seems to have escaped most historians although V.S. Agrawala did call attention to it decades ago.15 The Maharata tradition itself acknowledges that the text was origi­nally 8,800 verses, composed by KrsnaDvaipasa, when it was still called Jaya. Later, it was enlarged to 24,000 verses and came to be called Bhasa to Vai´samp arata. It was transmitted by Vyayana and finally recited by Ugra´sravas as the familiar Maharata of the 100,000 verses; the two latter bards appear thus to be responsible for its enlargements. Since the enlargements of the Maharata are likely to have stretched over several centuries, it is unlikely that the text would not remember the migrations out of Central Asia as is required in the Gimbutas model.

Furthermore, the astronomical references17 related to the A´svamedha rite in the Maharata point to its extreme antiquity going back to the 4th millennium BC, which cannot be squared with the Gimbutas model.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:21:26 pm



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Indic Names in West Asia

Over fifty years ago, Roger T. O’Callaghan and W.F. Albright published in Analecta Orientalia of Rome a list of 81 names (13 from the Mitanni, 23 from the Nuzi, and 45 from the Syrian documents) with Indic etymologies. Out of this list, Dumont provided the etymology of 45 names in the much more readily available Journal of the American Oriental Society of 1947.18 Afew of these names with the Sanskrit cognates in parentheses are:

Abirata (Abhirata, pleased, contented)

Aitagama (Etagama, with the gait of an antelope)

Aitara (the son of Itar a)

Artamanyu (Rtamanyu, revering the divine Law) Ardzawıya (Arjavıya, straight, honest)

Bırasena (Vırasena, possessing an army of heroes)

Biridswa (Brhada´sva, possessing great horse) aˇ

Bardaˇswa (Va´a´arddhsva, the son of Vrddhsva) Bayava, the son of V ayawa (Vayu)

Bıryaˇsura (Vırya´ura, the hero of valour)

Bıryawaja, owning the prize of valour)

adza (VıryavBıryasauma (Vıryasoma, the moon-god of valour) Bırya (Vırya, valour) Indarota (Indrota, upheld by Indra)

ssKalmaˇura (Karma´ura, the hero of action) Purdaya, giving much)

aya (PurudRuˇcmanya (Rucimanya, revering light) Satuara (Satvara, swift) ˇssSaimaˇura (Ksema´ura, the hero of security)

Subandu (Subandhu, being good kinsmen) Sum ala (having beautiful garlands) Sumıda (Sumıd. ha, bountiful) Swardata, given by heaven)

ata (SvardTsitriyara (Citrya-rai, having distinguished property) Urudıti (Urudıti, having wide splendour) Warasama (Varasama, equal to the best) Wasas asasatta (Vapta, possessing seven dwellings) Wasdata, given by the Vasus)

ata (VasudYamiuta (Yamy uta, favoured by Yamin) 7

Analyzing the names, Dumont concludes that the names are clearly Indic and not Iranian. The initial s is maintained and the group ´sv is represented by the similar sounding ˇsw and not the Avestan asp o. Also, most of the names are bahuvrıhi or tatpurusa compounds.

Considering the language, it is clearly an Indic dialect because the initial v is replaced by b, while medial v becomes the semivowel w. Like Middle Indic (Prakrit) dialects, the medial pt transforms into tt, as in sapta becoming satta.

Dumont stresses its relationship to Sanskrit in the characteristic patronymic names with the vrddhi-strengthening of the first syllable, like in Saumati (the son of Sumati) or Sausapti (the son of Susapti). The worship of the Vedic gods like Indra, Vta, Vasus has already been noted.

Vayu, Svar, Soma, R

The fact the the Mitanni names suggest a Middle Indic dialect is support­ive of the thesis that the emigration of the various groups from India took place after the early Vedic period had come to an end.

Vedic Religion in West Asia

Our argument actually goes beyond the presence of people in West Asia whose languages were Indic, as was the case with the Mitanni. There is evidence that Indic religion and culture had adherents even outside of groups with Indic speech.

The Avesta speaks of the struggle between the worshipers of Ahura Mazd a and the daevas. This opposition in the Zoroastrian texts is expressed as one between the Mazdayasnas and the Daevayasnas. It is a conflict in which Zoroaster wished to defeat and convert the worshipers of the da eva religion. The Yaˇsts speak of legendary heroes and kings who participated in this strug­st gle. The wars against the Daevayasnas by Viˇaspa (Yt. 5.109, 113; 9.30-31), Jaspa (Yt. 5.68-70), and Vistaru of the Naotara family (Yt. 5.76-77) repamresent this ongoing conflict in the historical period. 19

In the Vendidad, the Zoroastrians are encouraged to take possession of the lands, waters, and harvests of the daeva worshipers (Vd. 19.26). Elsewhere (Vd. 7.36-40), it is recommended that the art of medicine should be first tried on the daeva-worshipers and if they survive then it should be attempted on the Mazdayasnians.20

Although the Zoroastrian heresy triumphed in Iran and the great Per­sian kings of the middle of first millennium BC followed the religion of Ahura Mazdeva worshipers survived, especially in the West, in the Mesopotamian religion.

Whether Zarathustra belonged to the second millennium BC or later,21 it is clear that the Vedic gods survived for a pretty long time in corners of Iran. The evidence of the survival of the Vedic gods from the daiva-inscription of Xerxes (ruled 486-465 BC). The revolt by the daeva worshipers in West Iran is directly referred to:

Proclaims Xerxes the King:

When I became king, there is among these countries one which was in rebellion. Afterwards Ahura­mazda bore me aid. By the favor of Ahuramazda I smote that country and put it down in its place.

And among these countries there was a place where previously  daiva were worshiped. Afterwards, by the favor of Ahuramazda I destroyed that sanctuary of daiva, and I made proclamation:

The daiva shall not be worshiped!’ Where previously the daiva were worshiped, there I worshiped Ahuramazda at the proper time and in the proper manner. And there was other business that had been done ill. That I made good. That which I did, all I did by the favor of Ahuramazda. Ahuramazda bore me aid until I completed the work.

The analysis of early Persian history has shown that the Man, the azandarregion south of the Caspian sea and the Alburz mountain range, remained for long a centre of daeva worship. It has been suggested that the Xerxes inscription refers to the suppression of these people.

Burrow takes the daeva worshiping people to be proto-Indoaryans and sees them as the remnants of a population that stretched from West Asia to India. The Iranians coming down from the northeast drove a wedge between this belt, leading to the eventual assimilation of the western daeva worshipers in the course of centuries.

Irrespective of what the original movement of the Indoaryans was before the fourth or fifth millennium BC, it is clear that since their Indian branch recognizes the geography of only their region, it is either necessary to push back the proto-Indoaryan phase to the fourth or the fifth millennium BC or to postulate their movement out of India as is suggested in the Puranas.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:23:04 pm



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Akhenaten’s Rule

Akhenaten (“glory of the Aten”) ascended the throne as Amenhotep (“Amun is content”) IV but he changed his name to honour Aten (“One god” repre­sented as the solar disk) in his sixth regnal year. Aten is the deification of the disk of the sun god, Ra, who was also represented by the eye.

Akhenaten moved his capital from Thebes to Akhetaten (“Horizon of Aten”), now known as Amarna, where palaces and buildings were built from mud brick, and in which he built a splendid temple to Aten filled with reli­gious art.

After his father’s death, he built temples on the perimeter of the famous Temple of Amun at Karnak and dedicated them to Aten, rather than Amun (“the Hidden One”, the principal deity at the time, also known as Amen). He erased the names of other gods, particularly Amun, and he also erased his father’s name wherever he found it.

Some argue that Akhenaten introduced monotheism by the banishment of all deities excepting his chosen one. He has been seen as a precursor to the Old Testament prophets, and thus to the Abrahamic religions.22 But it is equally plausible that he was influenced by the belief in “One Truth” behind appearances of the Vedic system through the three generations of queens in his family from the Mitannis.

The importance of the Vedic element appears to be reflected in the mys­ticism of the Egyptian Book of the Dead (from 1600 BC on). Nevertheless, the cult of the dead and resurrection remained the most important element of the Egyptian religion. This cult continues to form the cornerstone of the three Abrahamic faiths.

Akhenaten was succeeded by Smenkhkara, believed by some to be Ne­fertiti herself, and soon afterwards by Tutankhaten, Akhenaten’s son by Tadukhipa (Kiya) under the regentship of Ay. Akhenaten was a fanatic and the country had suffered a great deal during his reign. The nobles now reversed course. Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamen (to invoke Amun), but before he could consolidate power he was dead at the age of sixteen after a rule of just nine years. His tomb was discovered intact in 1922, and now he is widely known as the Boy-King.

Tutankhamen was followed by Ay, Nefertiti’s father, who ruled for four years. He, in turn, was followed by the general Horemheb, who now erased all records of Akhenaten, and his successors. The new city was abandoned, and worship of the Amun was reestablished. Akhenaten’s disappeared from Egyptian history, and he was referred to as “that heretic” or “rebel”, until the reconstruction of the history in modern times. Yet, his idea of a jealous god lived on, and prospered.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:24:55 pm



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Letters, Religion, and the End of Tushratta

The context to the Amarna correspondence, in which there are letters be­tween the Egyptian, Mitanni, and other neighbouring kings, is provided in the book edited by Cohen and Westbrook.23 These diplomatic letters, to­talling nearly 400, were written in a space of about thirty-five years from about 1370 to 1335, from the end of the reign of Amenhotep III to the death of Tutankhamen. The texts were written in a dialect known as Western Pe­ripheral Akkadian which was the lingua franca of the Near East, though one letter from Tushratta, is written in Hurrian.

Here is an extract from a letter by Tushratta to Amenhotep III, Akhen-aten’s father: “My father loved you, and you loved my father still more. And my father, because of his love, has given my sister to you... Behold, one chariot, two horses, one male servant, out of the booty from the land of Hatti I have sent you. And as a .gift for my brother, five chariots and five teams of horses I have sent you. And as a .gift for Gilukhipa, my sister, one set of gold pins, one set of gold earrings, one gold idol, and one container of sweet oil I have sent her.” Another letter accompanies the image of goddess of Shaushka of Nineveh (Ishtar), Tushratta’s ista-devı, sent to Amenhotep III to restore him to health during illness. Ishtar is Venus, and the Vena hymn of the Rigveda (10.123) anticipates her Mesopotamian mythology. 24

A message of greetings from Tushratta to Akhenaten: “To Napkhuria (Akhenaten), king of Egypt, my brother, my son-in-law, who loves me and whom I love, thus speaks Tushratta, king of Mitanni, your father-in-law who loves you, your brother. I am well. May you be well too. Your houses, Tiye your mother, Lady of Egypt, Tadukhipa, my daughter, your wife, your other wives, your sons, your noblemen, your chariots, your horses, your soldiers, your country and everything belonging to you, may they all enjoy excellent health.”

The Vedic presence via the Mitanni in Egypt and West Asia occurs several centuries before the exodus of the Jews. This presence is sure to have left its mark in various customs, traditions, and beliefs. Small Indic groups remained in the general area for centuries after the disappearance of the Mitanni. Thus Sargon defeats one Bagdatti of Uiˇsdiˇs in 716 BC. The name Bagdatti (Skt. Bhagadatta) is Indic and cannot be Iranian because of the double ‘t’.

It may be that the continuing encounter between Indic and West Asian groups explains some parallels in mythology and ritual, such as worship of the goddess, circumambulation around a rock or the use of a rosary of 108 beads. 25 These practices are easily understandable within the Vedic system, whereas they are remembered as commandments to be believed without un­derstanding in the Western faiths.

This encounter was facilitated by the trade that continued between these two regions of Asia. There is ample evidence for this trade during the Harap­pan period and earlier. Harappan objects have been found in numerous places in West Asia. Weights of the highly accurate Harappan system, which was different from the one in use in Mesopotamia, have been found in Dilmun in West Asia.26 It is likely that such trade continued in the second and first millennia BC.

In the Amarna Letters, the correspondents are from Egypt, Mitanni, Babylonia, Hatti, and Assyria. Mitanni was also called Hanigalbat and Na­harin; Babylonia is also named Karaduniyash or Shanhar; Hatti (of the Hit­tites) was sometimes named after its capital of Hattusha. In the Letters, Amenhotep III is called Mimmureya or Nimu’wareya or Nibmureya, while Akhenaten is also called Naphurureya.

The Hittite king Suppiluliumas launched a surprise attack on the Mi­tanni kingdom. In the course of his victorious march, Mitanni began to crumble and Tushratta was assassinated. His son fled through various lands, returning at long last to Vasukh ani as a vassal. Mitanni as an independent kingdom ceased to exist. As the vassal of the Hittites, the rump state was called Hanigalbat. Soon afterward, however, it was captured by the Assyrian

Adad-nirari I (probably during the reign of Horemheb) and later by Shal­maneser I (during the reign of Ramesses II), at which time the area east of the Euphrates was turned into an Assyrian province.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:26:24 pm



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Hymns to the Sun/Yahweh

I shall now present a partial translation of the Great Hymn to the Aten, 27 attributed to Akhenaten, from the Amarna tomb of Ay. This hymn is one of the most important early markers of the Western monotheistic tradition because of the manner in which it presents the Sun as the master and lord of human destiny. According to most biblical scholars, Psalm 104 of the Old Testament to Yahweh is derived from this hymn. To see the continuity with Rgveda it may be noted that Yahv´the Rahis a Vedic epithet associated with movement, activity, heaven and earth; it means the sacrificer and Agni, the ahas an epithet occurs 21 times in the chief terrestrial god.28 Yahv´. gveda. ´

It may be compared to Sivah. , an epithet for auspiciousness in the Rgveda that later is applied regularly to Rudra.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:28:37 pm



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Hymn to the Aten

Your dawning is beautiful in the horizon of heaven,
O living Aten, creator of life!
When you set in the western horizon,
Earth falls into a deathly darkness.

People sleep in chambers, heads covered,
oblivious of the world,
the possessions in their head stolen.
Every lion comes forth from its den,
The serpent’s sting.
Darkness reigns, earth is silent,
as their maker rests in heavens.
Earth brightens when you rise in the horizon,

when you shine as Aten of daytime.
As you cast your rays,
the Two Lands are in festivity.
Awake, the people are on their feet.
Cleansed and clothed,
their arms adore your appearance.


The entire land sets out to work,
The beasts browse on their herbs,
trees and plants flourish.
The birds fly from their nests,
their wings greeting you,
as the sheep frisk on their feet,
and the insects flutter.
All live when you dawn for them.


Boats travel north and south,
and roads lie open when you dawn.
The fish in the river leap up before you,
your rays are in the midst of the sea.


You are the one who makes the seed in men,
who feeds the son in the mother’s womb,
who soothes him that he may not weep,
a nurse even in the womb.
You give him breath when he is born,
you open his mouth in speech.


When the chick in the egg cries in the shell,
you give him breath to sustain him.
You have perfected him
to break out from the egg,
chirp and run around on his two feet.


Your works are manifold,
though hidden from sight,
O One Aten, beside whom there is no other.
You created the world as you wished,
you alone –
all people, herds, flying creatures,
the reckoning of their days.


You make the heavens
to see your creation.
You make the beauty of form,
through yourself, alone.


You are in my heart,
there is no other who knows you.
Save your son, Akhenaten.
You have taught him your ways,
your might.


The world is in your hand,
you are duration,
beyond mere limbs.
Man lives by you,
and eyes look upon your beauty.


You established this world
for your Son,
who came from your body,
the King, the Lord of the Two Lands,
and Nefertiti, chief wife,
living and youthful forever.


The relationship of this hymn to Psalm 104 of the Old Testament becomes striking when “Lord” of the King James version is changed into the proper “Yahweh”. There is mention in both of the absolute power over the life of animals and man, of the providing of natural bounties, and the responsibility over personal destiny. It is also significant that the Sun is also supposed to be in the poet’s heart.

It should be remembered that Yahweh assimilated the characteristics and epithets of previous gods of the region. For example, El was the chief god at Ugarit. Yet El is also the name used in many of the Psalms for Yahweh.

In 2 Kings 22:19-22 we read of Yahweh meeting with his heavenly council. The Ugaritic texts have a similar account, with the difference that the “sons of god” are the sons of El. Other deities worshipped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith. Since all these names are applied to Yahweh by the writers of the Old Testament, it means that the Hebrew theologians assimilated the earlier mythology into their system.

Besides the chief god at Ugarit there were also lesser gods and goddesses. The most important of these lesser gods were Baal, the goddess Asherah, Yam (the god of the sea) and Mot (the god of death). It is interesting that Yam and Mot are the Hebrew words for sea and death, respectively. It is less well-known that Yam may be connected to the Vedic Yama who in RV

10.10.4 is seen as being born from the waters, and Mot to the Vedic Mrtyu,

deathahbefore; one may also note that Il´

We have mentioned the Vedic Yahv´a represents Agni as in Yajurveda (VS) 2.3; Il a represents Earth, speech, and flow. These parallels indicate a shared history and these names may have entered the Ugaritic religion through the Mitannis.

The idea of the goddess was central to the West Asian people until the end of the first millennium BC. Asherah, a very important character in the Old Testament, is called the wife of Baal, although she is also known as the consort of Yahweh. Inscriptions found at Kuntillet ‘Ajrud (dated between 850 and 750 BC) say: “I bless you through Yahweh of Samaria, and through his Asherah!” And at ‘El Qom (from the same period) this inscription: “Uriyahu, the king, has written this. Blessed be Uriyahu through Yahweh, and his enemies have been conquered through Yahweh’s Asherah.” The Elephantine Papyri inform us that the Hebrews worshiped Asherah until the 3rd century BC.

Baal’s name occurs frequently in the Old Testament. Some Israelites viewed Yahweh as a God of the desert and so when they arrived in Phoenicia they thought it only proper to adopt Baal, the god of fertility. One of the central Ugaritic myths was the story of Baal’s enthronement as king. In this story, Baal is killed by Mot (in the Fall of the year) and he remains dead until the Spring of the year. His victory over death was celebrated as his enthronement over the other gods. The Old Testament also celebrates the enthronement of Yahweh. As in the Ugaritic myth, the purpose of Yahweh’s enthronement is to re-enact creation. That is, Yahweh overcomes death by his recurring creative acts.

The major difference between the Ugaritic myth and the Biblical hymns is that Yahweh’s kingship is eternal and uninterrupted while Baal’s is inter­rupted every year by his death. Since Baal is the god of fertility the meaning of this myth is quite easy to understand. He dies with the vegetation and he is reborn with it. Christianity took an element from Baal’s death and made it a singular event.

When one reads the Psalms and the Ugaritic texts one finds that Yahweh is acclaimed for things previously associated with El. These Psalms appear to have been originally Ugaritic or Phoenician hymns to El which were adopted by the Jews. El is called the “father of men,” “creator,” and “creator of the creation,” attributes also granted Yahweh by the Old Testament.

This discussion tells us how the hymns of the second millennium BC became a part of the Old Testament and thus can be close the older texts in style and form, even though the language may have changed.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:32:28 pm



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Psalm 104, Old Testament

Bless the Lord, O my soul. O Lord my God, thou art very great; thou art clothed with honour and majesty.

Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain:

Who layeth the beams of his chambers in the waters: who maketh the clouds his chariot: who walketh upon the wings of the wind:

Who maketh his angels spirits; his ministers a flaming fire:

Who laid the foundation of the earth, that it should not be re­moved for ever.

Thou coveredst it with the deep as with a garment: the waters stood above the mountains.

At thy rebuke they fled; at the voice of thy thunder they hasted away.

They go up by the mountains; they go down by the valleys unto the place which thou hast founded for them.

Thou hast set a bound that they may not pass over; that they turn not again to cover the earth.

He sendeth the springs into the valleys, which run among the hills.

They give drink to every beast of the field: the wild asses quench their thirst.

By them shall the fowls of the heaven have their habitation, which sing among the branches.

He watereth the hills from his chambers: the earth is satisfied with the fruit of thy works.

He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and herb for the service of man: that he may bring forth food out of the earth;

And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face to shine, and bread which strengtheneth man’s heart.

The trees of the Lord are full of sap; the cedars of Lebanon, which he hath planted;

Where the birds make their nests: as for the stork, the fir trees are her house.

The high hills are a refuge for the wild goats; and the rocks for the conies.

18

He appointed the moon for seasons: the sun knoweth his going down.

Thou makest darkness, and it is night: wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth.

The young lions roar after their prey, and seek their meat from God.

The sun ariseth, they gather themselves together, and lay them down in their dens.

Man goeth forth unto his work and to his labour until the evening.

O Lord, how manifold are thy works! in wisdom hast thou made them all: the earth is full of thy riches.

So is this great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping innu­merable, both small and great beasts.

There go the ships: there is that leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein.

These wait all upon thee; that thou mayest give them their meat in due season.

That thou givest them they gather: that openest thine hand, they are filled with good.

Thou hidest thy face, they are troubled: thou takest away their breath, they die, and return to their dust.

Thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are created: and thou renewest the face of the earth.

The glory of the Lord shall endure for ever: the Lord shall rejoice in his works.

He looketh on the earth, and it trembleth: he toucheth the hills, and they smoke.

I will sing unto the Lord as long as I live: I will sing praise to my God while I have my being.

My meditation of him shall be sweet: I will be glad in the Lord.

Let the sinners be consumed out of the earth, and let the wicked

by no more. Bless thou the Lord, O my soul. Praise ye the Lord.

Scholars point to several similarities. Here, we list just a few. “When you set in the western horizonearth falls into a deathly darkness... Every lion comes forth from its lair, the serpents sting.” (Hymn to Aten, stanzas 2-3). “Thou makest darkness, that it is night; wherein all beasts of the forest do creep forth. The young lions roar after their prey, and seek their meat from god.” (Psalm 104: 20-21)

“Your works are manifold, though hidden from sight, O One God, beside whom there is no other. You created the world as you wished, you alone.” (Hymn to Aten) “O Yahweh, how manifold are thy works! In wisdom hast thou made them all: the earth is full of thy riches.” (Psalm 104: 24)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:35:51 pm


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(http://www.facade.com/celebrity/photo/Sigmund_Freud.jpg)
SIGMUND FREUD

In 1937, Freud published his essay, Moses and Monotheism, in the journal Imago29 proposing that the biblical figure of Moses was an Egyptian linked to the court of Akhenaten. Freud provided much stimulating evidence to support his argument, including the fact that the Jewish word for “Lord”, “Adonai”, becomes “Aten” when its letters are written in Egyptian.

The other details of Freud’s reconstruction are disputed but they are significant for estimating the importance of the Egyptian ideas within the Judeo-Christian tradition. According to Freud, Moses was a believer in the monotheism associated with Aten, but with the death of Akhenaten the suc­cessor Pharaohs reverted to their old religion. Moses (from mose,Egyptian for “child”) now went to exile as the head of an oppressed Semitic tribe and in order to set these people apart, he introduced the Egyptian custom of cir­cumcision. His unruly followers killed Moses, and the tribesmen now adopted the volcanic deity, Yahweh of another tribe, as their national god. Yahweh was now endowed with the universal and spiritual qualities of the Moses’s god, though the memory of Moses’s murder remained repressed amongst the Jews, reemerging in a very disguised form with the rise of Christianity.

There is general agreement that Moses -who is said to have lived a staggering 120 years -was a composite character created out of the faded memories of a variety of different individuals, some Hebrews, others Egyptian in origin. The Egyptian component included the memory of Akhenaten’s worship of the single god in the sky.

According to Freud, the death of Moses became central to the experience of the Jews and it defined the structure of Christianity as well. Says Freud:30 “Original sin and salvation through sacrificial death became the basis of the new religion founded by Paul. After the Christian doctrine had brust the confines of Judaism, it absorbed constituents from many other sources, re­nounced many features of pure monotheism, and adopted in many particulars the ritual of the other Mediterranean peoples. It was as if Egypt had come to wreak her vengeance on the heirs of Ikhnaton [Akhenaten]. The way in which the new religion came to terms with the ancient ambivalency in the father-son relationship is noteworthy. Its main doctrine, to be sure, was the reconciliation with God the Father, the expiation of the crime committed against him; but the other side of the relationship manifested itself in the Son, who had taken the guilt on his shoulders, becoming God himself beside the Father and in truth in place of the Father.”


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:39:14 pm
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                                                 SURYA IN THE VEDAS





                                            (http://www.freewebs.com/emeraldmurali/Images/Surya.gif)


The Rigvedic hymns 1.50, 4.13, 10.37, all addressed to Surya provide fasci­nating counterpoint and parallels to the Aten hymn and Psalm 104. These parallels include viewing the Sun as superintending each creature’s welfare. For example, RV 1.50.6 says: “You keep strict watch upon the man who moves among the peoples.” In contrast, the Atharvavedic Sun hymns of Book 13 are strictly solar.

The eye of Surya is mentioned and he is himself called the eye of Mitra, Varuna and Agni as in RV 1.115.

Although, hymns to the Sun from independent sources can be expected to have inevitable parallels relating to the motion in the sky and the warmth that it offers, the idea of the Sun superintending individual lives is surprising enough to have had the same source.

It is also noteworthy that in the Vedic view the universe has a tripartite division and the objective of human life is to reach the heaven, which is equated with the Sun. The representation of the Sun is in the form of a disk.

Vedic Hymns to the Sun

For the sake of easy comparison, I reproduce RV 10.37 in R. Panikkar’s translation.31

Homage to the Eye of Mitra and Varuna!

To the mighty God offer this worship
to the farseeing emblem, born of the Gods.
Sing praise to the Sun, the offspring of Heaven. [1]


May this word of Truth guard me on all sides,
while earth and heaven and days endure.
To its rest goes all else that moves, but never
do the waters cease flowing or the sun rising. [2]


From ancient days no godless man
obstructs your path when you drive the winged sun-horse.
Your one dark side is turned eastward; with the other
the light-filled side, you arise, O Sun. [3]


By your light, O Sun, which scatters gloom,
by your rays which arouse the whole creation,
dispel from our hearts all languor, all neglect
of worship, all grief and evil dreams. [4]


Sent forth as an envoy upon your course,
you superintend each creature’s welfare,
rising with calm unvarying. May the Gods
grant us to achieve your goal today! [5]


This prayer of ours may Heaven and Earth,
the Waters, Indra, and the Maruts heed!
May we never be deprived of the Sun’s shining,
may we attain old age in happiness! [6]


Keen of mind and keen of sight,
free from sickness, free from sin,
rich in children, may we see you rise
as a friend, O Sun, till a long life’s end! [7]


O farseeing Sun, the bearer of Light,
the joy of every single eye,
may we live to see your glorious radiance
flooding in as you ascend on high! [8]


You shine, all living things emerge.
You disappear, they go to rest.
Recognizing your innocence, O golden-haired Sun,
arise; let each day be better than the last. [9]


Bless us by your gaze, your brightness and shining.
Bless us in cold and in heat, O Sun,
grant us blessings at home and, when we are traveling,
bestow upon us your wonderful treasure. [10]


Protect both our species, two-legged and four-legged.
Both food and water for their needs supply.
May they with us increase in stature and strength.
Save us from hurt all our days, O Powers. [11]


Whatever grave offense we have committed against you,
by our tongue, O God, or by carelessness of mind,
lay the burden of this sin on the one who plans evil,
on him, O Vasus, who wishes us ill. [12]


It is clear from this hymn that Surya is not only the outer Sun, but also the source of life and warmth and the overseer of the individual’s personal life. This latter conception is Sun as Lord who resides within the individual. In the Vedic view, the inner Sun is atmanwho is thesameasBrahman, asin the Upanisadic ayam atma brahma. The double reference to the inner Sun 23 is clear in Rgveda 1.50 where it is stated: “O Sun, maker of the Light, who illumine all the radiant sky. You shine upon the host of Gods and likewise on the race of men, that all may see the heavenly Light.”

The similarities between these three important compositions are striking. The imagery has many parallels. The Lord or the Sun is not only a distant object that provides light and warmth with ceaseless punctuality, it also rules our individual destinies. The Sun is in the sky and also within the heart.

Another interesting Rurya is 7.63. Here it is in

Rgvedic hymn describing Sthe Griffith translation:32

Common to all mankind, auspicious Surya, he who beholdeth all, is mounting upward; The God, the eye of Varuna and Mitra, who rolled up darkness like a piece of leather. [1]

Surya’s great ensign, restless as the billow, that urgeth men to action, is advancing: Onward he still would roll the wheel well-rounded, which Etasa, harnessed to the car-pole, moveth. [2]

Refulgent from the bosom of the Mornings, he in Whom singers

take delight ascendeth. This Savitar, God, is my chief joy and

pleasure, who breaketh not the universal statute. [3]

Golden, far-seeing, from the heaven he riseth: far is his goal, he

hasteth on resplendent. Men, verily, inspirited by Surya speed to their aims and do the work assigned them. [4]

Where the immortals have prepared his pathway he flieth through

the region like a falcon. With homage and oblations will we serve

you, O Mitra-Varuna, when the Sun hath risen. [5]

Now Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman vouchsafe us freedom and room,

for us and for our children. May we find paths all fair and good

to travel. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings. [6]

Some hymns to the Adityas stress the conception of personal overlordship even further. For example, AV 4.16 speaks thus:

The mighty overseer on high
espies our deeds, as if he were
quite close at hand.
The Gods through him know all men do.. [1]
Two men may hatch a plot together;
Varuna knows it all, being present
as the third one. [2]
Varuna contains within his body both the oceans,
and yet he also is contained
within one droplet. [3]
Seize and bind with a hundred cords,
OVaruna, the one who utters falsehood...[7]
Varuna is the warp of the loom,
Varuna is the woof of the loom of this universe.
Varuna is of us, Varuna is foreign,
Varuna is divine, he is also human,
Varuna the King. [8]


It is also notable that the Sun was represented as a golden disk (rukma) with a golden image of the purusa on it in the Agnicayana ritual which forms a large part of the Yajurveda. This was the period when the Vedic religion did not have monumental images of divinity.

It is not impossible that the poetic imagery associated with the Sun in the Surya and the Aten hymns was conceived independently, but it is unlikely. The idea of the Sun somehow appearing within the heart of the individual is a revolutionary one, and since we do know of the presence of a people (the Mitanni) who believed in the Vedic pantheon together with its sophisticated understanding of the inner world, it is more likely that the genetic relationship of the idea is as follows:

Rurya Aten Yahweh of Psalm 104

Rgvedic S 25

We are not suggesting here that the Rgveda as it has come down to us was carried to the West Asia by the Mitannis, although that cannot be ruled out; rather that hymns with similar themes must have been a part of the Mitanni culture as they went westwards from India. During this passage to and sojourn in West Asia, their religion is bound to have been affected by the local beliefs. The worship of Ishtar points to a Babylonian gloss over their original Vedic system.

It is clear that all aspects of the Vedic conception of Surya could not be a part of the idea of Aten. In the Indic view, cosmic law (rta) and a personal God are intertwined together through the mystery of sacrifice. In the later amplification of the Vedic ideas, Purusa is apart and the unfolding is a consequence of the law acting through Prakrti. In the Aten hymn the idea of personal God is the predominant one although it is clear that the cosmic law is also implied. The hymn appears perfectly consonant with the conception of Surya. Nevertheless, from Akhenaten’s banishing of other gods in his rule suggests that he was inspired by an incomplete idea. It is possible that the parallels between Surya and Aten are entirely coin­cidental due to the similarities between the Egyptian and Vedic conceptions about the universe and divinity. The pre-Akhenaten religion had a spiritual basis and the Egyptians formed several syncretisms between the sungod Re and other gods, resulting in such names as Re-Harakhty, Amon-Re, Sebek-Re, and Khnum-Re. The Vedic gods, being projections of the One Divinity, also are combined together. But there was one distinct difference of em­phasis between the Vedic system where the gods were more heard than seen whereas in Egypt system their representation in images was the predominant expression. If the seen was accorded the most significance in Egypt; in India, the heard (´sruti) was likewise supreme. The conceptions of paradise were different. In Egypt, the body was raised to it upon death; in India, the body in paradise was a subtle golden body, unconnected to the life on earth. The difference was, no doubt, due to a difference in the underlying cosmologies of the two cultures. It was reflected in the different funerary practices in the two regions.

Given the matrimonial alliance across several generations between the “Vedic” Mitanni (whose fondness for monumental representation of gods must have been limited) and the Pharaohs, it is plausible that many elites in the court had become favourable to the Mitanni religion. This is likely to have made it possible for Akhenaten, early in his reign soon after his mar­riage to the Mitanni princess Kiya, to declare his religion, which had much similarity to the Mitanni.

This also explains why, after his death, the religion, being of foreign origin and popular only with a minority, was suppressed violently and successfully.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 01, 2007, 01:41:43 pm



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Conclusions

There are important lessons to be drawn from the study of Akhenaten and his hymn to Aten. Scholars see in Akhenaten the beginning of the Judaic monotheistic tradition. Our examination of the facts shows that it might, equally plausibly, be a retelling of the improperly understood ideas, or ideas modified by the prevailing ones in their new land, in the journey to West Asia by the Mitannis. We are basing our conclusions not only on the connection to the Mitanni through Akhenaten’s wife but also on the pervasiveness of the Vedic concepts in West Asia as in the notion of 33 gods, the use of the disk to represent the sun exactly as is done in Vedic ritual, and the conception of the sun who superintends personal destiny which is perhaps the central idea of Vedic thought. We have also alluded to the similarity between the Vedic Yahvah and the Hebrew Yahweh and between other gods. These parallels are significant enough to demand a thorough investigation of the 2nd millennium BC connections between India and the West.

The interaction between the Indic (Mitanni and other groups) and the Egyptian and West Asian can help us in understanding the evolution of the Western religions. It may also helps us understand the parallels between Indic and Babylonian and Greek sciences. For example, if the early Satapatha Brahmana gives centrality to the number 432,000 (also the supposed number of syllables in the Rgveda) then one can understand how this may have been adopted by the Babylonians as a count for their Great Year. Both India and Babylon divide the civil year into 360 equal parts. This is seen in India in the Rgveda itself and in Babylon in the middle of the first millennium BC. Likewise, it may help us understand the Babylonian adoption of the idea of Rgvedic Br tithi of Indian astronomy which is mentioned in the Brahmanas.

An interesting question related to the spectrum of religious belief rang­ing from India to Egypt is the split between the Vedic and the Zoroastrian religion. The Zarathustrian demonization of Indra and the N asatyas was a rejection of the interiorization of divinity since Indra is the lord of the senses and the N asatyas are the rulers of hearing. In the Vedic system elements of materiality and divinity are in a hierarchical system: the physical body (ruled by the Asura) comes first and the spiritual body (ruled by Indra, the senses) comes later which is why the Devas are younger to the Asuras.33 Zarathustra’s innovation was to create a system that was midway between the Vedic with its emphasis on the spirit and the West Asian/Egyptian which is body-centered (with its visions of being raised to life in one’s body in par­adise). But the system brought in the devas through the backdoor as the yazatas (Skt. yajata).

It is also possible to see Zarathustra as providing a synthesis in terms of just two categories as was done in a different way in the Puranas. The Vedic view is to see the world in triple categories. Later Puric gloss simpli­anfied this into dichotomies like that of deva versus asura (including r aksasa). Zarathustra made a similar simplification using the dichotomy of asura (in­cluding deva under the label yazata) and daeva. The asuras are the ground on which the devas emerge; likewise, without proper action one can slip into the false path. The term daeva as a synonym for raksasa survives in Kashmir.

Within the Indo-Iranaian world, the memory of India’s interaction with Egypt persisted. In Chapter 48 of his book on India34 written in 1030, al-Bunı, speaking of chariots of war, mentions the Greek claim that they were the first to use them and insists they are wrong because “they were already invented by Aphrodisios the Hindu, when he ruled over Egypt, about 900 years after the deluge.” This reference cannot be taken to be literally true but it is, nevertheless, significant. It preserves the memory of a “Hindu” (Indic-inspired) king of Egypt prior to the Greek state. The reference to the chariots of war of this king (Akhenaten) seems to remember the foreigner warlords Hyskos who ruled Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period just before the New Kingdom to which Akhenaten belonged.

Notes

Hromnik, Indo-Africa.

Hornung, Akhenaten and the Religion of Light.

Moran (ed.), The Amarna Letters.

Freud, Moses and Monotheism; Redford, Akhenaten, The Heretic King.

Kak, The Astronomical Code of the Rgveda.

Talageri, The Rigveda, A Historical Analysis; Bryant, The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture; Frawley, The Rig Veda and the History of India. In any event, the idea of the Indic connection is not the central point of the essay; rather it is the connection of the Akhenaten innovation with the Vedic tradition of the Mitannis.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1999; essay on Middle Eastern Religions, page 115. See, also, Aubet, The Phoenicians and the West. 1993.

Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans.

Kak, The Astronomical Code of the Rgveda.

Burrow, 1973.

Feuerstein, Kak, Frawley, In Search of the Cradle of Civilization; Kak, The Wishing Tree.

Kenoyer, Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Kak, The Astronomical Code of the Rgveda.

mahahna-grstısvabara-bhan vrıhyapar... asa-jala-bharata-hailihila-raurava-pravrddhesu (6.2.38); apart from this 4.3.98 mentions V asudeva and Arjuna and 8.3.95 mentions Yudhisthira. The significance of the sutra 6.2.38 consists of the fact that the term Maharata is a technical term implying the 100,000 verse epic and not the story which undoubt­edly was an old one.

Agrawala, India As Known to Panini.

See the Introduction by by G.C. Pande and the article by Susmita Pande in Pande (ed.), Life, Thought and Culture in India (from c 600 BC to c AD 300).

Kak, The A´svamedha: The Rite and its Logic.

Dumont, 1947.

Burrow, op cit., page 134.

Burrow, op cit., page 134.

Boyce, Zoroastrians; Herzfeld, Zoroaster.

Freud, op cit; Osman, 2002.

Cohen and Westbrook (eds.), Amarna Diplomacy.

Kak, “Vena, Veda, Venus.”

Kak, The Wishing Tree.

Lal, The Earliest Civilization of South Asia.

For the full text of the hymn, see Pritchard, 1958, pages 227-230. The Aten (also spelled Aton) had a dogmatic name written within a royal cartouche and including the three old solar deities, Re, Har, and Shu. Re is the Egyptian sun god and creator god, usually depicted in human form with a falcon head, crowned with the sun disk encircled by the uraeus (a stylized representation of the sacred cobra). The sun itself was taken to be either his body or his eye. He was said to traverse the sky each day in a solar barque and pass through the underworld each night on another solar barque to reappear in the east each morning. Har (Horus) is the Egyptian sky god, usually depicted as a falcon or in human form with the head of a falcon. The sun and the moon are said to be his eyes. Son of Isis and the dead Osiris, he was born at Khemmis in the Nile Delta, and Isis hid him in the papyrus marshes to protect him against Seth, his father’s murderer. Shu is the primordial Egyptian god of the air and supporter of the sky. In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Shu was, with his sister Tefnut, one of the first deities created by the sun god Atum.

The preamble of the hymn is: “Praise of Re Har-akhti, Rejoicing on the Horizon, in His Name as Shu Who Is in the Aton-disc, living forever and ever; the living great Aton who is in jubilee, lord of all that the Aton encircles, lord of heaven, lord of earth, lord of the House of Aton in Akhet-Aton; (and praise of) the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, who lives on truth, the Lord of the Two Lands: Nefer-kheperu-Re Wa-en-Re; the Son of Re, who lives on truth, the Lord of Diadems: Akh-en-Aton, long in his lifetime; (and praise of) the Chief Wife of the King, his beloved, the Lady of the Two Lands: Nefer-neferu-Aton Nefert-iti, living, healthy, and youthful forever and ever; (by) the Fan-Bearer on the Right Hand of the King ... Eye.” (Preamble translated by John Wilson in Pritchard, 1958)

Note that Biblical Yahweh is also spelt Yehweh or Yahvah; in Hebrew only the consonants YHWH are used. For its Indic usage: yahva occurs in RV 10.110; yahv´ahin RV 3.1, 3.5, 4.5, 4.7, 4.58, 5.1, 7.6, 7.8, 9.75, and 10.11; yahv´asya in RV 1.36; 3.3; 4.5; 5.16; 8.13; 10.92; yahv´RV 3.2 and 3.28.

Freud, op cit.

Freud, op cit., page 175.

Panikkar, The Vedic Experience.

Griffith, Hymns of the Rigveda.

Kak, The Gods Within.

Sachau, Alberuni’s India, vol 1, page 407.

References

V.S. Agrawala, 1953. India As Known to Panini. University of Lucknow.

M.E. Aubet, 1993. The Phoenicians and the West. Cambridge University Press, New York.

M. Boyce, 2001. Zoroastrians. Routledge, London.

E. Bryant, 2001. The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

T. Burrow, 1973. The proto-Indoaryans. Jof the Royal Asiatic Society, 2: 123-140.

R. Cohen and R. Westbrook (eds.), 2000. Amarna Diplomacy. Johns Hop­kins University Press, Baltimore.

P.-E. Dumont, 1947. Indo-Aryan names from Mitanni, Nuzi, and Syrian documents. Journal of American Oriental Society, 67: 251-253.

G. Feuerstein, S. Kak, David Frawley, 2001 (1995). In Search of the Cradle of Civilization. Quest Books, Wheaton.

D. Frawley, 2001. The Rig Veda and the History of India. Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi.

S. Freud, 1987 (1934). Moses and Monotheism. Random House, New York.

R.T.H. Griffith, Hymns of the Rigveda. Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi, 1987 (1889).

E. Herzfeld, Zoroaster and His World. Princeton University Press, Prince­ton, 1947.

E. Hornung, 2001. Akhenaten and the Religion of Light. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

C. Hromnik, 1981. Indo-Africa. Juta & Company, Cape Town.

S. Kak, 1996. Vena, Veda, Venus. Adyar Library Bulletin, 60: 229-239.

S. Kak, 2000. The Astronomical Code of the Rgveda. Munshiram Manohar­lal, New Delhi.

S. Kak, 2001. The Wishing Tree: The Presence and Promise of India. Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi.

S. Kak, 2002. The A´svamedha: The Rite and its Logic. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.

S. Kak, 2002. The Gods Within. Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi.

N. Kazanas, 1999. The Rgveda and Indo-Europeans. Annals of the Bhan­darkar Oriental Research Institute, 80: 15-42.

J.M. Kenoyer, 1998. Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Oxford University Press, Karachi.

B.B. Lal, 1997. The Earliest Civilization of South Asia. Aryan Books International, Delhi.

J.P. Mallory, 1989. In Search of the Indo-Europeans. Thames and Hudson, London.

W.A. Moran (ed.), 2002. The Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

A. Osman, 2002. Moses and Akhenaten: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus. Inner Traditions, Rochester.

G.C. Pande (ed.), 2001. Life, Thought and Culture in India (from c 600 BC to c AD 300). Centre for Studies in Civilizations, New Delhi.

R. Panikkar, 1983. The Vedic Experience. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.

J.B. Pritchard (ed.), 1958. The Ancient Near East -Volume 1: An Anthol­ogy of Texts and Pictures. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

D.B. Redford, 1984. Akhenaten, The Heretic King. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

E. Sachau, 1989 (1910). Alberuni’s India. Low Price Publications, Delhi.

S.G. Talageri, 2000. The Rigveda, A Historical Analysis. Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi.

Subhash Kak


http://subhashkak.voiceofdharma.com/articles/akhena.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2007, 09:05:22 am




             DID KING AKHENATEN AND PRESIDENT LINCOLN SUFFER FROM MARFAN SYNDROME?




By Prof. Talaat I. Farag, MD, FRCP(Edin), FACP
Email: mail@ambassadors.net


A historical symposium held in Nasser Institute, Cairo, Egypt on October 31, 2001 under the auspices of H.E. Prof. Ismail Sallam, the minister of Health and Population, focused on the study of Ancient Egyptian disease profiles. The symposium raised an interesting question: DID KING AKHENATON HAVE PRESIDENT LINCOLN SYNDROME? During the symposium, I presented a paper entitled, "Ancient Egyptian Art: a bio-anthropological and medico-genetic dissection of four unsolved mysteries" that ventures to answer these difficult questions, if answers actually exist! The meeting was the first of its kind to involve an elite multidisciplinary group of specialists in archeology, anatomy, anthropology, clinical genetics, Egyptology, history, medicine, and molecular genetics.



President Lincoln (1809-1865) and Marfan Syndrome




(http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=2140&rendTypeId=4)
                                                 On September 21, 1961, A.M.Gordon addressed the Kentucky State Medical Association with data associating President Abraham Lincoln with Marfan Syndrome (MS). Dr. Schwartz later published work that supported Gordon's diagnosis. Both based their diagnosis on his long limbs, chest deformity,  and descriptions by contemporaries of his lax joints. In a debate published in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA 1964), Dr. Montgomery disputed this diagnosis and stated that Lincoln did not suffer from MS. This syndrome was first reported in 1896 by a French pediatrician, Prof. Antonin-Bernard-Jean Marfan (1858-1942) representing an association affecting skeletal, ocular (eyes) and cardiovascular systems. A patient with classical MS has tall stature, disproportionate lengths of the limbs, spider fingers/toes (arachnodactyly), dislocated ocular lens and aortic aneurysm.

Other celebrities alleged to have MS include:

Niccolo Paganini (violinist)

Mary Queen of Scots

President Charles de Gaulle (France)

Lytton Strachey

Andre Roussimoff (Wrestler "Andre the Giant")

Flo Hyman (Volleyball star) 

In 1998, in a recent book, Prof. Bob Brier stated that "Akhenton will become a poster boy for the National Marfan Association in their effort to reach out to others with the disorder." Accordingly, the Canadian Marfan Association (CMA) followed suit by declaring that, "the possibility of adding Akhenaten to this list enhances both the history of this disorder and the understanding of Egyptian history."   


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2007, 09:12:39 am






                                 D I A G N O S I N G   M A R F A N   S Y N D R O M E
 

 

In 1955, Prof. Victor McKusick, the father of medical genetics, published the earliest extensive study on the controversial aspects of MS and more recently in his catalogue Mendelian Inheritance in Man (1998). Clearly, there is a difficultly in diagnosing this syndrome without the appropriate scientific methodological approaches, since there are at least 20 syndromes that share similar phenotypes with MS. For example, Herman et al. (1975) reported the similarities between Stickler Syndrome and MS. Interestingly, some scientists mentioned that since Lincoln had Marfanoid habitus and his son Tad had a flat face with a cleft palate, the possibility of Stickler should also be raised. Also, the Italian violinist and boyfriend of Napolean Bonaparte's sister,  Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840), a tall thin man with long fingers and hyperextended joints, was said to have MS until others diagnosed him as Ehler Danlos Syndrome instead. Prof. Neil Schimke (Kansas Univ.) and Prof. McKusick (Johns Hopkins) published an early study about homocystinuria, a metabolic disorder which can sometimes be mistaken for and diagnosed as MS. In the fifth edition of Mckusick's Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue (1993), Godfrey lists more than 20 diseases which can be mistaken with MS. Furthermore, the international syndromologist, Prof. Samia Temtamy published a book with Prof. McKusick on the genetic disorders of hand anomalies showing that long fingers and toes can happen without MS (arachnodactyly).

In 1979, Pyeritz and McKusick stated that "at a minimum, the person suspected of being affected by Marfan Syndrome should receive a thorough physical examination consisting of a measurement of body proportions, a detailed ophthalmologic examination including slit-lamp examination with the pupils fully dilated, a chest radiograph, and an electrocardiogram. This data when compiled with the complete family history should permit the diagnosis to be made or rejected with 90% certainty in the cases. Today we base the diagnosis of MS on 4 criteria: characteristic familial, ocular, cardiovascular and skeletal features. We think it prudent to require at least 2 of these criteria to make the diagnosis.

Ten years later, in 1989, a workshop was held in Connecticut to study Marfan Syndrome which concluded that, "in addition to the accurate designation of a person as affected or not, all subjects in the screening panel of families must be tested for identification with DNA hyper-variable probes. Only then can an absolute diagnosis be made.

The Abraham Lincoln Marfan matter will not be settled by vacuous debate, but by the weight of cumulative scientific evidence. Prof. McKusick (1991), explained that he "would put the chances of Lincoln having had MS at 50-50." Prof. Samia Temtamy and her colleagues agreed with this view during the scientific workshop held in October 2001 in Cairo. I presented in this workshop at least 15 possibilities for King Akhenaton's alleged pathology based only on the analysis of his artistic representations (in a pre-photographic era). As argued by Prof. McKusick, it is difficult or even impossible to prove that he had Marfan Syndrome in the absence of DNA studies which would require finding his mummy or its remnants, which remain unfound to this day. Recently it has been found that Marfan syndrome is caused by mutation in the long-arm of chromosome 15. The specific gene involved is named Fibrillin I Precursor (FBN I). Today, molecular studies can prove if a person has Marfan syndrome or not. In the absence of this biotechnology, a more precise diagnosis needs a multidisciplinary team consisting of a clinical geneticist, ophthalmologist, cardiologist, and a physical anthropologist..


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 08, 2007, 09:16:24 am




 KING AKHENATEN AND MARFAN SYNDROME




(http://allanmatthews.8m.com/egypt/museum/akhenaten1.jpg)

In the historical symposium held in Cairo on October 31, 2001 to study the disease profile of Ancient Egyptians under the auspices of H.E. Prof. Ismail Sallam, all the members of the multidisciplinary committee rejected the diagnosis of Marfan Syndrome to King Akhenaton in the absence of his mummy or its remnants. Even dissection of the artistic representations does not correspond with this diagnosis. More than 15 other possibilities were raised in the differential diagnosis. The committee included professors: Samia Temtamy and Suzane R. Ismail (syndromologists); Mohammed El-Sawy and Wagida Anwar (molecular geneticists); Fawziya Hussein and Fawzy Gaballa (anthropologists); Mokhtar Gomaa (cardiologist), Mervat El-Sahragty (diagnostic radiologist); Wael Mansour Fahmy (orthopedic); Abeer Helmy and Randa Baligh (Egyptologists); Hesham Kandil and Abla El-Alfi (pediatric geneticists); and Ahmed Toughan (artist).

In the case of Akhenaton, we have to depend only on dissecting his artistic presentations. Recently, I communicated via email with the Canadian Egyptologist, Alwyn Burridge, who is completing her PhD on Akhenaton and Marfan Syndrome at the University of Toronto. In this correspondence I expressed that "with the available information, as a medical geneticist and syndromologist, I do not believe that King Akhenaton suffered from Marfan Syndrome." Based on the dearth of information to make a precise diagnosis for King Akhenaton, I would like to send the same message to Prof. Bob Brier. Hence it is necessary to remove the name and photo of King Akhenaton from the National Marfan Association's material. Until an absolute diagnosis can be reached, it is inappropriate to turn King Akhenaton into a symbol and poster boy for a disease he may not have suffered. The same goes for President Lincoln whom the association insists suffered from MS, without having tangible evidence in the post-Human Genome Project era..



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2007, 08:21:49 pm





http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=56131097850314



Susanna Thomas. "Akhenaten and Tutankhamen: The Religious Revolution." Leaders of Ancient Egypt Ser. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2003. 112 pp. Illustrations, maps, bibliography, index. $31.95 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-8239-3589-5.





.......The second book under review, on Pharaoh Akhenaten (1353-1336 B.C.E.), treads the same path as the first. Setting up her narrative with background history, the author introduces us to Akhenaten's father, King Amenhotep III, Egypt's self-styled "sun king." He ruled Egypt at the height of its power, controlling a territory that stretched from modern-day Syria in western Asia to the 4th Nile cataract in modern-day Sudan. The international relations are nicely detailed for us, using the so-called Amarna Letters, texts written on clay tablets in Akkadian, the diplomatic language of the time. We also learn about the royal family, including the importance of the great Queen Tiye. For example, we read that the queen actually corresponded herself with other kings and queens. This preeminence of the royal wife is a theme upon which the author had elaborated in her book on King Ahmose. The description of the long reign of Amenhotep III includes an interesting discussion of the so-called Sed festival, or royal jubilee, usually celebrated after thirty years on the throne.

At his death, the king's second eldest son--an older Crown Prince, Tuthmosis, had died earlier--acceded to the throne, as King Amenhotep (IV). It was soon evident that this king would be like no other before him. The first hint was in the royal titulary he chose for himself. Instead of proclaiming his military prowess as the previous rulers of the Eighteenth Dynasty had done, he elected to emphasize his connections to the divine. He also conducted international affairs in a very different way. Where his father had actively corresponded with rulers from western Asia, the new king preferred a more laissez-faire attitude, which looked to all concerned as uncaring and neglectful. The author quotes from one famous Amarna Letter that shows Akhenaten's contempt for some of his contemporaries. As one king complained: "My brother [how rulers addressed each other] has not sent the gold statues that your father was going to send. You have sent plated ones of wood" (p. 29)! Another wrote to Akhenaten: "Why, my brother, have you held back the presents that your father made to me while he was alive" (p. 29)? This inattention to foreign affairs would have dire consequences for Egypt in the long run.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2007, 08:27:19 pm







From detailing Amenhotep IV's family and his famous queen, Nefertiti, to their six daughters, the book goes on to discuss the new religious ideas introduced by the king. Continuing his father's concentration on the Aten, a god representing the sun disc itself, he now built a brand-new temple to this god to the east (not the north, as mentioned on p. 35) of the great temple of Amun at Karnak. To expedite matters, the royal architect chose to use smaller limestone blocks, called talatat today, which measure 52x26x24 cms (about 20"x10"x9") or, in ancient measurements, one cubit long and half a cubit wide and tall. This allowed the builders to quarry stone more quickly and enabled one man to carry a block on his shoulders. This new temple was enormous and was a harbinger of things to come, as the king's new center of worship would soon displace all other temples in the country. The worship of this new god was also accompanied by an eventual persecution of the older gods the ancient Egyptians had previously worshiped. This zealousness on the part of the king might have been his downfall. If he had simply told his subjects that henceforth they were to worship the Aten first and foremost, but without actually denying the existence of other gods, the population might have accepted Akhenaten's new ideas. But the king's religious intolerance was too much for them and his religious revolution would not survive him. To say that his philosophy was monotheistic is probably an over simplification, but it certainly can be compared to the monotheistic religions known today. Here, I have a minor quibble with the book. When the author states on that "in modern times, most of the world's religions have been monotheistic," this may be overstating the case (p. 50). True, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are monotheistic, but to say that these represent "most of the world's religions" ignores others, such as Hinduism and Buddhism, which are not monotheistic.

The next topic discussed is the king's peculiar appearance. Early representations of him show him with a long face, neck, and body, slanting eyes, as well as a thin waist and thick bulging hips. An old theory that he suffered from Froehlich's Syndrome must be discarded since this causes impotence, but a newer one, that the king suffered from Marfan's Syndrome, has gained respectability. However, it must always be remembered that ancient Egyptian art was never meant to be a faithful portrait of the person, so such theories must remain in the realm of speculation.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2007, 08:28:48 pm
(http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~rgrosser/amarna/34.jpg)

THE NEW CAPITAL :  A K H E T A T E N - THE HORIZON OF THE ATEN






The next chapter discusses the new city built by the king. Not content to live in Thebes, in the shadows of the powerful priesthood of Amun, the king not only changed his name from Amenhotep ("Amun is satisfied") to Akhenaten ("the one who is beneficial to Aten"). He also built an entirely new capital city in middle Egypt, which he called Akhetaten ("the horizon of the Aten"), modern-day Tell el Amarna. The author once again quotes from ancient texts where Akhenaten describes his wish to build his new city, and goes on to describe the city at great length. This chapter is full of informative material and draws a wonderful picture of the activities at the new site. She also makes the significant point that the archaeologist's spade has shown that ordinary folks who lived at Akhetaten managed to hang on to their old beliefs, as shrines to Bes and Taweret--household divinities who protected children and women in childbirth--were found in homes in the poorer sections of the city. In a subsequent chapter, the full city is described. There, we learn, among other things, that the city's streets were laid out in a grid pattern and that the Great Aten Temple was 2400 feet long and 750 feet wide. To use the same analogy as above, this would be around 800 by 250 meters, or nearly 8 football fields long and 2 and a half wide. To say that Akhenaten built on a grand scale would be a major understatement. One minor mistake occurs when the Small Aten Temple is said to be on the west bank of the Nile, when it, like the Great Aten Temple, was on the east bank (p. 71).


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2007, 08:30:12 pm
                          (http://www.lost-civilizations.net/images/egypt/akhmourning.jpg)
                            MOURNING FOR A CHILD





The last chapter narrates the final years of Akhenaten's reign. Plagued by trouble abroad, Akhenaten and Nefertiti also suffered the loss of at least one of their daughters; there is a poignant relief carved in Akhenaten's tomb showing the king and queen mourning a small body placed on a table. Three other daughters also disappear from the archeological record at this time, perhaps indicating that they too died. We next read about the death of Akhenaten and the troubled succession that accompanied it. A short-lived king named Smenkhare succeeded Akhenaten, but it is another son of his, probably from a minor queen called Kiya, who usually captures our attention at this point. A young--no more than nine or ten years old at the time--crown prince called Tutankhaten came to the throne, and eventually reigned for ten years. Under him, the old nobility and priesthoods who had been set aside by Akhenaten reasserted themselves, and the latter's social and religious revolutions were over. The new king, who probably took very few decisions on his own, soon changed his name to Tutankhamun. The author again uses primary sources to describe the conditions in Egypt when Tutankhamun came to the throne, and these paint a very bleak picture indeed. Even if we consider them to be hyperbolic spin on the part of the re-established nobility, the texts still vividly describe a country shorn of much of its empire, with an inefficient army, and with traditional temples throughout Egypt having "fallen into decay and ... overgrown with grass" (pp. 94-95). To make matters worse, a plague was sweeping across the ancient Near East, and it is easy to understand how the ancient Egyptians blamed Akhenaten's disregard for the gods for the calamity. When he died--the author wisely stays away from any silliness about Tutankhamun having been murdered--a tomb was quickly adapted for his use, which remained practically undisturbed for over three millennia until its discovery in 1922 by the archaeologist Howard Carter. But that is a matter for another book.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2007, 08:32:09 pm






In conclusion, this is another excellent offering, as highly informative as it is engaging. This is a most satisfying book on a tragic and enigmatic figure from ancient Egypt. Akhenaten's story makes us pause and ask, what if he had been a better politician? Would his pacifist theories and social revolution have survived him? What if he had been more tolerant of different opinions? Would his religious revolution, with its hints at monotheism, have endured? In fact, did his religious ideas perhaps influence other people?

Here I permit myself a personal observation. On page 89, a few verses of the Great Hymn to Aten are quoted, which should be enough to give readers an idea of Akhenaten's highly personal prayer to his god. While fully realizing the space limitations presumably dictated to the author by the publishers, it seems that a marvellous opportunity was lost to compare Akhenaten's beautiful hymn to the Biblical Psalm 104. So here, are a series of parallels between the two texts, both of which demonstrate the joy and awe felt by their authors at their respective god for the marvel of his creation.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 12, 2007, 08:34:16 pm





As for all distant lands, / you (also) make them live, / for you have made an inundation in the sky that it may descend for them, / and you make waves upon the mountains like the sea in order to irrigate / their fields in their towns (Hymn to Aten cols. 9-10).

The ocean covered it [= the earth] like a garment; / above the mountains stood the waters (Psalm 104:6).

All herds are at peace in their pastures, / and trees and plants flourish. / Birds have flown from their nests, / their wings in praise of your life force (Hymn to Aten col. 5).

They give drink to every beast of the field; / the wild asses quench their thirst. / Beside them the birds of heaven nest; / they sing among the branches (Psalm 104:11-12).

You have made an inundation (lit. "a Nile") in the sky, / that it may descend upon them [= foreign lands], / and make waves upon the mountains like the sea (Hymn to Aten cols. 9-10).

From your palace on high you water the mountains; / by your labor the earth abounds (Psalm 104:13).

When you set in the western horizon, / the earth is in darkness, as in the fashion of death ... / Every lion has come out of its den, / and all the serpents bite (Hymn to Aten cols. 3-4).

You bring darkness, that night may fall, / in which all the beasts of the forest prowl: / Young lions roar for prey, / to seek their food from God (Psalm 104:20-21).

The earth brightens when you have risen from the horizon ... / The whole land perform its tasks (Hymn to Aten cols. 4-5).

When the sun rises, / they come home and rest in their dens. / People then go forth to their work, / to their labor until the evening (Psalm 104:22-23).

How manifold is that which you do, / although they are hidden from sight! / O sole god, there is no other beside you. / You created the earth according to your wish (Hymn to Aten cols. 7-8).

How manifold are your works, O Lord! / In wisdom you have made them all; / the earth is full of your creations (Psalm 104:24).

Ships sail downstream and upstream, / for every road is opened because of your appearance. / The fish in the river leap at the sight of you; / your rays are within the Great Green sea (Hymn to Aten col. 6).

Here is the great and vast sea, / where countless beings teem, / living things both great and small. / There the ships go, / here Leviathan, which you made, plays (Psalm 104:25-26).

You have allotted each man his (proper) place, / and you have provided his (lit. "their") portions, / with each one of them according to his (own) diet (Hymn to Aten col. 8).

All of these look to you to give them food in due time (Psalm 104:27).

When you have arisen, they live. / When you set, they die (Hymn to Aten col. 12).

When you give to them, they gather; when you open your hand, they are well filled / When you hide your face, they are lost (Psalm 104:28-29).

These few parallels are not meant to imply that the Old Testament poet had a copy of the Hymn to Aten before him. But perhaps, given how pervasive and powerful oral tradition can be across both time and distance, he had heard snippets of the old Egyptian song performed and he either consciously or sub-consciously borrowed some of its themes for his own composition.

One small error has crept in to the final manuscript: on pages 74-75, the caption tells us that the image shows a tomb painting of a "pharaoh and his queen" worshiping a multitude of gods, when this is in fact from the tomb of a private individual named Senedjem from the site of Deir el-Medina.

http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=56131097850314


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 24, 2007, 09:21:44 am
                      (http://images.livescience.com/images/050405_king_tutankhamun_04.jpg)



TUTANKHAMUN ON EGYPT'S THRONE AS A RESULT OF A MILITARY COUP




By Ahmed Osman



Recent archaeological evidence indicates that Tutankhamun came to the throne as a result of a military coup. A scene on the wall on the tomb of Maya, the young king's nanny, discovered recently in Saqqara by the French mission, included the five army generals who are believed to have led the coup.


In my book Moses Pharaoh of Egypt, published in 1990, I suggested that Akhenaten did not die at the end of his 17-year reign, but was forced to abdicate the throne by an army coup. Pharaoh Akhenaten, one of the 18th dynasty kings who ruled Egypt for 17 years in the mid-14th century BC, abolished the old Egyptian gods in favor of a new monotheistic God, Aten, whose worship the king wanted to force upon his people. Akhenaten relied completely on the army's support in his confrontation with the old priesthood. Although he never took part in any war, the king is shown, in the vast majority of representations, wearing the Blue Crown or the short Nubian wig, both belonging to his military headdress, rather than the traditional ceremonial crowns of the Two Lands. Scenes of soldiers and military activity abound in both the private and royal art of Amarna. If we may take the reliefs from the tombs of the nobles at face value, then his capital city was virtually an armed camp. Everywhere we see parades and processions of soldiers, infantry, and chariotry with their massed standards. There are soldiers under arms standing guard in front of the palaces, the temples, and in the watchtowers that bordered the city; scenes of troops, unarmed or equipped with staves, carrying out combat exercises in the presence of the king.

The army, loyal to the throne, carried out the will of the king without questioning. The position of Aye, Akhenaten's maternal uncle, as the Commander General of the army, assured its loyalty to the ruling dynasty. Aye held posts among the highest in the infantry and the chariotry, together with Nakht Min, another general related to him. It was the loyalty of the army, controlled by Aye, which kept Akhenaten in power in the uneasy years following his coming to the throne as sole ruler (upon the death of his father) in his 12th year. By that time Akhenaten had developed his monotheistic ideas to a great extent. If Aten was the only God, Akhenaten, as his sole son and prophet, could not allow other gods to be worshipped at the same time in his dominion. As a response to his rejection by the Amun priests as a legitimate ruler, he had already snubbed Amun and abolished his name from the walls and inscriptions of temples and tombs. Now he took his ideas to their logical conclusion by abolishing, throughout Egypt, the worship of any gods except Aten. He closed all the temples, except those of Aten, confiscated their lands, dispersed the priests and gave orders that the names of all deities should be expunged from monuments and temple inscriptions throughout the country. Army units were dispatched to excise the names of the ancient gods wherever they were found written or carved.

At least two events early in Akhenaten's co-regency with his father Amenhotep III indicated strong opposition to his rule. The graffiti of Amenhotep III's 30th year from the pyramid temple of Meidum, which would be year 3 of Akhenaten, pointed to a rejection by some powerful factions of the king's decision to cause 'the male to sit upon the seat of his father.' Again, the border stele inscription of Amarna shows that, before deciding to leave Thebes and build his new city, Akhenaten had encountered some strong opposition and had been the subject of verbal criticism. Certainly, he would not have left the dynasty's capital without having been forced to do so. The final confrontation between the throne and the priesthood was postponed simply because after he departed from Thebes, Akhenaten had nothing at all to do with the running of the country, which was left to his father, Amenhotep III. Another important factor was the complete reliance of Akhenaten on the armed forces for support. If we may take the reliefs from the tombs of the nobles at face value, then the city was virtually an armed camp. Everywhere we see processions and parades of soldiers, infantry and chariotry with their massed standards. Palaces, temples and the city borders seem to have been constantly guarded.

The persecution of Amun and the other gods, which must have been exceedingly hateful to the majority of the Egyptians, was also hateful to the individual members of the army. This persecution, which entailed the closing of the temples, the dispatch of artisans to hack out his name from inscriptions, the banishment of the clergy, the excommunication of his very name, could not have been carried out without the army's active support. As the army shares the same religious beliefs as the people, it is natural that the officers would not feel very happy with the job they were doing. Thus a conflict appeared between the army's loyalty to the king and its loyalty to the religious beliefs of the nation. Ultimately, the harshness of the persecution must have had a certain effect upon the soldiers, who themselves had been raised in the old beliefs.

Archaeological evidence to support this claim came in November 1997, when Dr Alain Zivie, a French archaeologist, announced in Cairo the discovery of a new tomb in Saqqara. In this ancient necropolis of the Royal City of Memphis,
                                (http://www.orientalists.be/images/conf_2006_saqqara.jpg)
 ten miles south of Cairo, Zivie uncovered the tomb of Maia, wet-nurse of Tutankhamun. The tomb, which extends 20 meters inside the mountain, was also used, from the beginning of the Macedonian Ptolemic period at the start of the 3rd century BC, for the burial of the sacred mummified cats of Bastet. When first found, the tomb was almost completely full of mummified cats, placed there more than a thousand years after the original burial. The joint team from the French Archaeological Mission and the Supreme Council for Egyptian Antiquities has excavated two of the three known chambers. On the wall of the first chamber is a scene depicting Maya protecting the King who is sitting on her knee. The inscriptions describe her as 'the Royal nanny who breast-fed the pharaoh's body.'

Alongside and to the left of Maya's seat are six officials representing Tutankhamun's Cabinet, two above and four below, each with different facial characteristics. Although none of the officials is named, Dr. Zivie was able to suggest their identities from their appearance and the sign of office they carry. He recognized the two above and behind Maya's seat as Aye and Horemheb. The four officials below were identified by Zivie as Pa-Ramses, Seti, Nakht Min, and Maya. Except for the last one, who is also called Maya the treasurer, the remaining five were all military generals of the Egyptian army, and four of them followed the king on the throne. This was the first time in Egyptian history that the Cabinet was composed, almost totally, of army generals, which supports my earlier view that Tutankhamun came to the throne as a result of a military coup. These generals could only have gained their positions in the cabinet, and later on the throne, as a result of a military coup.

                                 (http://www.ancient.co.uk/images/user/site%20images/Egypt---Amarna-Detail-1---P.gif)
                                  MAIA, TUTANKHAMUN'S WET NURSE

The new evidence indicate that there must have been a kind of military move against Akhenaten, led by three army generals: Horemheb, Ramses, and Seti. Aye, the commander of the army, realized he could not crush the rebellion even with the help of General Nakht Min. When his attempt to persuade Akhenaten to allow the return of the old gods failed, he tried to save the royal dynasty by reaching a compromise with the leaders of the rebellion to allow the king to abdicate and be replaced by his son Tutankhamun. Tutankhamun left his father's capital of Amarna for Memphis in his fourth year, when a compromise was reached in which all ancient temples were reopened and worship restored. Nevertheless, Aten remained holding its supreme position, at least as far as the new king was concerned.

Aye, brother of Queen Tiye, Akhenaten's mother, is regarded as the military protector of the Amarna kings, and was responsible for the Chariots during the time of Akhenaten, while general Nakht Min is thought to have been his relative. Akhenaten used the army to destroy the old powerful priesthood and force his new monotheistic religion on his people. But the army, which shared the same old beliefs as the rest of the people, could not support the king to the end. It is clear that Akhenaten faced, in his 17th year, an army rebellion led by generals Horemheb, Pa-Ramses, and Seti. Aye, supported by General Nakht Min, not being in a position to crush the rebellion, made a deal with them to allow for the abdication of Akhenaten and the appointment of his son, Tutankhamun, as his successor. This would also explain how Aye, when he succeeded Tutankhamun on the throne, disappeared mysteriously, together with Nakht Min, after four years, while the three other generals rose to power. When Horemheb followed Aye as king, he appointed both Pa-Ramses and his son Seti as viziers and commanding generals of the army. They in turn succeeded him on the throne as Ramses I (who established the 19th dynasty) and Seti I.





AHMED OSMAN     www.ahmedosman.co.uk

Historian, lecturer, researcher and author, Ahmed Osman is a British Egyptologist born in Cairo

His four indepth books clarifying the history of the Bible and Egypt are: Stranger in the Valley of the Kings (1987)  -  Moses: Pharaoh of Egypt (1990) - The House of the Messiah (1992)  -  Out of Egypt (1998)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: +Faith+ on July 24, 2007, 11:12:14 am
I really love your Akhenaton thread, Bianca.  Most people start a thread, then don't come back to it, while this is a constant work in progress.

Riven and I had several conversations about Akhenaton in the other forum.  He was very important to the history of theology, his contributions to theology have been overlooked, and I am convinced he was given divine insight, well before that of others.

Keep up the great work.

God Bless,

+Faith+


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 07:30:13 am


Thank you, +Faith+,

I am rather fond of this topic.  I am proud to say that I TYPED every word of it from a book in my
possession.  It is the fairest analysis I have found to date.

Akhenaten has always fascinated me also and it's a never-ending saga.  It is sad that he took his
"new" religion in such a narrow manner.  Had he made the populace partecipants, he would have
succeeded.  But, sadly, all concentrated on the person of the Pharaoh and only through him one
could get to the "God".  King and High Priest all rolled into one.   Hardly a formula for promulgation......

Being a devotee of Edgar Cayce, I tend to think that the monotheistic idea came from the refugees
of Atlantis who followed the religion of the "Law of One".  In fact, the Aten was favoured by Akhenaten's
father and mother and his father before him.  It seems to be more or less and "elite belief" of a
chosen few.

When they discovered the "Jesus Tomb" a few months ago and I saw the triangle containing a circle
above the entrance, I immediately thought: The Pyramid and the Aten.....

The worship of the Aten must have gone on in secret down to Jesus' time and beyond and finally
absorbed into Coptic Christianity.

Love and hugs,
b



P.S.
How about bringing some of your conversations with Riven here?  I was only at AR about four months
in total at the end of last year, so I never did see any of it.  Plus, I find Riven a tad hard to follow.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 28, 2007, 10:30:03 pm







                          M Y S T E R I E S   O F   T H E   A M A R N A   P H A R A O H S





The Amarna period of Egyptian history is filled with romantic mysteries and puzzles for generations of archaeologists to debate.
 
Akhenaten, Smenkhare, and Tutankhamen were the only Eighteenth Dynasty kings of Egypt who lived for any time at Amarna (Akhetaten). Before and after, Egyptian pharaohs ruled from Luxor (Thebes), but even though the heyday of Amarna was fleeting, the period fascinates us because of an imagined connection between the theology of Akhenaten and the beliefs of Judaism, sexual scandal, and the mystery of the genealogy of the Amarna pharaohs. Such is the stuff of not only dreams and fiction, but also scholarly debates -- as recently examined by archaeologist Christine El Mahdy in Tutankhamen.

Akhenaten is known as "the heretic king," a monotheist, and a rebel, whose ephemeral cause succeeding Egyptian kings obliterated. However, lest Akhenaten's beliefs be clothed too readily in Judaeo-Christian raiment, note that Akhenaten's deity was not just a nameless, faceless supreme being, but a sun god, Aten.

Akhenaten * was born Amenhotep, son of the pharaoh Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre) who, like all pharaohs since the fifth dynasty, was also called the Son of Re (another sun god who represented a different solar phase). The seat of worship for Re, was Heliopolis (literally, the city of the sun). After the fifth dynasty, the cult of Re became secondary in Egypt, although Heliopolis continued to be an influential center for learning. Sent to Heliopolis for instruction, Akhenaten's older brother and the presumed heir to the throne disappeared, leaving in his stead, a deformed younger brother who was to shun palace life at Luxor (Thebes) and retreat to a new city at Amarna (Akhetaten) where he worshiped Aten.

Throughout the day, the sun changes its aspect. It's not always the clear solar disk of Aten. In the morning (Khepri) and evening (Amen), the sun radiates more widely. Christine El Mahdy (p. 200, Tutankhamen) says worship of the noonday sun as the solar disc wielding god Aten was common during the reign of the heretic king's father, Amenhotep III Nebmaatre. However, what Amenhotep IV Neferkheprure Waenre (soon to be Akhenaten) meant by Aten was different from the previously accepted icon. Akhenaten called Aten father of all creation.

El Mahdy compares two hymns written to different gods, Aten and Amen, both of which appear monotheistic, although the one to Amen was written three generations before the heretic king. The later hymn to Aten, from Amarna, begins, "Father of the gods who created Mankind, who made the animals... and all the plants that sustain the cattle... Lord of the rays of the sun that give light...." The earlier hymn to Amen says "Holy god who created himself, who made every land, created what is in it, all people, herds and flocks, all trees that grow from the soil."

Both hymns fit the monotheistic theology of the Judaeo-Christian tradition. But the hymns fail to show Akhenaten's Aten worship as a unique deviation from traditional Egyptian beliefs, presumed by many to be pagan polytheism.

If Akhenaten wasn't so different from his predecessors in his religious beliefs, his lifestyle might still have been alarming. He did set up his own capital apart from that of his co-ruling father, but we don't know whether he engaged in a homosexual incestuous relationship with Smenkhare. There are images of the two embracing, but there's also speculation that Smenkhare was really Nefertiti in disguise. Akhenaten and Nefertiti appeared deeply in love for many years before her sudden unremarked disappearance at the very moment of Smenkhare's appearance. While Tutankhamen could have been Smenkhare's son, he could also have been his brother, and both of them could have been Akhenaten's half brothers.

Soon, perhaps, testing will confirm which theories fit the DNA.


Tutankhamen, by Christine El Mahdy


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 31, 2007, 08:49:13 pm






Mystery of Tut's Father: New Clues on Unidentified Mummy




Brian Handwerk
for National Geographic News

July 10, 2007
Egyptologists have uncovered new evidence that bolsters the controversial theory that a mysterious mummy is the corpse of the heretic pharaoh Akhenaten, husband of Nefertiti and, some experts believe, the father of King Tut.

The mummy's identity has generated fierce debate ever since its discovery in 1907 in tomb KV 55, located less than 100 feet (30 meters) from King Tutankhamun's then hidden burial chamber.

So an international team of researchers led by Zahi Hawass, head of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, used a CT scanner to peer inside the body and those of several other Valley of the Kings mummies. (The expedition was partially funded by the National Geographic Society, which owns National Geographic News.)

The scan revealed a number of striking physical similarities between the mystery mummy and the body of Tut, including a distinctive egg-shaped skull. (Related photo gallery: King Tut's New Face.)

"CT technology virtually unwraps the mummies without damaging them," explained Hawass, who is also a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, in a press release.

"They reveal everything, including information about age and disease."

A CT machine produces some 1,500 cross-sectional "slice" images for each body. When put together they reproduce the entire body in three dimensions.



http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070710-king-tut.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 31, 2007, 08:51:13 pm
(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/bigphotos/images/070710-king-tut_big.jpg)


New CT scans have revealed that a mystery mummy (top left and right) found near King Tut's resting place shares many unusual features with the boy pharaoh (bottom left and right), such as a distinctive, egg-shaped skull, slight spinal scoliosis, impacted wisdom teeth, a similarly cleft palate, and identical jaw and cheekbones.

The team says the findings bolster the controversial theory that the mystery mummy is Akhenaten—one of ancient Egypt's most influential kings, Nefertiti's husband, and, some scholars believe, Tut's father.

Photograph by Brando Quilici/National Geographic Television


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 31, 2007, 08:55:14 pm







Heretic Pharaoh

Akhenaten, a powerful mid-14th century B.C. pharaoh also known as Amenhotep IV or Amenophis IV, had a heretical devotion to Egypt's sun god.

He decreed that Aten, the divine embodiment of the sun's life-giving warmth, was Egypt's one true god and that the pharaoh was the earthly incarnation through which Aten must be worshiped.

Akhenaten banned ancient festivals and closed temples that had honored other deities for centuries. He also founded a new capital city, Akhetaten (now Amarna), to honor Aten and break from the past.

But the radical new religion came crashing down with Akhenaten's death. Aten's temples were razed and Egyptians once more worshiped a full pantheon of favored gods.

The Amarna era ended with the disappearance of the royal family's mummies, leaving an enduring mystery for scholars.


"There are probably as many theories about what's going on in the Amarna period as there are Egyptologists who have taken an interest in that period," said Aidan Dodson, an archaeologist at the University of Bristol in England.

The newly scanned mummy's tomb held some clues, however.

The face and cartouche, or nameplate, of the mummy's coffin had been hacked out. But traces of gold leaf, along with hieroglyphics surrounding the cartouche, hinted over the years that the body might belong to the heretical leader.

"I think the alteration of the coffin in KV 55 suggests it must be a male member of the Amarna royal family and most likely Akhenaten," said Peter Lacovara, an archaeologist for the Amarna Royal Tombs Project, which is affiliated with England's Durham University.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 31, 2007, 08:57:27 pm







New Evidence



The CT scan supports the idea that the mummy is Akhenaten by revealing it as a male between the ages of 25 and 40 who shares many physical similarities with Tut—assuming Akhenaten was Tut's father, as some experts believe.

The mystery mummy's strange elongated, egg-shaped skull, called dolichocephalic, is strikingly similar to Tutankhamun's.

The jaw, cheekbones, cleft palate, impacted wisdom teeth, and slight scoliosis of the spine are all also similar to Tut's—suggesting familiar traits that may have been passed on from father to son.

"[This] means we can say now the mummy in KV 55, based on this evidence, and based on the age, and based on the inscriptions written in the coffin, that this could be the mummy of Akhenaten," Hawass told the National Geographic Channel.

But the mummy could also be one of several other people—including another mysterious member of Tut's family—Hawass cautioned.

Dodson, of the University of Bristol, said, "I still think that the mummy is that of Smenkhkare—who was probably either the brother or son of Akhenaten and thus will have shared many of his features."

"Akhenaten may have been buried at one time in KV 55—'magic bricks' [denoting a royal tomb] in his name were found—but the mummy was probably later removed and destroyed. I do not believe that there will ever be 100 percent agreement about this particular mummy."

Even ascertaining the family trees of ancient Egypt's dynasties can be difficult, Dodson added.

"The concept of a royal family recording who was the son of whom just didn't happen," Dodson said.

"There's virtually no example of [recorded evidence for] a king being the son of his predecessor until the 19th dynasty [around 1290 B.C.]. Until then the royal sons are hardly ever mentioned on monuments at all."


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on July 31, 2007, 08:59:56 pm
             (http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/42806000/jpg/_42806109_bust_getty_416.jpg)




No Clues on Nefertiti

The research expedition originally centered on Akhenaten's better-known wife—Nefertiti. But her whereabouts remain unknown, the team says.

Two female mummies found together just a few hundred feet from King Tutankhamun's burial chamber have been the focus of endless speculation.

At various times both corpses, known as the "Younger Lady" and the "Elder Lady," have been identified as the queen—but none of these assertions has proved conclusive.

CT scans revealed critical new information about these mummies, including the women's ages at death, their history of childbirth, the nature of wounds, important piercings, and the original positions of their arms—a key indicator of royal status.

The cumulative evidence led Hawass's team to conclude that neither is Nefertiti.

"The [Younger Lady] mummy that everyone thought is Nefertiti, it is not Nefertiti," he told the National Geographic Channel. "We gave the proof for that."
(http://www.eternalegypt.org/images/elements/19604_310x310.jpg)
The Elder Lady may be the powerful Queen Tiye, Akhenaten's mother, while the Younger Lady might possibly be his
(http://www.stewartsynopsis.com/images/tutpics8.jpg)
secondary wife Kiya—the likely mother of King Tutankhamun—the researchers say. (Related: "Egypt's Female Pharaoh Revealed by Chipped Tooth, Experts Say" [June 27, 2007].)

DNA evidence is probably the only way to provide definitive identifications, but it may be impossible to acquire after so many years.

So Nefertiti may remain lost forever, said Lacorva, of the Amarna Royal Tombs Project.

"Barring any significant discovery, such as her burial, which is unlikely," he said, "we may never know the truth."




A one-hour special on the mummy investigation, Nefertiti and the Lost Dynasty, will air on the National Geographic Channel Monday, July 16, at 9 p.m.

http://ngcblog.nationalgeographic.com/ngcblog/2007/07/ngc_most_amazing_moment_of_the_3.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 07, 2007, 06:37:17 am
                                NEFERTITI AND THE LOST DYNASTY

 


                (http://ngcblog.nationalgeographic.com/ngcblog/Mystery%20of%20Nefertiti.jpg)

http://ngcblog.nationalgeographic.com/ngcblog/2007/07/ngc_most_amazing_moment_of_the_3.html

I found this on National Geographic TV.  It isn't much, it's just the intro.  The summation - in the
last 5 minutes that I caught, was very important to me:

It seems that they are under the impression that Tutankhamun gathered the mummies of his rela-
tives and took them with him back to the north.  It seems also that Nefertiti is NOT among them.

In MHO, Tut was Kiya's son and there may have been a lot of court intrigue (what else is new?)            
at Amarna and he certainly would have not taken with him the mummy of his mother's rival, Nefertiti.

Love and Peace,
b
 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on August 10, 2007, 12:13:57 pm
 95:4. THE TEACHINGS OF AMENEMOPE    
 


95:4.1 In due time there grew up in Egypt a teacher called by many the "son of man" and by others Amenemope. This seer exalted conscience to its highest pinnacle of arbitrament between right and wrong, taught punishment for sin, and proclaimed salvation through calling upon the solar deity.
 


95:4.2 Amenemope taught that riches and fortune were the gift of God, and this concept thoroughly colored the later appearing Hebrew philosophy. This noble teacher believed that God-consciousness was the determining factor in all conduct; that every moment should be lived in the realization of the presence of, and responsibility to, God. The teachings of this sage were subsequently translated into Hebrew and became the sacred book of that people long before the Old Testament was reduced to writing.
The chief preachment of this good man had to do with instructing his son in uprightness and honesty in governmental positions of trust, and these noble sentiments of long ago would do honor to any modern statesman.
 


95:4.3 This wise man of the Nile taught that "riches take themselves wings and fly away"—that all things earthly are evanescent. His great prayer was to be "saved from fear." He exhorted all to turn away from "the words of men" to "the acts of God." In substance he taught: Man proposes but God disposes. His teachings, translated into Hebrew, determined the philosophy of the Old Testament Book of Proverbs. Translated into Greek, they gave color to all subsequent Hellenic religious philosophy. The later Alexandrian philosopher, Philo, possessed a copy of the Book of Wisdom.
 


95:4.4 Amenemope functioned to conserve the ethics of evolution and the morals of revelation and in his writings passed them on both to the Hebrews and to the Greeks. He was not the greatest of the religious teachers of this age, but he was the most influential in that he colored the subsequent thought of two vital links in the growth of Occidental civilization—the Hebrews, among whom evolved the acme of Occidental religious faith, and the Greeks, who developed pure philosophic thought to its greatest European heights.
 


95:4.5 In the Book of Hebrew Proverbs, chapters fifteen, seventeen, twenty, and chapter twenty-two, verse seventeen, to chapter twenty-four, verse twenty-two, are taken almost verbatim from Amenemope's Book of Wisdom. The first psalm of the Hebrew Book of Psalms was written by Amenemope and is the heart of the teachings of Ikhnaton.

95:5. THE REMARKABLE IKHNATON    
 


95:5.1 The teachings of Amenemope were slowly losing their hold on the Egyptian  mind when, through the influence of an Egyptian Salemite physician, a woman of the royal family espoused the Melchizedek teachings. This woman prevailed upon her son, Ikhnaton, Pharaoh of Egypt, to accept these doctrines of One God.
 


95:5.2 Since the disappearance of Melchizedek in the flesh, no human being up to that time had possessed such an amazingly clear concept of the revealed religion of Salem as Ikhnaton. In some respects this young Egyptian king is one of the most remarkable persons in human history. During this time of increasing spiritual depression in Mesopotamia, he kept alive the doctrine of  El Elyon, the One God, in Egypt, thus maintaining the philosophic monotheistic channel which was vital to the religious background of the then future bestowal of Michael. And it was in recognition of this exploit, among other reasons, that the child Jesus was taken to Egypt, where some of the spiritual successors of Ikhnaton saw him and to some extent understood certain phases of his divine mission to Urantia.
 


95:5.3 Moses, the greatest character between Melchizedek and Jesus, was the joint gift to the world of the Hebrew race and the Egyptian royal family; and had Ikhnaton possessed the versatility and ability of Moses, had he manifested a political genius to match his surprising religious leadership, then would Egypt have become the great monotheistic nation of that age; and if this had happened, it is barely possible that Jesus might have lived the greater portion of his mortal life in Egypt.
 


95:5.4 Never in all history did any king so methodically proceed to swing a whole nation from polytheism to monotheism as did this extraordinary Ikhnaton. With the most amazing determination this young ruler broke with the past, changed his name, abandoned his capital, built an entirely new city, and created a new art and literature for a whole people. But he went too fast; he built too much, more than could stand when he had gone. Again, he failed to provide for the material stability and prosperity of his people, all of which reacted unfavorably against his religious teachings when the subsequent floods of adversity and oppression swept over the Egyptians.
 


95:5.5 Had this man of amazingly clear vision and extraordinary singleness of purpose had the political sagacity of Moses, he would have changed the whole history of the evolution of religion and the revelation of truth in the Occidental world. During his lifetime he was able to curb the activities of the priests, whom he generally discredited, but they maintained their cults in secret and sprang into action as soon as the young king passed from power; and they were not slow to connect all of Egypt's subsequent troubles with the establishment of monotheism during his reign.
 


95:5.6 Very wisely Ikhnaton sought to establish monotheism under the guise of the sun-god. This decision to approach the worship of the Universal Father by absorbing all gods into the worship of the sun was due to the counsel of the Salemite physician. Ikhnaton took the generalized doctrines of the then existent Aton faith regarding the fatherhood and motherhood of Deity and created a religion which recognized an intimate worshipful relation between man and God.
 


95:5.7 Ikhnaton was wise enough to maintain the outward worship of Aton, the sun-god, while he led his associates in the disguised worship of the One God, creator of Aton and supreme Father of all. This young teacher-king was a prolific writer, being author of the exposition entitled "The One God," a book of thirty-one chapters, which the priests, when returned to power, utterly destroyed. Ikhnaton also wrote one hundred and thirty-seven hymns, twelve of which are now preserved in the Old Testament Book of Psalms, credited to Hebrew authorship.



http://urantiabook.org/newbook/papers/p095.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 11, 2007, 07:11:41 pm





                                                  A K H E N A T E N' S   L E G A C Y




Sorrowful times at Amarna

By this time all six princesses have been born (Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit,Neferneferure, and Setepenre). It is around Year 12. The great jubilee is here and it is the last happy time for the Amarna family. It is to be the final dawn on Akhenaten's religion. The princesses are all together for one of few times. 
                                      (http://www.amarnaproject.com/images/amarna_the_place/royal_tomb/5.jpg)
By Year 14 Meketaten, the second eldest sister, has died. Meketaten was buried in the royal tomb at Amarna. The only princesses shown mourning here are Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten (who is now second in the line of royal heiress) and Neferneferuaten Tasherit. The youngest, Neferneferure and Setepenre are not shown. It is not known whether it is because of their young age or if it is because they were already dead. There is some evidence one of the sisters was married to a king of Babylon, which was probably the first time an Egyptian princess was given to a foreign king. This might also help the explain why Ankhesenamun herself turned to foreign powers later in her life. Whatever these princesses fate, it is the last time they are all shown together. The only remaining after Meketaten's death are Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten. About this time Kiya, the Royal Favorite of Akhenaten has died and been buried, most likely also once interred in the royal crypt.
 
(http://www.house-of-pharaoh.com/egyptian-pictures/nefertiti_m.jpg)

Nefertiti

Even more mysterious is the sudden decline/disappearance of Nefertiti. She is shown hardly at all at this point and there is no hard evidence of her death. To the contrary, haunting yet meager evidence points to the fact that she may have lived long after her 'disappearance'. This has prompted some to think that the mysterious Smenkhkare is actually Nefertiti ruling as male and co-regent of Akhenaten. The theory does not seem likely, however she might be Neferneferuaten, who reigned about 4 years give or take a little. This pharaoh's wife is said to be Meritaten of whom we know was married to Smenkhkare. Meritaten's position as Neferneferuaten's wife, if she was indeed Nefertiti, would be reminiscent of Hatshepsut, who made her daughter perform the queenly roles. If this is not Nefertiti, then Neferneferuaten is Smenkhkare under a different name.


Smenkhkare is known to have been co-regent of Akhenaten. He ruled, scholars debate from 1-6? years. His origins are unknown, he seems to have sprung overnight. Another young man who appears quickly out of seemingly nowhere is Tutankhaten who later becomes the infamous 'boy king'. Tutankhaten is described by an obscure inscription as 'King's son of his loins'. But which king? He could be either the son of Akhenaten or AmenhotepIII. Popular vote between the two constantly waning. Akhenaten and Nefertiti are presumed to never have had sons as they are never mentioned. But Akhenaten had other wives that could have produced him a son, this could explain Kiya's prominence. AmenhotepIII also had many wives, notably his own daughters, the most significant being the eldest, Sitamun.



Co-regency

Smenkhakre reigned alongside Akhenaten for the final years of his reign. He ruled at least briefly afterwards. During this time, with Nefertiti absent for whatever reason, Akhenaten took his daughter Meritaten and proclaimed her his 'Great Wife'. Whether this was marriage in the full sense of the word or done merely to give her a higher status or fufill religious purposes is unknown. While this is hotly disputed, most incline that Akhenaten married his daughter in the full sense of the word. This would not be, after all the first evidence of father-daugher incest in the royal family. But once Meritaten was married to Akhenaten's co-regent, who now ruled in Memphis, Akhenaten needed another royal wife. The only eligible women left was Ankhesenpaaten.



King's daugher of his body whom he loves, king's wife?

Ankhesenpaaten during this time is mentioned only scarcely. This time of her life is not entirely clear and not all is accepted by certain scholars. It seems to some that Ankhesenpaaten was married to her father for a year or two as well before his death. Ankhesenpaaten's name was placed over that of Kiya's and Nefertiti as 'Great wife', just as Meritaten was earlier. There are however, less sources of Ankhesenamun as wife compared to Meritaten. Akhenaten's intentions of this is not clear.
                                                 (http://perso.wanadoo.es/historiaweb/egipto/osiris/Isis_Horus.jpg)
                                                  ISIS NURSING THE BABY HORUS
                                                  Cairo Museum

Who were the Tasherits?

Two more shadowy figures arise about this time. Those of Meritaten Tasherit and Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit. Tasherit translates as 'junior', 'the little' or 'the younger'. These girls are named as king's daughters and Akhenaten is, obviously the only king at this time, unless by slim chance these are Smenkhkare's. Their mother's are not named but Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten are shown and are in text suggestive of their mothers. The textual references being the 'junior' aspect. It is not absolute that these are the children of Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten, but that is the generally accepted theory. Meritaten, the eldest would have been old enough to bear children as child bearing age in Ancient times was younger. However, Ankhesenpaaten's age is hard to determine. Her age is largely dependent on whether one accepts the Tasherit as her daughter or not, this is why most say Ankhesenpaaten was older than her destined husband Tutankhamun. She is put around the age of 14 which is child bearing age. However, it is possible she was much younger, perhaps even Tutankhamun's age. If she was born in Year 5 she would be twelve at this time. Which is acceptable pro and against the Tasherit theory. The Tasherits are both shown only a few times and are seen as very young. They both were awareded sun shades which were important religiously and socially and noted an honarary staus. Curiously it is Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit and not Ankhesenpaaten who was awarded this honor among other Amarna women.

The likely mothers for the Tasherit's are: Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Nefertiti, and Kiya. It should be noted that none of these are quite satisfactory and it should be further noted that the two fetus found in Tutankhamun's tomb, the remains of his children with Ankhesenpaaten, would seem to prove that Ankhesenpaaten was not capable of bearing children.



Akhenaten dies, Meritaten disappears, Queen Ankhesenpaaten?

Akhenaten died, his cause of death unknown, it is presumed he was entombed in his royal crypt with much of his family already buried there.
Smenkhkare's reign was short lived. His wife, Meritaten disappeared after a few years of their co-regency. Her fate is unknown. There are some curious references that link Smenkhkare and Ankhesenpaaten together as if husband and wife. This is considered by most a moot point. If she was ever his wife, it was three years maximum.

(http://www.museesdefrance.com/_photos/RE000115/RE000115_l.jpg)
Tutankhaten

Smenkhkare died, leaving the only eligible male, the obscure Tutankhaten to rule in place of Pharaoh. His wife was to be the slightly older Ankhesenpaaten who was about twelve. Tutankhaten was nine or ten. It is presumed the young couple were married at the coronation ceremony, though it is possible and likely they were previously betrothed. It was up to this young couple to carry on the dynasty.



Early Years 

                       (http://www.egyptologyonline.com/TRIO%20tut%20tomb%20scenes.jpg)
For the first two possibly three years, Tutankhakhaten and Ankhesenpaaten ruled at Amarna. They were too young to be in any real power, Ay and Horemheb were the real 'puppet masters'. The royal couple resided at the North Palace of Amarna. Evidence of their reign their has been found along with one letter from a foreign king addressed to Tutankhaten.

(http://www.mythinglinks.org/tut.jpg)Some time during this period it was decided to move the capital back and to abolish all Akhenaten had done. How devastating this must have been especially for Ankhesenpaaten to be foreced to turn her back on her father and family and to leave the only home she ever remembered. The priests of Amun would accept only this as consolation for Akhenaten's revolution, and they expected much more along with it. Amarna was quickly evacuated and forgotten.



The Name Game

The priests of Amun would not stand for the hated god in their rulers name, so Tutankhaten was changed to Tutankhamun and likewise Ankhesenpaaten to Ankhesenamun, their commonly known names. The meaning of Tutankhamun being something like 'Living image of Amun' and Ankhesenamun 'She lives through Amun.' In addition to this, Tutankhamun re-opened all the temples, added onto and restored religious buildings and monumemts and reinstated all the old gods. This must have made him popular in the people's eyes, as they hated Akhenaten's forceful one god. One wonders if they would have hated poor Ankhesenamun as well. What the true feelings of this young couple was will never be known and can only be speculated at.



Pharaoh Ankhesenamun?


(http://www.kingtutexhibit.com/images/kingtut/ankhesen-amun-122.jpg)There is a slight possibility that Ankhesenamun could have reigned as 'pharaoh' or more likely regent for Tutankhamun as he grew older. She could have had an active role in politics and government as well. She would have had to have some influence at least in her mandatory religious ceremonies. If she did indeed rule, it was for a very short time and always in the shadows behind Ay and Horemheb.


(http://www.portnet.k12.ny.us/egyptmuseum/Tomb1pic11.jpg)
Sweet of Love

Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun fell in love sometime in between all the political and religious turmoil, perhaps they always loved each other, surely they clung to each other during their rough early years. They transitioned very quickly together from childhood to adulthood. They had themselves portrayed as inseparable, the queen always at his feet, the perfect wife.

But there is more proof of their love, Ankhesenamun was Tutankhamun's ONLY wife, he made no use of his harem. He is the only pharaoh to have only one lover.
(http://www.kingtutexhibit.com/images/pics/pic51.jpg)
It would seem for the first time that their years together were going to be happy times, but it was not to last.


http://www.angelfire.com/realm2/amethystbt/Eankchildren.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 01:28:58 pm
                     (http://showcase.netins.net/web/ankh/goddessboat.jpg)





                                               E G Y P T I A N   L O V E   P O E M S





Extract from a 3,000 year-old papyrus.

            (http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/gif-still/lotus.gif)

She is one girl, there is no one like her.
She is more beautiful than any other.
Look, she is like a star goddess arising
at the beginning of a happy new year;
brilliantly white, bright skinned;
with beautiful eyes for looking,
with sweet lips for speaking;
she has not one phrase too many.
With a long neck and white breast,
her hair of genuine lapis lazuli;
her arm more brilliant than gold;
her fingers like lotus flowers,
with heavy buttocks and girt waist.

Her thighs offer her beauty,
with a brisk step she treads on ground.
She has captured my heart in her embrace.
She makes all men turn their necks
to look at her.
One looks at her passing by,
this one, the unique one.


            (http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/gif-still/lotus.gif)

I wish I were your mirror
so that you always looked at me.
I wish I were your garment
so that you would always wear me.
I wish I were the water that washes your body.
I wish I were the unguent, O woman, that I could annoit you.
And the band around your breasts,
and the beads around your neck.
I wish I were your sandal that you would step on me!


            (http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/gif-still/lotus.gif)


O my beautiful one,
I wish I were part of your affairs, like a wife.
With your hand in mine
your love would be returned.
I implore my heart:
"If my true love stays away tonight,
I shall be like someone already in the grave."
Are you not my health and my life?
How joyful is your good health
for the heart that seeks you!


            (http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/gif-still/lotus.gif)


The Wine of Love. -
Oh! when my lady comes,
And I with love behold her,
I take her to my beating heart
And in my arms enfold her;
My heart is filled with joy divine
For I am hers and she is mine.
Oh! when her soft embraces
Do give my love completeness,
The perfumes of Arabia
Anoint me with their sweetness;
And when her lips are pressed to mine
I am made drunk and need not wine.


            (http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/gif-still/lotus.gif)


The Garden Of Love - "Oh! fair are the flowers, my beloved,
And fairest of any I wait.
A garden art thou, all fragrant and dear,
Thy heart, O mine own, is the gate.
The canal of my love I have fashioned,
And through thee, my garden, it flows-
Dip in its waters refreshing and sweet,
When cool from the north the wind blows.
In our beauteous haunt we will linger,
Thy strong hand reposing in mine-
Then deep be my thoughts and deeper my joy,
Because, O my love,
I am thine.
Oh!thy voice is bewitching, beloved,
This wound of my heart it makes whole-Ah!
When thou art coming,
and thee I behold,
Thou'rt bread and thou'rt wine to my soul."Love's


            (http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/gif-still/lotus.gif)


Pretence - With sickness faint a weary
All day in bed I'll lie;
My friends will gather near me
And she'll with them come nigh.
She'll put to shame the doctors
Who'll ponder over me,
For she alone,
my loved one,
Knows well my malady.

Unknown - Seven Days and I've not seen my lady love.
A sickness has shot through me.
I have become sluggish,
And I have forgotten my own body.
If the best surgeons come to me,
My heart will not be comforted with their remedies.
My lady love is more remedial than any potion;
She's better than the whole book of medical lore.
If I see her, then I'll be well....


            (http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/gif-still/lotus.gif)


Distracting is the foliage of my pasture:
The mouth of my girl is a lotus bud,
Her breasts are mandrake apples,
Her arms are viones,
Her eyes are fixed like berries,
Her brow a snare of willow,
and I the wild goose!"


http://www.angelfire.com/realm2/amethystbt/Egyptianlovepoems.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: unknown on August 21, 2007, 07:58:12 am
Hi Bianca

It is amazing how much we think of love in the same way today as they did then,
I bet these poems where awe-inspiring in the original language...


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 21, 2007, 11:09:18 am




THERE'S NOTHING NEW UNDER THE SUN........



Especially when it comes to the most human of emotions,  L O V E .......




Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 21, 2007, 03:54:36 pm
(http://www.narmer.pl/ima_mum/tut_trum.jpg)
Apart from king’s mummy there was found in the 'Treasury', a case containing small antropoidal coffins with mummified fetuses of Tutankhamun’s and queen Anchsenamon’s daughters. The smaller one, 25.75 cm long, unfolded by H.Carter, is a ca. 5 mo. old fetus as assessed by Prof. Douglas Derry. The second one is 36.1 cm long. This fetus is also female and according to Derry died in 7 month of gestation. Recent investigations directed by prof. R.G.Harrison of the University of Liverpool proved that the girl died at birth or short before.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 21, 2007, 04:01:16 pm
(http://anubis4_2000.tripod.com/mummypages1/TutChildMummy1_small.jpg)
                                     (http://anubis4_2000.tripod.com/mummypages1/TutChildMummy2_small.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 21, 2007, 04:08:27 pm







Among the shrines and chests that were piled up in the part of King Tut's tomb that is now referred to as the Treasury was an undecorated wooden box (no. 317), that measured some 61 centimeters long. the lid was originally tied into position and sealed with the jackal and nine captives, but these had been broken during antiquity. Within the box were two miniature anthropoid coffins, one measuring 49.5 centimeters and the other 57.7 long, placed side by side, head to foot.

This had been painted with the usual black resin, relieved by gilded bands of inscriptions referring to each occupant simply as "the Osiris", with no other names specified. The lids were attached to the coffin bases in the normal manner, using eight flat wooden tenons. Bands of linen were then tied around the coffins beneath the chin and around the waist and ankles, and applied to each of the bands was a clay seal, again with the impression of the jackal and nine captives.

After these linen bands were removed and the lids pulled away, the coffins were each found to contain a second coffin (no. 317a(1), 317b(1)). They were different than the outer coffins in having their entire surface covered in gold foil. Within these second coffins were the mummified remains of two tiny humans.

The first mummy, no. 317a(2), was less then 30 centimeters in height, and was preserved in almost perfect condition. There as a swathing sheet which held it in place with five transverse and two triple longitudinal band down the front, back and sides. A well-modeled mask of gilded cartonnage and black, painted facial details was placed upon its head. Though the mask was very small, it was nevertheless far too large for what was probably a fetus.

Though the second mummy, no. 317b(2), was less well preserved than the first, it was also somewhat larger at 39.5 centimeters. It was also wrapped similar to the first one, with a triple longitudinal band over the front, back and sides, and four transverse bandages.

Although a mask had evidently been prepared for it, there was none present, apparently because the embalmers found that it was too small to fit over the head of the wrapped bundle. Hence, the mask had been tossed into the embalming debris stored in the entrance corridor and later reburied in Pit 54, where it as found by Davis in 1907, sometime before the discovery of King Tut's tomb.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 21, 2007, 04:10:39 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutchildren1.jpg)
THE GOLDEN MASK OF THE LARGER COFFIN


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 21, 2007, 04:22:12 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/Tutchildren4.jpg)







Sometime after their discovery, Douglas Derry, in 1932, performed autopsies of these mummies. The bandages of the first mummy had been removed by Howard Carter, so Derry was able to record little more than a badly ordered mass of linen some 1.5 centimeters thick, with pads placed over the chest, legs and feet to give the bundle its form.

Beneath he found the body of a premature fetus with gray, brittle skin, through which could be seen the bones. Eyebrows and eyelashes were not evident, and the eyelids were nearly closed. There was no abdominal incision, and it was not even apparent how the body had been preserved.

However, the limbs were fully extended, with the hands arranged flat to the thighs. Even a part of the umbilical cord was preserved on the fetus, which itself measure only 25.75 centimeters. He determined that the body was probably that of a female, that was probably least born four months premature.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 21, 2007, 04:29:36 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutchildren5.jpg)







Derry was able to unwrap the second mummy himself, and beneath the linen shroud, held in place by the transverse and longitudinal wrappings, he found a further series of transverse bandages which in turn revealed a second shroud.

Under this shroud, which covered the whole front of the body was a layer of transverse and criss-cross bandages and a series of pad which had evidently been inserted for stiffening and shape. The sides, legs and chest of the mummy were built out with further pads, again held in place by transverse bandaging.

The removal of several large, transversely wound and somewhat charred covering sheets finally revealed a final layer of delicate linen, which covered the body of a child measuring 36.1 centimeters in length.

Again, though this body was rather less well preserved than the first, Derry believed that it was probably a female child, born some two months prematurely.


This child's limbs were, however, fully extended though with the hand placed beside rather than upon the thighs.

Though the skin was gray in color, there remained some downy hair upon the scalp. Furthermore, the eyebrows and eyelashes were visible, and the eyes were open and still contained the shrunken eyeballs. On this child, the method of embalming was evident.

The skull had been packed with salt soaked linen inserted through the nose, and Derry noted a tiny embalmer's incision, little more than 1.8 centimeters in length, just above and parallel to the inguinal ligament (the groin).

Further salt-soaked linen had been introduced into the abdominal cavity through this cut, and according to Derry, sealed over with resin. However, later analysis identified the sealant as altered animal tissue.

Derry determined that the child died at, or shortly after birth. The umbilical cord, which seems to have been cut off close to the abdominal wall, had not dried up as it would have had the baby survived for any length of time after birth.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 21, 2007, 04:42:48 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutchildren2.jpg)







A later examination of the second child was later made by a team at the University of Liverpool headed by professor R. G. Harrison.

In this examination, radiography revealed evidence to suggest that the child had a condition known as Sprengel's deformity, with congenitally high right scapula, spina bifida and scoliosis.

This time, however, the age suggested by the X-ray was at most only one month premature, if not full term.

Though there has been some speculation otherwise, most scholars seem to believe that these were the children of Tutankhamun by his wife, Ankhesenamun, since he is not known to have had any other wife.

It should further be noted that there exists some (small) evidence that spina bifida can be a result of incest. We believe that Ankhesenamun was probably Tutankhamun's half sister.


WITH THE DEATH OF THESE TWO BELOVED BABIES ALSO DIED OUT THE BLOODLINE OF THE 'HERETIC PHARAOH'



http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutchildren.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 21, 2007, 05:26:14 pm


A VERY PERSONAL COMMENT:


We all have a "beef" with dear old Zawi Hawass......


But a while ago I bought two books he authored about Tutankhamun, mainly because the photographs
were supposed to be exceptional. - of course they would be, he's got an "inside line".........

Well, the surprise was the text.  Zawi has a heart!  You wouldn't believe the delicacy and tenderness
with which he treats the subject.  Do read them if you have a chance.
                     (http://guardians.net/articles/images/Resize%20of%20PEN_6417.jpg)
Myself, I often get choked up when the subject of the Boy King comes up.  I get very protective and
maternal, especially when he is criticized.  I often thought that I may be his wetnurse reincarnated,
so strong are my feelings for him.....

Did any of you notice his little slippers tucked under the child's chair in the picture at the top?


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 22, 2007, 07:37:30 am
                           (http://www.kingtutexhibit.com/images/pics/pic51.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 03:19:56 pm








The End of the Amarna Period


By Dr Marc Gabolde




                                                     Tutankhamun's parentage




A line drawing showing a small child in the arms of a wet-nurse Until recently, it was thought that the six daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti were the couple's only offspring. However, in one chamber of the Royal Tomb, just outside the room devoted to the funeral vigil for Akhenaten's second daughter, Meketaten, a small child is depicted in the arms of a wet-nurse.
(http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/images/amarna_wetnurse.gif)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 03:26:57 pm






It has long been believed that Meketaten died in childbirth and that this infant was hers. However, she was only about nine years old at the time of her death and her sarcophagus proves that she was scarcely taller than one metre.

What remains of the inscription referring to the child reads:

'(1) [...] born of (2) [...] Neferneferua[ten] Nefertiti, who lives now and forever more'
((1) and (2) indicate two columns; [...] indicates missing text.)

Given the length of the missing parts of the inscription and the similarity in composition to the titles given to other royal offspring at Amarna it is clear that we are dealing with a child of Nefertiti. And given that by the time of the birth of this child, we know that the six daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti were already born and that, moreover, three of them were dead, the baby is necessarily different from any of the known princesses. So we must be dealing with a seventh child of Nefertiti.

The most likely candidate is Tutankhamun, known during this period as Tutankhaten. Indeed, a block, now split in two, from the nearby site of Hermopolis still bears the insignia of the prince Tutankhaten accompanied by that of a princess whose name, unfortunately, is missing.

'...it is probable that Akhenaten and Nefertiti were the parents of Tutankhamun.'
Another block at Hermopolis confirms that Tutankhaten had at least one sister and probably two. On this block, a prince, identifiable by his loincloth, can be seen sitting on an adult's lap, together with traces of the figures of two other children. It was a rule in the official monuments of Amarna, that Nefertiti's children should never be shown alongside those of any other wife of Akhenaten. As Nefertiti is the only one of his wives known to have had more than one child, it is probable that Akhenaten and Nefertiti were the parents of Tutankhamun.


http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/amarna_04.shtml


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 03:36:35 pm
THE CENTRAL SCARAB OF THIS PECTORAL
IS MADE OF LYBIAN GLASS - TEKTITE

(http://home.iprimus.com.au/btheos/articles/LM-Egypt-2b.jpg)                                           (http://www.egyptologyonline.com/TRIO%20tut%20treasures2.jpg)
(http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/S_Peterson/buckle.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 03:57:26 pm
(http://www.freemaninstitute.com/Gallery/Egyp380_big_copy.jpg)
                                  (http://www.nilemuse.com/hieroglyphs/pics/TutCartouche.gif)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 04:08:45 pm
                           (http://www.vegas-dreaming.com/images/tut03.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 04:13:10 pm





SIX CHARIOTS WERE FOUND DISMANTLED IN TUTANKHAMEN'S TOMB.                       





                         (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/kidsgu16.jpg)


 
                      (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/chariot_b.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 04:39:18 pm

                (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/lionesscouch_b.jpg)


Lioness Couch

The first couch with lion sides and high curling tail. The face shows the nose, eye frames and tear drops of blue glass.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 05:29:37 pm


               (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/cowcouch_b.jpg)

Cow Couch

The second couch took the form of a cow, an image of the goddess Mehetweret "the great flood."


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 05:32:59 pm


               (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/ammutcouch_b.jpg)

Ammut Couch

The third couch was of the composite goddess Ammut, the devourer (part hippopotamus, part crocodile, and part lioness). Her open mouth showing ivory teeth and a red stained tongue.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 05:36:41 pm


               (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/cedarchair_b.jpg)

Cedar Chair

One of the most beautiful pieces found in the antechamber. The chair is made of cedar wood. Its legs are carved like the paws of a lion. The deep-red color of the chair is emphasized by a contrasting gold-foil overlay on the winged sun-disc. The back of the chair has an open work representation of Heh, god of Eternity, kneeling and carrying the ankh symbol on one arm.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 05:41:45 pm

                                          (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/throne_b.jpg)

Ecclesiastical Throne

This is constructed of wood and richly decorated with glass faience and colored stones. It has blotchy markings of a hide of a Nubian goat. At the top of the back of the chair is the spread-winged Nekhbet Vulture and the Aten disc.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 05:46:29 pm
                                   (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/shrine_b.jpg)

Nekhbet Shrine

This is one of the most elegant pieces found in the tomb. The shrine is constructed of wood overlaid with thick gold foil. The shrine is adorned with many beautiful scenes of King Tut with his wife


                                    (http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/tut10.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 05:49:22 pm
                     (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/paintedchest_b.jpg)

The Painted Chest

This is the first item that was removed from the antechamber. It is a wooden chest with exquisite paintings of King Tut at war and in various hunting scenes. This is one of the most beautiful pieces in the tomb


(http://www.bornemania.com/civ/ancient_egypt/tut_ank_amon/tut-war-chest.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 05:52:04 pm


                       (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/vaultedchest_b.jpg)

White Vaulted Chest

This was found in the antechamber and contained some of the garments of the king. It has a hieroglyphic inscription on the side.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 05:53:11 pm
   

             (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/portablechest_b.jpg)

Large Portable Chest

This large portable chest has retractable handles. It has a vaulted roof and has hieroglyphic inscriptions all around it.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 05:58:47 pm

                                     (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/brownstool_b.jpg)

Brown Stool

Attractive white stool with concave seat and lion's-feet legs. The sides have gilded unification symbols with lotus and papyrus plants tied together.




                            (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/duckstool_b.jpg)

Duck Stool

In all, 12 stools of six distinct types were found in the tomb. This is a duck stool, named because of the shape of the legs. It can be folded, and the leather is made of imitation leopard skin.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 25, 2007, 06:06:54 pm


(http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/kastatue_b.jpg)

The Ka Statue

The two Ka statues guarded the burial chamber. The Ka is the spirit of the deceased person. The face is that of King Tut. They are life-sized and are exquisitely crafted

http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/antechamber/


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 26, 2007, 06:53:32 am
                                  


   
                                                       (http://www.iran-daily.com/1384/2272/html/022116.jpg)


This plaster head is a true likeness of the young king. He is pictured emerging from the lotus flower, just as the sungod Osiris had done when he came into existence from a lotus flower on the surface of the ocean at the creation of the universe.

                                                   (http://www.humanities-interactive.org/ancient/tut/400/ex080_03a1.jpg)

The head is about the size of that of a new-born child and shows the elongation of the skull which is a feature of the Armarnan style. It portrays the young Tutankhamun emerging from the lotus flower as the sun god appears from the flower when it opens its petals. It is made from stuccoed and painted wood.


                                    (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/05/images/050511_kingtutface.jpg)



National Geographic News


May 11, 2005
The world's most famous pharaoh has a brand-new look, thanks to forensic techniques that wouldn't be out of place on a CSI TV crime drama. 

Scientists have created the first ever bust of the ancient Egyptian King Tutankhamun based on 3-D CT scans of his 3,300-year-old mummy.


Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, led the effort, joined by forensic artists and physical anthropologists from Egypt, France, and the United States. Three independent teams created busts of Tut.

"In my opinion, the shape of the face and skull are remarkably similar to a famous image of Tutankhamun as a child, where he is shown as the sun god at dawn rising from a lotus blossom," Hawass said.

http://www.eyeconart.net/history/ancient/egypt/tut.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 26, 2007, 06:59:00 am
                       (http://www.touregypt.net/museum/pectoral2.jpg)


Pectoral Featuring Nut in Vulture Form


Some Old Kingdom representations of the usekh collar show a rectangular or trapezoidal panel hanging down from its lower edge. As variants, the panel may be attached to the collar by two straps, one on each side, or it may be suspended from the neck on straps that pass either over or under the collar. At that stage in its development the panel was probably in effect a pectoral, but was only worn with the collar. By the Twelfth Dynasty it had become a shrine-shaped amulet, independent of the collar, but still occupying the same position over the chest.
This shrine-shaped pectoral illustrated here shows the sky-goddess Nut in vulture form. It is a gold openwork piece inlaid with polychrome glass and a small amount of carnelian. The shrine has a cavetto cornice with a floral frieze; its sides and base have ribbon decoration. Above the cornice, at each end, is a terminal bar pierced with three holes for a three string suspension chain. Nut's name is written above the body of the vulture, thereby leaving its identity beyond doubt. The folding of the ends of the wings downwards, so that they resemble a cloak, is a space-saving device repeated with greater elegance and delicacy in the vulture of Nekhbet pectoral.

Above the vulture, in addition to the name of Nut, the king's throne and personal names are written, but the titles are inverted and the names are written with the signs reading in reverse order within the cartouches. Furthermore, the signs after the personal name, which stand for the epithet "ruler of Heliopolis of Upper Egypt" are all placed in the wrong order. It is remarkable to find such confusion in a short inscription on a royal amulet.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 26, 2007, 07:09:55 am
                                   (http://egyptologist.org/discus/messages/11/6160.jpg)


Here is a wonderful example of a scarab "pushing" the lunar disk and crescent (from National Geographic, issue of January 2003 : comes from Tut's tomb).

 With the wonderful pun-system of the AE : just below the scarab are the 3 signs of the plural, posed on the basket [nb]; the 3 signs together give the lecture of Tut's name = neb-kheperu-Re (even if in this pectoral, the sun disk is replaced by the lunar disk and crescent, the lecture of the name is evident; all this reinforces the "interchangeability" of the sun and the lunar disks)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: BlueHue on August 28, 2007, 04:04:22 pm
VERY intresting that you noticed the interchangeability of Sun & Moondisks, because what is described as the Flying Sundisk in the Tombs of the Nobles in Ach-en-Aten is actually a wandering MOON, NOT the Re-Amon-Sun. ;D


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 02:14:42 pm
(http://www.eyeconart.net/history/ancient/egypt/TutNecklace.jpg)
This necklace, which resides in the Cairo Museum, represents the right eye of Re, the principle of light; the eye is framed by Uadjit the serpent, of the north, and Nekhebit, the vulture, of the south. This piece of jewelry was found inKing Tut's tomb, and was probably worn for ceremonial purposes.
                                                     (http://www.eyeconart.net/history/ancient/egypt/TutVulture.jpg)
This Pectoral, belonging to Tutankhamun, represents the goddess Nekhbet, in the shape of a vulture, holding to shenu-signs in her talons. This protective amulet was found on the mummy of the king.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 02:21:52 pm
(http://www.eyeconart.net/history/ancient/egypt/TutScepter.jpg)
This royal scepter is made of wood with a sheet of gold beaten to it. On the side of the blade there is an inscription reading "The good god, the beloved, dazzling of face like the Aton when it shines, the son of Amun, Nebkheperura, living for ever." Above the inscription is a frieze of lotus petals, and on the other side of the blade are rows of trussed and slaughtered bulls.
                                                (http://www.eyeconart.net/history/ancient/egypt/TutCrookFlail.jpg)
The Crook And Flail, the emblems of Osiris, were carried by kings on some ceremonial occasions. The flail may have been used in Tutankhamun's coronation since it has the cartouche of both his childhood name and the name he took as king, Nebkheperura.
 

 




Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 02:49:21 pm
(http://www.eyeconart.net/history/ancient/egypt/TutCobra.jpg)
This cobra is identified as Netjer-ankh, or "the living god." It is made of gilded wood, and was found in one of the black shrines, which contained figures of underworld spirits.
                                                   (http://www.eyeconart.net/history/ancient/egypt/TutLion.jpg)
                      This carved lions-head was found on one of the beds in Tut's tomb.  Its features are the same
                       as those of Sekhmet, the lion goddess.  It is made of carved wood, gilded in gold, with colour-   
                       ed glass nose and eyes.


                     


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 05:30:30 pm
(http://www.civilization.ca/civil/egypt/images/tut17b.jpg)
MODEL BOAT


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 05:35:40 pm
 


                                             (http://bleedingeyeballs.com/basenjiart/images/edog02a.jpg)
The king's fly-whisk. It is made of wood covered in gold. The curved edge is pierced with thirty holes into which white and dark brown ostrich feathers were once fixed.

                                              (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/largefan_b.jpg)

This large fan would be carried by a courtier. The gold holder for the feathers has a scene showing the king hunting.

One side contains a scene of the young king hunting ostriches from his chariot. Notice that beside the chariot running full out is a heavy boned hunting dog. Obviously, the dog is fast, for it can keep up with a horse-drawn chariot to chase an ostrich, a bird capable of running 40 miles per hour. Although it shares some characteristics with a greyhound, its lion-like, long tail and heavy build make it a different breed.

                                              (http://bleedingeyeballs.com/basenjiart/images/edog02b.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 05:46:43 pm
                                    (http://www.kelt.com/hippo/travels/egypt/images/anubis.jpg)
ANUBIS - King Tutankhamun's treasures from the Cairo Museum -
Tomb discovered in November 1992 by Howard Carter.
Anubis, the jackal, god of the dead.
Believed to be the son of Osiris and Nephthys, brought up by Isis.
Egyptian museum in Cairo



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 05:52:01 pm
(http://img.timeinc.net/time/europe/magazine/2004/0426/tut.jpg)
A painted wood figurine of a snake god with wings and a human head.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 05:57:55 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/LargePharaohs.jpg)
Colossal Statue of King Tutankhamun

Quartzite, pigment



New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Tutankhamun,  1334 B.C.



Luxor, Medinet Habu, temple of Aye and Horemheb

Excavated by the Oriental Institute, 1930



This colossal statue represents Tutankhamun, one of the most famous pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It portrays the king standing with his left foot advanced, a typical pose in ancient Egyptian sculpture. Tutankhamun wears a striped head cover (nemes) topped by the double crown which symbolizes his sovereignty over northern and southern Egypt. He also wears a beaded collar and a pleated kilt. A dagger with a falcon head - the symbol of the gods Horus and Re - is stuck in his waistband. The king grasps truncated cylinders that may represent document cases or scepters. Traces of feet on top of the base to the king's left indicate that a smaller scale statue of his wife once stood by his side. The colossal statue is seventeen feet, four inches high, making it the tallest ancient Egyptian statue in the Western Hemisphere. It weighs approximately 6 tons (12,000 pounds).



One of two nearly identical colossal images, this statue was excavated by the Oriental Institute from the ruins of an ancient temple built in western Thebes (modern Luxor). Because two such statues were excavated, the Egyptian government gave one of the pair to the Oriental Institute. The other statue is in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:04:35 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/boxsm.jpg)
King Tutankhamun's Footstool



Primary Reference: Ashmolean Museum



Below are Howard Carter’s remarks:



No. 378. Footstool (of Faldstool No. 351)



POSITION:



Wedged between bedstead No. 377 and shields No. 379, south end of

chamber.



DIMENSIONS:



58.7 x 32.0 x 7.7 cms.



DESCRIPTION:



Made of a (?) wood and veneered with ebony, ivory, faience, glass

and natural stone (semi-translucent calcite) ornament. The dresses of the captive gilt and chased with ornament. The heads, faces and exposed parts of the bodies & limbs of the Asiatic captives of a dark-brown wood (? cedar); their headdresses of ebony. In contradistinction the exposed parts of the Negroid types, their heads, bodies & limbs and headdresses, are of ebony. The background is inlaid of pieces of lapis and dark-blue faience - it would appear that the artisan who made it had not sufficient of the one colour glaze.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:08:35 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/chair.jpg)
THE FOOTSTOOL AND ITS MATCHING CHAIR


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:11:04 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/tut10.jpg)
Exterior of the Nekhbet shrine  showing two representations of the king and queen. Kemet (Egypt), as part of African culture in general, tended to give women unusual status and importance. The representation of King Tut and Queen Ankhesenamon, for example, show the queen having a far more important presence than we would expect in the art of Western Asia, for example.



Queen Nefertiti had six daughters; King Tut married one of them, his half sister. Ankhesenamon was thirteen years old when she became the wife of Tutankhamun when he was only nine years old. Tutankhamun succeeded Smenkhkare in 1334 B.C., but only ruled about 10 years. The teenage queen apparently suffered two failed pregnancies: the miscarriage of a 5-month-old female fetus and a stillborn baby girl. (Both were mummified and buried in Tutankhamun’s tomb.)



King Tut was born most likely in city of Ankhetaten (present-day Tell el-Amarna). Little is known of Tut’s childhood. There is considerable archaeological and textual evidence indicating that King Tut was the grandson of Queen Tiye. King Tut's parents was probably King Akhenaten, and a secondary wife Queen Kiya.



King Tut died around 1325 B.C. at the age of about 18






NEKHBET SHRINE IS PICTURED ON PAGE  16


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:19:42 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/files/perfumebox.jpg)
DOUBLE PERFUME BOX



A double perfume box of gold and silver pedestal, in the shape of two cartouches, having plumes for lid.

 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:23:38 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/files/51_tut.jpg)
Statue of Tutankhamun



One of two life-size statues of the king stood by the sealed door which led through to the burial chamber. These black varnished wood statues, between 5ft 6in and 5ft 7in and dressed in loincloths with gilt sandals, are probably of the king's own height.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:30:45 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/pic.jpg)
THE TWIN STATUES GUARDING THE BURIAL CHAMBER


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:33:40 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/anc54.jpg)
Massive hinged gold hoop-shaped bracelet found on the mummy of Tutankhamun. Its central plaque bears a large gold scarab inlaid with lapis lazuli. All the floral and block-decoration is inlaid with lapis lazuli, turquoise, cornelian and quartz in colored cement.



From the tomb of Tutankhamun, Valley of the Kings, W. Thebes. 18th Dynasty (1334-1325 B.C.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:36:26 pm
(http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/anc56.jpg)
Two of the bracelets found on Tutankhamun's arms. The massive rigid hinged gold example (a) has a cylinder of turquoise inset into a plaque smothered with applied wire and granulation. The other (b) has a flexible strap of gold and glass beads attached to a circular gold plaque, also highly decorated, with a central lapis lazuli inset.



From the tomb of Tutankhamun, Valley of the Kings,

W. Thebes. 18th Dynasty (1334-1325 B.C.)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:42:54 pm
                                (http://www.vegas-dreaming.com/images/tut05.jpg)
STATUETTE OF THE KING RIDING A LION


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:45:48 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965768.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EA01A00EB3BDB971FDA3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A85705B25365D7C4D424446F7D7B79F0138A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:52:12 pm
PICTURED ABOVE:

Mirror case found in a large coffer. In the form of the sign of life, it is made of gilt wood inlaid with glass paste. Tukankhamen, by Christiane Desroches Noblecourt, page 188. In the shape of a mirror or a knot, the ankh is a symbol of life. It was often carried by deities or people in a funeral procession, or offered to the king as the breath of life.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 06:54:00 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965796.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EAC8B4B4EACC41619FA3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A85705B25365D7C4DCE56777E505E944738A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)
Drinking cup, found at the entrance of the tomb made of calcite, is sculpted in the form of a half open lotus flower. Tukankhamen, by Christiane Desroches Noblecourt, page 98. The blue lotus was a symbol of the Sun God and the pharaohs. Like the sun that sets in the evening and rises in the morning, the lotus flower blooms in the day and closes each night. In one version of the creation myth, the sun first rose out of a giant lotus flower that bloomed on the primordial mound. The lotus thus became a symbol of rebirth, the renewal of life and the promise of everlasting life.




Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:03:56 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965733.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EAD3157BCEFAC4BA5AA3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A39AA3B036313C8D5E7CF7B3878E446A238A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)
An earring. In the centre of the clip is the little king flanked by two sacred serpents.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:08:31 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965762.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EA8BDB68C567268F54A3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A85705B25365D7C4DA3CA7F5DAAF9271838A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)
Folding headrest in painted ivory decorated with the two heads of the protective spirit Bes. Tukankhamen


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:11:19 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965755.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EAAE1279B64A719A4EA3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A85705B25365D7C4DF2B3E0EB33DEA0E838A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)
The coffer from the Treasury, divided inside into sixteen compartments. Wood and ivory with applied gold and silver


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:14:16 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965771.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EA17FF4BE922F8EE76A3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A85705B25365D7C4D1236DF59CE07090838A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)
The king's pectoral decorated with the winged scarab protected by the two goddesses Isis and Nephthys. Gold cloisonne with glass paste.
 Twenty-six pectorals were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun



A pectoral of Tutankhamun, who, with his advisors, was at pains to emphasize the return to diverse worship of the sun and other deities after Akhenaten's experiment with monotheistic Atenism.  Two forms of the sun-god are incorporated into this pendent: the scarab beetle Khepri, god of the rising sun who each day pushed the solar disc into the sky, and the winged solar disk with uraei most commonly known as Horus Behdety or Horus of Edfu, son and heir of Ra and mighty defender of his royal father against Set.  The scarab in this pectoral is made from a green stone, the color symbolizing rebirth.  The scarab is winged and holds Tutankhamun's cartouches in front of itself.  The feathered wings of the scarab are supported by the kneeling figures of Nephthys and Isis, respectively to the left and right of the scarab, wearing the hieroglyphs that signify their names on their heads.  The decoration of the pendant is executed in the cloisonn� technique, with thin gold wires forming small cells that were typically filled with colored glass paste.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:19:29 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965775.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EA08D7EDDEAF7FBBCAA3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A85705B25365D7C4DD68D9B6FA85C7F7638A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)

Detail of the prow of the alabaster boat. Head of a Syrian ibex and a figure thought to be Princess Mutnedjmet, of the 11th dynasty, who died when she was about 5 years old. Tukankhamen, by Christiane Desroches Noblecourt, page 109. The alabaster boat from Tutankhamen's treasures could easily be a good example of the ancient levitating ships. The columns would be a rare form, but they may be tets or djeds, ancient Egyptian wireless batteries setting up magnetic field propulsion, perhaps working in unison through the cancellation of opposite poles.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:22:21 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965789.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EA8F7EFDB4A8258C18A3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A85705B25365D7C4D868AD8C56496D6BA38A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)
The king's two daggers, one with a blade of gold and the other with a blade of iron


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:25:19 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0965799.jpg)


http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/ppages/ppage15.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:28:17 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965802.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EAF93123F98F762916A3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A85705B25365D7C4DFAAE5923742048EB38A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)
Votive shield showing the king slaying two lions.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:31:33 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965773.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EA4BA6224238AB1377A3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A85705B25365D7C4DEEFFF469CD64BF2B38A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)

A model of one of the pharaoh's boats.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:34:58 pm
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/FotoWeb/FWbin/preview.dll/0965728.jpg?D=C2182A93092A10436A40C1F7481C23D18DE1CDCD430FE4AA02BB48CFA114623BE232387528EDC8D6F09D417E73EF7A707FC4788F888C709315FDF869CC691854B17479A58292B4EA592B378C9A8E39CAA3DA80597C97156F1C52FE9D8C2C48830B5DFB4BC6A7B9F06B646524AE881CE43D35BCC7747B176A39AA3B036313C8D5CFEF66C7B0FCCE7E38A8FED82C13DF665EC4D246A289BB3C384D8996F3FD17B2E6A92BF678AD5ACC7C4A278E0B2E2D5E)
The royal diadem found on the king's mummy. It bears on the forehead the Vulture of the South and the Cobra of the North. Tukankhamen, by Christiane Desroches Noblecourt. The vulture was the symbol of Upper Egypt. Pharaohs wore the uraeus (cobra) and the head of a vulture on their foreheads as symbols of royal protection. The goddess Nekhbet was also portrayed as a vulture.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 07:41:59 pm
                                        (http://www.mandarava.com/a1grph/Sgph/S_graphics/SUM5081.jpg)




Tutankhamen on a papyrus raft in the attitude of a harpooner. One of the funerary objects used to evoke the mystical pilgrimages during the funeral. Gilded wood. Tukankhamen, by Christiane Desroches Noblecourt, page 217.

The Treasure Chamber in the tomb of Tutankhamun contained twenty-two black-painted wooden caskets, each of which contained one or more wooden statues portraying the pharaoh or a number of deities from the Egyptian pantheon.

All of the figures contained in the black tabernacles are fixed to a rectangular base and at the moment of their discovery were wrapped in a linen cloth datable to the third year of the reign of Akhenaten. Two twin statues in gilded wood depict Tutankhamun standing upright on a papyrus raft and engaged in a mythical hunt for the hippopotamus symbolizing evil.

The pharaoh is represented as the incarnation of Horus, the god that according to the legend fought in the swamps against the evil Seth who was transformed into a hippopotamus and was finally defeated. Tutankhamun, like the victorious god, has the task of fighting against evil and preserving the universal order of which he is the sole guarantor. The sovereign, seen in a striding pose taking a long, solemn step appears realistically to be concentrating on launching a long spear against his enemy. He is wearing the crown of Lower Egypt decorated at the front with a representation of the royal cobra above his youthful features.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 08:01:30 pm
(http://daphne.palomar.edu/mhudelson/WorksofArt/02Egyptian/0030.jpg)
Vulture Collar, Tutankhamun's tomb. c. 1340 B.C. Gold, glass, and obsidian. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 08:08:18 pm
(http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/collar_b.jpg)
VULTURE AND COBRA COLLAR


http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 08:27:29 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/museum/tutl62.jpg)
Trumpet
 
This trumpet, made of bronze or copper with gold overlay, is one of three known examples of the instrument preserved from ancient Egypt, two of which were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun; the third is in the Louvre. The bell is decorated with incised figures of the king and of three gods, all standing under the hieroglyphic sign for heaven: Ra-Harakhty (falcon-headed), Amen-Ra, and Ptah (mummified within a shrine and holding three scepters). With the trumpet is a wooden stopper to fit the tube and bell, almost certainly either for use with a cloth as a cleaner or to prevent the instrument being damaged and thus losing its shape when not in use. A hole at the thinner end of the stopper was probably intended for a thong by which it could be suspended beneath the arm from the shoulder while the trumpet was being blown. The bell is painted to resemble a lotus flower.
In comparison with a modern trumpet, this instrument is short and has no valves. The mouthpiece is a cylindrical sleeve with a silver ring at the outer end fixed to the outside of the tube; it is not cup-shaped or detachable. Both this trumpet and its companion in the tomb, which is made of silver, have been played in recent times and the lowest notes that could be clearly sounded were D and C respectively. Plutarch remarked that the people of Busiris and Lycopolis did not use trumpets because they sounded like the braying of an ass, the ass being identified with the god Seth, the murderer of Osiris. It has been stated that the trumpet is the only ancient instrument of which the exact sound, as heard by the ancients, can be reproduced today.

Several scenes in tombs and temples illustrate the trumpet in use and in most instances it is associated with military activities - processions of soldiers, battle scenes, and so forth. A trumpeter and a standard bearer are shown among the first Egyptian soldiers to scale the walls of an Asiatic town in a famous battle scene in the temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu (western Thebes). Sometimes a pair of trumpeters is shown, but it is noticeable that they are never represented both playing at the same time. As a rule, when he accompanied soldiers the trumpeter marched outside the column, punctuating by staccato notes the step of the soldiers.

It is impossible to be certain whether Tutankhamun's trumpets were intended solely for military purposes. Nevertheless the figures of the gods on the bell would suggest such a use, for these three gods were the tutelary deities of three out of four divisions of the army of Ramesses II at the battle of Qadesh (about 1275 B.C.), only about seventy-five years after Tutankhamun's death. Their names and epithets are written in hieroglyphs above the figures. The king's name is also given. On his head he wears the blue crown (khepresh), while in his left hand he holds a heqat scepter and the Egyptian sign for "life" (ankh). In addition to the helmet he wears a bead collar, a shrine-shaped pectoral suspended from his neck, and a pleated kilt with an animal's tail at the back. His feet are bare. The god standing in front of him, Amen-Ra, holds the sign for "life" to the king's nostrils and places the other hand on the king' shoulder.

This trumpet was found in a long chest in the Antechamber. It may have been taken there by the robbers from the Burial Chamber. The other trumpet, wrapped in a reed cover, was left in the southeast corner of the Burial Chamber outside the outermost golden shrine; it was made of silver.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 08:34:48 pm
(http://www.ancientegyptmagazine.com/images/38pomegranate2.jpg)
A silver vessel in the shape of a pomegranate, from the tomb of Tutankhamun.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 08:41:48 pm


Horus collar in gold inlaid with semi-precious stones.
 
(http://www.tutankhamun-exhibition.co.uk/images/exhibition/necklace.jpg)
The Jewels of Tutankhamun include the famous golden collars of the young king which were found wrapped in the bandages of his mummy, as well as an exquisite falcon headed gold and jewelled collar also found on the mummy


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 29, 2007, 08:51:22 pm
(http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/treasure/cartouchebox_b.jpg)
Cartouche Box

This unusual box for the king's jewelry in the shape of a cartouche, has Tutankhamun's name on the lid.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 08:38:02 am




                               (http://www.crystalinks.com/tutstomb2.jpg)



                                                   (http://www.crystalinks.com/tut_tomblogo.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 08:42:07 am
                    (http://www.waidev2.com/php/IMAGES/HC_ThisDayInHistory/331---Image_large.jpg)



                                    (http://www.crystalinks.com/tutstomb.gif)


http://www.crystalinks.com/tutstomb.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 08:57:59 am
                                               (http://www.crystalinks.com/howardcarterbw.jpg)

Howard Carter (May 9, 1874 ­ March 2, 1939) was an English archaeologist and Egyptologist. He is most famous as the discoverer of KV62, the tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt.

Howard Carter was born in 1874 in Kensington, London, the youngest son of eight children. His father, Samuel Carter, was an artist. His mother was Martha Joyce (Sands) Carter. Carter grew up in Swaffham, in northern Norfolk, and had no formal education. His father trained him in the fundamentals of drawing and painting.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 09:01:22 am
                                  (http://www.crystalinks.com/tutcartercarnarvon.jpg)

Lord Carnarvon financed Carter's search for the tomb of a previously unknown Pharaoh, Tutankhamun, whose existence Carter had discovered.

After a few months of fruitless searching, Carnarvon was becoming dissatisfied with the lack of return from his investment and, in 1922, he gave Carter one more season of funding to find the tomb.

On November 4, 1922 Carter found Tutankhamen's tomb (subsequently designated KV62), by far the best preserved and most intact pharaonic tomb ever found in the Valley of the Kings.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 09:07:13 am
(http://www.crystalinks.com/tutcarterbw.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 09:08:26 am
(http://www.crystalinks.com/tutantechamber.gif)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 09:12:34 am
                    (http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320Hist&Civ/slides/04troy/howardcarter.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 09:44:05 am






And a view from Anthony Di Paolo, MS, JD:



"Before the spectacular discovery of his almost intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings (KV 62) in November 1922, Tutankhamun was a shadowy and little known figure of the late 18th  Dynasty. To a certain extent he still is, despite the prominence he has acquired from the contents of his tomb. Tutankhamun's name was known in the early years of this century from a few references, but  his exact place in the sequence of the 'Amarna kings' was uncertain.

Like Akhenaten and Ay, his name  had been omitted from the classic king lists of Abydos and Karnak, which simply jump from Amenhotep III to Horemheb. Indeed, Tutankhamun's exact identity - and his parentage - is still a matter of some conjecture, although it is clear that the young prince was brought up at Amarna, probably in the North Palace. A number of items found in his tomb are relics of his life at the Aten court, notably the Aten's disc shown protecting him and his young wife, Ankhesenamun, on the pictorial back panel of  his gold-inlaid throne.

Towards the end of Akhenaten's reign the senior members of the court, especially Ay and Horemheb, probably realized that things could not go on as they were. Smenkhkare, Akhenaten's brother (or son?) and co-regent, must have come to the same conclusion .

since he had left Akhetaten and moved back to the old secular capital, Memphis, where he may have been in contact with the proscribed members of  the priesthood of Amun before his death and burial at Thebes.

Soon after Akhenaten's death, Tutankhaten (as he then was) was crowned at Memphis.  Aged about nine when he succeeded, the young king would have had no close female relatives left - his probable mother Kiya, his stepmother Nefertiti and his eider step-sisters all being dead. He was probably under the direct care and influence of Ay, the senior civil servant, and  Horemheb, the military man. Tutankhaten's wife, Ankhesenpaaten, was evidently older than he since she was already of child-bearing age, seemingly having had a daughter by her father, Akhenaten.

As soon as the new king had been installed, a move was made back to the old religion. This was signified radically in Year 2 when both king and queen changed the -aten ending of their names to -amun. Tutankhamun probably had little to do with this or indeed many other decisions - his 'advisors' were the ones who held the reins and manipulated the puppet strings of the boy-king.

A great 'Restoration' stele records the reinstallation of the old religion of Amun and the reopening and rebuilding of the temples. The stele is known from two copies, both of which were later usurped by Horemheb, as were many other monuments of Tutankhamun.

A large number of reliefs and statues have been identified as originally belonging to Tutankhamun (the majority showing him either in the company of Amun or as the god himself); for although the inscriptions have been changed, the king's boyish features are clearly recognizable.

Extensive building works were carried out at Karnak and Luxor in Tutankhamun's name, especially the great colonnade and the relief scenes of the Festival of Opet at Luxor, but all were subsequently taken over by Horemheb."


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 09:48:33 am
(http://www.egyptvoyager.com/pics/tutankhamun_image2.jpg)

In its Structure and decorations, the tomb is one of the least impressive. It is the immense treasures of

 art and archaeology it has yielded, that have made it the most famous. The tomb, discovered in the

early part of the 1900's, had been hastily prepared for a Pharaoh of secondary importance, who died

earlier. The only room to be decorated was the burial chamber,


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 09:54:04 am
(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/egyptarchive/05_luxor_museum%E2%80%A6un%28HormTut%29.jpg)
TUTANKHAMEN (NEBKHEPERRE)     ca 1343-1333 B.C.

 
Tutankhamen Statue(Luxor).

Later usurped by Horemheb.

 




Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 10:02:14 am




                     (http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/glyphs/tutankhamen001.png)

              King of Upper Egpyt and Lower Egypt, Nebkheperure, son of Re, Tutankhamun, given life.


 
 
 
  (http://www.narmer.pl/ima_tyt/18-12-01.gif)
  NEBKHEPERURE




  (http://www.narmer.pl/ima_tyt/18-12-04.gif)
  NEBKHEPERURE HEGA MAAT




  (http://www.narmer.pl/ima_tyt/18-12-02.gif)
  TUTANKHATEN




  (http://www.narmer.pl/ima_tyt/18-12-03.gif)
  TUTANKHAMUN HEGA IUNU SEMAI


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 10:22:48 am



                               (http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/egyptimage/sesen/Tut-Ankh-Luxorv2.jpg)
                                   Tutankhamen and Ankhesenamen at Karnak.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on August 30, 2007, 10:34:38 am
Tutankhamun's parentage is uncertain. An inscription calls him a king's son, but it is not clear which king was meant. Most scholars think that he was probably a son either of Amenhotep III (though probably not by his Great Royal Wife Tiye), or more likely a son of Amenhotep III's son Akhenaten around 1342 BC. However, Professor James Allen argues that Tutankhamun was more likely to be a son of the short-lived king Smenkhkare rather than Akhenaten. Allen argues that Akhenaten consciously chose a female co-regent named Neferneferuaten to succeed him rather than Tutankhamun which is unlikely if the latter was indeed his son.[3] Tutankhamun was married to Ankhesenpaaten (possibly his sister), and after the re-establishment of the traditional Egyptian religion the couple changed the –aten ending of their names to the –amun ending, becoming Ankhesenamun and Tutankhamun. They had two known children, both stillborn girls—their mummies were discovered in his tomb.



P1048:4, 95:5.10
Though the monotheistic ideal suffered with the passing of Ikhnaton, the idea of one God persisted in the minds of many groups. The son-in-law of Ikhnaton went along with the priests, back to the worship of the old gods, changing his name to Tutankhamen. The capital returned to Thebes, and the priests waxed fat upon the land, eventually gaining possession of one seventh of all Egypt; and presently one of this same order of priests made bold to seize the crown.



http://urantiabook.org/newbook/ub/ppr095_5.html#P095_5_10

The Urantia Book -- Part III. The History Of Urantia
PAPER 95: Section 5.
The Remarkable Ikhnaton


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 12:15:30 pm

WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE, MAJESTON?



ASK THE MAN ON THE STREET IF HE KNOWS WHO  AKHENATEN IS.....

(Better that they don't.  He turned out to be a three-time 'incestuous' father.  We ALL know what THAT is.)



ON THE OTHER HAND, ASK HIM IF HE KNOWS WHO 'FATHERLESS'  T U T A N K H A M U N  IS........



THE KEY TO ETERNITY IS      R E M E M B E R A N C E ..............




BTW: I do hope they eventually find out that Tutankhamun was NOT Akhenaten's son.  I would be
ashamed of him.  And I don't think that incest between "father and daughter" was any different then
than it is now.    A Faraoh marrying his sister was a centuries' old tradition (obligatory) for retaining
the throne.





Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 12:35:38 pm
 




(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/05/images/050511_kingtutface.jpg)


TOO GOOD-LOOKING TO BE AKHENATEN'S SON, MAJESTON!!!


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on August 30, 2007, 03:33:46 pm


WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE, MAJESTON?



ASK THE MAN ON THE STREET IF HE KNOWS WHO  AKHENATEN IS.....

(Better that they don't.  He turned out to be a three-time 'incestuous' father.  We ALL know what THAT is.)



ON THE OTHER HAND, ASK HIM IF HE KNOWS WHO 'FATHERLESS'  T U T A N K H A M U N  IS........



THE KEY TO ETERNITY IS      R E M E M B E R A N C E ..............




BTW: I do hope they eventually find out that Tutankhamun was NOT Akhenaten's son.  I would be
ashamed of him.  And I don't think that incest between "father and daughter" was any different then
than it is now.    A Faraoh marrying his sister was a centuries' old tradition (obligatory) for retaining
the throne.







Bianca dear,

methinks you presume too much and judge upon unsound criteria.


1.  You state as if it is a fact that Iknahton (Akhenaten) was incestuous.  That has never been shown or proved.  Thau shalt not bear false witness.

2.  What's the difference if Tut was his son or son-in-law???  Well,  it won't affect my life but I'm sure it makes a difference to some people.

3.  Incest--- "(Better that they don't.  He turned out to be a three-time 'incestuous' father.  We ALL know what THAT is.)"
     It might be nice Bianca if you studied incest a little bit and really found out a bit more about it.   From what I can see it seems to be
     some Puritanical belief which has outlived its time and usefullness.  It is not illegal in many countries and cultures;  it does not always
     produce negative genetic results and many times a superior genetic predetermination can produce superior genetic results.   I think you are
     simply parroting a majority moral standard based upon superstition and ignorance.

4.   I don't agree that the key to eternity is rememberance as you state.   I believe the key to eternity is Faith. 
      Obviously it can't be rememberance because from what I recall you believe in past reincarnation and you don't recall anything.
      The only thing that can possibly lead to eternity is Knowing God and having a personal relationship with him.  It's not what you know,  but
      who you know.  :)

5.   You say,  "BTW: I do hope they eventually find out that Tutankhamun was NOT Akhenaten's son."
      They did find that out.  The Urantia papers tell you that Tut was his son-in-law.   The Urantia papers have never been proven wrong
      by anyone,  .........ever.


6.   quote..."TOO GOOD-LOOKING TO BE AKHENATEN'S SON, MAJESTON!!!"

     actually Bianca  I think the representations of  Akhenaten are extraordinary.  Regal,  powerful,  strong,  dynamic,  kingly, 
     This silly pic of Tut makes him look like a nobody from nowhere with no extraordinary genes.  A common schlub.




Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 03:59:06 pm



You don't check real facts much do you, Majeston?

But then you'll probably say it's all lies, anyway.  So you don't bother reading outside your
own views.

One of the daughters died of childbirth (Akhenaten's offspring) and Tut' s wife's baby by
her father died.  Don't b.s. about customs......I have to excuse it because a channeler
says he was one of the first 'monotheists'?  Like the bible says it was OK for David to
have adulterous relations with another man's wife, then to get rid of the said husband
he sends him to the front lines to be killed.......? D I S G U S T I N G!!!

BTW, devoted as I am to Edgar Cayce, I NEVER espoused his religion either.  Too many fairytales
in both the urantia and the bible.....Faith is faith, but ridiculous is still ridiculous. 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:14:41 pm
                              (http://www.egyptholiday.com/tutankhamun/images/tutankhamun_bed.jpg)
The Annex had been looted in ancient times an many objects that were displaced by the thieves from other parts of the tomb were hastily stacked in the Annex by the priests before the tomb was resealed. 

                     


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:16:49 pm
                             (http://www.egyptholiday.com/tutankhamun/images/tutankhamun_bed_detail.jpg)
                              DETAIL OF BED ABOVE


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:18:18 pm
                         (http://www.seraphimelectric.com/seraphim%20tutankhamun%20tomb.jpg)

                            DOORS TO THE SHRINE CONTAINING TUTANKHAMUN'S MUMMY


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:22:32 pm



                              (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/anubis_b.jpg)


Two Anubis Fetishes

These are the two Anubis fetishes which were found in the northwest and southeast corners of the burial chamber. These were magical objects put in the tomb to protect it.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:25:38 pm


                                     (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/handfan_b.jpg)


Hand-Fan

This exquisite rotating hand-fan with an ivory handle was found with its feathers still intact.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Majeston on August 30, 2007, 04:28:20 pm
Bianca dear,

Calm down now,  you're rambling nonsense and now throwing all new tangents into the discussion.   You have not dealt with anything I have addressed in the prior post with any degree of professionalism or integrity.








You don't check real facts much do you, Majeston?

But then you'll probably say it's all lies, anyway.  So you don't bother reading outside your
own views.

One of the daughters died of childbirth (Akhenaten's offspring) and Tut' s wife's baby by
her father died.  Don't b.s. about customs......I have to excuse it because a channeler
says he was one of the first 'monotheists'?  Like the bible says it was OK for David to
have adulterous relations with another man's wife, then to get rid of the said husband
he sends him to the front lines to be killed.......? D I S G U S T I N G!!!

BTW, devoted as I am to Edgar Cayce, I NEVER espoused his religion either.  Too many fairytales
in both the urantia and the bible.....Faith is faith, but ridiculous is still ridiculous. 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:29:34 pm





"..............And since an attribute of ancient Egyptian religion was that, indeed, fame lead to eternal life for the

Pharaoh, today King Tut must be one of the happiest Pharaohs who ever lived, and lived on."


http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutchildren.htm










                              (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/horus_b.jpg)


Horus Pendant

This striking pendant, also found on Tutankhamun's body shows, the falcon god Horus. It is made of gold inlaid with semi-precious stones.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:41:09 pm
                                     (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/sandals_b.jpg)


Sandals

Carter recorded 93 items or fragments of footwear. This pair of sandals, made of pure gold, was found on the mummy


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:44:29 pm

                            (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/annex/alabasterboat_b.jpg)


Alabaster Boat

This superb piece of carved and painted alabaster may have been a centerpiece for fruit or flowers. The steerwoman is a dwarf and the prow and stern are carved with gazelle heads.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:48:56 pm

                           (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/annex/bowbox_b.jpg)


Bow-Fronted Box

Elegant bow-fronted box of red and black wood. The panel on the front has names of Tutankhamen and his queen, and lotus and papyrus plants knotted together symbolizing unification.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:52:16 pm
                               (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/annex/claypots_b.jpg)


Clay Pots

Two clay pots used for the storage of wine. The annex had nearly 40 pottery wine jars


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 04:55:39 pm

                                               (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/annex/senetgame_s.jpg)

The Senet Game

The ancient Egyptians were very fond of board games. The senet game can be played with 30 or 20 squares. The modern game played in Egypt today is called "Seega".


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 05:01:58 pm


                                              (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/annex/tutsandals_b.jpg)


Tut Sandals

Carter recorded 93 items of footwear in the tomb. One of the most ornate is a sandal with a picture of an Asian and an African Prisoner. Each time the King took a step, he crushed his enemies.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 05:05:20 pm

                               (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/annex/tutshield_b.jpg)


Tut Shield

This is one of eight shields found in the annex. It depicts Tut as a guardian lion. He is guarded by the falcon-god Horus


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 30, 2007, 07:18:14 pm




                                         T U T A N K H A M U N ' S   P E R F U M E





When the tomb of the young pharaoh Tutankhamun was opened, among the luxurious contents found within were various beautifully crafted jars and containers. To the excitement of the excavators, one particular jar was discovered to contain a perfumed unguent, still radiantly fragrant after so many centuries.

'Unguent' is the classical word used to describe what modern English-speakers might better understand as an ointment or a solid perfume. Despite the occasional ancient Egyptian image or the discovery of what certainly seems to be functional distillery equipment in the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro, as far as we know today the distillation process was not popularized until the 10th century of our time. Thus, Egyptian perfumes were very different in texture from the liquids now considered "perfumes". For a close modern comparison, consider the solid perfumes currently imported from India, packaged in small carved wooden or stone containers. (The resemblance is in texture, presentation and appearance, not necessarily in fragrance.)

The perfumed ointment found in Tutankhamun's tomb was of a solid nature, although it was noted that it melted and became more viscous within the heat of a hand. Observers at the time found the aroma similar to coconut oil and also remarked that it resembled the scent of valerian (Valeriana officinalis), the first tip-off to what the jar probably contained.
                                           (http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag03012001/egyptianmus33.jpg)

The perfume was analyzed in 1926 and was found to consist of a "neutral animal fat" and a resin or balsam. At the time they were unable to be more specific. However, the primary fragrant component is now believed to be valerian's close cousin, the ancient and precious spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi).

Still reasonably rare and reasonably expensive, most find spikenard's name much more familiar than its fragrance. Its reputation is ancient. It is an ingredient in some formulas for Kyphi, the famed sacred Egyptian temple perfume.

Spikenard was also a component of the sacred incense offered in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem. It is mentioned no less than three times in the Song of Songs.

The ancient Greeks had a beloved perfume fragrance based on spikenard.

Spikenard's main claim to fame comes from its prominence in the New Testament. It was ointment of spikenard that Mary of Bethany (whether she is one and the same with Mary Magdalene, now matron saint of perfumers, is still the subject of intense debate, as it has been for centuries) used to anoint the feet of Jesus Christ, filling the entire room with its aroma. Rather than its wonderful fragrance, however, what is most famous about spikenard is its high cost. Two of the gospels comment on its price. Judas Iscariot was apparently offended at the anointing of Jesus, demanding to know why the jar of ointment wasn't sold and the proceeds given to the poor. 

In the light of its discovery in Tutankhamun's tomb, it can be appreciated that spikenard was truly a fragrance fit for a king.

Why was spikenard so expensive? Because of where it grows and the difficulty in obtaining it. Spikenard is not native to Egypt, Punt or the Middle East. It is native to the Himalayas and grows at high altitudes.

Its use in the ancient world is a demonstration of their sophisticated trade routes and of the importance placed on aromatic material: they went to a lot of trouble to obtain this little root. Spikenard was packaged in carved alabaster boxes, carefully brought down by caravan and exported over the ancient world. As recently as one hundred years ago, spikenard was imported from Nepal to Egypt for use as a folk medicine. Beyond various medicinal uses, like valerian, it has relaxing, sedative properties, spikenard was anciently believed to bear mystical and romantic powers.

Today, spikenard is available as an essential oil. It is steam distilled from dried and crushed rhizomes and roots, resulting in a pale golden liquid. What does it smell like? Not necessarily what you might expect a perfume to smell like, if your expectations are of a floral garden. Spikenard has a profound and complex aroma, a combination sweet/spicy/musky, a very organic earthy scent. The root from which the finest fragrance is obtained is tufted and sort of "hairy" in appearance; at one time it was surmised that spikenard was an animal's tail. (Remember, the plant came from very far away. Those who obtained it many miles away never saw the living plant and the perfumers of the time were a mysterious bunch, who kept their trade secrets to themselves.) Pliny called spikenard root "little goat".

A historically correct re-creation of Tutankhamun's precious unguent might involve rendering goose fat for a base. A version more palatable to modern tastes might substitute coconut oil. The original excavators of the tomb noted the unguent's resemblance to coconut oil; like animal fats, this vegetable material solidifies at cool temperatures, thus approximating the texture of the ancient perfume.




                                             TUTANKHAMUN'S PERFUME



- One quarter cup coconut oil

- 6 drops of essential oil of spikenard

- 6 drops of essential oil of frankincense




For blending purposes, the oil should be liquid. If the oil has solidified, place one-quarter cup of the solid oil in the top of a double boiler and warm gently. (If you don't have a double boiler, improvise by creating a water bath. Put the oil in a container and place it within a pot of water. Warm the water gently on the stove, under constant supervision. The oil must not actually be in the water.) When the oil is liquid, blend in the essential oils. Place in a container and allow to harden at room temperature again.

Perhaps instead of a historically accurate texture, you'd like to avail yourself of some of spikenard's therapeutic gifts. Beyond their evocative fragrances, both spikenard and frankincense are considered especially beneficial for mature skin, minimizing wrinkles and delaying the signs of aging. To reap those benefits instead, substitute a thinner vegetable oil, less inclined to clog pores than coconut, perhaps grapeseed or jojoba. These oils will not solidify but will remain liquid. There is no need to heat the oil; merely add the essential oils. Massage a little into your face before retiring in the evening. (Both oils also have reputations as romance-enhancers, so the possibilities are endless.)


http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag03012001/mag4.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:01:54 pm





                 (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/treasure/ceremonialboat2_b.jpg)
Ceremonial Boats

From the tomb of King Tut. These boats are of simple and graceful form with lotus prow and stern-posts. One of the boats has two steering oars and on its side is painted the Eye of Horus. The other boat has more inward-turning prow and stern-posts, beautifully contoured.
                  (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/treasure/ceremonialboat1_b.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - Pharaoh of the Sun
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:09:52 pm
               (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/treasure/ceremonialsailing_b.jpg)
Ceremonial Sailing Boat

This is a ceremonial sailing boat for use in the voyage to the "next world." The sailing boat has 2 oars for navigation, and two small cabins on the bow and stern. The middle cabin is very finely and richly decorated.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:14:18 pm
                  (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/treasure/ceremonialsailing2_b.jpg)
Ceremonial Sailing Boat

This is ceremonial sailing boat for use in the voyage to the "next world." The sailing boat has 2 oars for navigation, and two small cabins are very finely and richly decorated.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:18:57 pm
                                               (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/treasure/hathorhead_b.jpg)    Hathor Head

Goddess of the West, in the form of a cow. This splendid cow head was found in front of the canopic shrine of King Tut. It is partially glided and partially covered with black resin varnish. The eyes are of glass and the horns of wood, covered with thin copper sheeting.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:23:42 pm
                                     (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/alabaster1_b.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:25:36 pm
                                            (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/alabaster2_b.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:27:09 pm
                                                (http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/alabaster3_b.jpg)


                                                Three Alabaster Lamps (above)



The first is a very ornate lamp which shows on either side the god Heh grasping the ankh sign [KT 310]. The middle receptacle shows a picture, when lit, of King Tut and his wife. The second lamp has 3 receptacles, all made into the images of a lotus flower [KT 311]. The third lamp is very elegant and shows the very fine craftsmanship of the day with many tube-like extensions [KT 312] (One must remember that they are all carved from a single piece of stone!). All the lamps were filled with oil (sesame oil) and were provided with a floating wick.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:48:06 pm
              (http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/newegypt/images/large/tut2.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:51:13 pm
                            (http://homepage.powerup.com.au/~ancient/corse.jpg)
                             A detail from part of a large corselet found amongst furniture
                             in Tutankhamun's tomb. Composed of gold, glass paste, ivory
                             and carnelian. The god Amun-Re receives Tutankhamun.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 04:58:39 pm
                                  (http://www.sharewareplaza.com/images/screenshot/25513.gif)


Egyptian hieroglyphic symbols of a wasp, a cat, a hippo, owls, and a scarab rotate above Tutankhamun's jeweled pectoral. The pectoral shows Isis and Nephthys, sisters of Osiris.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 05:06:16 pm
(http://www.ashmolean.museum/gri/gif-files/gri-08-m.gif)
GOLD STATUETTE OF THE KING RIDING A LIONESS


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 05:11:30 pm
                                   (http://users.skynet.be/egypt/images/0030.jpg)

                        ANOTHER OF THE TWENTY-NINE PECTORALS FOUND IN THE TOMB


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 10:42:01 pm
                                (http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~rgrosser/amarna/tutank_zoom.jpg)

                                 Tutankhamen wearing a nemes headdress


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 10:47:36 pm
http://aic.stanford.edu/jaic/articles/jaic36-01-003.html
preservation process



(http://www.madreviews.com/sitebuilder/images/CairoMuseum-KingTutseyeofhorus-425x318.jpg)
TUTANKHAMUN'S 'EYE OF HORUS' - CAIRO MUSEUM


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 11:01:24 pm
(http://slinging.org/galleryimages/history/p1324.jpg)(http://slinging.org/galleryimages/history/tutSling1.jpg)


The Oldest Surviving Sling (c. 1323 BC).  Egypt.

   
Sling recovered in Tutankhamen's (King Tut) Tomb. c. 1323

 Howard Carter Archives


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 11:15:29 pm





Stones were revered as sacred objects from the beginning of history.



In ancient Oriental representations of the gods precious stones are seen as divine attributes. Gems have been found as votive offerings in the tombs of the Pharaohs. Gem inlays created the colors in royal amulets from all cultures. Ancient Egyptian jewels reveal that personal ornaments often had a symbolic significance. The scarab, vulture, falcon, the eye of Horus, the sacred asp, the lotus flower, and the sun disk were very popular motifs.

(http://www.jamesclarkeinc.com/images/egyptian%20necklace.jpg)

Among examples of Egyptian jewelry is the pectoral that the ancient priests placed on the breast of Tutankhamen. The chalcedony scarab in the middle of the breastplate was to help the king as he stood at the gates of the other world. The scarab is Amon, whose outstretched wings bear the soul on its journey. Protected by the cobra of divinity and the eye of Horus, he is ensured health, fecundity and perspicacity in the other world. Three lotus flowers scent darkness. A counterpart to this pectoral is a magnificent ship holding the rising sun; a beetle pushing a vermilion carnelian (the symbol of resurrection) with its claws. Other scarabs, maneuvering other gems, decorate the necklace from which the jewels hang.

 Thanks to the magic of this amulet, all the forces of the other world would recognize Tutankhamen, and he would be able to walk with confidence down the paths of darkness.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on August 31, 2007, 11:28:40 pm
                          (http://www.estripes.com/photos/27233_218144542.jpg)

The largest scene in Tutankhamen’s pectoral, or jewelry that hung over the chest, shows the pharaoh standing between the seated Memphite deity couple Sekhmet, left, and Ptah.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 07:04:06 am
(http://www.kametrenaissance.com/Basokin_Illustration16.jpg)
Crooks and Whisks from tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen
18th Dynasty
Photo Source:
Carter No.: 269e
Burton photograph: p1187


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 07:08:20 am
                             (http://www.bikeabout.org/gallery/1197/cs1118y.jpg)
http://www.touregypt.net/museum/3scarabneckpage.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN - TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 07:17:41 am
                                  (http://anubis4_2000.tripod.com/Rag.gif)
                                   Robber's cloth rag, found in Tutankhamen's tomb,
                                   which contained gold rings. The thieves probably
                                   dropped it when caught by necropolis officials.
                                   (Photo Credit: Howard Carter and A. C. Mace,
                                   
                                     The Tomb of Tut-ankh-amen
                                     (London, 1923--1933.)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 07:23:06 am
                                  (http://www.touregypt.net/museum/3rings.jpg)

                                                              Three Ornate Rings


Wrapped together in a package, placed above the right wrist of Tutankhamun's mummy, were five rings, three of which are illustrated here.
(Top to bottom)

(a) Particular interest attaches to the material of this ring. It is a green translucent stone, which Carter thought was chalcedony. However, scientific tests carried out by Alfred Lucas, the chemist who assisted Carter in his work at the tomb, proved that neither a steel point nor quartz would mark it and that the stone itself did not scratch glass. He therefore deduced that it was probably nephrite, and not jadeite, as he had once supposed. Nepthrite is not a stone that is known to exist in Egypt or in any country of the Middle East; all the sources at present are located in either Europe or the Far East.. In view of its hardness it is not surprising that the figures are so roughly engraved in the two cartouches that form the bezel.

The king himself, wearing the blue khepresh helmet with streamers and a triangular kilt with apron, is shown in the right-hand cartouche. His throne name, followed by the words "given life", is written in a separate cartouche inside the main cartouche. He stands before the ithyphallic god Min of Coptos, who wears the same kind of plumed headdress as Amun, and holds a flail in his right hand. Beneath the flail is a single blue lotus flower with a long stem.

Min was an ancient god of vegetation and fertility whose cult was suppressed by Akhenaton when he closed the temples of all the gods except Aton. Tutankhamun revived the cult and reinstated its priesthood.

(b) The cartouche-shaped bezel of this ring bears a three-dimensional device. In this respect it is not unique among the rings from this tomb, but it is certainly the most elaborate of the fifteen rings found on the mummy. The central feature is a scarab of either lapis lazuli or blue glass with an atef crown on its head; two uraei with solar disks are mounted near the tips of the horns at the base of the crown. In front of the scarab is the lunar bark bearing the disk of the moon and its crescent. At the back, protecting the scarab with its outspread wings, is the falcon of Horus with sun's disk holding the shen sign in each talon, all in closionne-work; the inlay is of lapis lazuli, feldspar, and carnelian. Supporting the bezel are terminals with floral motifs, each consisting of a papyrus flower flanked by poppy buds, the stems of which form the tripartite loop of the ring. All three stems are made of gold and the two on the outside, which are those of the poppy buds, are inlaid with blue glass. Beneath the gold bezel, on the inner surface of the ring, are engraved the king's throne name and titles and the epithet "beloved of Thoth."

(c) The finely carved scarab that forms the bezel of this ring is made of chalcedony, a stone found in several places in Egypt both east and west of the Nile. Engraved on the base is a figure of the god Thoth, ibis-headed, with a lunar disk and crescent on his head. In his out-stretched left hand he holds an udjat eye and in his right hand he holds the ankh sign. The milky color of the stone is particularly suitable for the moon-god and very probably it was chosen for that reason. Besides being the moon-god, Thoth was also the patron deity of writing, magic, and wisdom, and it was he who restored to Horus the eye that he lost in his fight with Seth, the murderer of his father, Osiris. Although Horus is not represented on this scarab, Thoth's action in holding out the eye is an allusion to its return to Horus in accordance with the legend.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 07:32:06 am
(http://www.earthstation1.com/EsotericaFiles/Pics/Egyptian/KingTut'sSolarBarkRing.jpg)

TUTANKHAMUN'S SOLAR BARK RING


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 07:56:16 am








                                      T H E   T U T A N K H A M U N   E X H I B I T


                                                   Jewelry and Ornamentation





Five Gold Rings




From the Middle Kingdom until the latter half of the Eighteenth Dynasty finger rings consisted generally of a loop of cord or metal and a swivel bezel, often a scarab, that revolved on the loop. Rings with the loop and bezel in one piece, made of metal, semiprecious stones, or faience, were uncommon until the Amarna Period, when they seem to have become fashionable. Fifteen rings, some with swivel bezels, were found on Tutankhamun's mummy, but only two were actually placed on his fingers; the remainder were bound in the linen wrappings, five over the right wrist and eight beside the left wrist. In addition, eight rings, which the ancient robbers had inadvertently left in the tomb wrapped in a piece of linen, were found in a gilded chest in the antechamber, where they had no doubt been placed by the necropolis staff. Five of these twenty-three rings are illustrated here; they are all made of gold and in every case the bezel is in the form of either a single or a double cartouche.
(http://www.touregypt.net/museum/5rings.jpg)

(Top to bottom)

(a) A bipartite ring; the two hollow loops with lily-form terminals are soldered together at the bezels only. Each bezel is decorated in openwork with a figure standing on the basket hieroglyph neb, which is often used to fill the oval base of a cartouche. On the left bezel the figure represents the king presenting an offering. The offering is received by the falcon-headed sun-god, Ra-Harakhty, shown in the right cartouche wearing the sun's disk and uraeus and holding the was scepter in his right hand and the ankh sign in his left. On the sides of each of the two loops are engraved an udjat eye on one side and a baboon on the other.

(b) One of the two rings found on the king's mummy; it was on the middle finger of his left hand. The bezel is engraved with a figure of the king kneeling and holding in his outstretched hands an image of the goddess Maat, who is represented seated on the neb sign. In her hands she holds the ankh sign. At the top of the cartouche is the protecting falcon holding in each talon the shen symbol.

Maat was the goddess who personified the action of the creator of the universe, Atum, when he established the right order in nature and society. The action depicted on the bezel reproduces an episode in a series of ceremonies performed every morning by the king or by the high priest who deputized for him. It took place in the Temple of Karnak in front of the shrine containing a statue of the god Amun. After opening the door of the shrine and performing some preliminary ceremonies, the king knelt before the statue and offered it an image of Maat, exactly in the manner shown on the bezel. Offerings of food and drink were placed every day before the god, and maat, in the abstract sense of right order, was regarded as divine food. Queen Hatshepsut, who lived more than a century before Tutankhamun, refers to Amun in an inscription at Beni Hasan in these words: "I magnified maat that he [Amun] loves, for I know that he lives on it."

In his field notes, Howard Carter made the following comment on this ring: "A magnificent specimen of goldsmith's work. The face is an absolute portrait of the king, showing extraordinary affinity to Akhenaton."

(c) Massive gold ring with hoop and bezel cast in one piece. The seated figure on the bezel represents the god Amun, or Amen-Ra as he is called in the hieroglyphic inscription in front of his crown. In his right hand he holds the ankh sign and in his left the was scepter. He wears on his head his regular headdress consisting of a close-fitting cap surmounted by two plumes and the sun's disk.

Amun, whose name means "the one who is hidden," first achieved prominence in the Twelfth Dynasty, four of whose kings were called by the name Amenemhat, which means "Amun is foremost." His cult was brought to Thebes from Hermopolis, in middle Egypt, where he had been worshipped since early times. In the Eighteenth Dynasty Amun gained real ascendancy over the other major gods and became the official state god. The powerful sun-god Ra of Heliopolis became associated with him at Thebes under the name Amen-Ra and Thebes itself was called Heliopolis of Upper Egypt. Tutankhamun's predecessor, Akhenaton, suppressed his cult, together with the cults of all the other gods except that of the sun's disk, Aton, but Tutankhamun restored Amun to his former preeminence and reopened the temples of the other gods.

(d) The right-hand cartouche contains the king's throne name, Nebkheperura, and the left-hand cartouche his original personal name, Tutankhaton. The change to Tutankhamun was made in about his ninth year when he was crowned by the priests of Amen-Ra at Karnak. By making this change the king formally detached himself from the cult of Aton and declared his adherence to the cult of Amun.

(e) The seated figure in the cartouche of this massive gold ring represents the falcon-headed god, Ra-Harakhty, whose name, which means Ra-Horus of the Horizon, is written in hieroglyphics in front of him. He holds the same insignia as in the ring at the top of the illustration. The sun's disk with uraeus, above his head, is also a feature common to both rings and a regular element in his iconography. Engraved on the loop, near the bezel, are the king's throne name on one side and his personal name on the other side. On the side of the throne is the heraldic device to commemorate the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Since remote antiquity the center of the sun-cult had been located at Heliopolis, near the modern city of Cairo. It was there that the sun-god Ra had his sanctuary. Horus was the deity personified by the Upper Egyptian kings who conquered Lower Egypt, where Heliopolis was situated, at the beginning of the historical period. For political reasons it was necessary to unify the cults of the two gods, with the result that the composite god, Ra-Harakhty, came into being. The geographical proximity of the new capital, Memphis, to Heliopolis, together with the religious link that had been created, enabled the priests of Heliopolis to exercise their influence over the crown. However, when in the Eighteenth Dynasty the capital was established at Thebes, four hundred miles to the south, and Amun was recognized as the state god, Heliopolitan influence inevitably diminished. Probably in order to restore some of the god's lost prestige, Amenhotpe III and his sone, Amenhotpe IV, before he moved the capital to Amarna and adopted the name Akhenaton, built sanctuaries at Karnak to Ra-Harakhty, and his name was expanded to "Ra-Harakhty lives, rejoicing in the horizon, in his name the sun-light-which-is-Aton." Soon after its earliest occurrence, this name was divided into two parts, both written in cartouches like royal names in order to show that Amenhotpe IV regarded him as the divine king, although the epithet "King of the Gods" had long been borne by Amen-Ra. His "reign," such as it was, did not last for more than a few years, although Ra himself survived because he was regarded by Akhenaton as the ancient god in whom the true god, Aton, had always existed. Tutankhamun's accession to the throne, followed by his revival of the old cults, restored Ra-Harakhty to the position he had occupied in the Egyptian pantheon before the time of Amenhotpe IV.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 08:01:48 am
                                                           (http://www.world-mysteries.com/alignments/djed_tyet3.jpg)
                                                            A Tyet Knot from the Tomb of Tutankhamun.






(http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/exhibits/amarna/images/photo7.jpg)

Ring bezel decorated with the cartouche of Tutankhamun.

Photo: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 08:16:44 am
(http://www.likeacat.com/images/symbols/tut_ankh.jpg)

A wooden mirror case found in Tut's tomb. It is overlaid in sheet gold. The inlay is colored glass, carnelian and quartz. The word "ANKH" also means "mirror".



THE ANKH IS AN ANCIENT SYMBOL OF LIFE



In Egypt dieties were shown carrying the ankh as a symbol of the gift of eternal life promised to their royal or priestly servants. The ankh is formed of the combined male and female symbols of Osiris and Isis, the union of heaven and earth.

It was also the "Key of the Nile" as a symbol of the mystic union of Isis and Osiris which initiated the annual Nile flood, the source of so much of Egypt's fertility and life.

It also signifies immortality, "Life to come", "Time that is to come' with its keylike shape symbolizing the
ability to unlock the doors of the underworld.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 08:30:28 am
(http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/wml/humanworld/egyptian/graphics/large/sandstone_relief.jpg)

Sandstone relief showing Tutankhamun (ruled 1336-1327 BC)
18th Dynasty (1550-1307 BC)
L 38cm


 

The king in ancient Egypt was regarded as a god. He was thought to be the incarnation of the god Horus and was often called 'the good god'. When he died, the king was identified with the god Osiris, god of the underworld.


Kings are easily identified on Egyptian monuments. They usually wear a crown, a uraeus (a cobra on the forehead) and a false beard. The word 'pharaoh' comes from the Egyptian 'per-aa' which means 'Great House'. This was used in the Old Kingdom (2686 - 2181 BC) to refer to the palace or court. Only in the 19th Dynasty (1307 - 1196 BC) did it come to be a respectful name for the king.


The daily life of the king was governed by ceremony. Anyone approaching him had to prostrate himself (lie flat) on the ground. One man, Sinuhe, described meeting the king:

"I found his majesty on the great throne in the kiosk of gold. Stretched out on my belly, I did not know myself before him, while this god greeted me pleasantly. I was like a man seized by darkness. My soul was gone, my limbs trembled; my heart was not in my body, I did not know life from death."



This sandstone relief shows the pharaoh Tutankhamun presenting offerings to the gods. He is wearing the Blue Crown, the battle crown of Egyptian kings. His titles are carved in front of him: 'King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Nebkheprure, son of Re, Tutankhamun." The name was partly rubbed out and replaced by that of his successor, Horemheb.

Tutankhamun is one of the most famous pharaohs ever to rule ancient Egypt.

His fame today is largely due to the discovery of his tomb, intact and untouched by grave-robbers, by British archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922. It contained over 5000 items, including the famous gold mask that is now regarded as one of the typical images of ancient Egypt.

Tutankhamun was the 11th king of the 18th Dynasty. Although he died whilst still a teenager, his short rule was significant.

He helped restore order to Egypt after the reign of his father Akhenaten, commonly known as the 'heretic king'.

Akhenaten replaced the main religion with one based around himself. His supposed reforms also badly damaged the country.

Tutankhamun began repairing the damage done to the temples of Amun (who Akhenaten sought to replace), as well as other temple construction projects.


http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/wml/humanworld/egyptian/sandstone_relief.asp


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 09:05:59 am
                                     (http://z.about.com/d/africanhistory/1/0/G/J/TutankhamunExDiadem.jpg)
                                     Photo Credit © Andreas F., Voegelin, Antikenmuseum,
                                      Basel and Sammlung Ludwig




This golden diadem was found around the head of Tutankhamun's mummy when it was unwrapped by Howard Carter and his team. It features the 'Two Ladies', nebty, who represent the duality of the ancient Egyptian world – the living and the dead, the struggle between the gods Horus and seth, and most particularly the differences between Upper and Lower Egypt.

The Vulture-goddess, Nekhbet had dominion over Lower Egypt, the Cobra-goddess, Wadjyt over Upper Egypt. (These two pieces had actually been separated from the diadem in order to fit the golden portrait mask over the mummy.)

The diadem is inlaid with Egyptian blue and semi-precious stones.

http://africanhistory.about.com/od/egyptology/ig/TutenkhamunEx/TutankhamunExPectoral.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Jake on September 01, 2007, 10:59:03 am
Firstly, Outstanding pictures Bianca, very well done and informative.

Secondly, speaking of informative,
Quote
It might be nice Bianca if you studied incest a little bit and really found out a bit more about it.   From what I can see it seems to be
     some Puritanical belief which has outlived its time and usefullness.  It is not illegal in many countries and cultures;  it does not always
     produce negative genetic results and many times a superior genetic predetermination can produce superior genetic results. (Majeston)

I figured as much  ;D

Jake


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 11:26:59 am




Thank you, Jake.  This is an 'addictive' thread.......






As to the above remarks, it sounds like the "Family Values Party":



"When one of their own gets caught doing what they have viciously and 'ad nauseam'

attacked others for............"


(CHECK THIS WEEK'S HEADLINES AND NEWS SHOWS)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 06:16:58 pm
(http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/exhibits/amarna/images/photo1.jpg)

Statuette of Tutankhamun, provenance unknown, late Dynasty 18, reign of a successor of Akhenaten (1332-1322 BCE), bronze with traces of gold

Priests carried ceremonial boats in religious processions, and such temple equipment could include separate elements, such as a royal statue like this one. If complete, the kneeling king would face a deity. The artist here has used the unusual material of black bronze, and traces of gold remain on the king’s headdress and chest. The statue would originally have had inlaid eyes and eyebrows. The heavy hips and thighs, bodily curves, and elongated facial features indicate that the statuette was created during a period of time when Amarna styles still influenced artists and craftsmen. The general shape of the face resembles that of Tutankhamun as seen on his other monuments.

Photo: Tom Jenkins.

PENN MUSEUM


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 06:20:24 pm
(http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/exhibits/amarna/images/photo2.jpg)



 
 Statue of Amun with features of Tutankhamun, provenance unknown, possibly Thebes, late Dynasty 18-early Dynasty 19 (1332-1292 BCE), greywacke

Amun typically appears as a man wearing a tall, double-plumed headdress. His tall headdress is missing from this statue, but his crown bears traces of gilding. Amun wears the false beard of a deity, an elaborately beaded broad collar, and a short kilt decorated on the belt with a tyet-amulet, a symbol related both to the goddess Isis and to the ankh, the hieroglyph meaning “life”. The god also holds ankhs indicating his immortality. His hands, which have been intentionally cut back, may represent a deliberate alteration to allow the statue to fit into a shrine or a portable ceremonial boat used to carry it in processions.

Photo: Tom Jenkins.
 PENN MUSEUM


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 06:30:06 pm








                                               T H E   T Y E T    S Y M B O L





by Jimmy Dunn

We do not know the exactly the origin of the Isis knot, which seems to illustrate a knotted piece of cloth, though initially its hieroglyphic sign was perhaps a variant of the ankh. This rather enigmatic symbol closely resembles the ankh, except that its transverse arms are curved downward.

Even in written sources the meaning and symbolism of this object, known as the tyet (tiet, thet) by the the ancient Egyptians, seems to be similar to those of the ankh, and the sign is often translated as "life" or "welfare." In representational contexts, the tyet is found as a decorative symbol as early as the 3rd Dynasty, when it appears with both the ankh and the djed signs, and later with the was scepter. However, the symbol itself is much, much older, appearing at least as early as the Predynastic Period.

By the New Kingdom, the symbol was clearly associated with Isis, perhaps due to its frequent association with the djed pillar. The two symbols were therefore used to allude to Osiris and Isis and to the binary nature of life itself. The association of the sign with Isis leads to it being given the names, "the knot of Isis" (as it resembles the knot which secures the garments of the gods in many representations), "the girdle of Isis" and "the blood of Isis." 
                                                                (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tyet1.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 06:35:43 pm
                                                    (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tyet2.jpg)






There are complex mythologies associated with these names, but it is impossible to know at this time whether the stories preserve the original significance of the tyet object, or if they were merely developed to explain and expand upon the established names. Scholars have suggested that it might depict the cloth a woman used during menstruation, but like much else about this symbol, this is by no means certain. Knots were widely used as amulets because the Egyptians believed they bound and released magic. And according to E. A. Wallis Budge, the shape of the amulet may result from the identification of Isis as the universal mother, and may be a stylized representation of her female organs. However, one must note that most of these "suggestions" are little more than that.

Because of the latter name, "blood of Isis," the sign was often used as a funerary amulet made of a red semi-precious stone such as carnelian or jasper or from red glass. The Book of the Dead, spell 156, states, "The blood of Isis, the spells of Isis, the magical words of Isis shall keep this great (or shining) one strong, and shall protect him from whosoever would harm him\do to him such things as he abominateth."  The Book of the Dead also specifies that that the symbol be made of blood-red stone, and be placed at the deceased's neck.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 06:43:20 pm
                                                      (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tyet3.jpg)

                                                       TYET FOUND IN TUTANKHAMUN'S TOMB






Due to its symbolic significance, the tyet sign is frequently found with the djed in decorative bands carved on the walls and columns of temples, and in the decoration of shrines, and on other objects such as sarcophagi and beds. Sometimes the image is personified as a goddess, where the knot is used as the form of a dress, with center part and side-pieces forming the garment's stylized belt.

A number of variants of this treatment of the tyet sign are found in works of the Late Period, with the sign being associated with the goddesses Nut, Hathor and Nephthys as well as with Isis.

All of these variants, however, appear in contexts relating to the idea of resurrection and eternal life.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 01, 2007, 06:48:36 pm






From the Old Kingdom Period, the tyet knot was also fused with the bovine faces of the goddesses Bat or Hathor as an emblematic motif related to their cults and as a badge of office for the kherep-ah (the palace manager).

Combined with the cow-eared face of the goddess Hathor, the tyet is commonly depicted as an amuletic pendant slung low from the belt in statues dating from the Third Intermediate Period on.

Block statues including this detail of the suspended amulet often show it dangling rather conspicuously just over the knees of the seated figure. In late examples such as this, however, the emblem usually seems to be present as a protective amulet rather than a badge of office.

(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tyet4.jpg)
From a shrine of Tutankhamun, a frieze of Isis knots combined with djet pillars

In the final analysis, it seems likely that the tyet's symbolism and meaning may have changed considerably over
time.


http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tyet.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 02, 2007, 06:35:45 am
                                                 (http://www.touregypt.net/museum/djedpillar.jpg)
                                                   TUTANKHAMUN'S DJED PILLAR






Many theories have been advanced in an endeavor to explain what the symbol known as the djed pillar represents. It has been regarded as a combination of the four pillars that the Egyptians believed supported the four corners of the earth, as a tree with lopped branches, and as a human spinal column.

The view most generally held at present is that it depicts a bundle of stalks tied together. Its origin, however, was forgotten by later Egyptians and it was thought to be the backbone of the god Osiris. This was the interpretation that seems to have been universally accepted in the time of Tutankhamun.


In remote antiquity the djed pillar was a fetish with a cult of its own. Priests of the cult still functioned in the Old Kingdom, or at least bore the appropriate titles.

The center of the cult may at first have been situated at Busiris or at Mendes, in the Nile Delta, but by the Old Kingdom it had a sanctuary at Memphis where its independent existence was soon lost and it was absorbed by the powerful cult of the local god, Ptah, an event commemorated by the inclusion of the djed pillar among the emblems mounted at the head of that god's scepter.
                                            (http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/themestream/ptah_face.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 02, 2007, 06:45:49 am
                                     (http://www.screensavers.egyptholiday.com/images/glyph.jpg)






A more important legacy of the ancient cult was a ceremony, known as Raising the Djed Pillar, which took place at Memphis on the eve of the coronation of Egyptian kings and at their jubilee festivals. In that ceremony the king, aided by a number of priests, raised a djed pillar from the ground with ropes and placed it in an erect position. The significance of the ceremony is partly explained by the meaning of the  word djed, "stability" or "duration," the concept being that the king and his kingdom gained stability and duration from the performance of the ceremony. But it also symbolized the revival of the kingship after it had "died" with the demise of its previous holder.

Revival after death and the whole conception of resurrection were closely bound up with the cult of Osiris and it is not surprising that the emblem which represented that conception should have been adopted, not later than the beginning of the New Kingdom, by the adherents of the Osirian cult.

The djed pillar soon became one of the most common amulets to be placed on mummies. A spell in the Book of the Dead (Chapter 155) was devoted to it and the words of the spell were engraved on one of two djed amulets found on the mummy of Tutankhamun. It reads:


"Thou hast thy backbone, O weary one of heart; thou shalt place thyself upon thy side so that I may give thee water beneath thee[?]. I have brought thee a djed pillar of gold; mayest thou be pleased with it."


According to the instruction that is appended to the spell in the Book of the Dead, the djed pillar should be made of gold and be placed on the neck of the deceased on the day of his funeral.

Both of Tutankhamun's djed amulets, suspended on gold wire necklaces, lay over his throat. The inscribed amulet, which is illustrated here, is completely overlaid with gold, so that the material used for its core cannot be seen. In addition to the spell, it is inscribed on the front with his throne name written, as usual within a cartouche.


http://www.touregypt.net/museum/djedpillarpage.htm
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/colors.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 07:14:04 am
                       (http://www.touregypt.net/museum/headrest.jpg)




                                                  Turquoise Glass Headrest
 



Carter found four headrests made of different materials in a chest in the Annex. From the inscription in hieratic (script writing) on a similar box, he suggested that both chests originally contained linen and that the headrests were put in when the officials of the necropolis discovered the robbery and restored order in the tomb.
This headrest is made of a turquoise glass, while the others were composed of plain ivory, stained ivory and faience. It is constructed of two separate pieces that were joined by means of a wooden dowel. A sheet of gold embossed with a pattern of repeating hieroglyphs, ankh ("life") and was ("dominion"), conceals the joint.

The faience example found along with it is similar in design. The making faience, which includes ground quartz in its composition, represents a much older technique, predating glassmaking by more than two thousand years. Glassmaking was not perfected until comparatively late in Egyptian history - around the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Smoother in its surface than faience, it could be opaque like the example of translucent blue glass.

Because of the delicate nature of the material it is unlikely that the headrest was made for actual use; it was probably put in the tomb for ritual purposes. The vertical inscription incised in the central support identifies Tutankhamun by his throne name: "The Good God, Lord of the Two Lands, 'Ra is the Lord of Manifestations', given life like Ra."


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 07:29:09 am
                         (http://www.touregypt.net/museum/tutl25.jpg)




                                                    Stained Ivory Headrest


 
Each of the headrests that Carter found in the Annex is fairly distinctive in style and composition. One of them, however, is completely different from the others. Whereas the other three are characterized by a solid central support, the example illustrated here resembles a piece of furniture used for sitting rather than an object used to prop up the head. In fact, with its two pairs of crossed supports, it is very similar to contemporaneous folding stools. As is the case with the inlaid chair, which imitates the style of folding stools, the heads of fowl form the bottom part of each of the supports. The horizontal stabilizers are attached to the open beaks of the birds. Unlike the inlaid chair, however, there is no
inlay or gilding on the legs.

The entire object is constructed of ivory, much of which is carved and stained. The area where the head was to rest is constructed of three horizontal pieces that are alternately colored black and white. Attached to these, and curving upward on each side is a carved
representation of the god Bes. Frequently represented on furniture, as in the panels of the arms on the chair of Sitamun, Bes was a household god who was often depicted as a lion, as on the jar in the form of a standing lion. He was also a protective deity, and in this role he would safeguard the deceased against enemies with a ferocious growl like that indicated on his green-stained ivory face. The inner side of this carved part is also darkly stained, and an upside-down lotus plant is engraved on its surface. While usually shown without any cushion to soften the hard surface on which the head lies, some headrests have been found that still have soft cloth wrapped around them.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 07:42:39 am
                                 (http://www.egyptarchive.co.uk/images/cairo_museum/44_tut.jpg)



An ivory headrest from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Shu, the god of the air, holds the curved head support.

The two lions represent the mountains on the eastern and western horizons between which the Sun rose
and set.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 07:52:10 am
                           (http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/photos/KTS21.jpg)





Glass Headrest

Blue glass
Height 19.5 cm (7.7 in); width 27 cm (10.6 in)
18th Dynasty; reign of Tutankhamun
From the collection of King Farouk
TR 2.3.60.1

Egyptians slept on high headrests wrapped in cloth. This example, one of seven in the tomb, probably was produced for use in the afterlife.

Sometimes spells were inscribed on headrests to help protect their users from the many dangerous demons that threatened both the living and the dead.

© Kenneth Garrett, National Geographic Society 2005.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 07:59:33 am
                           (http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/photos/KTS22.jpg)




Inscribed Game Board

Ivory
Length 13.5 cm (5.3 in); width 4.1 cm (1.6 in);
height 2.7 cm
18th Dynasty; reign of Tutankhamun
Thebes, Valley of the Kings
Tomb of Tutankhamun (KV 62)
Carter 393

One of four game boards in Tutankhamun’s tomb, this example has a different game on each side and a drawer for the playing pieces.

One board is for senet, associated with life and the afterlife, and the other for tjau, which had similarities to Parcheesi.

© Kenneth Garrett, National Geographic Society 2005.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 08:11:37 am
                                  (http://www.kenseamedia.com/egyptian_gods/images/nebket_wadjet.jpg)




Portrayed as a cobra wearing a Red Crown of Lower Egypt, Wadjet was a symbol of soverignty. She and vulture Nekhbet, symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt, are the protectors of the King. Amulets of King Tutankhamun feature Wadjet and Nebket.

Wadjet was worshipped in the ancient city of Buto in the Nile Delta.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 02:41:29 pm







                       C O L O U R   I N   E G Y P T I A N   A R T   A N D   J E W E L R Y





By Marie Parsons
 
The Egyptians considered the color of an object to be an integral part of its nature or being. The word iwen was used to signify the concept of color, and could also mean external appearance, nature, being, character, or even disposition.
Not every color and variation has symbolic significance of course. When groups of objects were being depicted, colors were varied to distinguish one object from another. So rows of people or chariot horses may be alternated as light and dark. And color was often enjoyed for its own sake.


                                            (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/colors6.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 02:46:18 pm







Names and uses of colors

Old Egyptian had four basic color terms:

km,or black, hence, Kmt, or "Black Land". The color black carried connotations of fertility and regeneration, and was also the color of the underworld, where the sun regenerated every night. The god Osiris, king of the Underworld, was sometimes referred to as kmj, "the black one." Black stones were used in statuary, and black backgrounds used in some coffins, to evoke those regenerative qualities of Osiris and the Underworld.

khdj, or white, was also used from prehistoric times. Chalk and gypsum provided the white pigment used.

White was associated with cleanliness, ritual purity and sacredness and so, was the color of the clothes worn by ritual priests. The Instructions of Merikare speaks of service as a priest in terms of the wearing of white sandals. The floors of temples were made of white calcite. White alabaster was used to make ritual objects such as small bowls to the massive embalming table of the Apis bulls mummification. Many sacred animals such as the Great White baboon were also of that color.

Khdj also meant the metal "silver" and could incorporate the notion of "light": for example, in some texts, the sun was said to "whiten" the land at dawn. White was also used to denote the metal silver, and with gold, then symbolized the moon and sun.

W3d, where the "3" actually stands for the "a" that is not our letter A, had its focus in "green", as the term for the mineral malachite. The color green was symbolic of growing things and of life itself. To do "green things" was a euphemism for positive life-producing behavior in contrast to doing "red things."

The hieroglyph that represented w3d was a green papyrus stem and frond, carrying connotations of fresh vegetation and vigor and regeneration. Osiris was often shown with green skin to signify his resurrection, and in the 26th dynasty, coffin faces were often painted green to identify the deceased with Osiris and to guarantee rebirth. Chapters 159 and 160 of the Book of the Dead give instructions for making an amulet of green feldspar, (though a variety of materials, ranging in color from green to blue, were used)

The common amulet of the "Eye of Horus" or the Wedjat is usually green because of the connotations as an expression of the aspects of healing and well-being. Wadjet was the green one, the protective serpent goddess of Lower Egypt (though the color of that royal crown was red.)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 02:48:02 pm






Turquoise, or mfk3t, was the most valued of the green stones. Mined in Sinai, it was connected to the deity Hathor, who was called Lady of Turquoise, and as well as to the sun at dawn, whose rays and disk were described as turquoise, and whose rising was said to flood the land with turquoise. Thus, turquoise was also associated with rebirth, and faience figurines in this color were often used in funerary equipment.
                               (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/colors5.jpg)
Although blue pigment appears on paintings, the Egyptian language had no basic color term in Old Egyptian for "blue." Blue, or irtiu and khshdj, could represent the heavens as well as the primeval flood, and in both it functioned as a symbol of life and rebirth. Blue could also represent the Nile and its offerings, crops and fertility. The phoenix, or benu-heron, an ancient symbol of the inundation, was often painted in bright blue (the actual bird had light gray-blue plumage.) The sacred baboon was also depicted as being blue.

Blue pigment was introduced at about 2550 BCE, based on grinding lapis lazuli, a deep blue stone flecked with golden impurities. Lapis lazuli was the blue stone that figures prominently in much jewelry, but could only be acquired by import. It was called khshdj, and the term was extended to also mean blue. The stone and the color were associated with the night sky and the primordial waters. The rising sun was sometimes called the "child of lapis lazuli."

Blue pigment could also was manufactured by combining oxides of copper and iron with silica and calcium.

dshr, meant "red", hence, "Deshret", the "Red Land", the name given to the desert areas on each side of the fertile Nile Valley. Red pigments were derived from naturally occurring oxidized iron and red ocher.

Red was considered a very potent color, hot and dangerous, but also life-giving and protective. It is both the color of blood, relating to life ad death, and of fire, which could be beneficial or destructive. Expressions such as dshr ib, "red of heart" or "furious" are formed from this basic word.

Red is also a color given to the sun, red at its rising and its setting. In papyrus texts, red pigments or "rubrics" were often used to emphasize headings, but also used to write the names of dangerous entities and unlucky days.

Royal statuary was often made of rose or golden quartzite and red granite, which were used to invoke the regenerative properties of the solar cycle and the connection between the kingship and the sun. The obelisk of Senussret at Heliopolis was made of red granite.

khenet , or yellow, was symbolic of all that is eternal and imperishable. Anubis, often shown with black skin as a jackal, when depicted as a jackal-headed human male, had a black head with gold limbs and torso.

The color yellow was often associated with the sun disk and with gold, or nbw. Gold was not only associated with the sun, it was also the flesh of the gods, and the divine snake in the Story of the Shipwrecked Sailor was also gold.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 02:54:13 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/colors2.jpg)





Color in Art


In paintings deities were not often colored to indicate gold flesh. Most male deities were represented with reddish-brown skin, and female with yellow skin. But other colors, as green and blue were indicated above for Osiris, were used. The fertility deities Min and Amun-Re-Kamutef were shown with black skin. Amun-Re was depicted as blue-skinned from the 18th Dynasty onward, emphasizing his status at that time as king of the gods. The jackal that represented Anubis and Wepwawet was colored black, although most jackals were actually sandy-colored, to signify their funerary role and connection with the underworld.

Kings were often shown painted in different contexts with different colored skin. For example, the eleventh dynasty king Nebhepetre Montuhotep I was shown regularly with reddish-brown  skin at his mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri. But one statue found ritually buried shows him with black skin to symbolize his renewal in the afterlife. In addition, some faces on nonroyal coffins during some periods were also painted black for the same reason. But the most common color for coffin faces, apart from natural red for males and yellow for females, was gold, linking the deceased with the sun god and showing the deceased successfully transformed into a divine being.
                                                 (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/colors3.jpg)
Certain colors were often set side by side as well, to signify completeness. For example, red and white, or its alternate hue yellow, find completion together in the colors of man and woman, and the red and white crowns. Green and black are also often used in the same way as the symbolic opposites of life and death.

Some colors were interchangeable. While hair was often shown as black, it was sometimes depicted as blue for the gods. However, they too could also be shown with black hair. The converse could also be true, as illustrated in the example where the god Anubis is shown as blue, as is the mummy. In the pectoral of Tut, Ptah is shown with black hair, the Blue Crown is colored black. In the same way, light blue and green could be interchanged. In that Tut pectoral, the god Ptah, often shown with green skin, is shown here as light-blue skinned.

The heavens may be colored black, though blue is more commonly used. Yellow gold, the color of sun and stars, could also represent the heavens, though its use for such is relatively rare. Black also represented Egypt itself, the fertile Nile soil, but the color green also signified earth as opposed to heaven or the sea.

Horemheb and Ramesses I both used a blue-gray background on the walls of their tombs, perhaps to represent the entrance of the deceased King into the underworld or the heavens. Since the underworld was described in some texts as the field of malachite (a green stone) green could also represent the underworld as well.

Earlier it was stated that male figures, whether divine or human, were given reddish-brown skin tones. Women were given yellow-gold skin tones. A poem from the Papyrus Chester Beatty I describes a female object of affection with "bright skin," arms more "brilliant than gold," and "white-breasted."
                                     (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/colors1.jpg)
Since Egypt included people close to the Mediterranean as well as to sub-Sahara, its people showed many skin tones. But the men of Egypt had to be distinguished from non-Egyptians, from foreigners. Foreign peoples of different races were given appropriate skin colors by stylized characterizations. While Nubians and Kushite kings living to the south of Egypt were depicted as black in contrast to the red-brown skin hues of the Egyptian male, Libyans, Bedouin, Syrians and Hittites, living to the north, west, and closer to the Mediterranean were all shown with light yellow skin, as well as distinctive clothing and hair-styles.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 03:05:34 pm







Color in Hieroglyphics




Hieroglyphics illustrate the dual use of color, one, where objects are given the same hue they have in nature, and two, where objects are assigned colors to which they are symbolically linked. Each glyph had its own color or combination, which was faithfully kept whenever multiple colors were used. Sometimes difference in color was used to distinguish between two otherwise identical signs. Color was omitted in everyday writing, in order to save time or expense, but it was nevertheless viewed as a very real part of a complete sign.

Where the signs were not painted black or red, each sign received its own basic color or combination of colors. The colors assigned to the various signs are in most cases simply the colors of the objects themselves. So signs for leg, arm, hand, mouth, or other body parts, were usually in red, whereas reeds and other plants were green, water was blue, etc. Other objects had more symbolic coloration, for example, metal butcher knife was red, the sickle was green, and the bread loaf was blue.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 03:07:10 pm







The Painter’s Work






The paintings extant in the beautiful tomb of Nefertari are excellent examples of the symbolic and practical uses of color. After the outlines of the scenes were completed, color was applied with coarse brushes made from bundles of palm fibers, or pieces of fibrous wood chewed or beaten at one end.

Dry pigments were prepared by crushing various substances in a mortar or on a grinding palette with a stone pestle. These were then mixed with a water-soluble gum or egg white to bind them. Intermediate shades were derived by laying one pigment over another.
                                   (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/colors4.jpg)
Many of the reliefs seen today in museums and even on the temple and tomb walls in Egypt itself have little of the tints originally placed upon them. But conservation is underway, and hopefully, as with Nefertari’s tomb, the vibrancy of the Artist’s craft, part of the soul of ancient Egypt, will return.







Sources:

From Symbol and Magic in Egyptian Art by Richard Wilkinson
 
From Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt



Marie Parsons is an ardent student of Egyptian archaeology, ancient history and its religion. To learn about the earliest civilization is to learn about ourselves. Marie welcomes comments to marieparsons@prodigy.net.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 03, 2007, 03:21:18 pm
(http://www.arce-pa.org/smallgoldenshrinedetailsmall.jpg/smallgoldenshrinedetailsmall-full.jpg)


GOLD PANEL FROM THE SHRINE PICTURED BELOW


(http://www.arce-pa.org/smallgoldenshrinefrontsmall.jpg/smallgoldenshrinefrontsmall-custom;size:245,377.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 16, 2007, 04:11:21 pm








(http://media.philly.com/images/20070901_inq_he1tut01z-a.JPG)
Zahi Hawass , Egypt's antiquities
chief, with fragments found in
the tomb, says his studies at
Penn
"changed my life."





                                       T U T   S T I L L   R E V E A L I N G   S E C R E T S



                                       
Former Penn student returns to tell more.



By Tom Avril
Inquirer Staff Writer
 
Egypt's top antiquities official was down in the fabled tomb of Tutankhamun a few weeks ago - doing a television interview, of all things - when he noticed something curious he had never seen before.

In a back room closed to public view, Zahi Hawass spotted a cluster of reed boxes crammed with plaster fragments and limestone seals used to stamp hieroglyphs. Intrigued, the scholar took a closer look and saw that both were marked with a trio of icons - sun, scarab and basket - whose meaning he recognized instantly:

Neb-kheperu-re, the throne name of the boy pharaoh.

Eighty-five years after his tomb was discovered, and after his treasures have been ogled by millions of museumgoers, King Tut is still revealing surprises.

In addition to the seals, apparently left behind by the original excavators in the early 1920s, Egyptian workers recently found 20 sealed jars with the pharaoh's name in an old storage facility nearby. Neither group of items is part of the official Tut inventory at the Egyptian antiquities museum in Cairo, Hawass said in a phone interview.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 16, 2007, 04:14:48 pm







On Thursday, he comes to Philadelphia to speak about these surprises and another: For the first time, Tut's mummified body will go on public display, protected in a climate-controlled case in his tomb in Egypt's Valley of the Kings.

The lecture will be a homecoming of sorts for Hawass, whose trip coincides with the waning days of the blockbuster Tut exhibit at the Franklin Institute.

He got his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and lived in a one-bedroom apartment at 43d and Walnut Streets from 1980 to 1987. He said his studies here "changed my life," enabling him to serve his country.

The "new" seals and jars, meanwhile, will not be added to the exhibit, Hawass said. Though they are not the sort of gilded wonders that have drawn the museum crowds, they are of interest to archaeologists and historians, for whom much of the pharaoh's brief life remains a mystery.

Egyptologists were excited to hear of the rediscovered items.

"My God," David O'Connor, a professor of ancient Egyptian art at NYU's Institute of Fine Arts, said upon hearing from a reporter about the finds.

O'Connor, former head of the Egyptian collection at Penn's Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, said he could easily see how the jars would have been forgotten. They were found a month ago when workers were transferring artifacts from a variety of past excavations to a modern storage facility.

Egypt is overflowing with antiquities, and the original finders of Tut's tomb may have thought some of the less spectacular objects were not worth taking to the Cairo museum, O'Connor said. More surprising is that the boxes of seals in the tomb itself were somehow overlooked, he said.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 16, 2007, 04:16:31 pm







Silverman said further analysis of the seals and plaster fragments was needed. But both he and James Allen, a Brown University Egyptologist, said they might well be the very seals that the ancients used to mark the king's name when they closed the tomb doors more than 3,300 years ago.

Silverman said he would be even more interested to learn the contents of the jars, which he speculated contain wine for the king to drink in the afterlife, or perhaps oils or unguents.

"It's nice that some of the mysteries remain," Silverman said, "because it spurs us on to do more research."

Hawass, who studied under Silverman at Penn, said he planned to open the jars after returning to his native Egypt following Thursday's lecture. The public talk will be 7 p.m. at Penn's Irvine Auditorium. Tickets are $15.

Opening the jars is just one of many projects on the agenda for Hawass, who in addition to his scholarly expertise has a flair for promotion. (Replicas of his trademark wide-brimmed hat are on sale for $45 at the Tut gift shop at the Franklin Institute, whose exhibit closes Sept. 30.)

He plans to continue DNA analysis of various mummies to sort out their tangled lineage. Scholars are not in agreement, for example, on the identity of Tut's father.

The antiquities chief also plans a search for the tomb of Ramses VIII, and he wants to further explore an unusual tunnel in the tomb of Sety I. Hawass said he had traveled more than 200 feet down the tunnel by rope recently, and he hopes a secret burial chamber lies at its end.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 16, 2007, 04:17:43 pm
(http://media.philly.com/images/20070901_inq_hetut01-b.JPG)
Zahi Hawass , Egypt's antiquities
chief, with fragments found in the
tomb, says his studies at Penn
"changed my life."









As he knows well, however, it is the treasures of Tutankhamun that have most captivated the public imagination.

Tut, who assumed the throne at age 8 or 9 and died about a decade later, is sometimes described as a minor pharaoh who became famous in modern times merely because so many of his treasures were recovered. But that undercuts his historical importance, said Penn's Silverman.

Under his leadership, Egypt's capital returned to the city of Thebes - now Luxor - and his subjects resumed official worship of their traditional gods after a brief period of monotheism.

Yet, more remains to be learned. Who were Tut's parents? What role did he play in actually running the kingdom?

Hawass vows to remain on the case.

"The mystery of Tutankhamun, in my opinion," said the antiquities minister, "will never end."


http://www.philly.com/inquirer/health_science/daily/20070901_Tut_still_revealing_secrets.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 16, 2007, 04:34:28 pm









OBJECTS IN THE TOMB OF TUTANKHAMUN THAT ARE LINKED TO AKHENATEN AND THE AMARNA PERIOD






1. Ivory Clappers with the names of Queen Tiye and Meritaten.

(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/clappers.jpg)
These were found on the floor of the Annexe, these are arm shaped clappers that measure just under 16cm in length. The holes at the end of each clapper were intended for the insertion of a cord linking the two together in the same way as castanets, though any noise would of been produced by shaking. Each arm is inscribed on its polished surface with an elongated cartouche with both the names of Queen Tiye and her granddaughter, Meritaten: ‘The Great Royal Wife Tiye, may she live; the King’s daughter Meritaten’. Why Meritaten and Queen Tiye should have had their names linked together in this way is uncertain, similarly why these clappers are in the tomb of Tutankhamun at all is unknown.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 16, 2007, 04:37:04 pm






2. A Small Box inlaid with a picture of Nefernefrure.


 
(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/boxlid.jpg)
A small box lid found in the Antechamber which is inlaid with both the name and image of Nefernefrure, the fifth daughter ofAkhenaten. Although the box itself was not found, the evidence suggests that this lid was originally part of Smenkhkare’s burial treasure. (length 10cm).


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 16, 2007, 04:40:48 pm








3. A Dismantled Box.




An inscribed strip from the lid of a dismantled box found at the tomb entrance, carries the cartouched names of Akhenaten and his co-regent Nefernefruaten and that of the great royal wife Meritaten. The contents of the box were mostly found to be various items of linen. An hieratic docket from this white painted wooden box was found in the tomb also.
(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/strip.jpg)


(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/hieratic.jpg)
4. The Ivory Palette of Merytaten.

Length 21.9 cm, Width 2.5 cm, Depth 0. 7 cm.

Two inscriptions in the lower part of this palette show that it was made for the 'Princess Merytaten, daughter of the Great Royal Wife Nefertiti'.


On this palette Merytaten bears the title 'Princess', but due to the fact that her name is not written in a cartouche, this implies that she had not married Akhenaten nor Smenkhkare at the time when this palette was made. If Merytaten was still alive when Tutankhamun died she must of been a widow and if so chosing a gift of a scribe’s palette for him seems a little strange. As this palette was not just a scribe’s ordinary palette but with the six cavities for paint this palette was a painter’s. This was found in the Treasury between the paws of the jackal mounted on a shrine (see below), there is no evidence to show that this position had any special meaning.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 16, 2007, 04:46:47 pm
(http://www.egypten.varberg.dk/billeder/Tutankhamon/t_anubis.jpg)




5. The Scarf tied around the shoulders of the Anubis dog.




(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/anubis.gif)
The Treasury was dominated by a large sled-based pylon made from gilded wood upon which lay a life-sized statue of the black Anubis dog (guardian of the Burial Chamber and of the King’s canopic equipment). Around the dog’s shoulders was wrapped a delicate linen shawl, between the dog’s paws was found the ivory palette inscribed for Meritaten and then covering everything was wrapped a linen shirt on which was found an ink inscription with a docket dated to Akhenaten’s Year 7.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 19, 2007, 05:56:45 pm
(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/scarf.jpg)



Ink docket from the linen shirt which was found wrapped around the shoulders of the Anubis figure:

“Year 7 of the Lord of the Two Lands, Nefer (Kheprurewaenre), who gives life every day”



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 19, 2007, 05:59:36 pm
(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/inscribed.gif)


EVIDENCE OF A CO-REGENCY? Two calcite jars found in Tutankhamun’s tomb originally had two sets of cartouches next to each other - these were very faint, but Carter believed the traces of these cartouches to conceal the names of Amenhotep III and Akhenaten which would then prove that there was a co-regency between these two pharaohs (names of two kings written this way was done when a co-regency existed).


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 19, 2007, 06:02:24 pm
(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/winejar.jpg)



Twenty Six wine vessels found in the tomb carried ink-written hieratic dockets which (in most cases) specified the date of the vintage, beverage type, vineyard and the name of the vintner. From these dockets Howard Carter was able to deduce that 68% of Tutankhamun’s wines came from the ‘Domain of the Aten’, just 5% came from the Amun temples and 27% from Tutankhamun’s own vineyards. Also the length of Tutankhamun’s reign can be verified - no wine is found which is produced later than Year 9.



(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/winelist.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 19, 2007, 06:06:05 pm








                                                      The Canopic Shrine.




As with several items of Tutankhamun’s tomb equipment, many items were probably re-used from the burial of his brother Smenkhkare.In the case of the canopic lids it has been suggested that the lids do not match (very closely) the face of Tutankhamun and therefore must be from his brother’s tomb once more.




(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/canopic1.gif)




The canopic chest made from calcite and then mounted on a wooden sledge, the sealed cords which originally held the lid in position can still be seen.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 19, 2007, 06:09:59 pm






Removal of the lid then reveals four stunning calcite heads, these are the items which perhaps more closely match Smenkhkare than Tutankhamun.



(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/canopic2.jpg)




Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 19, 2007, 06:12:14 pm







Under the lids are then found the canopic coffinettes which held the internal organs of Tutankhamun. The signs that these too belonged to Smenkhkare are easier to find - inscriptions on the gold interior of these coffinettes have been altered from that of Ankhkheprure - most probably Nefernefruaten (Smenkhkare) to that of Tutankankhamun.



(http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/coffinetes.gif)




Each coffin held one of either - the liver, stomach (or spleen), lungs and intestines.


http://www.geocities.com/athens/forum/3404/objects.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 03:26:53 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag03012001/malkata.jpg)







                                     P A L A C E   O F   T H E   S U N   K I N G





by Dr. Joann Fletcher

Although the ancient Egyptians are best known for the monumental tombs and temples they built profusely, far less is known about the actual homes in which they lived their lives.

This is mainly due to the fact that they built their housing close to the banks of the river Nile, whereas their tombs and temples were situated away from the limited arable land on the desert edge. And since these temples and tombs were regarded as houses of eternity, designed to last 'millions of years', they were built from hard stone, in contrast to the houses of the living which were made of easily available mud brick. This was even true of royal palaces, a fact which early scholars had some difficulty accepting , choosing instead to imagine the ancient Egyptian kings inhabiting the interiors of the temples themselves! However, we now know that this was simply not the case; the pharaohs lived in mud-brick structures just like the rest of the population, albeit on a far grander scale.

Given that mud brick buildings erected close to a river tend not to survive as long as stone monuments in the desert, there is inevitably more evidence for funerary practices than daily life. This has therefore created the mistaken idea that the ancient Egyptians were a morbid race obsessed by religion and death, and yet nothing could be further from the truth. The Egyptians loved life so much they simply wanted it to continue forever, going to great lengths to ensure an afterlife, that would last eternally. And the same vitality used in decorating their tombs and temples can also be found in their choice of domestic architecture.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 03:31:35 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag03012001/valleyvillage.jpg)
Deir el-Medina








Although settlement sites are relatively rare, the exceptions to the rule are those built for various reasons away from the river area, such as the town of Deir el-Medina (opposite modern Luxor, ancient Thebes), home to those who built the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings, and again further north at Amarna where the so-called 'heretic' pharaoh Akhenaten, chose to relocate the royal capital on a desert plain, together with his royal palace complex.

But this was a move which was first encountered in the reign of Akhenaten's father, Amenhotep III (c.1391-1354 BC), who moved his court permanently to Thebes in his regnal year 29 (c.1363 BC). The site of his palace was in ancient times called 'the Palace of the Dazzling Aten', one of Amenhotep's epithets (also made famous by his son), but is today better known by its Arabic name of 'Malkata', meaning 'the place where things are picked up' after the piles of ancient debris which still litter this wonderful site.

Situated on the Theban West Bank beneath the western hills into which the sun sank down each evening, and directly opposite his temple of Luxor, it was Amenhotep's Theban base throughout most of his reign. It appears building work began around year 11 (1381 BC) and continued until the king moved here permanently around year 29. This was in contrast to previous rulers who were based at the traditional capital Memphis in the north, and only came south to Thebes for the annual religious festivals, where they set up temporary court in palace buildings attached to Karnak temple. Amenhotep's construction of an independent palace, not only at the other end of the city but on the opposite bank of the river could in fact be viewed as the king distancing himself yet further from the politically active priesthood of Amun based at Karnak temple, a move which was taken even further by his son Akhenaten who created his new capital way downstream in Middle Egypt.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 03:34:19 pm







Following the discovery of Malkata in 1888, subsequent excavations have revealed a massive site sprawling over 30 hectares which was still being added to and embellished at the time of Amenhotep's death. Its main areas are the king's own apartments in the south-east section, with its audience chambers, festival hall, offices, kitchens and storerooms. Then to the south are the apartments of the king's Great Royal Wife Tiy and those of their eldest daughter Sitamen to the north, with quarters for the rest of the royal family, minor wives and their retinues of literally hundreds of female attendants. There were also residences for the king's high officials, the vizier, chancellor and steward, and of course all the servants they, too, required.

Malkata also housed an administrative sector referred to as the 'West Villas', the royal workshops with the workers' village to the south, then to the north a large settlement which acted as a support town to the palace and past which ran the causeway connecting the palace to the king's funerary temple which once stood behind the so-called Colossi of Memnon, one and a half kilometers away. This causeway also extended over 2 km southeast out into the desert to Kom el-Samak, the site of a brightly painted mud-brick platform for the king's jubilee (sed) festivals, set with 20 steps decorated with figures of Egypt's enemies on which the king would ceremonially tread on ritual occasions. A further two kilometers west of this lay a similar monument at Kom el-Abd, together with a royal rest house and its associated buildings.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 03:35:33 pm







The palace also had its own temple of the state god Amun complete with a large court and a processional way linking it to an enormous T-shaped harbor (now known as the 'Birket Habu'). Once fronting the palace which it reflected in its waters to great dramatic effect, this two and a half-kilometer wide harbor was skillfully built to link the royal residence to the Nile, and as well as dealing with the heavy flow of commercial and administrative water-borne traffic, it housed the great golden barge called "The Dazzling Aten" on which the royal couple sailed forth during religious and state festivals, in the same way the statues of the gods were transported. The harbour also meant it was possible for the king to reach Karnak and Luxor temples on the opposite bank of the river, or indeed anywhere else in his kingdom, without the need of traveling by land - a water-borne god in his golden barque, reenacting Ra's journey in his boat across the heavens.

The whole palace complex was built largely from the standard mud-bricks, stamped with the king's names, whereas those used for Queen Tiy's apartments to the south were also stamped with her name. Door and window frames were augmented in more durable limestone, sandstone and wood, with wood also used for shelving and stone for column bases, steps, drainage systems and bathrooms. Indeed, the general level of luxury is indicated by the presence of well tended walled gardens with a central pool, and en-suite bathroom facilities inside.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 03:36:31 pm







The brick walls were then plastered and whilst the exteriors were painted white, the interiors were painted in vivid colors. From the thousands of fragments of painted plaster littering the site it is possible to reconstruct much of the original décor, which featured naturalistic scenes of animals and plants, interspersed with figures of the gods and amuletic devices, all enhanced with gilded and glazed tiles and inlays.

Today the best preserved sections of the palace are the audience chambers leading to the king's own private apartments, their thicker walls probably supporting an upper story. These audience chambers, one 100 feet long, had tiled and painted floors featuring repeated series of bound captives who would be symbolically trampled underfoot by anyone crossing the floor, and the steps leading up to the dais supporting pharaoh's throne similarly decorated. The tiles which once adorned the later throne room of Ramesses III in the small palace attached to his funerary temple of Medinet Habu (and the site of so many of Amenhotep III's usurped monuments) give an idea of Malkata's original brilliance, as does Ramesses' own throne room of mud brick reinforced with stone column bases and throne dais.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 03:37:22 pm







The red, blue and yellow ceiling of Amenhotep's robing room was originally decorated with a series of S-spirals and stylized bulls heads, possibly Greek-inspired, whilst leaping red and white calves, birds in flight and lush floral motifs adorned the nearby 'harem', the private suites of the king's close family and royal women, which flanked the columned hall preceding the throne room. This naturalistic motif was also used on the floors of the hall, painted to represent the banks of the river filled with fish whilst birds flew out from the banks. The ceiling of another room was painted with vines, whilst walls, doorways, windows and balconies were decorated with brightly colored glazed tiles of flowers, grapes, birds and fish, spirals and feathers, amuletic symbols of good luck, health and protection together with the ever-present name of Nebmaatre written in gold "Horus, strong bull appearing in Thebes, perfect god, lord of joy, lord of crowns".

The colorful interiors of the palace would have been further enhanced by the addition of superbly crafted furniture, surpassing that from the tomb of Amenhotep's in-laws Yuya and Tuya and at the very least comparable with that found in the tomb of his own grandson Tutankhamen: ornamental beds inlaid with ebony and gold, with lions paw feet and linen sheets, gilded and inlaid chairs, cross-legged stools made of imitation animal hide, large feather-stuffed cushions, fringed wall hangings, jewel caskets, wig boxes, cosmetic chests, game boards, candlesticks, flower vases, gold and silver tableware, vessels of alabaster, glass, faience and pottery. Pottery from the reign is often superb, its graceful forms painted or molded with plant and animal motifs, lotus, papyrus, grapes, calves, ibex, birds and fish, together with female figures and the great favorite Hathor, goddess of beauty and joy, or her companion figure Bes.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 03:38:33 pm







Some of the rooms had built-in wood-topped shelves for the storage of smaller portable items, although most things were stored in chests or caskets. The original interiors, complete with their ornaments, linens and similarly decorated inhabitants can only be imagined, although the variety of small personal items found at the site does help bring its ancient inhabitants back to life, their rings, bracelets and necklaces, favorite amulets, cosmetic spoons, kohl tubes, mirror handles, tweezers, and perfume bottles and gaming pieces all found here. Small faience bookplates dating from the reign and bearing the names of the king and queen may even indicate that the king had his own library at Malkata, a 'per medjat' ('house of books') such as those found in the temples.

Designed for attachment to chests containing specific texts, the labels would indicate that horticulture was a subject of some interest, one inscribed "the book of the moringa tree and another "the book of the pomegranate tree", an important reference to the use of ornamental flowers and plants as an integral part of the king's building schemes also found in texts on the great stela from his funerary temple. Writing equipment and scarab seals have also been found, with hundreds of clay sealings from rolls of official papyri discovered in one of the administrative 'West villas'.

Living close to the palace in their own village to the south, the craftsmen of the royal workshops worked directly under the king's instructions. Supervised by 'the Great chamberlain in the Great House', they produced a dazzling array of superb furniture and household items of exquisite taste. Intended both for home consumption and export abroad, they have been found as far afield as Babylon and Mycenae.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 03:39:37 pm





The level of cosmopolitan sophistication indicated by the free-flow of gifts and ideas between the monarchs of the ancient world is documented in an archive of diplomatic correspondence known as the 'Amarna letters'. In one example, Amenhotep III writes to Kadashman-Enlil, the king of Babylon, saying: - "I have just heard that you have built a new palace, and so I am sending you furnishings for it. Indeed, I shall be preparing everything possible before the arrival of your messenger who is bringing your daughter for me to marry, and when your messenger returns, I will send the furniture to you. So I now send you a greeting gift of things for your new house: a bed of ebony overlaid with ivory and gold; 3 beds of ebony overlaid with gold; 1 large chair of ebony overlaid with gold; 9 chairs of ebony overlaid with gold. The weight of the gold on all these things is 7 minas, 9 shekels and the weight of the silver 1 mina, 8 and a half shekels. In addition, I send 10 footrests of ebony, overlaid with gold".

In such letters we finally hear the voice of the king who not only built the splendid palace of Malkata, but also the temple of Luxor, parts of Karnak and the largest of all Egyptian funerary temples which once stretched out behind the Colossi of Memnon, the only part that is still visible today.

Article Submitted by Nemes, The Egyptology Society based in Prestwich, Manchester.  For additional information, Please visit their web site.


http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag03012001/magf4.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 23, 2007, 09:52:35 am
(http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0301/feature4/images/zm_zoomin.4.6.jpg)


Royal Splendor
Photograph by Kenneth Garrett

King Tut took more than 200 magnificently crafted pieces of jewelry to his grave. Many—including these two bracelets of gold and semiprecious stones—display the sacred scarab, a symbol of the rising sun and of the king's resurrection in the afterlife.
 

http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0301/feature4/index.html?fs=www3.nationalgeographic.com&fs=plasma.nationalgeographic.com


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 23, 2007, 09:54:55 am
(http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0301/feature4/images/zm_zoomin.4.5.jpg)


King Tut's Cache
Photograph by Kenneth Garrett

Precious in its own right, a small ivory jewel box bears the name of King Tutankhamun beneath the knob on its front panel. When British archaeologist Howard Carter found King Tut's tomb in 1922, the box was empty—its contents had probably been looted in antiquity—but an inked line on the lid says it once held some of the young ruler's rings.


http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0301/feature4/index.html?fs=www3.nationalgeographic.com&fs=plasma.nationalgeographic.com


THIS ITEM AND THE JEWELLERY WERE TWO OF THE 'FORGOTTEN' ITEMS THAT WERE RECENTLY

FOUND. 


SEE STORY BELOW BY THE 'NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC' MAGAZINE


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 23, 2007, 05:01:38 pm
(http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0301/feature4/images/ft_hdr.4.jpg)






 
 

   
By Zahi Hawass
Photographs by Kenneth Garrett



They've opened the vaults. An exclusive look at Cairo's Egyptian Museum centennial exhibit includes stunning antiquities on display for the first time ever.
 



The brilliance of ancient Egypt, as revealed by excavations in the 1800s, filled the Egyptian Museum at its opening on November 15, 1902. Since then, legendary archaeologists have uncovered many times more riches—grand statues, mysterious mummies, and Tutankhamun's gold. Much of this made its way to museum galleries, but much also vanished into the obscurity of dim storerooms before ever being studied or displayed. This past summer I launched a search of the entire Egyptian Museum as well as storage sites around the country to find material for an unprecedented exhibit, which opened last month. The result, including works never seen by modern scholars, is a dazzling tribute to one of the world's great civilizations.

At the height of summer's heat, with the museum's centennial only months away, my exhibit team hit the road in high gear. Racing across Egypt in two weeks, they selected hidden gems that span 3,000 years, from the earliest kings to Greco-Roman times. Meanwhile, workmen rushed to transform a corner of the museum's basement into exhibit space. What was once a rarely entered maze of dusty, airless passages packed with crates became the setting for an adventure into Egypt's glorious past.

As I oversaw all this, I couldn't help but recall that a statue had temporarily disappeared in the turmoil of bringing objects to the museum in 1902. Today, tight security prevents such mishaps. Before entering each excavation storeroom, my exhibit team had to cut away lead seals stamped with the name of the last official in charge. Once selected, objects rode crated or wrapped in foam in armed convoys of trucks, which sped along highways and wove through Cairo traffic to reach the museum's guarded back entrance. Curators then unpacked everything in the basement and prepared each piece for its starring role.

The people who created these artifacts are long gone, their tombs buried in the sand, their names lost. But our museum will keep their legacy alive in a new millennium.


http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0301/feature4/index.html?fs=www3.nationalgeographic.com&fs=plasma.nationalgeographic.com


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on September 25, 2007, 07:09:35 am
(http://www.crystalinks.com/tutstomb2.jpg)







                                Baskets, pots found abandoned in Tutankhamun tomb





Mon 24 Sep 2007, 10:29 GMT

CAIRO, Sept 24 (Reuters) - Egyptian archaeologists working in the tomb of the boy pharaoh Tutankhamun have found baskets and intact clay pots apparently overlooked when the tomb was cleared out in the 1920s, the government said on Monday.

The 20 clay pots, sealed with Tutankhamun's name, probably contain seeds and the remains of drinks, a government statement said, quoting chief government archaeologist Zahi Hawass.

One of the baskets contains dried fruit and eight others hold almost 60 small limestone plaques also inscribed with Tutankhamun's name in the traditional cartouche format.

They were found in the treasure room next to the burial chamber where British archaeologist Howard Carter found Tutankhamun's mummy wrapped in its golden covers in 1922.

"Carter didn't mention these things in his report but it looks as though his people put them aside and left them in the treasury room," an official at the Supreme Council for Antiquities said, asking not to be named.

Tutankhamun ruled Egypt between about 1361 and 1352 BC. He was buried along with many other pharaohs of the period in the Valley of the Kings near the modern town of Luxor.


http://africa.reuters.com/wire/news/usnL24428432.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 01, 2007, 09:52:10 am








                                                Tut's gem hints at space impact





From: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5196362.stm
July 19, 2006



(http://www.meta-religion.com/Archaeology/images/Africa/tuts_gem_hints.jpg)
Thing of beauty: Tutankhamun's Pectoral with desert glass scarab



In 1996 in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Italian mineralogist Vincenzo de Michele spotted an unusual yellow-green gem in the middle of one of Tutankhamun's necklaces.

The jewel was tested and found to be glass, but intriguingly it is older than the earliest Egyptian civilisation.

Working with Egyptian geologist Aly Barakat, they traced its origins to unexplained chunks of glass found scattered in the sand in a remote region of the Sahara Desert.

But the glass is itself a scientific enigma. How did it get to be there and who or what made it?

BBC Horizon programme reports an extraordinary new theory linking Tutankhamun's gem with a meteor.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 01, 2007, 09:54:47 am







Sky of fire



An Austrian astrochemist Christian Koeberl had established that the glass had been formed at a temperature so hot that there could be only one known cause: a meteorite impacting with Earth. And yet there were no signs of an impact crater, even in satellite images.

American geophysicist John Wasson is another scientist interested in the origins of the glass. He suggested a solution that came directly from the forests of Siberia.

"When the thought came to me that it required a hot sky, I thought immediately of the Tunguska event," he tells Horizon.

In 1908, a massive explosion flattened 80 million trees in Tunguska, Siberia.

Although there was no sign of a meteorite impact, scientists now think an extraterrestrial object of some kind must have exploded above Tunguska. Wasson wondered if a similar aerial burst could have produced enough heat to turn the ground to glass in the Egyptian desert.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 01, 2007, 09:56:19 am








Jupiter clue

 

The first atomic bomb detonation, at the Trinity site in New Mexico in 1945, created a thin layer of glass on the sand. But the area of glass in the Egyptian desert is vastly bigger.

Whatever happened in Egypt must have been much more powerful than an atomic bomb.


(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41907000/jpg/_41907770_desert_bbc_203.jpg.jpg) 
Boslough's specialism is
modelling large impacts


Impact simulation 

A natural airburst of that magnitude was unheard of until, in 1994, scientists watched as comet Shoemaker-Levy collided with Jupiter. It exploded in the Jovian atmosphere, and the Hubble telescope recorded the largest incandescent fireball ever witnessed rising over Jupiter's horizon.

Mark Boslough, who specialises in modelling large impacts on supercomputers, created a simulation of a similar impact on Earth.

The simulation revealed that an impactor could indeed generate a blistering atmospheric fireball, creating surface temperatures of 1,800C, and leaving behind a field of glass.

"What I want to emphasise is that it is hugely bigger in energy than the atomic tests," said Boslough. "Ten thousand times more powerful."


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 01, 2007, 10:00:33 am






Defence lessons



The more fragile the incoming object, the more likely these airborne explosions are to happen.

In Southeast Asia, John Wasson has unearthed the remains of an event 800,000 years ago that was even more powerful and damaging than the one in the Egyptian desert; one which produced multiple fireballs and left glass over three hundred thousand square miles, with no sign of a crater.

"Within this region, certainly all of the humans would have been killed. There would be no hope for anything to survive," he said.



(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41907000/jpg/_41907774_hand_bbc_203.jpg.jpg)
Barakat holds up one of the many,
huge chunks of glass in the desert



According to Boslough and Wasson, events similar to Tunguska could happen as frequently as every 100 years, and the effect of even a small airburst would be comparable to many Hiroshima bombs.

Attempting to blow up an incoming asteroid, Hollywood style, could well make things worse by increasing the number of devastating airbursts.

"There are hundreds of times more of these smaller asteroids than there are the big ones the astronomers track," said Mark Boslough. "There will be another impact on the earth. It's just a matter of when."



Horizon: Tutunkhamun's Fireball, made by production company TV6, was broadcast on BBC Two.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5196362.stm




THERE IS MORE ON THIS SUBJECT HERE:


http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php/topic,1929.0.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 03, 2007, 08:23:03 pm
(http://access.nscpcdn.com/cp/fte/kingtutwine/i/kingtutwine135.jpg)






Incredible Find in King Tut's Tomb

The first evidence of white wine has been found in Egypt--in the tomb of King Tutankhamen, which was sealed in 1322 B.C. What makes this discovery particularly remarkable is the color of the wine.

USA Today reports that wine drinking was relatively common among the Egyptian royal family and the upper classes. It was also thought to be an essential necessity for a good afterlife, which explains why it was found in the tomb. But this is the first time archaeologists have found white wine. Until now, all the dried remnants of wine found inside clay amphora in tombs have been red.

Red wine had a special meaning when it was placed in a tomb, symbolizing the rebirth of the dead and the blood of the god Osiris. Naturally, there was red wine in King Tut's tomb. Lead study author Maria Rosa Guasch-Jane of Spain's University of Barcelona said that previously there were two amphorae in his tomb that yielded traces of red wines, which was called "irp" to the ancient Egyptians. One of these contained the high-quality "shedeh" wine.

The wine amphorae--26 in all--found in King Tut's tomb are among the many elaborate grave goods unearthed in 1922 by archaeologist Howard Carter. Of these, 12 were intact even though the seals had been broken. Each one contained information about the wine inside, including the name, year, vineyard and vintner--but not the color.

The Spanish team examined the containers, which are kept at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and found six more that contain dried remnants of wine. Using an intensive chemical analysis, they looked for two markers of red wine: tartaric acid and syringic acid. Of the remaining six jars, five contained white wine, reports USA Today. "This may indicate that white wine was highly valued in Egypt since only the best products were offered for the afterlife of the Pharaoh," the authors wrote in the study, which was published in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

Interestingly, the first reference to white wine in Egypt comes more than a thousand years later by the Greek Athenaeus, who lived from 170 to 230 AD and praised wine from a region near Alexandria as white, pleasant, fragrant and "not likely to go to the head," among other qualities, notes USA Today.


http://channels.isp.netscape.com/news/package.jsp?name=fte/kingtutwine/kingtutwine&floc=NI-ntk5


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 05, 2007, 07:28:04 am
(http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/burial/mummy_b.jpg)







                                Egypt to put Tutankhamun mummy on display in tomb





Tue 2 Oct 2007, 16:26 GMT
 
[-] Text
By Cynthia Johnston

CAIRO, Oct 2 (Reuters Life!) - Egypt will put the mummy of the boy pharaoh Tutankhamun on display next month inside his tomb in Luxor's Valley of the Kings, allowing visitors to see his face for the first time, Egypt's chief archaeologist said on Tuesday.

Zahi Hawass, head of the High Council for Antiquities, said he would place the mummy in a climate-controlled glass showcase in the tomb and cover the body with linen. Tutankhamun's bare face would be visible.

"You will enter the tomb and see for the first time the face of Tutankhamun ... This is the first time in history that anyone will see the mummy (in public). This will continue the magic of Tutankhamun," Hawass told Reuters in an interview.

Tutankhamun, who died on the cusp of adulthood, ruled Egypt between about 1361 and 1352 BC. The 1922 discovery of his intact tomb, whose treasures included a now famous gold funerary mask, stunned the archaeological community.

Although the artefacts from Tutankhamun's burial tomb have toured the world, the mummified body of the king has been examined only a handful of times in detail since the tomb was discovered by British archaeologist Howard Carter.

Hawass said Tutankhamun's mummy was currently resting in a sarcophagus inside the tomb covered by a gilded coffin, but that the humidity caused by the breathing of thousands of visitors threatened to damage it.

"I thought that this will help tourists and at the same time help preserving the mummy. I think a mummy like this, the golden boy, it is time that people should really see it," he said.

Tutankhamun came to the throne shortly after the death of Akhenaten, the maverick pharaoh who abandoned most of Egypt's old gods in favour of the Aten sun disc and brought in a new and more expressive style of art.


NO DATE SET YET

During Tutankhamun's reign, advocates of the old religion were regaining control of the country and turning their backs on Akhenaten's innovations.

Tutankhamun was buried along with many other pharaohs of the period in the Valley of the Kings near the modern town of Luxor.

Hawass had not yet set a date to display the mummy, but said he expected it to be shortly before a mid-November exhibit on Tutankhamun in London that is to include the pharaoh's royal crown but not the gold mask, which is too delicate to travel.

Hawass described Tutankhamun as having "buck teeth", and pictures of the mummy show a face with high cheekbones and blackened, cracked skin and an intact nose.

Hawass was also planning to shortly open 16 jars from Tutankhamun's tomb that were rediscovered in a storage area in Luxor. The jars were originally found by Carter but were forgotten about over the years.

He said he expected the jars would contain food, grain, beer and wine, items the king would have been expected to need in his afterlife. The jars were part of caches of artefacts whose rediscovery was announced last month.

Mystery has surrounded Tutankhamun ever since 1922. Lord Carnarvon, Carter's sponsor and among the first to enter the tomb, died shortly afterward from an infected mosquito bite.

Newspapers at the time said Carter had unleashed a pharaonic curse that killed Carnarvon and others linked to the discovery. Scientists have in the past suggested that a disease lying dormant in the tomb may have killed the British aristocrat.

© Reuters 2007. All Rights Reserved.  |  Learn more about Reuters

http://africa.reuters.com/wire/news/usnL0215656.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 08, 2007, 04:09:38 pm
(http://www.egyptvoyager.com/pics/tutankhamun_image5.jpg)
CUFF BRACELET






All the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings were robbed except that of Tutankhamun, which is the

only one to have been discovered intact. Because he died at an early age, nineteen, his tomb might

have been passed over as not containing enough treasures for the tomb robbers to bother with. In

spite of other new discoveries, King Tut will always remain a symbol of Egypt's ancient civilisation in

the eyes of the world.

(http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/S_Peterson/earrings.jpg)
 TUT'S EARRINGS


(http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/S_Peterson/scarab2.jpg)
AND SCARAB RING


http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/news/news7.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 26, 2007, 08:53:18 am
(http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/places/images/ga/egypt_king-tut-tomb.jpg)




The famous treasures of Tutankhamen's tomb have been exhibited around
the world. But the walls of the boy king's burial chamber remain as they
were painted at the time of his death.

Photograph by Nancy Gupton


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 26, 2007, 09:08:05 am
(http://images.google.com/url?q=http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/ramesses/tut_tomb.jpg&usg=AFQjCNE5ith6RTT6CMKBQzChv1TAahrNQA)








In Tutankhamun's burial chamber, an extraordinary painting shows Ay, wearing the Blue Crown of Kingship, officiating at the young man's funeral. By burying the king, he was acting as Horus for his father, Osiris, and establishing a claim to the throne. How had he been able to position himself as heir?

Ay had been the Commander of all the Horses of his Majesty during Akhenaten's reign. Keith C. Seele has suggested this title could be interpreted as "General of the Royal Chariotry," a commander of combat forces. As such, Ay may have been personally familiar with the state of affairs in the Levant. He had also been True Scribe of the King, something like a personal secretary to the ruler. The title Ay used most often, and which became part of his name as king, was It-Netjer (God's Father). Some scholars have suggested on the basis of this title that he was Akhenaten's father-in-law, father of Nefertiti. However, as his only known wife and later queen, Tiy, was “Nurse of the Great King's Wife, Nefertiti,” not mother, he may have been the queen's foster-father. These and other titles show that Ay was a central figure during the Amarna period, though there is little evidence for him at the seat of government during Akhenaten's last eight years. This would make sense if he had been commanding some of the Egyptian forces in Syria during these years, and /or had wanted to distance himself from the more extreme manifestations of the king's religious revolution. Either during these later years of Akhenaten, or during the reign of Tutankhamun, Ay assumed the title of Vizier, and the epithet, "Doer of Right." But Ay's close connections with the Amarna family had tainted him politically. It was not he, but Horemheb, who held the reigns of power during the boy's minority. Did the two men work together? Were they rivals, even enemies? It has been suggested that Horemheb's wife, Mutnodjmet, was Ay's daughter. As King, however, Ay named another man, Nakht-Min, as heir-apparent. General Nakht-min may have been Ay's own son, but predeceased the old king. Four years after Ay's coup, Horemheb finally succeeded to the kingship.

Later generations included Ay in the general obliteration of the Amarna period from Egypt's official history. But Horemheb and Pa-ramessu would be remembered as the kings who restored Maat, who brought truth and justice back to Egypt. For hundreds of years prayers were addressed to Horemheb and Ramesses I.


http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/ramesses/ramesses-text-02.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 26, 2007, 09:16:47 am
(http://www.eriding.net/media/photos/history/egypt/050216_rfoster_mp_his_egypt0044.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 26, 2007, 09:18:12 am
(http://www.eriding.net/media/photos/history/egypt/050216_rfoster_mp_his_egypt0046.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 29, 2007, 09:46:04 am
                                       (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/images/tut_painted_chest.jpg)





                  A 3,000-year-old mystery is finally solved: Tutankhamun died in a hunting accident





By Steve Connor, Science Editor
Published: 22 October 2007

The mystery behind the sudden death of Tutankhamun, the boy king who ruled Egypt more than 3,000 years ago, has been finally solved by scientists who believe that he fell from a fast-moving chariot while out hunting in the desert.

Speculation surrounding Tutankhamun's death has been rife since his tomb was broken into in 1922 by archaeologist Howard Carter. X-rays of the mummy taken in 1968 indicated a swelling at the base of the skull, suggesting "King Tut" was killed by a blow to the head.

More recent studies using a CT medical scanner, however, revealed he suffered a badly broken leg, just above his knee just before he died. That in turn probably led to lethal blood poisoning. Now further evidence has come to light suggesting that he suffered the fracture while hunting game from a chariot.

The new findings are still circumstantial but one of Egypt's leading experts on Tutankhamun will say in a television documentary to be screened this week that he believes the case is now solved on how the boy king met his sudden and unexpected end.

"He was not murdered as many people thought. He had an accident when he was hunting in the desert. Falling from a chariot made this fracture in his left leg and this really is in my opinion how he died," said Zahi Hawass, general secretary of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities.

Until now, many historians had assumed that he was treated as a rather fragile child who was cosseted and protected from physical danger. However, Nadia Lokma of the Cairo Museum said that a recent analysis of the chariots found in the tombs of the pharaohs indicated that they were not merely ceremonial but show signs of wear and tear. Hundreds of arrows recovered from the tomb also show evidence of having been fired and recovered. "These chariots are hunting chariots, not war chariots. You can see from the wear on them that they were actually used in life," Dr Lokma said.

A cache of clothing found in Tutankhamun's tomb, which was stored in the vaults of the Cairo Museum, suggest that he was accustomed to riding these chariots himself. They include a specially-adapted corset which would have protected the wearer's abdominal organs from any damage from an accident or the heavy jostling of a chariot ride.

A final piece of evidence comes from a garland of flowers placed around the neck of Tutankhamun's mummy. Botanists found it included cornflowers and mayweed that were fresh at the time the decoration was made.

"The cornflower and mayweed on the garland around the mummy were in flower in March and April, which tells us the time of year he was buried," said Nigel Hepper of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kew Gardens.

Because the flowers could have been collected only between the middle of March and the end of April, and as the complex process of mummification lasted 70 days, this meant Tutankhamun probably died in December or January. That timing coincided with the middle of the winter hunting season.

The results of the latest research into Tutankhamun, which are to feature in a Channel Five documentary tomorrow evening, come just a few weeks before Britain hosts the first exhibition of his tomb's artefacts in 35 years at The O2 centre, formerly the Millennium Dome, in south-east London.

When the first Tutankhamun exhibition in London was held at the British Museum in 1972, some 1.5 million people made the pilgrimage to see his fabulous solid-gold facemask. This time, however, the mask will remain in Egypt because of fears it might not withstand the trip.

The present-day Lord Carnarvon, whose ancestor paid for Howard Carter's 1922 expedition, said the latest findings indicated that Tutankhamun was an active young man who took risks with his life.



"I thought he was an over-cosseted child, but I think he was really out there in the field and taking

part in things towards the end of his short life," Lord Carnarvon said. "His chariots could have reached

considerable speeds, up to 25mph. If a chariot turns over at that speed, you could easily break your leg

very seriously."


http://news.independent.co.uk/world/africa/article3084330.ece


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 29, 2007, 09:59:32 am






                                               T U T A N K H A M U N   A S   P H A R A O H






Tutankhamun’s Military Role


Tutankhamun was the last of a line founded by warrior pharaohs. The empire built by his forefathers had enjoyed stability and relative peace for many years. But during Akhenaten’s time, the situation in the Near East changed dramatically.




Egypt’s Enemies


The Hittites, one of the six great kingdoms of the ancient Near East, managed to take Egypt’s northernmost territories during Akhenaten’s time. Wall scenes in the tomb of General Horemheb hint at military conflict during the reign of Tutankhamun, with the three principal enemies indicated as the Nubians, the Hittites, and the Libyans.




Tut as Head of the Army


To resolve these problems, the pharaoh traditionally would have led the army in battle, but scholars disagree about whether Tutankhamun himself marched or if Horemheb went in his stead.

Some scholars have suggested that perhaps Tutankhamun was not physically strong enough to perform his duties. He was buried with 130 walking sticks and staffs of various sorts, some ritual and some clearly used in life. He is also shown sitting while engaged in activities such as hunting, where normally he should be standing.

However, fragmentary battle scenes from Thebes suggest that the young king did in fact lead the Egyptian troops into at least one major confrontation.




A Warrior’s Training


Whether or not Tutankhamun actually went into battle, he was trained from youth to be a warrior. Six chariots were found in his tomb, at least one of which was a lightweight training or hunting vehicle. A pharaoh’s weapon of choice was the bow, and Tutankhamun was buried with almost fifty bows of various types and sizes, many of them showing signs of use.

Whatever the reality of Tutankhamun’s experience in battle, clearly the message portrayed repeatedly on all tomb objects was that the king was victorious over all enemies—an essential part of the royal propaganda.


http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/story_pharaoh3.asp


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 29, 2007, 10:03:27 am
(http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/photos/KTS1.jpg)





(http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/page_images/timeline1.gif)





 

Before Tut’s Reign



By the time Tutankhamun was born, Egypt had been a superpower for almost two centuries. The nation itself had been formed about 1,600 years earlier, and the great pyramids at Giza were already ancient edifices more than one thousand years old. King Tutankhamun had indeed inherited a mighty country, rich in resources, power, and history.




Understanding Egyptian History


Modern scholars divide the history of Egypt into periods and dynasties—families of monarchs that ruled and reshaped Egypt. These monarchs would eventually become known by the ancient Egyptian term pharaoh, which literally meant 'Great House,' in reference to the king’s palace.

Some pharaohs were skilled generals; some were religious philosophers; and some were great empire builders. Many left behind the fantastic monuments for which Egypt is famous. But, while the modern world may know of their accomplishments, few people remember the names of these important rulers.

Instead, it is the name of Tutankhamun, a short-lived king, which conjures up the image of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh today. He may have ruled for only about a decade at the end of the 18th Dynasty, but because his tomb survived the millennia and provided thousands of marvels of his culture, we think of Tutankhamun as Egypt's most famous pharaoh.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on October 31, 2007, 11:30:57 am
(http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/photos/KTS5.jpg)

Royal Crook and Flail



Gold; copper alloy; glass; wood; carnelian

Length 42.9 cm (16.9 in); diameter 2.1 cm (.8 in)

18th Dynasty, reign of Tutankhamun

Thebes, Valley of the Kings

Tomb of Tutankhamun (KV 62)
Carter 269e

By Tutankhamun’s reign, the crook and flail had been emblems of kingship for thousands of years. He may have carried these symbols during important rituals, perhaps even during his coronation.
 





                                                           Tut as Pharaoh



Tutankhamun began life with the name Tutankhaten (“Living Image of the Aten”). Most likely the son of the heretic King Akhenaten and his lesser wife Kiya, the young prince would have grown up at Akhetaten, the controversial new capital city.

Near the time of his father’s death, Tutankhaten married Ankhsenpaaten—probably his half-sister and the daughter of Akhenaten by Nefertiti, the famous beauty and chief wife.

Tutankhamun’s Early Reign
Sometime soon after Akhenaten’s passing, the ten-year-old Tutankhaten ascended the throne of Egypt. His coronation would have been a grand affair, full of pomp and pageantry.

One of Tutankhaten’s first actions as pharaoh was to move away from the Amarna religion, because his father's belief in one god, the Aten, had proved to be quite unpopular with the people.




Restoring Traditional Beliefs


Tutankhaten quickly re-established the orthodox belief in the pantheon of the gods and reopened their temples. By his second year, King Tutankhaten and his queen had changed their names to Tutankhamun and Ankhsenamun.

Although they did not abandon Amarna completely, members of the royal family re-established the old capitals and now spent most of their time at the traditional administrative center of Memphis.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 01, 2007, 07:59:16 am
(http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/photos/KTS13.jpg)
THE GODDESS MAAT

This scene from a funerary papyrus shows two figures of the goddess Maat, her
head surmounted by her name in the form of an ostrich plume.

Sometimes the concept of maat is represented simply as an ostrich plume alone.

© Kenneth Garrett, National Geographic Society 2005.
 







                                                    Religion in Tut’s Time



Religion in ancient Egypt was more than a belief system—it was a way of life, permeating every aspect of existence. The fundamental principle governing this system was maat, an abstract concept often translated as truth or justice and represented by the goddess Maat.. More accurately, maat represented the way the world was supposed to be.

To maintain maat—order in the universe—the living constantly had to pacify the many deities and spirits in the afterworld. This system of beliefs persisted for thousands of years until Akhenaten (probably Tutankhamun’s father) introduced the concept of the one god Aten and did away with the pantheon of gods.

After his father’s death, it then fell upon Tutankhamun to reinstate the old gods and restore order to Egypt…and the universe.



Traditional Religion

In traditional Egyptian belief, the pantheon was composed of many gods and goddesses, such as Osiris, Re, Ptah, and Amun. Often they were arranged in family groups of three consisting of father, mother, and child. The gods could be represented in art as human, animal, or a combination of the two. Each was linked to one or more sites where enormous temples were erected to house their images.



The Pharaoh’s Role in Traditional Religion

Considered semi-divine, the pharaoh was an intermediary between mortals and gods during his lifetime. He was responsible for the establishment and maintenance of maat and stood against the powers of chaos that threatened Egypt’s stability.

In theory, the pharaoh was the high priest in every temple, although in actuality his role was often delegated to priests. But in temple art, it is always the king who is shown performing the cult rituals and thus eternally caring for the gods and goddesses who dwell within.


http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/story_pharaoh3.asp


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 01, 2007, 08:06:39 am
(http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/photos/KTS14.jpg)







Serpent Goddess



Painted sycamore wood

Height 44 cm (17.3 in); length 65 cm (25.6 in)

18th Dynasty, reign of Amenhotep II

Thebes, Valley of the Kings

Tomb of Amenhotep II (KV 35)

CG 24629



This winged serpent with a human head probably represents the goddess Weret-Hekau, meaning “The One Great of Magic.”

Her outspread wings suggest a shielding function. She is another example of a dangerous creature associated with a protective deity.

© Kenneth Garrett, National Geographic Society 2005.


http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/story_pharaoh3.asp


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 01, 2007, 08:19:05 am
(http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/photos/KTS19.jpg)



The River Nile



The winding river, the lush floodplain, and the harsh sands of the low and high deserts form the landscape of Egypt.

Here, modern fishermen ply their trade in the predawn mists of the Delta.

© Kenneth Garrett, National Geographic Society 2005.






                                                      Daily Life in Tut’s World




For both King Tutankhamun and his subjects, life in ancient Egypt centered on the Nile, the longest river in the world. Each year in early summer, heavy rains in the Ethiopian highlands south of Egypt caused the river to flood. When the water receded, fertile soil remained, allowing the Egyptians to plant and then harvest fruit, vegetables, and grains.

This regular and annual flooding cycle, along with the daily cycle of the rising and setting sun, defined the orderly worldview of the ancient Egyptians, structured their calendar and acted as a model for their beliefs about the afterlife.



Egyptian Social Structure

The Egyptians of King Tutankhamun’s world enjoyed a regular, orderly way of life. Scholars often describe their social structure as pyramidal, with the king at the top, supported by his family, the highest rank of officials, and the high priests of major state cults (who were royal appointments.)

Below these were the elite of the court, lower officials, army commanders, and priests of the higher religious orders. Reasonably well-off literate bureaucrats and artisans made up the middle class. Forming the base of the pyramid were the masses of illiterate peasants who tilled the fields, fought the wars, quarried stone, and built the elite’s villas, palaces, and temples.



Women in Egyptian Society

In comparison with much of the ancient world, women enjoyed relatively high status and were able to own property and represent themselves in a court of law. High-status women worked mainly as mistresses of their houses and estates and as musicians serving in the cults of the gods.


http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/story_pharaoh3.asp


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 06:46:23 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/afp/20071104/capt.sge.qtg06.041107123607.photo00.photo.default-512x390.jpg?x=380&y=289&sig=KK7Dg42_E11C8ug_ToxjTg--)








                                              Tutankhamun's 'beautiful' face to be revealed




by Lamia Radi

 LUXOR, Egypt (AFP) - The true face of ancient Egypt's boy king Tutankhamun was on Sunday to be revealed to the public for the first time since he died in mysterious circumstances more than 3,000 years ago.

The pharaoh's mummy was to be moved from its ornate sarcophagus in the tomb where its 1922 discovery caused an international sensation to a nearby climate-controlled case where experts say it will be better preserved.

Tutankhamun's body is entirely wrapped in strips of white linen, except for his face which, until now, has only been seen by a handful of experts.

Made pharaoh at the age of nine, Tutankhamun became famous with the discovery of his tomb and the treasures within by Briton Howard Carter.

His iconic solid gold burial mask weighs 11 kilos (24 pounds), encrusted with lapis lazuli and other semi-precious stones.

The mummy had to be reconstructed after Carter cut it into 18 pieces in order to get access to amulets and other jewellery, said Mustafa Wazery, director of the Valley of the Kings.

"What you will see is a beautiful face," Wazery told journalists ahead of the mummy's displacement. "He's a good loooking boy, with a nice smile and buck teeth."

Every day, hundreds of visitors file through his tomb in the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of the Nile in the southern Egyptian city of Luxor, bringing with them bacteria, humidity and other pollutants into the royal tomb.

"The mummy risked being reduced to dust because of the rising levels of humidity due to the visitors," Egypt's antiquities chief Zahi Hawass said.

"The mummy was already damaged by Howard Carter, who used sharp tools to remove the golden mask," said Culture Minister Faruq Hosni.

He says that Carter damaged the mummy by "exposing it to burning sunshine for many hours" in the desert landscape.

A silicon representation of the face of the legendary pharaoh, who died around 3,300 years ago at the age of just 19, was reconstructed in 2005 through images collected through CAT scans of his mummy.

Egyptian, Swiss and Italian experts also deduced that Tutankhamun died after an injury to his left leg led to rapid gangrene. They rejected a previously popular theory that the king had been killed by a blow to the neck.

When the tomb was discovered, the pharaoh's embalmed body was encased in three sarcophagi, one of which was made from solid gold.

Tutankhamun, the 12th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, reigned for 10 years around 3,300 years ago. Theories that he was assassinated stemmed from the fact that he was the last ruler of his dynasty.

The pharaoh Akhenaton the Heretic was thought to have fathered Tutankhamun but the identity of his mother is not known for sure.

The high priest Ay succeded Tutankhamun for four years -- also marrying his widow Ankhesenpamon --, followed by the military leader Horemheb who ruled for 26 years until he ceded power to Ramses, who founded the 19th dynasty.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 06:55:13 am







                                          Egypt unveils King Tut's mummy to public





By ANNA JOHNSON,
Associated Press Writer
 
LUXOR, Egypt - The linen wrapped mummy of King Tut was put on public display for the first time on Sunday — 85 years after the 3,000-year-old boy pharaoh's golden enshrined tomb and mummy were discovered in Luxor's famed Valley of the Kings.

Archeologists removed the mummy from his stone sarcophagus in his underground tomb, revealing his shriveled leather-like face and body.

"The golden boy has magic and mystery and therefore every person all over the world will see what Egypt is doing to preserve the golden boy, and all of them I am sure will come to see the golden boy," Egypt's antiquities chief Zahi Hawass told reporters under the intense Luxor sun.

Hawass said scientists began restoring King Tut's badly damaged mummy more than two years ago after it was removed briefly from its sarcophagus and placed into a CT scanner for the first time for further examination. Much of the mummy's body is broken into 18 pieces that Hawass described looked like stones that were damaged when British archaeologist Howard Carter discovered the mummy, took it from his tomb and tried to pull off his famous golden mask.

But Hawass said he fears a more recent phenomenon — mass tourism — is further deteriorating Tut's mummy. Thousands of tourists visit the underground chamber every month.

"The humidity and heat caused by ... people entering the tomb and their breathing will change the mummy to a powder. The only good thing (left) in this mummy is the face. We need to preserve the face," said Hawass, who wore his signature Indiana Jones-style tan hat.

The mystery surrounding King Tutankhamun and his glittering gold tomb has entranced ancient Egypt fans since Carter first discovered the hidden tomb on Nov. 4, 1922, revealing a trove of fabulous gold and precious stone treasures.

Archeologists in recent years have tried to resolve lingering questions over how he died and his precise royal lineage. Several books and documentaries dedicated to the young pharaoh, who is believed to have been the 12th ruler of ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty and ascended to the throne around the age of 8, are popular around the world.

In an effort to try to solve the mysteries, scientists removed Tut's mummy from his tomb and placed it into a portable CT scanner for 15 minutes in 2005 to obtain a three-dimensional image. The scans were the first done on an Egyptian mummy.

The results did rule out that Tut was violently murdered — but stopped short of definitively concluding how he died around 1323 B.C. Experts for the time though suggested that days before dying, Tut badly broke his left thigh, apparently in an accident, that may have caused a fatal infection.

The CT scan also provided the most revealing insight yet into the life of ancient Egypt's most famous king. He was well-fed, healthy, yet slightly built, standing at 5 feet, 6 inches tall at the time of his death. The scan also showed he had the typical overbite characteristic of other kings from his family, large incisor teeth and his lower teeth were slightly misaligned.

The unveiling of Tut's mummy comes amid a frenzy of international publicity for the boy king. A highly publicized museum exhibit traveling the globe drew more than 4 million people during the initial four-city American-leg of the tour. The exhibit will open later this month in London and after it will make a three-city encore tour in the U.S. beginning with the Dallas Museum of Art.

The Egyptian tourism industry is hoping to capitalize on that interest and draw tourists to Luxor to see something they couldn't at the museum — Tut's mummy. More than 9 million tourists visited Egypt last year — up from 8.7 million the previous year, the Egyptian Tourist Authority said.

The tourists will begin viewing the mummy Monday, Hawass said. The mummy will remain in the tomb indefinitely — unlike other Egyptian royal mummies, who are displayed in museums.

Canadian tourist Bryan Wadson said he and his wife would try to make it back to the Valley of the Kings for the second time on Monday because they missed the mummy Sunday.

"We're running out of time, but will try," he said after taking a photo with Hawass.

But not every tourist was eager to find out that Tut will be removed from his sarcophagus and put on display.

"I really think he should be left alone in quiet, in peace," said British tourist Bob Philpotts. "This is his resting place, and he should be left (there)."

John Taylor, an assistant keeper at the British Museum's department of ancient Egypt and Sudan, said tourists won't be the only ones to benefit by the display of Tut in a climate controlled case.

"In some ways, it could be advantageous to monitor the condition to see if the mummy is stable," he said by telephone from London.

Hawass said experts will begin another project trying to determine the pharaoh's precise royal lineage. It is unclear if he is the son or a half brother of Akhenaten, the "heretic" pharaoh who introduced a revolutionary form of monotheism to ancient Egypt and was the son of Amenhotep III.

"Everyone is dreaming of what he looks like. The face of Tutankhamun is different from any king in the Cairo museum. With his beautiful buck teeth, the tourists will see a little bit of the smile from the face of the golden boy," Hawass said.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 07:00:07 am








                                                King Tut's face unveiled to world 


 



(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41131000/jpg/_41131943_face_ap_body.jpg) 

Scientists recently came up with this reconstruction of the face
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/44217000/jpg/_44217181_kingtut203.jpg

Inside the tomb 


The face of one of Egypt's most mysterious ancient rulers, the boy king Tutankhamun, has been put on public view for the first time.

Archaeologists took the mummy from its golden sarcophagus and placed it in a climate-controlled case inside his tomb in Luxor's Valley of the Kings.

The event comes exactly 85 years after the site was discovered by British explorer Howard Carter.

Until now, only about 50 people have seen the 3,000-year-old face.

The face remained intact because of the mummification process and will continue to be protected from heat and humidity.

"The golden boy has magic and mystery and therefore every person all over the world will see what Egypt is doing to preserve the golden boy, and all of them I am sure will come to see the golden boy," Egypt's antiquities chief Zahi Hawass told reporters.

Tutankhamun was probably still in his teens when he died. Although he was a fairly minor royal, the treasures that were unearthed have captivated the world and drawn millions to the Valley of the Kings.
(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/44217000/jpg/_44217181_kingtut203.jpg)
Critics say the remains will be put under threat by the heat and the humidity brought into the tomb by the vast crowds.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7077423.stm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 07:05:36 am



 Tuesday, 10 May, 2005, 23:23 GMT 00:23 UK 
  bbc news
 
 




                                              Face of Tutankhamun reconstructed 







(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41131000/jpg/_41131943_face_ap_body.jpg) The French team created this image of the young king
Scientists have carried out the first facial reconstructions of Egypt's most famous ancient king, Tutankhamun.
Three teams of forensic artists - French, Egyptian and American - built separate but similar models of the king's face using scans of his skull.

The French and Egyptians knew who they were recreating, but the Americans were not told where the skull came from.

The models of the boy king, who died 3,300 years ago, reveal a young man with plump cheeks and a round chin.
(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41131000/jpg/_41131801_afp203bodymodel.jpg)
Childhood image

The models bear a striking resemblance to the mask which covered the mummified face of King Tutankhamun when his remains were found by archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922 and other ancient portraits.

"The shape of the face and skull are remarkably similar to a famous image of Tutankhamun as a child where he was shown as the sun god at dawn rising from a lotus blossom," said Zahi Hawass, Secretary-General of the Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities.
(http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41131000/jpg/_41131803_afp203bodywhite.jpg)
The US team were not told where the skull came from 
Using high-resolution photos of the CT scans, the US team correctly identified the skull as coming from a North African.

A CT, or "Cat", scan involves the use X-rays to map the body.

The Egyptian team was able to work directly from the scans, which could distinguish different densities of soft tissue and bone.

"The results of the three teams were identical or very similar in the basic shape of the face, the size, shape and setting of the eyes, and the proportion of the skull," Mr Hawass said.

"The primary differences were in the shape of the end of the nose and ears," he added.

The French and American versions had similar noses and chins, but the Egyptian team gave their reconstruction a stronger nose, the council said.

Murder ruled out

The CT scans - the first ever done on an Egyptian mummy - were carried out in January this year.

 
The models bear a striking resemblance to ancient portraits 
They suggested that the king was a slightly built, but healthy man of 19 when he died, but that he most likely died of complications from a broken leg, rather than being murdered as long suspected.

When the body was x-rayed in 1968, a shard of bone was found in his skull, prompting speculation that he was killed by a blow.

Little is known about Tutankhamun's 10-year rule after he succeeded Akhenaten, who had abandoned Egypt's old gods in favour of monotheism.

Some historians had argued he was killed for attempting to bring back polytheism.

Others believed he was assassinated by Ay, his second in command and the man who succeeded him.

But Mr Hawass said he was confident that Tutankhamun, who died in 1352 BC, was not murdered.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7077423.stm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 09:00:58 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20071104/i/r1025365114.jpg?x=380&y=255&sig=znMVVSLADR78hjH0ectsuQ--)






The stone sarcophagus containing the mummy of King
Tutankhamun is seen in his underground tomb in the
famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor November 4, 2007.
Egypt put the mummy of the boy pharaoh on display in
his tomb in the Valley of the Kings on Sunday, giving
visitors their first chance to see the face of a ruler who
died more than 3,000 years ago.

REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)



(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.22406c98d0f841eaab192b8a00cbdd05.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc105.jpg?x=380&y=244&sig=FXmSO7pIAj_ikcuZdzQCRw--)






Egypt's antiquities chief Dr. Zahi Hawass, center,
supervises the removal of King Tut from his stone
sarcophagus in his underground tomb in the famed
Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday,
Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the 19-year-old pharaoh,
whose life and death has captivated people for nearly
a century, was placed in a climate-controlled glass
box in the tomb, with only the face and feet showing
under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 09:15:45 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20071104/i/r2007383844.jpg?x=380&y=243&sig=qgZb7keGEpZSyXI2ynBjIA--)






AP - Sun Nov 4, 9:33 AM ET Egypt's antiquities chief
Dr. Zahi Hawass, 3rd left, supervises the removal of
the lid of the sarcophagus of King Tut in his under-
ground tomb in the famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor,
Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the
19-year-old pharaoh, whose life and death has captivat-
ed people for nearly a century, was placed in a climate-
controlled glass box in the tomb, with only the face and
feet showing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 09:25:03 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.aab4dfdd04744bd3b8eec0ca36ea40b1.aptopix_egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc101.jpg?x=380&y=251&sig=FAV4y0EY9C3Mzywzrtn3iA--)






Zahi Hawass (C), head of the High Council for Antiquities,
supervises the removal of the linen-wrapped mummy of
King Tutankhamen from his stone sarcophagus in his under
ground tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor November
4, 2007. The mummy of the boy pharaoh, whose life and
death has captivated people for nearly a century, was
placed in a climate-controlled glass showcase in the tomb,
with only the face and feet showing under the linen covering.

REUTERS/Ben Curtis/Pool (EGYPT)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 09:53:28 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.7efcadfc6e4541569982ef6d287dc477.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc103.jpg?x=380&y=252&sig=uHvoZsWQFZ1Z_jMGHvy6_w--)






Egypt's antiquities chief Dr. Zahi Hawass, center, supervises
the removal of the mummy of King Tut from his stone
sarcophagus in his underground tomb in the famed Valley of
the Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy
of the 19-year-old pharaoh, whose life and death has
captivated people for nearly a century, was placed in a climate-
controlled glass box in the tomb, with only the face and feet
showing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 10:08:57 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.f948ecd2c5ed46b8aa815a25ea3d9491.aptopix_egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc104.jpg?x=380&y=243&sig=ei223s5czPeOjdL6W05L1g--)






AP - Sun Nov 4, 10:11 AM ET An archaeological worker looks
across at the face of the linen-wrapped mummy of King Tut as
he is removed from his stone sarcophagus in his underground
tomb in the famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday,
Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the 19-year-old pharaoh, whose
life and death has captivated people for nearly a century, was
 placed in a climate-controlled glass box in the tomb, with only
the face and feet showing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 10:18:49 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20071104/i/r501985024.jpg?x=230&y=345&sig=vQNV8XnL8R4rvXW8ljneAw--)






The feet of the mummy of boy pharaoh King Tutankhamun
is seen in Luxor's Valley of the Kings November 4, 2007,
as it is displayed for the first time in public in a special
climate-controlled glass showcase after it was taken out
of its sarcophagus.

REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 10:24:34 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20071104/i/r2892644734.jpg?x=380&y=262&sig=C_qvP3YZ9K.WQYg7GucOww--)






Reuters - Sun Nov 4, 9:54 AM ET The feet of the mummy
of boy pharaoh King Tutankhamun is seen in Luxor's Valley
of the Kings November 4, 2007, as it is displayed for the
first time in public in a special climate-controlled glass
showcase after it was taken out of its sarcophagus.

REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 10:31:31 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.f8fca4d7063942189eebbe333edd064f.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc108.jpg?x=380&y=240&sig=q91OM.RQHSNUuXaymZZLig--)






The face of the linen-wrapped mummy of King Tut is seen in a
glass case in his underground tomb in the famed Valley of the
 Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of
the 19-year-old pharaoh, whose life and death has captivated
people for nearly a century, was placed in a climate-controlled
glass box in the tomb, with only the face and feet showing
under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 10:35:32 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/afp/20071104/capt.sge.qui69.041107153910.photo00.photo.default-512x362.jpg?x=380&y=268&sig=APan7xaGUc28eyoe.AiBYQ--)






AFP - Sun Nov 4, 10:53 AM ET The face of Pharaoh Tutankhamen
is displayed in a climate-controlled case at his tomb in the Valley
of the Kings, close to Luxor. The true face of ancient Egypt's boy
king Tutankhamun was revealed to the public for the first time since
 he died in mysterious circumstances more than 3,000 years ago.

(AFP/Cris Bouroncle)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 10:37:45 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.fcb3b521ade24ac59235d8fa7337dc3f.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc110.jpg?x=380&y=251&sig=Y1aEu0O.K0w1M_K3js8KQg--)






The face of the linen-wrapped mummy of King Tut is seen in
his new glass case in his underground tomb in the famed Valley
of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy
 of the 19-year-old pharaoh, whose life and death has captivated
people for nearly a century, was placed in a climate-controlled
glass box in the tomb, with only the face and feet showing under
the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 10:45:42 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/nm/20071104/2007_11_04t110746_315x450_us_egypt_tutankhamun.jpg?x=241&y=345&sig=fZxWEKZAkneuLx2T3dVy8w--)






The mummy of the boy pharaoh King Tutankhamun is
displayed for the first time in public in a special climate-
controlled glass showcase after it was taken out of its
sarcophagus in Luxor's Valley of the Kings,
November 4, 2007.

 (Nasser Nuri/Reuters)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 10:49:31 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.619667b30fd548f082e05749f5379a82.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc107.jpg?x=237&y=345&sig=0FSmLRW7s9jjNUCWFaV7zg--)






Egypt's antiquities chief Dr. Zahi
Hawass speaks to the media
over the linen-wrapped mummy of
King Tut in his underground tomb in
the famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor,
Egypt Sunday,
Nov. 4, 2007.

The mummy of the 19-year-old pharaoh,
whose life and death has captivated
people for nearly a century, was placed
in a climate-controlled glass box in the
tomb, with only the face and
feet showing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:03:55 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.a033c19633d849e089d84cb42a788001.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc106.jpg?x=380&y=235&sig=95AIeunEKY09O7blPhcdIA--)






AP - Sun Nov 4, 10:28 AM ET Egypt's antiquities chief Dr. Zahi
Hawass speaks to the media over the linen-wrapped mummy
of King Tut in his underground tomb in the famed Valley of the
Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the
19-year-old pharaoh, whose life and death has captivated
people for nearly a century, was placed in a climate-controlled
glass box in the tomb, with only the face and feet showing
under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis, Pool)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:07:47 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.52449fe1aee64d94a2dc46f357a7892a.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc109.jpg?x=380&y=237&sig=0HVFkGJz35y9PfQrVv4GlQ--)






Egypt's antiquities chief Dr. Zahi Hawass, seen through the
mummy's glass case, speaks to the media over the linen-
wrapped mummy of King Tut in his underground tomb in the
famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday,
Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the 19-year-old pharaoh,
whose life and death has captivated people for nearly a
century, was placed in a climate-controlled glass box in the
tomb, with only the face and feet showing under the linen
covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:11:39 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.5a4e0a49eaa24d2781b3cccdd120b590.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc114.jpg?x=229&y=345&sig=lMLWJmGzey4NwIpaYPnKFA--)






A photographer photographs the
face of the linen-wrapped mummy
of King Tut in his new glass case in
his underground tomb in the famed
Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt
Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy
of the 19-year-old pharaoh, whose
life and death has captivated people
for nearly a century, was placed in
a climate-controlled glass box in the
tomb, with only the face and feet
showing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:16:36 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/nm/20071104/2007_11_04t110752_450x294_us_egypt_tutankhamun.jpg?x=380&y=248&sig=F9kxoZXjBumqmQtkfdHayg--)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:23:15 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.a8cc44ccdb1c4ae4b56857998ba45ff7.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc111.jpg?x=380&y=245&sig=WHlozCEEqWq1kAB._qi.3A--)






The sarcophagus of King Tut is placed back in his under-
ground tomb in the famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor,
Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the 19-year-
old pharaoh, whose life and death has captivated people
for nearly a century, was placed in a climate-controlled
glass box in the tomb, with only the face and feet show-
ing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:27:47 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.72c0b753e16145a88b8f220fefb288c1.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc113.jpg?x=380&y=227&sig=Dn2PV1vFH2xlD22LfxkFQw--)







The sarcophagus of King Tut is seen in his underground
tomb in the famed Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt
Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy of the 19-year-old
pharaoh, whose life and death has captivated people for
nearly a century, was placed in a climate-controlled glass
box in the tomb, with only the face and feet showing
under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:32:23 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20071104/i/r3620364055.jpg?x=247&y=345&sig=Bf9EZLIH2wzT.d9DBwFvSA--)







Zahi Hawass, head of the High Council
for Antiquities, stands next to the
mummy of boy pharaoh King Tutankh-
amun in Luxor's Valley of the Kings
November 4, 2007. The mummy is dis-
played for the first time in public in a
special climate-controlled glass show-
case after it was taken out of its sarco-
phagus.

REUTERS/Nasser Nuri (EGYPT)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:39:04 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/afp/20071104/capt.sge.qtm61.041107132443.photo00.photo.default-512x390.jpg?x=380&y=289&sig=6cSU6uiLQHww4pLms8Kgbw--)






AFP - Sun Nov 4, 8:27 AM ET One of King Tutankhamun's gold
sarcophagi displayed at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo,
October 2007. The true face of ancient Egypt's boy king
Tutankhamun revealed to the public for the first time since he
died in mysterious circumstances more than 3,000 years ago.

(AFP/Cris Bouroncle)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:43:58 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071022/capt.d6b2edc733ce4643a2dbb2be0d794b68.king_tut_exhibit_txms102.jpg?x=380&y=280&sig=oOl1seGfjffti17.pw1DAQ--)






AP - Mon Oct 22, 5:12 PM ET In this image released by the
Dallas Museum of Art, children from the George Bannerman
Dealey Montessori School cheer the coming of Tutankhamun
and The Golden Age of Pharaohs exhibition during a news
conference, Monday, Oct. 22, 2007, at the Dallas Museum of
Art in Dallas.

The exhibition, scheduled to open in Dallas on Oct. 3, 2008,
drew nearly 4,000,000 visitors nationwide during its 2-year
four-city tour from 2005-2007.

(AP Photo/Dallas Museum of Art, Mike Stone)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:49:16 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20071022/i/r4242637998.jpg?x=380&y=276&sig=atVtq4lqu0LuQvzkold4eg--)






Reuters - Mon Oct 22, 1:37 PM ET Austrian President Heinz
Fischer looks at the sarcophagus of Tut Anch Amun as he
visits the Egyptian National-Museum in Cairo October 22,
2007. Fischer is on an official visit to Egypt.

REUTERS/Leonhard Foeger (EGYPT)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:53:47 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20071022/i/r1610136267.jpg?x=380&y=280&sig=4u2Kpd0r3xacBR.bQDRoow--)






Reuters - Mon Oct 22, 1:35 PM ET Austrian President Heinz
Fischer looks at the sarcophagus of Tut Anch Amun during
a visit to the Egyptian National-Museum in Cairo
October 22, 2007.

REUTERS/Leonhard Foeger (EGYPT)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 11:58:08 am
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/rids/20071022/i/r932463093.jpg?x=380&y=273&sig=GFNTiKRMzDEwbtJW76j4Og--)






Austrian President Heinz Fischer looks at the sarcophagus of
Tut Anch Amun as he visits the Egyptian National-Museum in
Cairo October 22, 2007. Fischer is on an official visit to Egypt.

REUTERS/Leonhard Foeger (EGYPT)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 12:02:29 pm
(http://d.yimg.com/us.yimg.com/p/ap/20071104/capt.92e5143860064939b160bdc0380aeedc.egypt_king_tut_s_mummy_abc112.jpg?x=380&y=220&sig=SOxmv87i.uTB8dD.5VtTqQ--)






Egypt's antiquities chief Dr. Zahi Hawass speaks to the
media near the tomb of King Tut in the famed Valley of the
 Kings in Luxor, Egypt Sunday, Nov. 4, 2007. The mummy
of the 19-year-old pharaoh, whose life and death has
captivated people for nearly a century, was placed in a
climate-controlled glass box in the tomb, with only the face
 and feet showing under the linen covering.

(AP Photo/Ben Curtis)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 04, 2007, 04:15:10 pm






VIDEO





http://cosmos.bcst.yahoo.com/up/player/popup/?rn=3906861&cl=4858191&ch=4226714&src=news







Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 07, 2007, 04:12:01 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/happypharaoh1.jpg)








                                      T H E   H A P P I E S T   P H A R A O H





by Jimmy Dunn

Today, I have a vision of a sort of Pharaoh reunion.

Everyone is hanging about, many of whom are very much alive, while others are somewhat weaker, struggling for breath at times. Indeed, not all of  them are here. Many from the intermediate periods
did not make it and, apparently, even a few from other more prominent times have left the world of
the living for good.

Some of them, while strong and healthy, are not altogether pleased about the presence of some of
their companions. Clearly, Tuthmosis III really did not expect to see Hatshepsut so strong and alive,
and no one particularly wanted or expected to see Akhenaten, as healthy as ever.

Among the strongest and most healthy we find Ramesses II (he worked very hard for this), Djoser and Khufu. Tuthmosis III, perhaps the greatest empire builder in Egyptian history is strong enough, and Cleopatra (VII), though most of her Alexandria is now gone, survives very well.

But among their midst is an irony.

He was a child king, hardly living into adulthood, with probably nothing to show for his own efforts. Even though his reign was pivotal in the 3,000 year reign of ancient Egyptian religion most, if not all, of this was not his doing. He had not the time to establish himself, and some of his successors even tried to eliminate any possibility of his eternal life.

Yet, here he is, his chest heaving with pure air, his heart beating with the steady confidence of a
top athlete, stronger and healthier than even the most elite among the Pharaohs, for his name
is on everyone's tongues, and this is what matters most to all of the Pharaohs. Tutankhamun.

To the ancient Egyptians, an individual consisted of a number of different parts, which is not altogether different than those of religion view individuals today.

Even now, we think of a person as having a body and a soul, or spirit. The ancient Egyptians thought the same thing, but added to this mix was a persons name, his shadow and other elements (though this is a slightly simplified explanation of the ancient Egyptian's idea of a soul). All of these elements were important, but perhaps most important of all, at least for eternal life, was the name. If one's name was not remembered, there was little hope for the soul to live on after the physical death of the body. As long as the pharaoh's name was remembered, the king would live on through eternity, and none of their names are remembered better than that of King Tut.

Of this group of great men, he must be the happiest of all, not to mention very fond of Howard Carter, even though he did rob his tomb one last time.

In ancient Egypt, kings played the Pharaoh's game, though we should probably not call it a game, because they were dead serious about the outcome. They imagined that they could control their own fate, and the fate of their predecessors by usurping their names on statues, or sometimes by completely obliterating a foe's name from the historic record.

Hatshepsut more or less, mostly more, usurped the throne from her stepson, Tuthmosis III. It may have been good for him, allowing him to mature and become the great commander that he was, but it didn't please him. After her death, he went about methodically removing her name, and so he thought her chances for eternal life as well, from the monuments that she built while king (in ancient Egypt, a king was a king, female or male). What he couldn't remove, he built walls around, such as her Obelisk at Karnak. However, that act only helped to preserve her monument, and her name lives on today and so, according to the ancient Egyptian religion, so does she.

Everyone tried to kill off Akhenaten's hopes for an eternal life. He was the heretic king who, while attempting to radically alter ancient Egyptian religion, abandoned the priests of Amun and the other age old deities of Egypt. His successors tried to remove his name from every source, including the lists of Kings that were kept in holy places. But the city he built at modern el-Amarna was left to the desert sands which, in many ways, protected it for prosperity, and his radical beliefs found for him not oblivion but posterity. He may live on, healthy and viral, but perhaps not a favorite of the gods.




And then...... there's King Tut.


After the death of his presumed father, Akhenaten, the old religion was restored, making his reign pivotal in Egyptian history, but this was almost certainly not his work.

Personally, he may not be able to claim a single building project of his own, and much of the wealth even in his tomb was not his, but gifts from others. It was surely Ay and Horemheb who held the reins of power during Tutankhamun's kingship, and after the young king's death, Horemheb took back much
of the work performed in the young king's name, by usurping inscriptions with his own name.

Like his father, Tut's name was also omitted from the various Kings' lists. In fact, were it not for Howard Carter, he might not have made the reunion of Pharaohs at all.

But fate plays strange tricks.

What little he had, compared to some of the greater kings of ancient Egypt, was discovered mostly intact in his tomb. Even the grave robbers played into this divine poker hand, not plundering his tomb completely, like so many others.

                             (http://www.touregyptphotos.com/data/500/113tut-med.jpg?4559)


Today marks the opening of the King Tut exhibit and not since Tutankhamun's tomb was discovered has

he been better known to the world. And since an attribute of ancient Egyptian religion was that,

indeed, fame lead to eternal life for the pharaoh, today King Tut must be one of the happiest pharaohs

who ever lived, and lived on.


http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tut.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 07, 2007, 07:15:47 pm







                              (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/11/photogalleries/tut-display/images/primary/baby-coffin6.jpg)




An elaborately decorated miniature coffin, seen here on display at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia in January 2007, is among the treasures found in King Tutankhamun's tomb that are now on a popular world tour. The tiny sarcophagus once held the mummified remains of the boy king's liver.

The tour, called "Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs," recently left Philadelphia and will open again in London on November 15.

Today's move of Tut's mummy to a public display case is expected to sustain the young pharaoh's unrivaled popularity, said Egyptologist Kent Weeks.



"I don't know that Tutankhamun himself would have complained too much about being moved", Weeks said. "At

least we're all repeating his name."



http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/11/photogalleries/tut-display/photo6.html






**************************************************************************************










                                                Tut fever brings a golden glow to London





By Jeremy Lovell
Fri Nov 9, 11:41 AM ET
 
LONDON (Reuters) - Four London landmarks will be bathed in golden light every night next week to mark the return to the city for the first time in 35 years of the treasures of Tutankhamun, Egypt's boy king.

The Tower of London, the Wellington Arch, the London Eye and the O2 arena, which will house "Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs," will be lit up in gold to emulate the precious metal that the tomb's discoverer Howard Carter said he saw everywhere in 1922.

"The Tower of London is a well-known iconic building that is recognized worldwide," said Ann Wilson, head of sales at the Tower.

"So in addition to its own role as a leading tourist attraction and World Heritage Site, these types of lighting projects are an interesting and contemporary way of engaging with the cultural life of London," she added.

Organizers have already sold 325,000 advance tickets for the exhibition which opens on November 15 and runs through August 2008.

When the boy king's 3,500-year-old burial artifacts first came to London in 1972, queues stretched around the block at the British Museum, as Tut fever took the nation by storm.

By the time the exhibition ended after six months, more than 1.6 million people had handed over the 50-pence admission fee.

Many of the same artifacts are back, although not the death mask which is too fragile to travel from Egypt. However, the adult admission charge is now 15 pounds and the venue, in Greenwich, is far less accessible.

In all, 130 objects will be on display, including 50 from the tomb itself such as a coffin made of gold and precious stones, and the boy king's royal head dress.

The show, which tours the world raising money towards preserving Egyptian antiquities, attracted 4 million visitors during a two-year stay in the United States.

(Reporting by Jeremy Lovell; editing by Andrew Dobbie)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 06:38:00 pm









                                  T H E   S E A R C H   F O R   T U T A N K H A M U N




Howard Carter's records of the five seasons of excavations,

financed by Lord Carnarvon,

in the Valley of the Kings 1915 - 1922






        © Griffith Institute

Griffith Institute, Oxford OX1 2LG




Concept and Direction: Jaromir Malek

Design: Gregor Neunert and Jonathan Moffett

Scanning: Gregor Neunert

Transcript: Lindsay Allen, Gregor Neunert and Jaromir Malek



This website was created with the financial support of

The Theban Foundation


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 06:40:34 pm







Introduction to 'The Search for Tutankhamun'





The website demonstrates that the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun by Howard Carter in November 1922 was not accidental but the result of a combination of a well-reasoned systematic search and exceptional archaeological intuition. It is remarkable that Carter's inclination was always to return to the area where the tomb was eventually discovered.



1. The transcript.

This is based on Carter's Notebook E. Its accuracy can be checked by clicking on the 'Journal of Excavations' in the right top-corner and comparing it with the scans of the original hand-written Notebooks.
The coments in italics have been added by us and are intended as a help for the users of the website.



2. The photographs.

The photographs which can be connected with a specific excavation season are listed, in a chronological order, under the heading of the appropriate season (and, in some cases, there are also links to these photographs in the transcipt). A list of the photographs which are not dated is given at the end of the listing of the seasons.
 
The whole photographic documentation can be easily surveyed in the Gallery of photographs in which all pictures are listed in the order of the Griffith Institute numbers. The Gallery also contains links to concordances of photographs based on Carter's numbering of these photographs, as well as links to panoramic views and views showing the progress of excavation.



3. The maps.

The Index of Maps lists all Carter's maps which were used in the compilation of this database. In most cases, Carter wrote a map reference next to the find number in his Notebook. In the transcript, this is linked to the appropriate square of Carter's map where the find is underlined in red.
Maps of the Valley of the Kings, based on B. Porter and R. L. B. Moss, Topographical Bibliography, which show the areas where Howard Carter worked during the 2nd to 5th seasons (and also the beginning of the 6th, the Tutankhamun season), have been added by us. The current area is indicated in red, while areas previously worked on are marked in green.


Gregor Neunert and Jaromir Malek


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 06:42:09 pm







Journal of Lord Carnarvon's Excavations
in the Valleys of the Tombs of the Kings.
Giving the order and position of objects found

by

Howard Carter

Griffith Institute, Oxford, Carter MSS. I.J.387 = Notebook E
(another copy, Carter MSS. I.J.386 = Notebook D)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 06:44:58 pm


Gallery of photographs, Excavation Seasons 1915-22

(Carter MSS. I.J.319-385)
(as catalogued in the Griffith Institute)


http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/




*****************************************************************************




AS MOST OF US HAVE, AT ONE TIME OR OTHER, READ THE ACCOUNT OF THE DISCOVERY OF

TUTANKHAMEN'S TOMB, FEW OF US HAVE SEEN PHOTOGRAPHS OF THIS NOTABLE EVENT.


SO, HAVING FOUND THE FULL ILLUSTRATED DOCUMENTARY, I THOUGHT YOU MIGHT APPRE-

CIATE SEEING IT THE WAY HOWARD CARTER SAW IT.


Bianca2001


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 06:46:21 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319.jpg)

(Carter MSS. I.J. 319) Postcard.
[View of tombs KV 9 Ramesses VI and KV 8 Merneptah.]


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 06:57:44 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319a.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 06:59:42 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319b.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:00:42 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319c.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:02:02 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319d.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:03:01 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319e.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:03:58 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319f.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:04:58 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319g.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:06:03 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319h.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:07:02 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319i.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:19:23 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/thumb/ij319j.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:21:35 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319k.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:23:06 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319l.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:24:31 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319m.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:25:56 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij320.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:27:48 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij321.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:28:49 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij322.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:29:47 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij323.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:31:14 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij324.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:32:16 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij325.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:33:27 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij326.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:34:35 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij327.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:35:44 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij328.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:36:56 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij329.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:38:12 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij330.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:39:23 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij331.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:40:28 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij332.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:41:40 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij333.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:42:44 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij334.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:43:42 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij335.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:44:23 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij336.jpg)

Jan. 24, 1920. (Carter MSS. I.J. 336)

[Excavation in the vicinity of KV 8 Merneptah. The tomb shown on the photograph is KV 6 Ramesses IX.]


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:50:48 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij337.jpg)

Jan. 24, 1920. (Carter MSS. I.J. 337)

[Excavation in the vicinity of KV 8 Merneptah. The tomb shown on the photograph is KV 6 Ramesses IX.]


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:52:56 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij338.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:54:18 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij339.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:55:26 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/thumb/ij340.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 07:56:41 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij341.jpg)

Cache - Nos. 257-269. Feb. 26, 1920. (Carter MSS. I.J. 341)

[Alabaster jars of Ramesses II and Merneptah found in a cache near the KV 8 Merneptah.]


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 08:00:00 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij342.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 08:01:18 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij343.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 08:02:44 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij344a.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 08:03:55 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij345.jpg)

 Site A. Dec. 6, 1917. (Carter MSS. I.J. 345)

[Work in the vicinity of KV 8 Merneptah.]


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 08:06:19 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij346.jpg)

Site A. Dec. 6, 1917. (Carter MSS. I.J. 346)

[Work in the vicinity of KV 8 Merneptah.]


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 08:08:32 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij347.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 08:09:30 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij348.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 08:10:37 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij349.jpg)

11. Site A. Dec. 7, 1917. (Carter MSS. I.J. 349)

[Work in the vicinity of KV 8 Merneptah.]


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 13, 2007, 08:16:02 pm
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij350.jpg)

Site A. Dec. 12, 1917. (Carter MSS. I.J. 350)

[Work in the vicinity of KV 8 Merneptah and KV 7 Ramesses II.]


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 06:08:42 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij351.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:47:31 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij352.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:48:38 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij353.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:49:59 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij354.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:51:13 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij355.jpg)

Site A. Dec. 15, 1917. (Carter MSS. I.J. 355)

[Work in the vicinity of KV 8 Merneptah and KV 7 Ramesses II.] 



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:53:56 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij356.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:54:54 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij357.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:56:05 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij358.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:57:15 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij359.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:58:24 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij360.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 08:59:44 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij361.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 09:01:11 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij362.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 09:02:18 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij363.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 09:03:28 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij364.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 10:48:32 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij365.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 10:49:38 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij366.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 10:50:52 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij367.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 10:52:00 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij368.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 10:53:08 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij369.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 10:55:03 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij370.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 10:59:30 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij370a.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:00:35 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij371.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:02:16 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij372.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:03:26 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij373.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:05:24 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij374.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:06:34 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij375.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:07:45 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij376.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:08:51 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij377.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:09:53 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij378.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:10:57 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij379.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:12:16 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij380.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:13:22 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij381.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:14:21 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij382.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:15:19 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij383.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:16:21 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij384.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:17:36 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij385.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:21:02 am




                 THE NEXT FEW PICTURES ARE TO ILLUSTRATE THE PROGRESS MADE DURING




                                     T H E   S E C O N D   S E A S O N ' S   D I G


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:23:33 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319a.jpg)

The situation on December 3, 1917. Carter MSS. I.J.319a.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:37:50 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij319h.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:42:56 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij322.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:43:59 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij327.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 14, 2007, 11:45:01 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij377.jpg)


http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/page/photo/indexp.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:18:29 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij378.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:20:19 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij379.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:21:21 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij380.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:22:16 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij381.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:23:17 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij382.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:24:26 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij383.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:25:39 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij384.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:26:40 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/ij385.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:29:48 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/319a-d.jpg)

A panoramic view of Site A early in the 2nd Season (December 3, 1917).
Carter MSS. I.J.319a + 319b + 319c + 319d.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:32:19 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/319h-j.jpg)

A panormic view of Site A and the Decauville railway on December 12, 1917.
Carter MSS. I.J.319h + 319j + 319i.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 06:34:41 am
(http://griffith.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/gri/cc/photos/322-l.jpg)

A panormic view of Site A and the Decauville railway on December 23, 1917.
Carter MSS. I.J.322 + 323 + 319l.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 08:04:29 am
(http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/510KZB83KPL._BO2,204,203,200_PIsitb-dp-500-arrow,TopRight,45,-64_OU01_AA240_SH20_.jpg)








THE TOMB OF TUTANKHAMEN

by Howard Carter





Introduction by Anthony Brandt.

“Feverishly we cleared away...the passage before the doorway, until we had only the clean sealed doorway before us.... We made a tiny breach in the top left hand corner to see what was beyond.

There was naturally short suspense for those present who could not see, when Lord Carnarvon said to me ‘Can you see anything,’ I replied to him ‘Yes, it is wonderful’.... Our sensations and astonishment are difficult to describe as the better light revealed to us the marvellous collection of treasures: two strange ebony-black effigies of a King, gold sandalled, bearing staff and mace, loomed out from the cloak of darkness; gilded couches in strange forms, lion-headed, Hathor-headed, and beast infernal...strange black shrines with a gilded monster snake appearing from within...a golden inlaid throne.... Our sensations were bewildering and full of strange emotion. Was it a tomb or merely a cache? A sealed doorway between the two sentinel statues proved there was more beyond and with the numerous cartouches bearing the name of Tutankhamen...there was little doubt that there behind was the grave of that Pharaoh.”



Howard Carter did not live long enough to write further about his finds, and The Tomb of Tutankhamen stands as his only record of the extraordinary discovery. Abridged from the original three volumes, this National Geographic Adventure Classics edition features 25 black-and-white photos taken at the time of the excavation, as well as a map of the Valley of the Kings and the tomb. This classic adventure tells the story of a journey that may never be repeated—a trip back through 3,000 years to discover the life—and death—of a pharaoh.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 15, 2007, 08:27:09 am





                             A N N O U N C E M E N T   T O   T H E   W O R L D




                        TIMES MAN VIEWS SPLENDORS OF TOMB OF TUTANKHAMEN




Howard Carter's Discovery in Upper Egypt Reveals Glory of the 18th Dynasty. UNCHANGED IN 3,500 YEARS King's Statues and Throne Are Pronounced Equal to Art Objects of Any Age. ORNAMENTS BEYOND PRICE Last Pharaonic Tomb and the Only One Unplundered--Found After 33-Year Search. TIMES MAN VIEWS SPLENDORS OF TOMB The Story of Tutankhamen. Dug Within Few Feet of Tomb. Escaped Ravages of Robbers. AMERICANS CAN SEE TOMB. Tourists Will Be Allowed to View Treasures Found at Thebes.

Copyright, 1922, by The New York Times Company




December 22, 1922, Friday


LUXOR, Egypt, Dec. 21.--Through the courtesy of Howard Carter, the American Egyptologist, who, as director of Lord Carnarvon's expedition, has, after thirty-three years' search dug up the tomb of King Tutankhamen of the eighteenth dynasty, the correspondent of THE NEW YORK TIMES was allowed today an exclusive view of the interior of the two ante-chambers of the tomb in the Valley of the Kings in Upper Egypt. [ END OF FIRST PARAGRAPH ]



GO TO NEW YORK TIMES TO READ REST OF THE ORIGINAL ARTICLE:

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A00EFD91F30E433A25751C2A9649D946395D6CF


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 16, 2007, 04:24:06 pm
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/egypt/images/splash.gif)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 16, 2007, 04:26:51 pm
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/egypt/images/main_menu.gif)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 16, 2007, 04:28:12 pm
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/egypt/images/tut_main.gif)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 16, 2007, 04:32:54 pm
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/egypt/images/tomb_day1_1_pic2.gif)







                                       CORRESPONDENT'S INTRODUCTION





PROBABLY no great graveyard occupies so unusual a site as the Tombs of the Egyptian Kings at Thebes.
 
Across the Nile from the Temple of Karnak the western skyline is broken by rough limestone cliffs whose color varies from hour to hour. Nature here changes her complexion with the passing of the day, now softly seductive under a filmy veil before the footlights of the sun’s first level rays, now savagely sharp under the fierce floodlight of noonday, now darkly mysterious beneath the glowing evening sky. The monotony of rich fields so familiar in the flat delta of Lower Egypt here gives way to the variety of barren waste where tomb robbers and scientists have sought so long the hiding places of the Pharaohs.

 


 
 Ten thousand tourists have tramped above the spot where the latest find has just been made. Other archaeologists, looking for the needle entrance to the royal tomb of Tutankhamen in the limestone haystack of el Qorn, came within a few feet of where, after sixteen years of labor, the late Lord Carnarvon and Mr. Howard Carter found their reward.

It is unlikely that the comparatively small tomb itself will have more than a passing interest; but the rich store of rare and valuable funeral furniture with which the hiding place of Tutankhamen was packed almost surely contains such wonders from the distant past as have never before been seen by modern man.
 
 On February 17th I arrived in Luxor, crossed the river and started on foot for the Tombs of the Kings. It is nearly eleven years since I last visited them, but my memory of the event is vivid. I still feel that September sun which beat upon us as we climbed the ridge on the way to Deir-el-Bahri and collapsed in the shade of an ancient temple to gulp down great goolahs of Nile water after the water in our bottles was gone. I still remember the fake curios we bought, the hagglings we had, the smell of the hot donkeys’ sweat under the saddles.

 This time I did not hasten toward my goal. I wanted to plod along on foot, to exchange Arabic salutations with the white-toothed village girls, to feel the African sun on my back, and to watch the camels stalk by on their way to the cane fields.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 16, 2007, 04:38:56 pm







                                  APPROACHING THE VALLEY OF THE TOMBS ON FOOT





HE MORNING freshness was still in the air. Beyond green fields which I had last passed over in a boat, I saw the Colossi of Memnon and I made for them. I wanted to pass the many lesser gaping tomb-mouths before I finally came to the royal tombs behind the limestone ridge.

 As I passed through a mud-walled village, with its narrow alleys almost black under that hot light which lacks reflective power, a girl of ten or so stopped stripping sugar cane with her gleaming teeth to wish that my day be blessed and to offer to share her store.


 
 
 WAITING AT THE TOMB


The noonday sun was hot and getting hotter. I shouldered my heavy camera and started up the steep path. Thus should one approach that hell-hole in the hills where the greatest Pharaohs hid themselves and where not more than two or three still lie undisturbed by modern man.
 
 As I passed the tomb of Seti I and turned toward the lower entrance of the valley, I saw below me a small white tent, a wooden shelter  for the armed guard, the clutter of lumber which archaeologists use, and the new wall of irregular stones which hid the entrance to Tutankhamen's mausoleum.

Two correspondents sat there and another roamed about waiting for news. For weeks they had waited under the glare of the sun, compelled by the force of circumstances to be detectives rather than scribes. Suddenly and without warning some wondrous treasure would be brought forth in its rough but easy-riding ambulance, to be rushed to another tomb which was used as storehouse and preserving laboratory. 


 
  Now and then some rumor would escape the portals, to be weighed and considered before it was put upon the telegraph wire or in the discard.

 A press photographer was there, wearing a tarboosh to render himself less conspicuous among Moslem crowds. If it had not been so bright he could have used his nose for a red light in the dark room, and on his cheeks he was raising skin as the farmers of Szechuan raise crops, with new growth showing between the older ones, which were ready to harvest.

 These were the men who were trying to give the news of this great discovery to the world.

 


 AN AIR OF MYSTERY EVEN IN BROAD DAYLIGHT


This superheated graveyard, which was to become a picnic ground and levee for royalty on the morrow, was a silent place. The correspondents spoke in whispers, as though the secrets of the spot would be violated by loud talk. Mystery hung as heavy on the place as mystery ever can in the full light of day.

 


 
 GAIETY AND TENSION ON THE EVE OF THE OFFICIAL OPENING


After dinner I sat in the lobby of the big tourist hotel at Luxor and watched the serio-comedy on the eve of the official opening, where the gaiety of  Brussels on the eve of Waterloo was combined with a tenseness that was evident to all.
 This tenseness was not all on the side of the anxious reporters who had for so long put up a nerve-racking fight to get the news; for they had beaten the diggers themselves in telling the world that the wall into the inner chamber had been pierced the day before and that the hoped-for sarcophagus had been seen.




Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 16, 2007, 04:52:30 pm



I AM HAVING A DIFFICULT TIME 'PULLING UP' THE NEXT CHAPTER.


FOR THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED, PLEASE GO TO :


http://www.nationalgeographic.com/egypt/


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 17, 2007, 05:41:19 am
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/egypt/images/tomb_day2_1_pic1.gif)
ALL MODERN COMFORTS FOR NOTABLES AT THE TOMB
This camel bore across the hot sands a rapidly shrinking load of ice.






PREPARATIONS FOR ROYAL VISITORS TO THE TOMB

ARLY SUNDAY morning I rode out to the scene of the official opening. There were only a few visitors as yet, but the stage was all set for the big event of the day. To the left was the tomb of Rameses IX, in whose shady corridor the Sultana and the Egyptian officials would later await the coming of the Belgian Queen. As the day grew hot, small companies of visitors arrived; but there had been no attempt to make this a popular holiday and the crowd could never have numbered more than 200. About noon there arrived a squad of camels laden with food and drink for the distinguished guests. The last of them seemed to be sweating from the heat, an unusual phenomenon, made plain when one noticed that his load was ice in gunny sacks. None of this feast was eaten by the guests, for the train which brought Her Majesty and Lord and Lady Allenby to Luxor was so late that lunching out there in the graveyard of royalty was not to be thought of.


 


 
 THE QUEEN ENTERS THE TOMB





A motor rolled up; a white-clad figure alighted; there were numerous introductions, especially to those Egyptian officials present, and the Queen went down the incline that leads to the tomb mouth. Within a moment Her Majesty had entered the shadowy portal behind which Tutankhamen, if indeed his mummy actually be under that huge gilt canopy, silently awaited her coming.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 17, 2007, 05:48:33 am
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/egypt/images/tomb_day3_1_pic1.gif)
NEWSPAPER CORRESPONDENTS AT THE TOMB
A battery of motion-picture photographers was
stationed on the heights rising to the rear.






                                              A VIEW OF THE INNER TOMB





 ON MONDAY, the day after the official opening, I entered the tomb, together with the first small group of correspondents.

It was a stamp-collector in Beirut who made me understand the precautions taken by the excavators on the first day when the inner opening was revealed to the correspondents. I started to pick up one of his treasures in my bare hand and he almost cried with pain. He quickly passed me some delicate tweezers with which I could examine the stamp at leisure. He realized that I could not understand his care, but he forced me to be careful.

There were those among us who were able to understand much from what we observed; but my study of Egyptian treasures had been made hurriedly more than ten years before.
This is what I saw:


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 17, 2007, 05:55:49 am
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/egypt/images/tomb_day3_2_pic1.gif)

THE SECRET OF THE INNER CHAMBER REVEALED
This large structure beyond the opening is
believed to contain the mummy of the king.
 
Photograph courtesy of New York Times
Pictures.


(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/egypt/images/tomb_day3_2_tombpic.gif)







A VIEW OF THE INNER TOMB





STEEP steps led down to an incline which ended at a new iron gate, beyond which there was a strong light. In these days the Valley of the Kings’ Tombs could almost advertise, “All modern improvements,” as several of the tombs have long been lighted for the convenience of visitors, and Mr. Burton had, for the benefit of his official photographic work, a high-power electric bulb which made the first chamber we entered as light as day.

Just behind the light, which was shielded by a rough board, there was one of the nearly life-size figures of the king, stricken stiff by the artist and standing helpless in its vain attempt to guard the royal tomb, a gilt mace in one hand, a long gilt staff in the other, with a palm-leaf guard below the hand.

The official photographs of this statue and its twin on the other side of the doorway, at the right end of the transverse chamber, make description of these guardian figures futile.







WONDERFUL DECORATIONS ON THE SARCOPHAGUS





Between these two statues was the entrance to the inner chamber, blocked by new timbers, so that one could not pass into the chamber itself.

The distance between the huge sarcophagus and the rough walls is so small that one would have to pass with care. New boards separated from the sarcophagus by soft buffers protected this corner of the huge case in which it is hoped Tutankhamen reposes.

Words cannot give any impression of the decorations of this great box, of which only a corner could be seen. The secret eyes looked out reproachfully at one from half-way down the right-hand edge and a serpent helplessly vibrated his coils at convenient folds up near the top.

The great mass of treasure which had packed this chamber had been removed, leaving it almost bare. At the right, the two guardian statues of the king, which could not protect his withered form; at the left, a few treasures, including two alabaster vases, which appeared to me more beautiful than the marvelous specimens which had been removed and which I knew through photographs.







REPARTEE IN THE TOMB





“It’s awfully nouvel art,” said the news writer.

“Yes, quite Louis Quatorze,” replied the superintendent.

“I suppose, if the mummy is in there, he will be wearing some fine jewelry,” said a lady present.

“If he’s intact, he’ll be ragged out like a bloomin’ Maharaja,” was the reply. And as I went out into the blinding sunlight someone said something about sharing the Christmas goose if the press photographer would furnish the lard.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 17, 2007, 06:05:03 am
(http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/98/egypt/images/tomb_day3_3_pic5.gif)
THE GEOGRAPHIC’S STAFF
 CORRESPONDENT EMERGING
FROM TUTANKHAMEN'S TOMB 
 





 


A VISIT TO AMENOPHIS II’S RESTING PLACE





 LATER I visited the tomb of Amenophis II, who ruled only about 70 years before Tutankhamen’s seven years of power but whose sad-faced mummy has been flooded by electric light for many years and whose faded garlands seem so pitiful, even out there amid the barren hills. In a side chamber are three mummies, hollow-bodied and gruesome, like propaganda pictures for famine relief. Perhaps that is what Tutankhamen has ahead of him. How many “It’s awful interesting”s will be pronounced over his body! 






 
 Carrying a candle which dripped hot wax upon my hands, I followed my guide into the dark depths of the tomb of Amenophis III. The floors are cluttered with sharp stones. Many of the mural decorations have been chipped away by vandals. The top of the violated sarcophagus lies broken in its sanctuary. The name of the excavator who opened this tomb is known by few.

We stepped aside into the empty chamber, with its broken floor and ruined walls, and I blew out my candle, so that I could stay for a moment in the dark, and feel, rather than see, what a tomb is like.

The bats had stopped their squeaking. There was not a sound in that formless chamber crowded with darkness. For a minute or two I stayed, telling myself that the cavern in which I was hiding was a tomb, that the whole great mass of limestone above my head was a vast burial place.

My guide might as well have been a mile away. I seemed alone there in that massive mausoleum of the hills.





 
 
BACK IN LUXOR





Back I rode toward Luxor. The ghaffirs, who yesterday stood so straight when the Queen went by, now squatted in the dust. The camel corps, whose picturesque forms had so fittingly guarded that ribbon of road through this Khyber Pass of Egypt, were no longer to be seen. A train of sugar cane whistled its departure for Armant; and the very girl who two days ago offered to share her sugar cane with a wanderer on foot now came out to beg baksheesh of me, mounted on “Marconi,” whose wave-length was short and irregular.
 
 Up the Nile there swept an ugly hull with butterfly sails of purest white. The bougainvilleas across the water, a vivid mass of purple against the yellow walls of the big hotel, contrasted with the dusty colonnades of the Temple of Luxor across the river. As I came to the boat landing, I could smell the coffee which the donkey-drivers were making in their rude reed shelters.

We crossed the Nile in that slanting fashion which sets the distant hills in motion around each point upon its bank, and came in the glory of late afternoon to the gray bund of Luxor, alive with tourists from the big hotels and from three steamers which had just arrived.

I stepped into a shop to leave my films and realized that the sway of Tutankhamen still grips the world, for a woman in white was speaking:

“I do hope that we can get a pass, because I’m just crazy over mummies, and they say this one will be the best of all.”

But the mummy of Tutankhamen, if it be waiting there, staring with sightless eyes at the lid which will soon be removed, has not yet been released from the bondage of the tomb to which he was carried by his friends for the preservation of his body and for protection from the world.


- E N D -

“Why didn’t I describe more about the tomb?” Williams answers the question in correspondence to his editor. Read on.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 17, 2007, 06:25:39 am






LUXOR HOTEL

Feb. 17, 1923



It is costing much money here, a thing I regret. But you will get your money's worth.

My legs curse you. But my heart says "Thank you."






LUXOR HOTEL


Feb. 19, 1923

I was one of the first correspondents to enter the tomb of Tut-Ankh-Amen today. I was disappointed in what I saw but as you will know long before this reaches you it is a find without parallel in Egyptology.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 17, 2007, 06:35:03 am







I AM HAVING A DIFFICULT TIME 'PULLING UP' THE NEXT CHAPTER.


FOR THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED, PLEASE GO TO :


http://www.nationalgeographic.com/egypt/


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 05:40:03 am
(http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG00/rekas/tut/images/site.JPG)





   

   
                                             Tomb of Tutankhamen Discovered



   

In Nov. 1922, the English archaeologist Howard Carter opened the virtually intact tomb of a largely unknown pharaoh: Tutankhamen.

In 1907, Carter met Lord Carnarvon, a wealthy English aristocrat with a passion for archaeology, who hired Carter to work for him. Carter and Carnarvon carried out a number of excavations, making interesting though not spectacular discoveries, when, in 1914, they received from the Egyptian Antiquities Service a licence to dig in the Valley of the Kings.

Until the previous year, the American enthusiast Theodore Davis had been working there. Davis had declared the site to be exhausted from an archaeological point of view; Carter, on the other hand, piecing together the evidence, felt certain that the valley still held the tomb of a pharaoh called Tutankhamen, whose name had been found on a stela uncovered at the temple of Karnak, and on a number of artifacts found in the Valley itself by Davis.

The outbreak of the World War I prevented Carter from proceeding, and he was only able to begin work in 1917, in the area between the tomb of Ramesses II and that of Ramesses VI. Not far from the latter tomb, he discovered the remains of huts used by the workers who had built this tomb.

Carter soon stopped excavating these structures, and decided to investigate instead the immediately surrounding areas. This work, which went on in campaign after annual campaign, lasted until 1921, when still nothing had been discovered. In that year, Lord Carnarvon, who had already spent a huge amount of money, was about to give up the search and withdraw financing.

Carnarvon told Carter that he could carry out one final year's digging, beginning in fall 1922. This campaign was intended to cover the area around the workmen's huts found previously. On 4 November, one of Carter's labourers stumbled upon a stone step, the first step in a stairway that ran down into the rock.

Carter, sensing that this might be the long-awaited discovery, covered up the hole, and sent a telegram to Carnarvon in England, informing his sponsor of what had been found, and summoning him to the site with the utmost urgency. On 24 November, work resumed, in Carnarvon's presence. The stairway was cleared of rubble, and Carter and Carnarvon found themselves before a walled-up door, followed by a second inner door, which bore both the seals of the necropolis and the long dreamed-of name: Tutankhamen.


http://www.timelineindex.com/content/view/1120


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 05:50:05 am
(http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/1320Hist&Civ/slides/04troy/howardcarter.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 07:32:39 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/RV1360-3.jpg)

RV1360-3  - Aspect of excavations during the discovery, by lord Carnavon
and Howard Carter, of the tomb of the egyptian pharaoh
Tutankhamun (XVIIIth dynasty), in the King Valley, 1923.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 07:35:12 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0794534.jpg)

0794534  - Egypt: King Tutankhamen's artifacts being
taken from his tomb in the Valley of the Kings.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 07:37:07 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0794531.jpg)

0794531  - Egypt: The Treasures of Tutankhamen's tomb
are transported from the Valley of the Kings. Showing
cases being carried on board across the water, it being
too shallow for the barge to come right in.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 07:39:29 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0794526.jpg)


Egypt: Map of the West Bank of Thebes in the 18th Dynasty.

Tutankhamen's tomb discovered.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 07:44:18 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0641111.jpg)

The Valley of the Kings showing the tomb of Ramesses VI

(reigned 1142-1134BC) and the tomb of Tutankhamen.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 07:47:16 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0641112.jpg)

http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0641112.jpg


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 07:49:51 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0641106.jpg)



Royal tombs around the tomb of Tutankhamun.



(A) Ramesses X (reigned c.1106-1102 BC);

(B) Sethos I (reigned 1306-1290 BC);

(C) Ramesses I (dates for his short reign are unclear, but
1306-1304 BC, or 1292-1290 BC are frequently cited);
 
(D) Amenmesses (reigned 1202-1199 BC);

(E) Ramesses III (reigned c.1183-1152 BC);

(F) 'Tomb of Queen Tiye' (c.1398 BC-1338 BC);

(G) Ramesses VI (reigned 1142-1134 BC);
 
(H) Tutankhamen (ruled 1334 BC/1333 BC-1323 BC) and
 
(I) Mernaptah reigned (1213-1203 BC).


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 07:54:42 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0640949.jpg)



A view of the Valley of the Kings showing


(A) The pit found by Mr Theodore Davis containing
the material used in embalming Tutankhamen and

(B) the position of the tomb of Tutankhamen.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 07:57:53 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0638124.jpg)


The discovery of the first royal cache at Thebes west,

preparations for the removal of the mummies.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 19, 2007, 08:00:27 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0012880.jpg)

Waiting to enter the tomb of Tutankhamen are, left to right,

Mr Howard Carter, Mrs Morton, Lady Allenby and

Lord Carnarvon



December 1922



http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/ppages/ppage94.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 07:09:50 am







Tutankhamun (throne name Neb-kheperu-re) the famous "boy king".



Tutankhamun was a ruler of the 18th Dynasty (1336-1327 BC). Ironically until Howard Carter's discovery of his tomb in 1922, Tutankhamun was one of the most poorly known of the pharaohs, he had a short reign, and his tomb is unlike most other royal tombs - consisting of only four small rooms rather than the long corridor style that was typical that period. After several years of fruitless digging in the Valley of the Kings, Carter's team had finally discovered a rock-cut step below the entrance to the tomb of Ramesses VI. This was the first of a flight of steps that led down to a walled up entrance to a tomb, plastered over and stamped with large oval seals, five of which were inscribed with Tutankhamun's throne name, Neb-khepru-re.





Tutankhaten becomes Tutankhamun



Tutankhamun was born during the Amarna Period, when he was first known as Tutankhaten (living image of the Aten) but later changed his name, presumably to try and distance himself from the "Atenist" reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhara. His wife Ankhesenpaaten, who was one of Akhenaten's daughters, similarly changed her name to Ankhesenamun. Interestingly however, some of the most famous images of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun include the distinctive Aten style sun disc with arms outstretched down towards them.



Aged about nine when he was crowned at Memphis, Tutankhaten and his wife Ankesenpaaten changed the "aten" ending of their names to "amun" in year 2. Tutankamun probably had little to do with this, or indeed many other decisions as his "advisors" were the ones who held the reins and manipulated the boy king.

Apart from the pivotal return to Thebes and the cult of Amun, few events from Tutankhamun's reign have been documented. Like Akhenaten and Ay, his name had been omitted from the king lists of Abydos and Karnak, which simply jump from Amenhotep III to Horemheb (Tutankhamun's sucessor). Indeed, Tutankhamun's exact identity and his parentage still remain a bit of a mystery. It is clear, however that he was bought up at el-Amarna, as a number of items found in his tomb are relics of his life at the Atenist court - notably the portrayal of the Aten disc protecting him and his young wife on the back panel of his stunning golden inlaid throne.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 07:11:42 am






The search for his tomb



Several finds in the Valley of the Kings over the years had led Howard Carter to believe that the king was still somewhere in the Valley - a small faience cup bearing his name, remnants of embalming materials and a funerary feast, and gold fragments from chariot and furniture fittings with his name upon them.



After many years of frustrating and meticulous work, the first flight of sixteen descending steps was discovered on the 4th November 1922. By the next day the steps had been cleared and revealed the top of a blocked door, a sloping corridor behind which was filled with debris, and another blocked doorway. Beyond it was a large antechamber, and a smaller room, the annexe. To the right was another blocked doorway guarded by two lifelike statues and beyond it, the burial chamber itself. The rest, as they say, is history.



Tutankhamun's tomb had been partially robbed and resealed in ancient times, but most of the funerary equipment, including the coffins and sarcophagi were found in excellent condition, almost like they had just been left there a short time ago. The tomb of Tutankhamun has gone down in history as probably the best preserved of any of the royal tombs. The wonderful treasures are today on view for all to see in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.


http://www.egyptologyonline.com/tutankhamun.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 07:20:17 am
(http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG00/rekas/tut/images/uncoverpic.jpg)










"No finer human interest story, no more thrilling drama, no greater archaeological revelations could be

summoned from history or the most vivid imagination than is told by the mute objects in this tomb of King

Tutankhamen--mute objects that speak with golden eloquence and whose message is now being

revealed to the world."

 



Howard Carter arrived in Luxor in late October, expecting to look for King Tutankhamen's tomb, and not really expecting to find it.

After all, he had searched the Valley of the Kings for six full seasons with no luck.

Earl Carnarvon, who shared his interest in Egyptian archaeology, had financed Carter's excavation for one more short season in hopes of finding what they thought at the time to be the last undiscovered Pharaoh's tomb.

"We had almost made up our minds that we were beaten�and then--hardly had we set hoe to ground in our last despairing effort than we made a discovery that far exceeded our wildest dreams," Carter wrote a year later.

Carter and his team found the steps to Tutankhamen's tomb on Nov. 4, 1922.

What happened from there was a sensational story--not only was the tomb a revelation in archaeology, but also to the world, as the media helped spread the story of Tutankhamen's tomb.

The find culminated Americans' lengthy love affair with Egypt, and as a result, found an eager audience there. In the excavators' home country, England, however, the ensuing commercialization of Tutankhamen displeased Carter's and Carnarvon's countrymen, who were still reeling from the impact of World War I.

Americans, free from such burdens, and not averse to commercialization--at least at first--embraced the Tutankhamen find as if it were its own. They were not completely wrong in thinking this, since many of the excavators who rushed to Carter and Carnarvon's aid were indeed American. Many workers from the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art helped catalogue the excavation.

Even as American archaeologists helped at the site, American corespondents reported from it. The media, including movies and advertising, helped translate the find from a high culture event celebrated in scholarly circles to a popular sensation that affected the mass American culture. 

The influence Tutankhamen had filtered from the top down; while city newspapers such as the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times reported on the daily progress at the site, the only evidence it even existed in the Saturday Evening Post was Egypt-influenced advertisements published in the same months newspaper coverage reached its peak. The American fascination and involvement with Tutankhamen, informed by different forms of media and commercialism, drove Americans to compare the ancient Egyptian civilization to their own.

The fad created by commercial interests involved Americans in a discourse about Egypt and America as well. More than just the latest in a line of "new national thrill" as Frederick Lewis Allen claimed in his book about the 1920s, Only Yesterday, the discovery of Tutankhamen allowed Americans to examine their place in the world.
 

 

Source: (1) "Times Man Views Splendors of Tomb." New York Times. 22 Dec 1922: 1+.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 07:30:20 am
(http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/3224919.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=27D044C0A019FA6C565A464DE0978B24A55A1E4F32AD3138)

H O W A R D   C A R T E R


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 07:33:03 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/carnarvon1.jpg)






Lord Carnarvon, prior to his death, was more than a silent financial partner in the discovery of the tomb of King Tutankhamun. Were it not for him, Howard Carter would not only have lacked the financing and the concession to dig in the Valley of the Kings, he would have also lacked the political clout for what was, in the early 1900s a very publicly visible pursuit. The English Earl of Carnarvon apparently did not grow up with a fascination for Egyptology. Rather he stumbled into it much like many others of his day.

George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, the 5th Earl of Carnarvon, was born in his family home, Highclere Castle, near Newbury England on June 26th 1866. He succeeded to the Carnarvon title in 1890 and married Almina Victoria Maria Alexandra Wombell.

Lord Carnarvon's early interests seem to have been race horses and the infant sport of motoring. Though he considered himself a careful "automobilist", he was certainly given to speeding, a habit that brought him before various magistrates on more than one occasion. One report in "The Autocar" described how, "like a flash", he had whizzed past pedestrians and cyclists at terrifying speeds of up to 20 miles an hour. Then, in 1901 while in Germany, he suffered an automobile accident that would change his life. While saved from death, he was left appallingly weak, a condition that would make him increasingly vulnerable to the cold and damp of the English climate. Thus, he began to winter abroad, visiting Egypt for the first time in 1903.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 07:36:38 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/carnarvon2.jpg)








Cairo seemed perfectly suited to his delicate health, but he also found it to be rather dull. He therefore took up Egyptology as a hobby to help him pass away the winter days, little realizing at the time how much it would come to dominate his life, and for that matter, his future fame.

He soon moved into the Winter Palace in Luxor from where he might oversee the excavations of a small concession he had been given, based on a request of Lord Cromer, in the area of Sheikh Abd el-Qurna, an unpromising site assigned to him in an attempt to cool his amateur archaeological ambitions.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 07:53:40 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/carnarvon3.jpg)






Thus, in this time prior to all of our modern entertainment, he would seat himself in his large, screened cage, protected from the flies and the dust, to watch his men work, sometimes joined by his wife "dressed for a garden party rather than the desert, with charming patent-leather, high-heeled shoes and a good deal of jewelry flashing in the sunlight".  This effort resulted in little reward after six weeks of frantic digging, save for a mummified cat, still contained in its cat-shaped wooden coffin.

This did not much squash Lord Carnarvon's enthusiasm for Egyptology, though this initial experience at excavation did convince him that more expertise was needed. Consulting Lord Cromer, who in turn made inquiries of Maspero, it was suggested that he meet a young Howard Carter, who apparently, hit it off with Lord Carnarvon very nicely. Lord Carnarvon needed a scholar, and Howard Carter needed a financier for his work.

Carnarvon extended his Theban concession and even applied for permission to work at Aswan. "I thought I would have two strings as I am not sure I will get my wife to stay another whole 2 months at Luxor", he wrote, and later he added, "If I get what I want I shall bring out a learned man as I have not time to learn up all the requisite data".


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 07:57:07 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/carnarvon6.jpg)







However, that first season with Howard Carter was confined to the West Bank of Luxor (ancient Thebes).

Though a small excavation centered the work at "Gurneh" was immensely successful. Carter managed to turn up not only the decorated tomb of Tetiky, an early 18th Dynasty mayor of Thebes, but another tomb containing two wooden tablets.

Of these, the more important one was inscribed on one face with the precepts of Ptahhotep, a series of instructions for moral guidance. The other side was inscribed with text recording the initial steps in the expulsion of the Hyksos by the 17th Dynasty King Kamose. 

The following few years were equally successful.

Carter, under Lord Carnarvon's sponsorship, unearthed a whole series of important private tombs dating from the end of the Middle Kingdom to the beginning of the New Kingdom, as well as two "lost" temples of Queen Hatshepsut and Ramesses IV.

Unfortunately, the success of this work provided them with the opportunity to expand the concessions into the Delta, where their luck would fail them. While still excavating at Luxor, Lord Carnarvon and his entourage including about fifty workers, moved on to Sakha (ancient Xois), but work there had to be abandoned after no more than a month "on account of the number of cobras and cerastes (horned vipers) that infested the whole area".


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 08:03:50 am




The following year, the team turned their attention to another Delta site at Tell el-Balamun. There, they had some success, discovering a hoard of Graeco-Roman silver jewelry, but otherwise the work was uninspiring.

(http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2002/573/car1.jpg)

Nevertheless, the association between Carnarvon and Carter continued. They had, from the very outset, had the aim of ultimately working in the New Kingdom royal necropolis known as the Valley of the Kings. Regretfully, that was a concession then owned by Theodore Davis, who no one seemed to much like.

                                     (http://www.egiptologia.pl/gal5/davis.jpg)
                                      Theodore Davis

Still, they needed additional recognition to be considered for that contract, which came in the form of the discovery of the possible tomb of Amenhotep I. This was a tomb that the locals of Luxor had been plundering secretly for some time, and which had been initially robbed during antiquity. Nevertheless, this joint tomb, prepared for the pharaoh and his mother, Ahmose-Nofretiri, still contained a number of grave goods. Carter's clearance of the tomb brought to light a mass of inscribed vessel fragments, a large heart-scarab of blue frit and a collection of fragments from the Third Intermediate Period burials which had been introduced to the tomb at a later date.

This was Carnarvon's first royal tomb, and it would fortify his interest in Egyptian archaeology.

Some months before his death on February 23rd, 1915, Theodore Davis abandoned his Valley of the King's concession, believing it to be exhausted, which gave Carter and Carnarvon the chance for which they had been longing.

They abandoned their plans for work at Hawara and the pyramid complex of Amenemhet III and by February 8th, 1915, Carter was at work on the tomb of Amenhotep III in the Valley of the Kings. This choice was Carnarvon, influenced by the acquisition by Carter on the Luxor antiquities market in 1912 of three fine bracelet plaques of carnelian which appeared to have once adorned the king's mummy. Carnarvon supposed that the tomb might produce other pieces of artistic interest.

Indeed, Carter was able to salvage much from the smashed debris left behind, even though the tomb had been dismantled during antiquity. He found four of the original five foundation deposits, and clearance of the well and well chamber within the tomb unearthed fragments of serpentine, calcite, faience and wooden shabtis, broken vessels, pieces of a superb pectoral ornament of blue faience, quantities of beads, sequins and amulets, and one corner of a bracelet plaque in blue faience from the same series that had started Carnarvon and Carter on their search.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 08:07:20 am
                                    (http://neveryetmelted.com/wp-images/Flanders.jpg)







Unfortunately, World War I was making its effects felt in Egypt. Carnarvon was stranded in Egypt during this period, and Carter's own energies were diverted more and more with the war effort as a diplomatic courier.

However, by 1917, Carter was able to start work in the Valley of the Kings in earnest, with a focus on finding the elusive tomb of Tutankhamun. However, while thousands of tons of limestone rubble were removed from various sites, this was a time of disappointment upon disappointment for the Carter and Carnarvon which would tax the financier's patience.

Costs were beginning to really mount for Lord Carnarvon and, by the end of a bleak 1921-1922 season, his enthusiasm was on the wane. Much as he hated to admit it, it seemed to Carnarvon that Davis might have been right in his observation that the Valley of the Kings had been exhausted as an archaeology site.

Carter was summoned to Hieghclere to receive the bad news that Carnarvon was giving up.

Carter had been expecting as much, and he made an appeal to finance from his own pocket one final
season of work. Any find would still belong to Carnarvon, as holder of the concession. Impressed by
Carter's commitment, Lord Carnarvon relented, even agreeing to finance the final season.

Though Carter started the next season perhaps with little optimism, that all changed on November 4th,1922, just three days after starting what he must have thought would be his last season with Carnarvon.

He discovered the top of a sunken staircase that by the end of the day would reveal 12 steps and the upper part of a plastered blocking, stamped over its entire surface with large oval seals. Carter could not read the name on the seals, but biting his tongue, he ordered the stairway to be refilled and the next day dashed off the now famous telegram to Carnarvon who was still in England.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 08:08:32 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/carnarvon4.jpg)






Carnarvon made it to Egypt with his daughter, Lady Evelyn Herbert, about two weeks later and work began in earnest on the tomb on November 24th.

After the stairway was completely cleared and the full expanse of the plastered doorway could be seen, it was clear that Carter had indeed discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun.

At first, their enthusiasm was somewhat dampened, for at the top left-hand corner of the blocking were signs of re-closure, suggesting that the tomb had been entered during antiquity. They began by clearing the descending corridor, which also showed signs of a robber's efforts. By 4:00 pm on the afternoon of November 26th, the corridor was cleared and the team found a second door, again faced with plaster, stamped over with oval seals, and re-closed at the top left-hand corner.

Not knowing what lay behind this doorway, Carter made a small hole in it and inserted a candle to test for foul gases. He then peered into the void beyond, reporting:



"At first I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flame to flicker,

but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from

the mist, strange animals, statues, and gold - everywhere the glint of gold".



                                (http://www.tportal.hr/2006/03/16/0273007.19.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 08:13:26 am
(http://www.principadoasturias.net/2006/nancy/nancy/html/ej6/imagenes/image013.jpg)







Unfortunately, Lord Carnarvon would not live long enough to enjoy much of his success.

Following the official opening of the tomb's burial chamber and all of the excitement that surrounded it, Lord Carnarvon departed for Aswan on February 28th for a few days rest. About this time, he was bitten on the cheek by a mosquito, which he inadvertently opened up while shaving. Despite treating the wound, it became infected and he was soon running a temperature.

(http://www.selket.de/images/grabung.jpg)

He allowed his daughter to confine him to bed rest, which seemed to help, for two days later he was up and about again.  However, he suffered a relapse almost immediately, and arrangements were made for him to be moved to the Continental-Savoy in Cairo. Now, he contracted pneumonia, which was to mean his end.

(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/carnarvon8.jpg)

There was enough time for Lady Carnarvon, accompanied by her husband's physician, Dr. Johnson, to arrive by air in a Puss Moth from England, soon to also be joined by their son, Lord Porchester. But on the morning of April 5th, it was all over.

Carter records in his diary that, "Poor Ld. C. died during the early hours of the morning".


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 08:17:06 am
                                  (http://idd0073h.eresmas.net/public/artic11/05_m07.jpg)








One of the most famous discoveries ever unearthed in Egypt was not all that Lord Carnarvon left behind when he died. Early on, Carter came up with a business suggestion which appealed to Carnarvon's pocket and added a little spice to their adventures. According to Carnarvon's successor,

"Carter suggested... that some of the expenses of the work might well be defrayed by buying antiques in the bazaar in Cairo or elsewhere to sell them to collectors at a handsome profit. Carter proved very adept at this business and I...heard them talk of many good deals brought off in this fashion."

The Metropolitan Museum of Art and the British Museum both benefited from this arrangement, though the scheme may or may not have ever realized much profit. For one thing, 's salary seems to have been a very good one for the times, and secondly, much of their "stock" seems to have passed directly into Lord Carnarvon's own collection. Carnarvon's taste for Egyptian art was developing rapidly, and by the time of his death, what had started off as a somewhat random assortment of purchased and excavated pieces ranked as one of the finest private collections of Egyptian artifacts in the world.

When Carter listed the objects in November of 1924, they numbered some 1,218 objects or groups of objects. According to the terms of his will, the antiquities, should his wife choose to dispose of them, should be offered to the nation, and therefore the British Museum, for 20,000 pounds sterling, which was far below their true value. If the British Museum refused them, he suggested that they be offered to the Metropolitan Museum in New York at a price to be negotiated and fixed by Carter.

Lady Carnarvon was unenthusiastic about offering the collection to the nation at a discount price, but did so anyway, giving the director of the British Museum until 4 pm on the same day to make payment. Of course, they could not meet this deadline, so she then offered the collection to the Metropolitan for $145,000, which they quickly snapped up.


http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/carnarvon.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 08:20:32 am
(http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/2662253.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=6E41E83E90A345BDAF4A566F16FC43A8A55A1E4F32AD3138)


 01 Jun 1921

Lord Carnarvon, Lady Carnarvon

(Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 08:31:02 am
(http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/tutankhamun/images/prevs/0641019.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on November 23, 2007, 08:34:43 am
                              (http://egipto.com/tut_ankh_amon/img/web3.jpg)







                                     NOVEMBER 24, 1922  -  85 YEARS AGO TODAY
















Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 07, 2007, 08:02:27 am







                                               Golden Age Of King Tut



                Watch Tut's Treasures Dec 16th 8PM Only On National Geographic Channel



Channel.NationalGeographic.Com


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 10, 2007, 08:40:10 am
(http://bp0.blogger.com/_4fY64AUpvVk/Rvki3MExtuI/AAAAAAAAACs/cq1pBRmCJ8s/s1600/DSCN8388.JPG)





http://luxoroneday.blogspot.com/2007/09/fruitful-discovery-in-tuts-tomb.html

CLICK ON IMAGE


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 10, 2007, 08:43:05 am
(http://bp0.blogger.com/_4fY64AUpvVk/Rvki3MExtuI/AAAAAAAAACs/cq1pBRmCJ8s/s320/DSCN8388.JPG)








 This colossal statue of King Tutankhamun (at 17 ft. 4 in., the tallest ancient Egyptian statue in the Western Hemisphere, and weighing in at approximately 12,000 pounds) can be found at the Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago. I took this photo during my Egyptology tour of Chicago in early August. The statue was discovered near Medinet Habu (west bank at Luxor--ancient Thebes) in the Temple of Aye and Horemheb in 1930.

Below are two photos showing, somewhat poorly I'm afraid, the placard attached to the statue. (If you click on either of them you will open an enlarged view which, of course, is much easier to read.) It's a fascinating story!


http://luxoroneday.blogspot.com/2007/09/fruitful-discovery-in-tuts-tomb.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 10, 2007, 08:44:40 am
(http://bp0.blogger.com/_4fY64AUpvVk/Rvkp9MExtyI/AAAAAAAAADM/u2dkk32s08Q/s1600/DSCN8396_2.JPG)


http://luxoroneday.blogspot.com/2007/09/fruitful-discovery-in-tuts-tomb.html
CLICK ON IMAGE


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 10, 2007, 08:47:24 am
(http://bp1.blogger.com/_4fY64AUpvVk/Rvkp8cExtxI/AAAAAAAAADE/_9GbQ-Du-bI/s1600/DSCN8396_3.JPG)


http://luxoroneday.blogspot.com/2007/09/fruitful-discovery-in-tuts-tomb.html

CLICK ON IMAGE


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 10, 2007, 09:04:05 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Tutankhamun_oriental_institute_Chicago.jpg)









                                                        Colossal Statue of Tutankhamun
 




Oriental Institute archaeologists working at Thebes excavated this statue of King Tutankhamun. It had been usurped by succeeding kings and now bears the name of Horemheb.

Tutankhamun wears the double crown and the royal nemes headcloth of the pharaohs; a protective cobra goddess (uraeus serpent) rears above his forehead. In his hands the king grasps scroll-like objects thought to be containers for the documents by which the gods affirmed the monarch's right to divine rule. The sword at his waist has a falcon's head, symbol of the god Horus, who was believed to be manifested by the living pharaoh. The small feet at the king's left side were part of a statue of his wife, Ankhesenpaamun, whose figure was more nearly life-sized.

The facial features of this statue strongly resemble other representations of Tutankhamun from his famous tomb, which was discovered relatively intact in the Valley of the Kings.


https://oi.uchicago.edu/museum/highlights/egypt.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 10, 2007, 09:09:24 am
(http://bp0.blogger.com/_4fY64AUpvVk/Rvki3MExtuI/AAAAAAAAACs/cq1pBRmCJ8s/s1600/DSCN8388.JPG)





http://luxoroneday.blogspot.com/2007/09/fruitful-discovery-in-tuts-tomb.html

CLICK ON IMAGE


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 10, 2007, 08:47:10 pm
(http://cofcc.org/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/tut3.gif)








                       Egyptian Head of Antiquities rebukes American black supremacists.





CofCC.org News Team

More information on race in ancient Egypt.

There is a growing list of famous people, whom American black supremacists now claim were actually black or part black. In some cases elements of the mainstream media have reported some of these claims as fact. Groups like the NOI, the New Black Panthers, and even the all-black church which Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey attend make these claims. Examples include Cleopatra (a Greek), Hannibal (a Carthaginian of Phoenician origin), Beethoven, the Olmecs (DNA tests show they are most closely related to the Chinese and have no Negro DNA), and many more.

Now the head of Egyptian Antiquities has directly rebuked one of their silly claims–that the Egyptian King Tutankhamun was black. In fact, militant groups such as the New Black Panther Party, have actually staged protests in front of museums to demand that images of Tutankhamun be painted black. Several different teams of forensic scientists from multiple countries have studied the remains of Tutankhamun and have all independently classified him as “North African Caucasoid.”

Egyptian antiquities supremo Zahi Hawass insisted Tuesday that Tutankhamun was not black despite calls by US black activists to recognise the boy king’s dark skin colour.

“Tutankhamun was not black, and the portrayal of ancient Egyptian civilisation as black has no element of truth to it,” Hawass told reporters.

“Egyptians are not Arabs and are not Africans despite the fact that Egypt is in Africa,” he said, quoted by the official MENA news agency.

Hawass said he was responding to several demonstrations in Philadelphia after a lecture he gave there on September 6, 2007 where he defended his theory.


http://www.cofcc.org/?p=704


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 13, 2007, 04:16:47 pm







                         Podcast: “The Ancient Near East in the Time of Tutankhamun”





The Oriental Institute offers an audio podcast for use while touring the Wonderful Things! The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun; The Harry Burton Photographs exhibit, which is on display through Oct. 8, 2006.

The audio files can be downloaded as a podcast to an MP3 player. If you are familiar with downloading files to your MP3 player, you can access the files here. If not, please follow these steps to download the files using iTunes.

iTunes is a free application offered by Apple; it can be used in either a Mac or Windows operating system. To download the application, visit Apple's website. Once you have installed the software, follow the instructions below.

Open iTunes and click into the Podcast view by highlighting "Podcasts" under the "Source" navigation bar on the left-hand side.
From the "Advanced" pulldown menu, select "Subscribe to Podcast..."
Paste the following URL into the resulting dialog box and click OK: http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/06/audio/tut.xml
Expand the view of the "Oriental Institute King Tutankhamun Exhibit Walking Tour" files by clicking the arrow to the left of its title.
iTunes will automatically download the introductory "episode" (.mp3 file) of the walking tour; to download the other .mp3 files, click the "GET" button alongside each episode name.
Once all 11 files are downloaded, you can then transfer them to your MP3 player; consult your own player's documentation for more information on this process.
The files are meant to be listened to in order. "OI Walking Tour: An Introduction" is the initial file. After that, the audio directions will guide you through the exhibit. Use the number in each file title to determine which to listen to next: Cartouche No. 1, Cartouche No. 2, Cartouche No. 3, etc.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Oriental Institute Museum is located on the campus of The University of Chicago at 1155 East 58th Street, Chicago. Museum hours are: Tuesday through Saturday, l0:00 am-6:00 pm, Wednesday until 8:30 pm, Sunday noon to 6:00 pm, closed on Monday. Suggested donation for admission to the museum is $5.00 for adults and $2.00 for children. Telephone for program information: (773) 702-9514, or http://www.oi.uchicago.edu.

 

http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/06/060523.tut-podcast.shtml
Last modified at 12:37 PM CST on Wednesday, June 14, 2006. 

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Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 13, 2007, 06:56:25 pm
(http://afp.google.com/media/ALeqM5jMG4WPf3yV-OisOmJP8p4nB9l7Rg?size=m)

Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt's Supreme
 Council of Antiquities, speaks about an exhibit of
treasures of Tutankhamun (King Tut), and other
Valley of the Kings tombs and ancient sites.


Eight baskets filled with fruits preserved for more than
3,000 years have been discovered by Egyptian
archaeologists in Tutankhamun's tomb, the Supreme
Council of Antiquities said.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 13, 2007, 06:59:40 pm







                                 Ancient Egyptian fruit hampers found in King Tut's tomb





Sep 24, 2007

CAIRO (AFP) — Eight baskets filled with fruits preserved for more than 3,000 years have been discovered by Egyptian archaeologists in Tutankhamun's tomb, the Supreme Council of Antiquities said on Monday.

A team of Egyptian archaeologists, led by antiquities supremo Zahi Hawass, made the disovery in the Valley of the Kings in the ancient city of Thebes, the modern-day Luxor, in southern Egypt.

"The eight baskets contained large quantities of doum fruits, which have been well preserved," Hawass said in a statement.

The fruit baskets are each 50cm (nearly 20 inches) high, the antiquities department said.

The sweet orange-red fruit, also known as the gingerbread fruit, comes from the Doum Palm, a native of southern Egypt, and was traditionally offered at funerals.

Twenty pear-shaped containers, one metre (three feet) in height and bearing Tutankhamun's official seal were also discovered.

According to Hawass, the containers are probably full of provisions that were destined to travel with the pharaoh to the afterlife. They will be opened soon, he said.

The boy king's intact tomb caused an international sensation when it was discovered by Briton Howard Carter in 1922. More than 5,000 beautifully preserved objects -- including a chair with an intact wicker seat and a cosmetic jar which still contained animal fats and resins -- were found.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 13, 2007, 07:03:20 pm
(http://www.plantapalm.com/vpe/photos/Species/Pics/hyphaene_coriacea1.JPG)

DOUM PALM - Hyphaene coriacea










A team of Egyptian archaeologists, led by antiquities supremo Zahi Hawass, made the discovery in the Valley of the Kings in the ancient city of Thebes, the modern-day Luxor, in southern Egypt.

"The eight baskets contained large quantities of doum fruits, which have been well preserved," Mr Hawass said in a statement.

The fruit baskets are each 50 centimetres high, the antiquities department said.

The sweet orange-red fruit, also known as the gingerbread fruit, comes from the doum palm, a native of southern Egypt, and was traditionally offered at funerals.

Twenty pear-shaped containers, one metre in height and bearing Tutankhamun's official seal were also discovered.

According to Mr Hawass, the containers are probably full of provisions that were destined to travel with the pharaoh to the afterlife. They will be opened soon, he said.

- AFP


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 13, 2007, 07:14:08 pm
(http://www.plantapalm.com/vpe/photos/Species/Pics/hyphaene_coriacea_fruit.JPG)

DOUM PALM FRUIT










From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Doum Palm in Northern Sudan

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
 
Division: Magnoliophyta
 
Class: Liliopsida
 
Order: Arecales
 
Family: Arecaceae
 
Genus: Hyphaene
 
Species: H. thebaica
 
 
Binomial name
Hyphaene thebaica
(L.) Mart.
 
                                                              Hyphaene thebaica



The thebaica, (الدوم in Arabic), is a type of palm tree, Hyphaena thebaica, also called gingerbread tree,
with edible oval fruit, originally native to the Nile valley. It is a member of the palm family, Arecaceae.
Its fibre and leaflets are used by people along the Nile to weave baskets (e.g.Material Culture of
the Manasir).
 
The northernmost habitat of the Doum Palm is in Evrona, about 20 kms north of Eilat, Israel.

The doum palm fruit is also known in Eritrea as Akat, or Akaat in the Tigrinya language. The thin dried brown rind is made into molasses, cakes, and sweetmeats. The unripe kernals are edible. The shoots of
the germinated seeds are also eaten as a vegetable. Herb tea of doum is popular in Egypt and believed
good for diabetes.

It was considered sacred by the Ancient Egyptians and the seed was found in many pharaoh's tombs


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 11:34:47 am







It occurs as dense, fire-resistant forests of coastal arid regions from East Africa to India. While it is propagated from seeds, which take a very long time to become eatablished, it can also be planted from suckers originating at the base.

The vegetative parts of the doum palm, trunk and leaves, are used much as are those of other palms in weaving and construction. In addition, the young, still not unfolded leaves are used for weaving versatile mats. The sap obtained from tapping the apex of the palm has the usual multiple purpose, but its use is prohibited in some countries because of the alcoholic toddy. The fruit pulp has the smell of gingerbread, hence one name of the palm. It is used in cooking in various ways, and varieties differ in their edibility. While the unripe kernel is edible, the ripe kernel is too hard and used only as a vegetable ivory.

To the peoples of the deserts where doum palms are found, this palm is a life-sustaining blessing.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(http://touregypt.net/marketplace/tomb/annex/claypots_b.jpg)

The Annex contained about 40 wine jars







                                                                   King Tut Red





The discovery of jars of wine in King Tuts tomb prompted a team of Spanish scientists to try and determine if the boy king preferred red or white wine. An analysis of residues in 2005 revealed that the jars contained syringic acid, which implied that the wine was made with red grapes.

www.livescience.com


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 12:29:30 pm
(http://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/web/6241_web.jpg)







                                       Amarna - Ancient Egyptian glassmaking recreated





3000-year-old furnace rebuilt by archaeologist

The reconstructed kiln built by Dr. Paul Nicholson of Cardiff University and Dr. Caroline Jackson of Sheffield University.

 
A team led by a Cardiff University archaeologist has reconstructed a 3,000-year-old glass furnace, showing that Ancient Egyptian glassmaking methods were much more advanced than previously thought.

Dr Paul Nicholson, of the University’s School of History and Archaeology, is leader of an Egypt Exploration Society team working on the earliest fully excavated glassmaking site in the world. The site, at Amarna, on the banks of the Nile, dates back to the reign of Akhanaten (1352 - 1336 B.C.), just a few years before the rule of Tutankhamun.

It was previously thought that the Ancient Egyptians may have imported their glass from the Near East at around this time. However, the excavation team believes the evidence from Amarna shows they were making it themselves, possibly in a single stage operation. Dr Nicholson and his colleague Dr Caroline Jackson of Sheffield University demonstrated this was possible, using local sand to produce a glass ingot from their own experimental reconstruction of a furnace near the site.

The team have also discovered that the glassworks was part of an industrial complex which involved a number of other high temperature manufacturing processes. The site also contained a potter’s workshop and facilities for making blue pigment and faience - a material used in amulets and architectural inlays. The site was near one of the main temples at Amarna and may have been used to produce materials in state buildings.

Dr Nicholson, who has been working at Amarna since 1983, said: “It has been argued that the Egyptians imported their glass and worked it into the artefacts that have been discovered from this time. I believe there is now enough evidence to show that skilled craftsmen could make their own glass and were probably involved in a range of other manufacturing industries as well.”


###
Dr Nicholson has now written a book detailing the discoveries made at Amarna. Entitled Brilliant Things for Akhenaten, it is published by the Egypt Exploration Society (London) and available through Oxbow Books in the UK and The David Brown Book Company in the USA.

Yahoo News




SEE PICTURES OF THE ORIGINALS HERE:


http://atlantisonline.smfforfree2.com/index.php/topic,706.90.html


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 01:12:45 pm







RAW MATERIALS OF GLASS FROM AMARNA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGINS OF EGYPTIAN GLASS*





A. J. SHORTLAND


11Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford University, 6 Keble Road, Oxford, 0X1 3QJ, UK and M. S. TITE11Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford University, 6 Keble Road, Oxford, 0X1 3QJ, UK1Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford University, 6 Keble Road, Oxford, 0X1 3QJ, UK
*Received 14 April 1999, 15 July 1999.





Abstract



Analysis has been conducted on 19 blue glasses from Amarna in Middle Egypt dated to around 1350 BC. The results suggest that these glasses fall into two distinct types: cobalt coloured glasses with a natron based alkali made from local Egyptian materials, and copper coloured glasses with a plant ash alkali, which follow a Mesopotamian tradition of glass making. It is suggested that at least some of this copper/plant ash glass is imported into Egypt during the Amarna period despite extensive local production of cobalt/natron glass. Existing analyses (Lilyquist and Brill 1995) of the earliest glass from the reign of Tuthmosis III (c. 1450 BC) suggest that during this period the same two types of glass are present. Local Egyptian cobalt and natron in these early glasses implies that, despite the lack of archaeological evidence for production sites, glass was produced from its raw materials in Egypt as early as the reign of Tuthmosis III.





This article is cited by:

A. J. SHORTLANDand K. EREMIN. (2006) THE ANALYSIS OF SECOND MILLENNIUM GLASS FROM EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA, PART 1: NEW WDS ANALYSES*. Archaeometry 48:4, 581–603
Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF

A. J. SHORTLAND and M. S. TITE and I. EWART. (2006) ANCIENT EXPLOITATION AND USE OF COBALT ALUMS FROM THE WESTERN OASES OF EGYPT*. Archaeometry 48:1, 153–168

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF
C. M. JACKSON and C. A. BOOTH and J. W. SMEDLEY. (2005) GLASS BY DESIGN? RAW MATERIALS, RECIPES AND COMPOSITIONAL DATA*. Archaeometry 47:4, 781–795

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF

A. Jones. (2004) Archaeometry and materiality: materials-based analysis in theory and practice*. Archaeometry 46:3, 327–338

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF

M. S. Tite and A. J. Shortland. (2003) Production Technology for Copper- and Cobalt-Blue Vitreous

Materials from the New Kingdom Site of Amarna—A Reappraisal*. Archaeometry 45:2, 285–312

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF
I. C. Freestone and K. A. LeslieM. Thirlwalland Y. Gorin-Rosen. (2003) Strontium Isotopes in the Investigation of Early Glass Production: Byzantine and Early Islamic Glass from the Near East*. Archaeometry 45:1, 19–32

Abstract Abstract and References Full Text Article Full Article PDF
Users who read this article also read:
THE ANALYSIS OF SECOND MILLENNIUM GLASS FROM EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA, PART 1: NEW WDS ANALYSES*

A. J. SHORTLANDand K. EREMIN
Archaeometry, Volume 48, Issue 4, Page 581-603, Nov 2006, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2006.00274.x
Abstract| References| Full Text HTML| Full Text PDF (208 KB)

LEAD ISOTOPE AND TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF OVER A HUNDRED SOUTH INDIAN METAL ICONS*
S. SRINIVASAN

Archaeometry, Volume 41, Issue 1, Page 91-116, Feb 1999, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.1999.tb00854.x
Abstract| References| Full Text PDF (1946 KB)

LEAD GLAZES IN ANTIQUITY—METHODS OF PRODUCTION AND REASONS FOR USE*
M. S. TITE, I. FREESTONE R. MASON, J. MOLERA, M. VENDRELL-SAZ N. WOOD
Archaeometry, Volume 40, Issue 2, Page 241-260, Aug 1998, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.1998.tb00836.x
Abstract| References| Full Text PDF (1498 KB)

LEAD ISOTOPIC ANALYSIS OF EIGHTEENTH-DYNASTY EGYPTIAN EYEPAINTS AND LEAD ANTIMONATE COLOURANTS*

A. J. SHORTLAND, P. T. NICHOLSON C. M. JACKSON
Archaeometry, Volume 42, Issue 1, Page 153-157, Feb 2000, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2000.tb00873.x
Abstract| References| Full Text PDF (307 KB)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 01:35:44 pm
(http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/hisar/people/pn/pn.jpeg)

Dr. Paul T. Nicholson

Senior Lecturer in Archaeology
HISAR, Cardiff University,
PO Box 909, Cardiff CF10 3XU







Research interests



My research falls into three broad areas: Egyptian archaeology, early technology and archaeological science.

I have been involved in ceramic provenancing work on pottery from Egypt and from the German Iron Age. As part of my Egyptian research, I have undertaken several ethnoarchaeological projects, one of which - The Potters of Deir Mawas - has been published as a video film by my colleague Dr. Willemina Wendrich (at UCLA) and myself.   Copies of this are available for teaching purposes.

Most of my fieldwork in Egypt is conducted under the auspices of the Egypt Exploration Society and involves students and recent graduates from Cardiff.





Early Vitreous Materials: Tell el-Amarna & Memphis



My current research concerns the production and technology of ancient Egyptian Glass and faience (a non-clay ceramic). As part of this work I am excavating an industrial site at Tell el-Amarna in Middle Egypt, the earliest glass factory so far excavated.

The importance of Amarna as an early centre of glass production was first recognised by Sir Flinders Petrie who excavated there in 1891-2, though without finding evidence of furnaces.  The new work has sought to clarify his findings and interpret them in the light of more recent research.  A glass furnace, based on an excavated example during the project, has been reconstructed there as an experiment by myself and Dr. Jackson of Sheffield University (see 3D reconstruction by Glyn Ryland).


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 01:39:19 pm
(http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/hisar/people/pn/Amarna-kilns2,3and4.1994.jpeg)

The glass furnaces at Amarna site 045.1, and a smaller kiln
for pottery or faience (Reproduced courtesy of the

Egypt Exploration Society


http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/hisar/people/pn/








In 2000 I began work at Kom Helul, Memphis in Lower Egypt, where there is a Ptolemaic/Roman faience workshop.  This site too was first investigated by Petrie, whose interpretation of it coloured his thinking about his Amarna finds and vice versa.   Both of these projects have involved students from the Archaeology and Conservation sections at Cardiff.  The excavations at Amarna and Memphis have been funded from a number of sources including The British Academy, The Wainwright Fund for Near Eastern Archaeology, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom Trust and the Thames Valley Ancient Egypt Society.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 01:42:18 pm
(http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/hisar/people/pn/MemphisKiln.jpeg)

Part of the probably faience kiln excavated at
Kom Helul Memphis, site HAC3

(Reproduced courtesy of the Egypt Exploration Society)



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 04:44:20 pm





                                                     Stages in the making of raw glass





Grinding of the material as fine as possible, and mixing

Heating (750-850 degree Celsius) of the material (called fritting), constant stirring (for 5 hours and longer) of the material

(to reduce air in the mixture)



Petrie believed the fritting was done on pans (UC 36457 is the fragment of such a pan, found at Amarna)



(http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/amarna/archive/uc36457.jpg)

melting in vessels (UC 25042 - fragment of raw glass from Amarna)

(http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/amarna/archive/uc25042.jpg)



Cooling and grinding

Glass worked over an open fire



There is still much discussion over whether the raw glass was imported from the Near East or produced in Egypt.



Nicholson/Henderson 2000: 197


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 04:50:39 pm
(http://www.heliosgallery.com/noframes/egypt/images/whitethotha.jpg)

 Amarna white glass Tauret amulet

Antiquities > Egyptian


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 05:01:22 pm
(http://www.amarnaproject.com/images/recent_projects/excavation/grid12/top_bar.jpg)









(http://www.amarnaproject.com/images/recent_projects/excavation/grid12/2005/23.jpg)







                                                    T H E   A M A R N A   P R O J E C T






Poppy seed-head(?) pendant

Q6 (10281)
Length 0.9 cm. Diameter 0.5 cm. Glass

Solid pendant in the shape of a poppy seed-head(?) made from opaque mid blue glass. The shape recalls faience pendant type C13B, but it is formed in the round. The stem has been broken off, presumably taking with it the aperture. Much of the surface is covered by flat planes, almost invisible with the naked eye, indicating that the piece has been cold-worked. The base is flat and slightly more textured than the remaining faces, and may be an original, unworked surface.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 05:05:05 pm
(http://www.amarnaproject.com/images/recent_projects/excavation/grid12/2005/31.jpg)








                                                T H E   A M A R N A   P R O J E C T





35575 Fragment of end of folded green glass bar
V8 (11048)
Length 1.5 cm. Width 2.2 cm. Thickness 0.4 cm. Glass



Many fragments of glass bars were found at Grid 12. They typically have a roughened outer surface, probably caused by rapid shrinkage during setting. Some, like the current piece, seem to have been formed by folding a flat strip. The folds are visible both in plan and in section across the intact end of this fragment.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 05:13:00 pm
(http://www.amarnaproject.com/images/recent_projects/excavation/grid12/2005/33.jpg)






                                               T H E   A M A R N A   P R O J E C T




36708 Two joined glass rods



V8 (10804)

Length 0.5 cm. Combined width 0.5 cm. Single rod diameter 0.3 cm. Glass

Cylindrical glass rods are common at Grid 12 (see also object 36981 below). Here, two cylindrical drawn glass rods, one pale and one mid blue, have been fused together side by side to create a two-colour rod of double-barrel cross section. The surface area of the join represents about 60% of the thickness of the rods. One explanation for the making of this piece is that it was a step preparatory to twisting it (and perhaps drawing it out further) for adding to the outside of glass earrings, on which thin twists of glass are sometimes seen.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 05:18:49 pm
(http://www.amarnaproject.com/images/recent_projects/excavation/grid12/2005/34.jpg)






                                                   T H E   A M A R N A   P R O J E C T





36981 End of drawn glass rod with pinch marks



T8 (10818)

Length 4.0 cm Width 1.4 cm Thickness 0.5 cm. Glass

Outer end of a drawn glass rod. The end is broad and rounded and the broad faces are flat where they have been held and pinched by presumably a pair of tongs.



http://www.amarnaproject.com/pages/recent_projects/excavation/grid_12/2005.shtml


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 05:29:03 pm






                                          T H E   H I S T O R Y   O F   G L A S S
 



 
The very beginning



The invention of glass was a chance discovery when seafarers found small glass remains in their beach fires. Around 2500 BC Phoenician merchants were stranded with their ship at the mouth of the river Belus, on the coast of what is now the Lebanon. The merchants, who traded in soda, decided to spend the night on the beach. While they were preparing their food they couldn’t find any suitable stones upon which to put their kettles. Instead they used blocks of soda from the ship. The hot soda became mixed with sand and the merchants saw to their amazement that due to the heat of the fire, the soda and sand had transformed into a glass-like molten mass. According to Plinius the Elder, who in the first century AD wrote his Naturalis Historica, this was how the secret of producing glass was discovered.



 
 
Egypt





(http://www.cobelver.com/articles/160/images/producten/geschiedenis_glas/g27_ag.jpg)


The first real objects were Egyptian and Syrian cosmetic bottles from around1500 BC. Glass vases and bottles
were a luxury in ancient Egypt. The large number of examples that have been preserved from the 18th dynasty
form the best evidence of the enormous prosperity that the higher class people then enjoyed.

Glassware was most desirable, not only because of the attractive shapes that were incorporated into the manufacture, the colourful decorations, or for their function as containers for ointments and perfume, but also because these objects were actually royal products, produced in the regal palaces.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 05:59:28 pm
(http://www.cobelver.com/articles/160/images/producten/geschiedenis_glas/lensvormig%20flesje%2018dynastie.jpg)






The great number of glass bottles that came out of the ruins of the palaces of Amenhotep III
at Malqata and Amenhotep IV (Achnaton) at Amarna, show that these objects were primarily for household use.
The glass vases were all individual wonderful creations of workmanship.

Their manufacture demanded great discipline. It was only in the year 50 BC that glass blowing techniques were invented, as glass was made earlier with the 'core-forming technique'.
 
Thereby glass threads were wound around a core of mixed clay with an organic binding agent.
The outside of the vase or bottle when formed was then smoothed by grinding it over a flat surface.
Any handles, feet and edges were then put on the object and finally the clay was removed.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 06:06:01 pm
(http://www.cobelver.com/articles/160/images/producten/geschiedenis_glas/g27_bg.jpg)






According to Flinders Petrie, the discoverer of the glass factory in Amarna, the core-forming technique originated in Syria. The oldest examples of Egyptian core glass dates back to the reign of Thoetmosis (ca. 1500 BC). The three most common shapes were the crater, the amphora and the palm-pillar.


The first two types were used to keep perfume. The palm-pillar tubes were used for cosmetic materials which many women as well as men used for eye make-up. Vases in the shape of a pomegranate, used for perfume are seen somewhat less frequently.


http://www.cobelver.com/company.aspx?iSectionID=141&iArticleID=160&l=EN


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 06:22:48 pm
(http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/9/9d/350px-Amarna_Map.png)

MAP OF AMARNA






(http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/exhibits/amarna/images/photo12.jpg)




Molds, Amarna, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten (1353-1336 BCE)

Excavators found a huge volume of faience and glass items, including decorative elements like inlays for royal buildings in Akhenaten's new royal city. This industrial activity helped support Amarna’s economy.

 Thousands of faience molds, such as the ones pictured here, attest to the massive output of small objects in that material. Some may also have been exported and traded throughout Egypt. The popularity of faience and glass at the time may rest in part on their shiny, glittering, and dazzling surfaces, perhaps understood as reflecting elements of the Aten.



Photo: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 06:34:30 pm
(http://msnbcmedia4.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Art/TECH/050616/GLASS_MAP.hlarge.jpg)

The ancient trade in glass, as shown on this map, involved a complex system for transporting ingots of raw glass for processing into ornamental objects including beads, vessels and jewelry.






                                         How Egypt turned dust into treasures of glass





By Kathleen Wren
Science
Thurs., July. 7, 2005

WASHINGTON - Archaeologists have uncovered for the first time the remains of a Bronze Age glass factory, where skilled artisans made glass from its raw materials. Surprisingly, this factory, which was bustling around 1250 B.C., is in Egypt rather than Mesopotamia, which is generally thought to be where glass was first made.

Glass was extremely valuable during the Bronze Age, so this discovery implies that Egypt may have enjoyed more clout than was previously thought as a producer of this sought-after substance.

The oldest-known glass artifacts of consistently high quality date back to approximately 1500 B.C. These may have been made in Mesopotamia.

“But this is the first place that we have been able to put our fingers on and say, ‘Here it was and this is how they did it,’” said Thilo Rehren of University College London in London. “Until now we have only seen the final products of the glassmaking process, and nothing showing the level of skill and organization in which it was done.”

Rehren and Edgar Pusch from the Pelizaeus-Museum in Hildesheim, Germany describe their findings in Friday's issue of the journal Science, published by AAAS, the nonprofit science society.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 06:47:38 pm








A precious commodity





The most common glass objects made during this time period were glass beads and vessels with narrow necks, which may have held perfume or other valuable liquids. They were often made of blue glass, colored to emulate precious stones like turquoise and lapis lazuli, inlaid with white and yellow lines.

(http://msnbcmedia3.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/050616/050616_tutmask_bcol_10a.standard.jpg)

Amr Nabil / AP

King Tutankhamun's gold mask, on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, contains glass inlays colored to look like lapis lazuli.

 
“These were not everyday items. This was absolutely a pharaoh-level of home decoration,” Rehren said.

Most of these objects have been found in Egypt and the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that was once Mesopotamia. They were made in two separate stages.

In the primary production stage, glass was made from plant ash and crushed quartz dust into round disks or “ingots.” In the secondary stage, the ingots were melted down and re-formed into specific objects. Many clues — such as a Late Bronze Age shipwreck off the coast of Turkey that contained a cache of cobalt-blue glass ingots — indicate that the ingots could have been made in one location and then exported to distant locations for the second stage.

“In the last 20 years, we archaeologists have realized this is a serious issue. We can tell the style of the glass objects, but we don’t necessarily know where the glass came from,” Rehren said.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 06:58:15 pm
(http://www.mideastweb.org/egypt_ancient_map.gif)








Importer or exporter?





Some indirect evidence has suggested that the Mesopotamians produced glass before the Egyptians did. For example, a victory inscription from an Egyptian pharaoh who had returned from battle claimed he had brought back skilled glassworkers from Mesopotamia. Some Egyptian tomb paintings also show people who appear to be Syrian bringing glass to Egypt, according to Rehren.

In the late 19th century, Sir Flinders Petrie discovered the remains for Bronze Age glass production in Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, though there was conflicting evidence over whether this was primary or secondary glass production.

Clay tablets at the Amarna site documented a request by Pharaoh Akhenaten for glass to be brought to Egypt, suggesting that glass was not produced in Egypt but only reworked there.


On the other hand, the blue glass ingots found in the Turkish shipwreck matched the dimensions of the glass molds found at Amarna, suggesting that perhaps primary glass production did occur there after all.




(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4d/Amarna_Map.png/554px-Amarna_Map.png)

MAP OF AKHETATEN (Amarna)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 07:20:13 pm










Beer jars and special vessels





The artifacts recently discovered at Qantir were clearly used in primary glass production, according to Rehren.

(http://msnbcmedia3.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/050616/050616_glass1_hmed_9a.jpg.standard.jpg)

Science

Glass was coloured and heated in this ceramic vessel, which is about 6.7 inches (17 centimeters) across.

 

They were found in a large cluster of workshops where hundreds of artisans once worked, also making bronze doors and glazed bricks. The workshops were part of the industrial quarter of a new capital on the Nile Delta that was one of the many building projects undertaken by Ramesses the Great during a peaceful period in Egypt.

In the workshops, the researchers found over 1,000 fragments of various vessels used for producing glass from its raw materials.

Ceramic vessels that may have been recycled beer jars held the plant ash and crushed quartz while they were heated to relatively low temperatures. One of the vessels the researchers found was still full of this semifinished glass.



(http://msnbcmedia.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/050616/050616_glass2_bcol_9a.jpg.standard.jpg)

Science

This jar fragment shows where ceramic material (in red) met raw glass (white). The thin yellow line between the jar and glass is a lime-rich substance that kept the glass from sticking to the jar.

 

After cooling, the jars were smashed to remove the semifinished glass inside, and then the glass was crushed and washed to remove salt from the plant ash, leaving behind the ash’s key ingredient, soda, bonded to the quartz. The processed powder was then poured through funnels into specialized crucibles, colored (mostly red but also blue and purple), and then heated to higher temperatures to form true glass.

Once the crucible cooled, it contained a glass ingot ready to be sent to another workshop for remelting. Most of the fragments at Qantir have a thin layer of lime on their inner sides, which would have prevented contamination and helped the ingot separate from the container when the crucible was broken apart.

The researchers didn’t find any evidence of the hearth or furnace used, but they hope to continue investigating the site.


 


In a commentary also published by Science, Caroline Jackson of Britain's University of Sheffield notes that glass was difficult to work, complicated to produce and available in vivid, symbolically significant colors. As such, it was probably a royal commodity exchanged as a gift to enhance power, status and political allegiances.

Any group that controlled the production or consumption of glass would have occupied a powerful political or social position, according to Jackson. Based on the findings at Qantir and the previously excavated site of Amarna, Egypt may have been a major exporter of glass, she writes.

The glass artifacts from Qantir are now staying put in Egypt, however. In the past, so many Europeans removed artifacts from Egypt that the government now bans any export of the ancient material.

© 2007 American Association for the Advancement of Science


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 14, 2007, 07:47:42 pm
(http://www.archaeology.org/online/interviews/tutgallery/06.jpg)

King Tutankhamun's royal diadem is made out of gold and inlaid with glass,
obsidian, carnelian, and other semiprecious stones. The diadem contains a
vulture and uraeus (rearing cobra) that served as protective icons to keep
the young king safe during his journey to the underworld.

This diadem was still around King Tutankhamun's head when Howard Carter
opened the royal tomb in 1922.

(http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/53073895.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=17A4AD9FDB9CF1939847EC77F5F8D1CE5F07661E515528F6A40A659CEC4C8CB6)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 17, 2007, 06:59:05 am
(http://www.freewebs.com/egyptologi/Map_Ancient_Egypt.png)










                                     Ancient Egyptian Industrial Complex Revealed





LiveScience.com
Fri Dec 14, 2007
 
Ancient Egyptians were even more inventive and productive than scholars have thought, according to new findings that depict surprisingly advanced glass-making abilities alongside an industrial complex.

The site, at Amarna, is on the banks of the Nile and dates back to the reign of Akhenaten (1352-1336 B.C.), just a few years before the rule of Tutankhamun.

Historians have said Egyptians of that time imported their glass. But a team led by archeologist Paul Nicholson of Cardiff University in Wales has reconstructed a 3,000-year-old glass furnace, showing that ancient Egyptian glassmaking methods were much more advanced than thought.

The researchers used local sand to produce a glass ingot from their own experimental reconstruction of an ancient furnace near the site.

They also discovered that the glassworks was part of an "industrial complex," as they've described it. The site contained a potter’s workshop and facilities for making blue pigment and materials used in architectural inlays.

The site was near one of the main temples at Amarna and may have been used to produce materials for state buildings, the researchers figure.

"It has been argued that the Egyptians imported their glass and worked it into the artifacts that have been discovered from this time," Nicholson said. "I believe there is now enough evidence to show that skilled craftsmen could make their own glass and were probably involved in a range of other manufacturing industries as well."

The findings, announced today, are detailed in the book "Brilliant Things for Akhenaten" (Egypt Exploration Society, 2007).


Gallery: Amazing Egyptian Discoveries


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 17, 2007, 08:41:31 am









                                                 Glassworks in Ancient Egypt 
 





These days, glass is everywhere. It's in your windows, your mirrors, and your drinking containers. People in ancient Egypt had glass, too, but it was special, and scientists have long debated where this valuable material came from.

Now, researchers from London and Germany have found evidence that the Egyptians were making their own glass as far back as 3,250 years ago. The discovery defies a longstanding theory that ancient Egyptians imported glass from Mesopotamia.

(http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050629/a820_13.2-3.bb.fob.jpg)

Archaeologists have found a variety of items
used in glassmaking, including this ceramic
container, at an ancient Egyptian glass
factory.

Glass was colored and heated in this vessel,
which is about 7 inches across. The inset
shows glass ingots from a Bronze Age ship-
wreck near Turkey that fit Egyptian molds.
 
© Science
 


The oldest known remnants of glass come from an archaeological site in Mesopotamia. The shards are 3,500 years old, and many experts assumed that this site was the source of fancy glass items found in ancient Egypt.

The new evidence, uncovered in an Egyptian village named Qantir, however, shows that an ancient glassmaking factory had operated there. Artifacts from Qantir include pottery containers holding glass chunks, along with other traces of the glassmaking process.

(http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050629/a820_2100.jpg)

This piece is all that remains of a
 clay funnel used to help pour
glass powder into a ceramic
vessel.
 
© Science
 


Chemical studies of the remains suggest how the Egyptians made their glass, the researchers say. First, the ancient glassmakers crushed quartz pebbles together with the ashes of burnt plants. Next, they heated this mixture at low temperatures in small clay jars to turn it into a glassy blob. Then, they ground the material into powder before cleaning it and using metal-containing chemicals to color it red or blue.

In the second part of the process, the glassworkers poured this refined powder through clay funnels into ceramic containers. They heated the powder to high temperatures. After it cooled, they broke the containers and removed solid disks of glass.

Egyptian glassmakers probably sold and shipped their glass to workshops throughout the Mediterranean. Artisans could then reheat the material and shape it into fancy objects.

(http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050629/a820_3668.jpg)

This map shows the Egyptian village Qantir,
where a glass factory was located, and
trade routes that would have carried glass
from the Nile Delta to other parts of the
Mediterranean.
 
© Science
 


Now that glass is so easy to come by, it might be hard to imagine how special it was back then. At the time, wealthy people exchanged sculpted glass pieces as a way to make political bonds with each other. If you hand someone a piece of glass today, they'd probably just toss it in a recycling container!


http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050629/Note3.asp


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 17, 2007, 08:57:45 am
(http://touregypt.net/magazine/mag08012001/jewelry2.jpg)







Certainly great care was taken with the glass jewelry. It is painstakingly handcrafted: a tremendous amount of workmanship and effort went into the creation of Tutankhamun's necklace and collar, for instance.

There is nothing careless, haphazard or remotely disrespectful about the glass pieces. The craftsmanship is as detailed and patient as that given to any work of gold.

Furthermore, while Tutankhamun's vulture necklace is encrusted with red and blue glass on one side, the body of the necklace is solid gold.

Even considering that substituting glass for gemstones might have decreased economic value, the piece still remains a priceless and beautiful luxury.


http://touregypt.net/magazine/mag08012001/mag4.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 17, 2007, 04:01:13 pm
(http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/hisar/people/pn/Amarna-kilns2,3and4.1994.jpeg)

KILNS AT AMARNA (AKHETATEN)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 21, 2007, 10:45:18 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutpolitics5.jpg)






                                             Politics and the King Tut Discovery





by Jimmy Dunn

Politics have always taken an important part in Egyptian archaeology, as they continue to do today. As we gaze upon the wonders of the Tutankhamun treasures, it should come as no big surprise that politics also played a big part in that discovery, becoming in fact the real curse of King Tut's tomb.

In general, many of the worlds greatest scholars, even today, are not some of the world's greatest politicians, even though their work often comes under political scrutiny. This can also be said about Howard Carter, so the death of his financier and the more politically savvy Lord Carnarvon on April 5, 1923 could not have come at a worst time. Afterwards, irregardless of how proficient Howard Carter was as an excavator, he proved to be a very poor diplomat at a time when the whole Tut tomb affair had become a very tricky political situation.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 07:15:26 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutpolitics3.jpg)






The disaster was actually initiated by Lord Carnarvon himself when, on January 9th, 1923, he signed a contract with The Times of London, giving them exclusive rights to the details of the Tutankhamun discovery. It seemed like a good idea at the time, both financially and practically, but in reality it turned out otherwise. First of all, the agreement with The Times was felt to be an affront by not only the news media in Egypt, but the news media throughout the rest of the world as well. One must always keep in mind that this was a time of limited media, before the age of television, radio and the numerous media that so impact our world today. Thereafter, Howard Carter and his team had to suffer what might be called guerilla warfare and general mischief making from the desperate Time's competitors. One of them, the Daily Mail, even employed one of Carters old rivals, Arthur Weigall, as their special correspondent.

According to Aruther Mace, a member of the Tutankhamun excavation team, in a letter to his wife Winifred:

"...the atmosphere of Luxor is rather nerve-wracking at present. The Winter Palace is a scream. No one talks of anything but the tomb, newspaper men swarm, and you daren't say a word without looking round everywhere to see if anyone is listening. Some of them are trying to make mischief between Carnarvon and the Department of Antiquities, and all Luxor takes sides on way or the other. Archaeology plus journalism is bad enough, but when you add Politics it becomes a little to much..."

Furthermore, this was a difficult time in Egypt. There was a serious and growing movement for an independent Egyptian state, even though it would take another three decades to achieve. For those involved in the movement, known as Nationalists, the Times agreement provided a big stick with which to beat not only the British "colonialists", but foreigners in general. It would eventually result in the Tut expedition's undoing, at least for a while.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 07:17:42 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutpolitics4.jpg)






After the official "discovery" of the tomb on February 16, 1923, and the revelation that the boy king laid undisturbed within his tomb, there was a growing pressure to make the find public. There was also the legal question of the treasure's division. If the tomb was classified as "intact", the Egyptian Government would, under the terms of the concession, be entitled to deny the excavators' claims to any share of the objects that were recovered.

Indeed, the issue of how best to deal with the discovery created difficulties between Carter and Carnarvon which ultimately resulted in a falling out between the two men. On February 23rd, 1923, Carter went so far as to demand that Carnarvon never enter his house again. Yet, that did not prevent the cloud of doom that fell over the expedition camp following Lord Carnarvon's death some months later. Lord Carnarvon had not only been their sponsor, but an influential one as well.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 07:19:42 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutpolitics2.jpg)






Between the first and second excavation season, Carter spend the summer in England, where he managed to persuade Lady Carnarvon to renew the concession under her own name. She readily agreed to this, but she also renewed the Times contract which had been the cause of so much grief the previous season.

By October of 1923, Carter was back in Egypt to begin his second season at the tomb, but thanks to his poor handling of the political situation, even more problems would arise this season. It began when Carter, with a clear aim of circumventing a call from journalists that all or none be present when an announcement on the find was made, decided that Merton, the Time's correspondent, would no longer be regarded as a journalist but as a member of the excavation team. Hence, the Times would still get the news first.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 07:22:14 pm







At the same time, the Egyptian Government, and in particular Pierre Lacau who was now the Director General of the Antiquities Service, had been under increasing pressure to take action over the Times monopoly, especially by the Nationalists who resented considerably the lack of Egyptian involvement in the Tut excavation. At the time, a sound political move would have been for Carter to immediately brief the Egyptian press, which would have probably gone a long way in smoothing over the situation. Yet stubbornly, Carter refused to budge on the matter. It would not take long for the tension between Carter and Lacau to escalate into downright unpleasantness.

Matters finally came to a head following the official lifting of the sarcophagus lid on February 12th, 1924. Carter intended to allow the wives of the expedition members to visit the tomb the following day. However, this was thwarted by the newly appointed Nationalist Minister of Public Works, Morcos Bey Hanna. Hanna was certainly no friend of the English, who had attempted to have him hanged for his political activities some years before, and Carter could see nothing in the Minister's action except a personal affront to himself, his colleagues and to England. On the other hand, Mace, one of Carter's principal team members, simply saw it as petty jealousy, "spoiling the dream of every Egyptologist".

In a letter to his mother, Winifred Mace remarked:

"The whole is a disagreeable business and Carter is such an autocrat that to be thwarted at every turn takes all reason from him."

Thus, "looking desperately ill and in a fury", Carter carried out an earlier threat and closed the tomb, leaving the sarcophagus lid hanging precariously by its ropes. He then posted a notice in the lobby of the Winter Palace in Luxor explaining the reason for his actions:

"Owing to the impossible restrictions and discourtesies of the Egyptian Public Works Department and its antiquity service, all my collaborators, as a protest, have refused to work any further upon their scientific investigations in the tomb".


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 07:23:14 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutpolitics6.jpg)






That was Howard Carter's biggest mistake. By closing the tomb, he had played into Lacau's hands, violating the terms of his concession and allowing Lacau to void the agreement. Afterwards, the Egyptian Government declared that it would finish the work. Legal action on the part of Carter to re-establish the concession came to nothing, and he, fuming with indignation and frustration at having been so completely outmaneuvered, soon left for England and an American lecture tour.

Meanwhile, in Egypt things when from bad to worst, with the discovery of a gessoed wooden head of the boy king packed as if ready to be shipped out of the country. Furthermore, Carter privately published a pamphlet containing "a full statement of the facts which have led us to the present position with the Egyptian government". One of the appendices removed by Carter from many copies of the booklet contained embarrassing transcripts of Herbert Winlock's coded telegrams and letters warning Carter of problems. The printing of this ill-judged pamphlet cost Carter the support of many friends and allies.

Were it not for the terrorist murder of the British Sirdar, Sir Lee Stack, on November 19th, Carter might very well have never returned to Egypt. Afterwards, the British tightened their control over Egypt, which included disbanding the Nationalist Government, which allowed Carter to return to his excavation, though now on Egyptian terms.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 07:25:18 pm
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutpolitics1.jpg)






He received the new concession, still in Lady Carnarvon's name, on January 13th, 1925. Under the new agreement, The Times of London would loose its monopoly on the discovery news, and the Carnarvon estate, despite vague promises of one or two duplicates when the tomb had been fully cleared, was required to abandon any formal claim to the king's treasures. As compensation for the expenses incurred during the excavation, the Carnarvon estate was given the sum of 36,000 pounds sterling in 1930, which marked the end of the Carnarvon financial commitment to the excavation. The final seasons would be financed by the Egyptian government and by Howard Carter himself.

In the end, there was considerable relief when Carter took back the excavation, even by Lacau. It was a monumental task, and as Winlock remarked, "there is no better person to whom this dedicated stuff could have been entrusted". While Carter may not have been a good politician, he was unquestionably a great excavator, and in truth, it was a job that no one else wanted. Work on clearing the tomb and conserving the objects would continue for  more than seven years, and the study of its contents and preparation for publication would hang as a burden around Carter's neck for the rest of his life.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on December 26, 2007, 07:28:44 pm






Resources:

                         Title      Author      Date      Publisher      Reference      Number






Complete Tutankhamun, The Nicholas Reeves 1990 Thames & Hudson, LTD ISBN 0-500-27810-5

Masterpieces of Tutankhamun Silverman, David P. 1978 Abbeville Press, Inc. ISBN 0-89659-022-4

Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, The Howard Carter 1927 Cassell & Company, Ltd ISBN 0 7156 3075 X

Treasures of Tutankhamun Metropolitan Museum of Art 1976 Metropolitan Museum of Art ISBN 0-87099-156-6

Treasures of Tutankhamun British Museum 1972 Thames & Hudson Ltd ISBN 0 7230 0070 0

Tutankhamun (His Tomb and Its Treasures) Edwards, I. E. S. 1977 Metropolitan Museum of Art; Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0-394-41170-6

Tutankhamun's Jewelry Edwards, I.E.S 1976 Metropolitan Museum of Art ISBN 0-87099-155-8




http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutpolitics.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 05, 2008, 06:58:59 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutexcavation1.jpg)






                                                   Excavating the Tomb of Tutankahmun





by Jimmy Dunn

The tomb of Tutankhamun, which is today designated as KV 62, was number 4.33 in Howard Carter's sequence of discoveries since 1915. It did not take Lord Carnarvon and Carter long to appreciate the enormity of the discovery and its implications. While Arthur Callender, a close friend of Carter, had been helping him, more assistance in clearing the tomb would certainly be needed. When, soon after the discovery, Albert Lythgoe, then Curator of the Metropolitan Museum's Egyptian Department, cabled his congratulations and offered help, Carter took him at his word, responding:

"Thanks message [of congratulations]. Discovery colossal and need every assistance. Could you consider load of Burton in recording in time being? Costs to us. Immediately reply would oblige. Every regard, Carter, Continental, Cairo."

Close ties had already existed between Carter, Carnarvon and the Metropolitan Museum, and so Carter was granted his request. In due course, the Metropolitan Museum's generosity would be rewarded when Carter helped them acquire the Carnarvon collection.

However, within a matter of days, Carter received other offers of help. On December 9th Alfred Lucas, a chemist with the Egyptian Government, came forward. With him aboard, the clearance of Tutankhamun's tomb seems to have been the first ever archaeological expedition to have its own resident chemist.

Then on December 12th Arthur Mace, an Egyptologist with the Metropolitan Expedition, was also put at Carter's disposal. Six days later, James Breasted, Director of the Oriental Institute in Chicago arrived to begin work on the seal impressions which covered the plastered blockings. The Metropolitan team also provided him with Hauser and Hall, two architects who began work on drawing a plan of the objects in situ. Then, on January 3rd, Alan Gardiner, a British philologist, arrived to start work on the inscriptions.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 05, 2008, 07:02:29 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutexcavation2.jpg)






Others would eventually join the team, including Percy Newberry, another of Carter's old friends. It became a showpiece of academic cooperation that would in time also draw in Douglas Derry of the Cairo Anatomy School, and Seleh Bey Hamdi of Alexandria to conduct the postmortem examination of the mummy, Battiscombe Gunn to work on the ostraca for the final publication, L. A. Boodle, a botanist from Kew Gardens, James R. Ogden, a Harrogate jeweler to report on aspects of the gold work, Alexander Scott and H. J. Plenderleith of the British Museum for analytical assistance, G. F. Hulme of the Geological Survey of Egypt, and others.

Part of the reason that there was so much politics surrounding the discovery and excavation of the tomb of Tutankhamun was that Howard Carter was a very advanced excavator for his time. It is said that anyone else would have had the tomb cleared and the objects it contained on display within a month of the tomb's discovery, but it took Carter almost a decade to carefully preserve and remove the treasures to Cairo. The difference shows the caution with which Carter approached this undertaking, which more resembles the efforts of modern excavators.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 05, 2008, 07:05:21 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutexcavation3.jpg)






Of course, most of the political challenges came in the first two seasons of work, creating distractions and difficulties, but afterwards, Carter and his team settled into a thorough and methodical routine, maintaining complete records for each discovery and working to preserve each antiquity as they were brought out of the tomb. The excavation used the tomb of Ramesses XI (KV4) as a storeroom for supplies and for minor finds from the stairwell and corridor, and later the tomb of Seti II (KV15) was turned into a secure field conservation laboratory and photographic studio. Also, KV55, just across the path from the Tut's tomb, was made into a darkroom for Harry Burton.

Howard Carter established a routine for processing what must have seemed like an endless flow of treasures from the tomb. Each object or group of objects was given a reference number. The main reference numbers ranged from 1 to 620, though there were subdivisions for objects within a numbered group denoted by the use of single or multiple letters (a, b, c, etc). Additional subdivisions were noted by bracketed Arabic numerals. Group no. 620 is anomalous in that it was given subdivisions numbered from 1 to 123. (i.e. 620:1 to 620:123).


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 05, 2008, 07:09:08 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutexcavation4.jpg)






The distribution of object numbers throughout the tomb was as follows:



1a-3
4
5a-12t
13
14-170
28
172-260
261-336
171
337-620:123 Entrance staircase
first sealed doorway
Corridor
second sealed doorway
Antechamber
sealed doorway into the Burial Chamber
Burial Chamber
Treasury
partially dismantled Annex blocking
Annex



After objects in the tomb were provided with reference numbers, photographs were taken of the items in situ with and without the reference number cards. The camera was repositioned several times in order to show every object at least once in one of the shots. A brief description was also provided, as well as a sketch if appropriate, on a numbered record card (by Carter or Mace), and the place of the objects discovery was located on a ground plan of the tomb (prepared by Hall and Hauser). Afterwards, the piece was removed to the laboratory for treatment by Lucas and Mace, where more photographs were made. After the conservation of the object was completed, a further photograph was made.

This routine was carried out for many thousands of objects, over several seasons, sometimes in sweltering heat, and under pressure from the press, who were soon complaining about the excessive time the clearance was taking. There was also a constant flow of visitors to the tomb, including some 12,000 at the height of the King Tut hysteria between January 1 and March 15th, 1926.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 05, 2008, 07:12:10 am
(http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutexcavation5.jpg)






Clearance of the Antechamber was begun on December 27th 1922. It took seven weeks to finish, and used up more than a mile of cotton wadding and 32 bales of calico to secure the objects. Afterwards, and at the end of each successive season, the objects were crated up with extreme care using hundreds of feet of timber, and transported to the Nile river using the human powered Decauville (narrow gauge) railway. Though only a relatively short distance, the train track was not permanent and Carter was given only a meager number of rail-lengths that had to be constantly "leapfrogged", so it took some 15 hours to move the train to the river during the heat of the summer months.

Only the gold coffin and mask were not transported by river. They were conveyed by a train in a special "Service Car" with an armed guard from the Egyptian army.

At the end of each season, for security against not only theft but also floods, the tomb entrance was covered over with a watertight wooden blocking erected over a wooden portcullis, and guarded by a local policeman.

Carter would later tell us that:

"It had been our privilege to find the most important collection of Egyptian antiquities that had ever seen the light, and it was for us to show that we were worthy of the trust."





Resources:



Title Author Date Publisher Reference Number

Complete Tutankhamun, The Nicholas Reeves 1990 Thames & Hudson, LTD ISBN 0-500-27810-5

Masterpieces of Tutankhamun Silverman, David P. 1978 Abbeville Press, Inc. ISBN 0-89659-022-4

Tomb of Tut.ankh.Amen, The Howard Carter 1927 Cassell & Company, Ltd ISBN 0 7156 3075 X

Treasures of Tutankhamun Metropolitan Museum of Art 1976 Metropolitan Museum of Art ISBN 0-87099-156-6

Treasures of Tutankhamun British Museum 1972 Thames & Hudson Ltd ISBN 0 7230 0070 0

Tutankhamun (His Tomb and Its Treasures) Edwards, I. E. S. 1977 Metropolitan Museum of Art; Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0-394-41170-6

Tutankhamun's Jewelry Edwards, I.E.S 1976 Metropolitan Museum of Art ISBN 0-87099-155-8


http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/tutexcavation.htm


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:20:00 am








                                    A New Explanation of King Tutankhamen’s Death





by W Benson Harer Jr, MD, DHL

ABSTRACT

Recent unwrapping and computerized tomographic studies of the mummy of King Tutankhamen confirm major anomalies as compared to other royal mummies. Most notable is the excision of a large segment of the anterior thorax by the embalmers. This unique feature was probably required by the condition of the corpse. The most likely explanation is that Tut sustained a crushing injury to the chest.

An incidental distal femur fracture occurring shortly before death was also noted.

How these findings would impact the embalming process is discussed along with the reasoning why the most likely cause of all postulated injuries would be due to the kick of a horse.




—————————————————————————————————




Controversy and speculation have abounded since the original autopsy of King Tutankhamen revealed he was just a youth when he died.

The recent uncovering and computerized tomographic (CT) scanning of the mummy of King Tutankhamen provide evidence of multiple anomalies in the preparation of his mummy compared to other royal mummies of the era. These include:



entry to the skull through the foramen magnum as well as the nose to extract the brain

removal of the sternum and adjacent rib portions and overlying skin

absence of a heart scarab and NO heart present

use of a transverse unsutured abdominal incision to extract abdominal viscera* replacement of all viscera including

kidneys with resin soaked linen packing

absence of an embalmers wedjat eye plate over the incision

placement of the lower arms across the abdomen rather than crossed over the chest


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:23:52 am
(http://archaeologyrocks.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/bigtut-skull-pp-3.jpg)






While the mummification process varied over the millennia according to wealth and status and style, it was quite consistent for the royal mummies known to us from the New Kingdom.

The brain was extracted through the nose. The liver, stomach, intestines and lungs were extracted via a left abdominal flank incision.

The heart was left in place.

The mummy was wrapped with a heart scarab to protect it and a wedjat eye plate to protect he abdominal incision.

Arms crossed over the chest signified royalty.

As we see, such was not the case for Tut.

Analysis of factors which might induce the embalmers to deviate so markedly from the standards of the day in such a lavish burial may provide insight into the cause of the king’s death– a subject of much speculation and often of a sensational nature.

Since no expense was spared in equipping him for the after life, why would his corpse be treated so differently? The answer must be that the condition of the king’s corpse mandated these unparalleled deviations from the norm.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:27:35 am
(http://archaeologyrocks.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/bigtut-selim-knee-ct-pp.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:30:17 am
(http://archaeologyrocks.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/bigct-thoraxpp.jpg)







These anomalies could be accounted for if the embalmers were confronted with a body with a lacerated, crushed-in chest and a broken leg.

They could easily deal with the leg, but such a chest would pose major difficulties in the embalming process.

Perhaps they first tried to achieve some sort of normal configuration of the thorax, but failing that they then chose to excise the damaged area by cutting the skin around it and neatly sawing through the ribs to remove most of the anterior chest wall.

Furthermore, the CT of the thorax shows it to be entirely filled by linen packing up to the level corresponding to the normal external chest. ( Ref. 1, Fig 1) Therefore, the embalmers must have removed both heart and lungs.

Many have believed that Derry and Carter removed the chest wall and failed to record it; but they could not have removed the heart while all the chest packing remained intact as it is today.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:34:27 am
(http://archaeologyrocks.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/bigtutegypt2007-135.jpg)






Another recent theory is that the ribs were sawed through with a hacksaw and that the chest wall including the clavicles was removed en bloc by tomb robbers stealing two last strings of beads left by Carter ( Ref 2). This would have occurred sometime between his reinterment and 1968 when Harrison x-rayed the mummy. It would have been a formidable task for either Derry or the robbers because of the rock hard packing which would prevent anything but sawing almost level with the chest. That in turn would result in cutting of the ribs in a fairly straight line.

Such is not the case as is readily seen from both x-rays and the CT scans which also show that the clavicles are still present , but displaced (Fig. 2 ). The pattern of cut ribs is more compatible with the embalmers sawing though in an irregular pattern dictated by the extent of injury.



Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:39:00 am







It might also be viewed by the officials and priests in charge that such a horrific injury represented a source of danger to the king in the afterlife and, therefore, must be expunged. This would especially be true if the heart was also damaged by the initial injury. Such belief would account for the failure to preserve the excised section of the body. To avoid contamination by this defiled area, the arms were placed below it instead of the typical arms crossed position of other kings. I know of no other mummy, royal or otherwise, in which the chest was treated in this fashion. Such belief would also justify the need for excessive amounts of sacred oils which were poured over the body causing the “spontaneous combustion” which reduced much of the linen wrapping to a carbonized state. (Ref 2: pp 120,151)

This excision would expose the heart and lungs which would then be easily removed. Under these circumstances it would be pointless to carry out the usual flank incision to extract lungs and abdominal contents, so instead they made a simple transverse incision from the left of the umbilicus to extract the abdominal viscera. (Fig. 3) Since the body already had a huge opening in the anterior thorax, it would be pointless to suture the abdominal incision and protect that artificial orifice with the standard wedjat eye embalmer’s plate.

Since the chest was lying open, amuletic jewelry and a beaded “bib” was placed to cover that area where the sternum, ribs and skin had been excised. A dozen layers of other protective jewelry above the bib also included a large “scarab of resin” as ”a meager substitute for the usual heart scarab.” (Ref 2: pp127-128)

The photos taken by Harry Burton after removal of the last layer of cover of the thorax show the cut ends of the ribs (Fig 4), but neither Carter nor Derry remarked on this nor did they describe the skin of the chest as being present or absent. The recent examination showed clearly that there is no skin present and that the entire section was excised by the embalmers. Furthermore, in that photo we can now clearly recognize that the protective strings of beads imbedded in the resin and packing in the chest were at a level contiguous with the remaining chest wall.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:40:08 am







It is equally clear from the original x-ray of the body that the sternum and adjacent ribs are absent with the ribs cut more widely on the left than the right (Fig 5 ). Careful inspection of the original photograph of the exposed body shows that the cut ends of some ribs were visible but were not identified as such at the time. The recent CT scans provide confirmation of this, and that the ribs were neatly cut out.(Fig 6)

A corpse with a caved in chest may also have posed some problems with the usual procedure for extraction of the brain through the nose. Clearly this was attempted, but probably was unsatisfactory because of difficulty in positioning the body prone with the skull properly aligned to permit drainage. This first effort would produce the first occipital fluid level (Fig 7) as seen in most royal mummies.

In order to complete the process they resorted to separating the first cervical vertebra, the axis, from the skull and pouring in additional resin through the foramen magnum. This would be done with the head pendant anteriorly resulting in a second fluid level at a 90 degree angle to the first. This larger orifice would permit easy drainage of the liquified cerebral tissue by simply flexing the head forward from the supine position. King Aahmosis, the first king of the 18th Dynasty, is the only other royal mummy of the era in which the foramen magnum approach was used. (Ref 4) The recent CT scans confirm that the embalmers did utilize the foramen magnum (Fig 8). Had this been done first there would have been no need for the attempt to extract the brain through the nose.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:41:10 am
(http://archaeologyrocks.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/bigct-femurs-l-pp.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:42:12 am







Faced with a massive chest defect, which may have been considered as an area of desecration, the arms were positioned below that region with the right arm on the left upper pelvis and the left over it to the level of the inferior thorax. In addition to the postulated chest trauma the recent CT confirms the presence of a fracture of the distal femur which occurred shortly before his death (Fig 9). Such a fracture would pose no challenge to the embalmers to provide satisfactory alignment. Today there are countless numbers of fractures in the brittle bones, but the left femur fracture is unique with evidence of some of the embalming material seen in it.

We now see that the postulated injuries could account for the embalming anomalies,. But what could cause such a pattern of injury? Trauma is the obvious answer, and there appears to be a consensus that Tut died an accidental death with a chariot accident proposed as most likely. However, my analysis indicates that no type of chariot accident is likely to cause such trauma.

Consider the nature of the chariot and possible accidents. One is not caught unaware of the thundering hooves of a speeding chariot to be hit head on. There would be some effort to avoid it, to assume a defensive posture. The horses would strike first rather than the body of the vehicle. The height of the axles of Tut’s six chariots was under 50cm. Even if it were turning so that the wheel hit first, it would strike at about the level of Tut’s knee. If it continued to roll over him, there would be much more than the postulated chest injury.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:43:21 am
(http://archaeologyrocks.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/bigxray-kneespp.jpg)


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:44:55 am







If Tut fell from a speeding chariot there would also be a different pattern of injury. When people fall from a moving vehicle their bodies are in motion. This results in a tumbling action as they hit with multiple fractures of extremities and often the skull and /or spine rather than the isolated leg fracture, Tut ‘s body does not conform to this pattern. While an isolated open fracture of the leg could easily cause death, it would not justify the unique treatment of excising the anterior chest wall.

Let us now consider the nature of injury to the victim of a kick by a horse. The victim can be alone or with a large group, but just has to be momentarily in the “kill zone”.The event occurs without warning and with lightening speed like the blink of an eye. The victim has little chance to avoid it. Tut was 5′6″ tall, so a horse could easily strike him in the lower chest. With little or no clothing in that area to protect him, the hooves would easily tear the skin and fracture multiple ribs. Even if his lungs were not punctured, his chest would not be able to expand adequately for him to breathe. The impact to the heart could also cause instant death. The thrust of the kick would be up and back. Since Tut weighed only 125 pounds, his body could easily be tossed so that he fell in such a manner as to fracture his leg on landing.

An isolated fracture such as demonstrated on the CT could be a cause of death, especially if the skin were broken to permit infection. However, that explanation fails to justify the dramatic deviations from the typical mummification of a king. It is unlikely that there was any other cause of the postulated chest trauma other than a kick from a horse. <


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:46:13 am







There were three other animals in Tutankhamen’s environment capable of inflicting such injuries–the crocodile, the hippopotamus and the wild aurochs bull. Certainly exposure to them would have been vastly less frequent than to horses.

The wild aurochs bull, which kings are sometimes shown hunting, is capable of inflicting the postulated injury. However, the circumstances of the hunt with the king in a chariot with a large entourage makes a scenario with him facing a bull to be gored in the chest like a modern matador exceedingly unlikely.

Traveling with an entourage, it is equally unlikely that the king would be in a situation on land where he would be exposed to attack from either crocodile or hippo. However, he might somehow fall out of a skiff in which case a crocodile could draw him under to drown him and then devour part of his body. However, a crocodile’s jaws would grasp across his chest and its sharp teeth would inflict damage on both front and back. Tut’s body did not sustain such injury. An open fracture of the femur is also improbable from such an encounter.

Hippos have been reported to upset a small boat and then bite their victims. The hippo has sharp tusks on the lower jaw which can easily rip open the body while the upper jaw serves as an anvil or vise. Such a hippo attack is defensive rather than gastronomic, and could produce the damage postulated for the king’s corpse. Again it is unlikely that the King with an entourage could end up isolated on land in such circumstances that a hippo could catch him head on to inflict such injury.

Death by hippo is an enticing consideration because of the association of the hippo with the god Seth. This would add a special component of evil and desecration of the body. It might explain the arms being placed below the area of injury instead of across the chest. Certainly they would not want to record the triumph of the evil Seth in murdering the young god king.

Beguiling as the hippo theory may be, I must rate this a distant second choice. His exposure to horses would be far more frequent, and a horse can kick someone who is with a group who just happens to be in the wrong zone at the wrong moment. Therefore, a kick in the chest by a horse is the most likely explanation for the unique aspects of the king’s embalmed mummy and the cause of his death.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:47:35 am







I want to thank Dr. Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, for permitting me to study the CT scans of the royal mummies and for providing these illustrations.



A. Selim. Radiologists Attempt to Solve Mystery fo Tut’s Demise. Presentation at Radiological Society of North America 92nd Annual Assembly, Chicago, 27 November, 2006.

D. Forbes, S. Ikram and J.Kamrin. Tutankhamen’s Missing Ribs. KMT 18:1, pp 50-56.Spring 2007.

H. C. Carter and A.C. Mace. The Tomb of Tutankh-Amen discovered by the Late Earl of Carnarvon and Howard Carter Vol. II. (London, 1927). 120,127-128, 151..

G.E. Smith and W.R. Dawson. Egyptian Mummies (London, 1924) 89.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on January 19, 2008, 06:49:16 am






ILLUSTRATIONS



Fig.1 Longitudinal CT section through thorax showing only packing with no heart present.

Fig.2 CT of chest showing clavicle present, but displaced.

Fig 3. Location of transverse incision. High lateral incisions were performed until the time of Tuthmoses III. Thereafter the low lateral incision was used.

Fig 4. Photo of chest after removal of final covering. Ends of ribs can be seen as well as the position of arms across upper abdomen.

Fig 5. X-ray of chest. Note absence of sternum and anterior ribs.

Fig 6. CT scan of chest confirming identification of ribs from Fig 3.

Fig 7. X-ray of skull showing two discrete resin fluid levels. The occipital level 1 with resin introduced through the nose with the head in normal supine posture. Level 2 resulted from introduction through the foramen magnum with head dependent and flexed anteriorly. A loose fragment of bone (3) from perforation of the foramen magnum is also seen.

Fig 8. CT scan showing where embalmers opened the foramen magnum to instill resin and complete extraction of brain.

Fig 9 CT scan showing incidental fracture of distal femur which probably occurred when he landed after his body was tossed by the lethal blow to his chest.


http://archaeologyrocks.com/cultures-countries/ancient-egypt/12


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on February 25, 2008, 07:37:57 pm
                                        (http://www.grahamphillips.net/eden/aten.jpg)







                                                    T H E   G R E A T   A T E N




In connection with the Sun-gods of Egypt and with their various forms which were worshipped in that
country must be considered the meager facts which we possess concerning Aten, who appears to have represented both the God or Spirit of the Sun, and the Solar Disk itself.

The origin of this god is wholly obscure, and nearly all that is known about him under the Middle Empire
is that he was a small provincial form of the Sun-god which was worshipped in one little town in the
neighborhood of Heliopolis, and it is possible that a temple was built in his honor, in Heliopolis itself. It
is idle to attempt to describe the attributes which were orginally ascribed to him under the Middle or
Early Empire, because the texts which were written before the XXIIIrd Dynasty give us no information
on the subject. Under the XVIIIth Dynasty, and especially during the reigns of Amen-Ra-Heru-khuti,
Horus, etc., but it does not follow that they orginally belonged to him.

In the Theban Recession of the Book of the Dead, which is based upon Heliopolitan, we find Aten men-
tioned by the deceased thus :---


"Thou, O Ra, shinest from the horizon of heaven, and Aten is adored when he resteth {or setteth}
upon this mountain to give life to the two lands. Hunefer says Ra, Hail, Aten, thou the lord of beams
of light, {when} thou shinest all faces {i.e., everybody} lives.

Nekht says Ra, O thou beautiful being, thou doest renew thyself and make thyself young again under
the form of Aten; Ani says Ra, Thou turnest thy face towards the Underworld, and thou makest the
earth to shine like fine copper.

The dead rise up to thee, they breath the air and they look upon thy face when Aten shineth in the
horizon;------I have come before thee that I may be with thee to be-
hold thy Aten daily: O thou who art in thine Egg, who shinest from thy Aten," etc.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on February 25, 2008, 07:44:27 pm
(http://www.egyptartsite.com/images/winged.gif)







These passages show that Aten, at the time when the hymns from which they are taken
were composed, was regarded as the material body of the sun wherein dwelt the god Ra,
and that he represented merely the solar disk and was visible emblem of the great Sun-god.

In later times, coming to protection afforded to him by Amen-hetep III, the great warrior
and hunter of the XVIIIth Dynasty, other views were promulgated concerning Aten, and he
became the cause of one the greatest religious and social revolutions which ever convulsed
Egypt.

After the expulsion of Hyksos, Amen, the local god of Thebes, as the god of the victorious
princess of that city, became the head of the company of the gods of Egypt, and the early
kings of the XVIIIth Dynasty endowed his shrine with possessions, and gave gifts to his
priesthood with a lavish hand.

In spite of this however, some of these kings maintained an affection for the forms of the
Sun-god which were worshipped at Heliopolis, and Thothmes IV, it will be remembered, dug
out the Sphinx from the sand which had buried him and his temple, and restored the worship
of Ra-Harmachis. He was not the only monarch who viewed with dismay the great and grow-
ing power of the priests of Amen-Ra, the "king of the gods" at Thebes.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on February 25, 2008, 07:51:17 pm
                                        (http://www.strayreality.com/Lanis_Strayreality/Pics3/goldwings2.jpg)







Amen-hetep III, the son of Thothmes IV, held the same views as his father in this respect,
and he was, apparently, urged to give effect to them by his wife Thi, the daughter of Iuaa
and Thuau, who was a foreigner and who was in no way connected with the royal house of
Egypt.

Having married this lady, he gave her as dowry the frontier city of Tcharu, and her natural
ability, coupled with the favor of her husband, made her chief of all the royal wives, and a
great power in the affairs of the government of the country. It has been thought by some
that she was a native of the country near Heliopolis, and it is possible that she herself was
a votary of Aten, but be that as it may, she appears to have supported the king in his deter
mination to encourage the worship of the god.

At an early period in his reign he built one at Thebes, quite close to the great sanctuary of
Amen-Ra, the priests of whom were, of course, powerless to resist the will of such an active
and able king.

Soon after his marriage with Thi, Amen-hetep III, dug, in his wife's city of Tcharu, a lake,
which was about 6000 feet long by 1000 feet broad. On the day of the festival when the
water was allowed to flow into it, he sailed over it in a boat called "Aten-neferu, i.e., the
"Beauties of Aten ;" the name of the boat is a clear proof of his devotion to the god Aten.

Amen-hetep IV, the son of Amen-hetep III. by the foreign lady Thi, not only held the religious
views of his father, but held them very strongly. His life shows that he must have been from
his youth of an adherent of the worship of Aten; it is supposed, and with much probability,
that the intensity of his love for Aten and his hatred for Amen-Ra were due to his mother's
influence. 


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on February 25, 2008, 07:54:46 pm
(http://euler.slu.edu/Dept/Faculty/bart/egyptimage/34_akhenaten_small2.jpg)







Amen-hetep IV succeeded his father without difficulty, even though his mother was not a
member of the royal family of Egypt, and for the first few years of his reign he followed the
example of the earlier kings of his dynasty, and lived at Thebes, where he no doubt ruled
according to his mothers wishes.

He offered up sacrifices to Amen-Ra at the appointed seasons and was, outwardly at least,
a loyal servant of this god, whose name formed a part of his name as "son of the Sun."

We may note in passing, that he adopted on his accession to the throne the title "High-priest
of Ra-Heru-khuti, the exalted one of the horizon, in his "name of Shu who is in Aten," which is
clear proof that he was not only a worshiper of Ra-Harmachis, another of the forms of the Sun-
god Heliopolis, but also that he endorsed the views and held the opions of the old College of
Priests at Heliopolis, which assigned the disk {Aten} to him for a dwelling-place.

Amen-hetep's titles as lord of the shrines of the cities of Nekhebet and Uatchet, and as the
Horus of gold also prove his devotion to a Sun-god of Heliopolis. During the early years of his
reign at Thebes he built a massive Benhen, in honor of Ra-Harmachis at Thebes, and it is prob-
able that he took the opportunity of restoring or enlarging the temple of Aten which had been
built by his father.

At the same time we find that he worshipped both Amen and Aten, the former in his official
position as king, and the latter in his private capacity.

It was, however, impossible for the priests of Amen -Ra to tolerate the presence of the new
god Aten and his worship in Thebes, and the relations between the king and that powerful body
soon became strained. On the one hand the king asserted the superiority of Aten over every god,
and on the other the priests declared that Amen-Ra was the king of the gods.

As, however, Amen-Ra was the center of the social life of Thebes, and his priests and their
relatives included in their number the best and greatest families of the capital city, it came
to pass that the king found himself at the worship of Aten wholly supported by the great
mass of its population, whose sympathies were with the old religion of Thebes, and by those
who gained their living in connection with the worship of Amen-Ra.

The king soon realized that residence in Thebes was becoming impossible , and the fifth year
of his reign he began to build a new capital on the east bank of the Nile, near a place which is
marked to-day by the Arab villages of Haggi Kandil and Tell el-Amarna ; he planned that it should
include a great temple to Aten, a palace for the king, and houses for those who were attached
to the worship of Aten and were prepared to follow their king there.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on February 25, 2008, 07:58:50 pm
(http://www.osirisnet.net/docu/akhenat/photo/akh_49.jpg)

KHUT - ATEN  -  THE NEW CAPITAL




While the new capital was in the process of building, the dispute between the king and the
priests of Amen-Ra became more severe, and matters were much aggravated by Amenhetep IV.

At length the king left Thebes an took up his abode in his new capital, which he called "Khut-
Aten," i.e., "Horizon of Aten," and as a sign of the entire severance of his connection with
traditions of his house in respect of Amen-Ra he discarded his name "Amen-hetep" and called
himself Khut-Aten i.e., "Glory of Aten," or, "Spirit of Aten." At the time he changed his Horus
name of "Exalted One of the double plumes" to "Mighty Bull, beloved of Aten" {or, lover of
Aten}, and he adopted as lord of the shrines of Nekhebet and Uatchet the title of "Mighty
one of sovereignity in Khut-Aten," and as the Horus of gold he styled himself, "Exalter of the
 name Aten."


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on February 25, 2008, 08:01:56 pm
                                                     (http://www.stencilkingdom.com/images/designs/egypt46_large.gif)







Aten Worship





The temple of Aten at Khut-Aten was like at Heliopolis, called Het Benben, a name which probably
means "House of the Obelisk;" it was begun on a large scale, but was never finished. It contained
many altars wherein incense was burnt and offerings were laid, but no sacrifices of any kind were
offered up on them.

The high-priest of Aten assumed the title of the high-priest of Ra ar Heliopolis, Ur-maau, and in many
respects the new worship was carried on at Khut-Aten by means of many of the old forms and cere-
monies of the Heliopolitain priesthood; on state occasions the king himself officiated.

The worship of Aten as understood by Amen-hetep IV was, however , a very different thing from the
ancient worship of Aten, for whereas that was tolerent the new worship was not. It is clear from the
reliefs which have been found in the city of Khut-Aten that Aten was regared as the giver of life, and
the source of all life on this earth, and that his symbols were the heat and light of the sun which vivi-
fied and nourished all creation.

Aten was also the one physical body of the Sun, and the creed of Aten ascribed to the god a mono-
theistic character or oneness, of which it denied the existance in any other god. This being so, the
new religion could either absorb or be absorbed by the other gods of Egypt, because he had nothing
in common with them.

Attempts have been made to prove that the Aten worship resembled that of the monotheistec wor-
ship of the Hebrews, and to show that Aten is only another form of the name Adon, i.e., the
Phoenician god whom the Greeks knew as Aowvis ; but as far as can be seen now the worship of
Aten was something like a glorified materialism, which had to be expounded by priests, who per-
formed ceremonies similar to those which belonged to the old Heliopolitan sun-worship, without any
connection whatsoever with the relationship of Yahweh, and a being of the character of Adon, the
local god of Byblos, had no place in it anywhere.

In so far as it rejected all other gods, the Aten religion was monotheistic, but to judge by the texts
which describe the power and works of Aten, it contained no doctrines on the unity or oneness of
Aten similiar to those which are found in the hymns to Ra, and none of the beautiful ideas about the
future life, with which we are familiar from the hymns and other compositions in the Book of the Dead.


Title: Re: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN
Post by: Bianca on February 25, 2008, 08:07:44 pm
(http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Nook/7916/AtenStela2.JPG)








The chief source of our knowledge of the attributes ascribed to Aten is obtained from the hymns to
this god which Amen-hetep IV caused to be inscribed on his monuments, and from one of them
which has twice been published in recent years we obtain the following extracts. The hymn is pre-
faced by these words :






1. A hymn of praise to Heru-khuti Harmachis},

who springeth up joyfully in the horizon in his name of 'Shu who is in the Disk,' and who liveth for
ever and for ever, Aten the Living One, the Great One, he who is {celebrated} in the thirty year
festival, the lord of the orbit of the sun, the lord of the sun, the lord of the heaven, the lord of
the earth, the lord of the House of Aten in the city of Khut-Aten,

2. by the king of the South and of the North, who liveth by Maat, the Lord of the Two Lands,
{Nefer-kheperu-Ra-ua-en-Ra}, the son of the Sun, who liveth by Maat, the lord of crowns,
{Khu-en-Aten}, who is great in the duration of his life,

3. and by his great royal wife, his darling, the Lady of the Two Lands,
{Nefert-iti-Nefer-neferu-Aten}, the living one , the strong one for ever.
The hymn proper begins with the words, He {i.e.,, the king}saith,




4. Thy rising is beautiful in the horizon of heaven,

5. O thou Aten, who hadst thine existence in primevel time.

6. When thou risest in the eastern horizon thou fillest every land with thy beauties,

7. thou art beautiful to see, and great, and like crystal, and art high above the earth.

8. Thy beams of light embrace the lands, even every land which thou hast made.

9. Thou art as Ra, and thou bringest {thyself} unto each of them,

10. and thou bindest them with thy love.

11. Thou art remote, but thy beams are upon the earth.

12. When thou settest in the western horizon the earth is in darkness, and is like a being that is dead.

14. They lie down and sleep in their habitations,

15. their heads are covered up, and their nostrils are stopped, and no man can see his neighbour,

16. and all gods and possessions may be carried away from under their heads without their knowing it.

17. Every lion cometh forth from his den,

18. and serpents of every kind bite ;

19. the night becometh blacker and blacker,

20. and thee art his solent because he who hath made them hath sunk to rest in his horixon.

21. When thou riseth in the horizon the earth lightens, and when thy beams shine forth it is day.

22. Darkness taketh to flight as soon as thy light bursteth out, and the Two Lands keep festival daily.

23. Then {men} wake up and stand upon their feet because thou hast raised them up,

24. they wash themselves, and they array themselves in their apparel,

25. and they lift up to thee their hands with hymns of praise because thou hast risen.

26. {Over} all the earth they perform their work.

27. All beasts and cattle repose in their pastures,

28. and the trees and the green herb put forth their leaves and flowers.

29. The birds fly out of their nests, and their wings praise thy Ka as they fly forth.

30.The sheep and goats of every kind skip about on their legs,

31. and feathered fowl and the birds of the air also love {because} thou hast risen for them.

32. The boats float down and sail up the river likewise,

33. for thy path is opened when thou risest.

34. The fish in the stream leap towards thy face,

35. and thy beams shine through the waters of the great sea.

36. Thou makest male seed to enter into women,
     and thou causest the liquid seed to become a human being.

37. Thou makest the man child to live in the body of his mother.

38. Thou makest him to keep silent so that he cry not,

39. and thou art a nurse to him in the womb.

40. Thou givest breath that it may vivify every part of his being.

41. When he goeth forth from the belly, on the day wherein he is born,

42. thou openest his mouth that he may speak,

43. and thou providest him whatsoever is necessary.

44. When the chick is in the egg, and is making a sound within the shell,

45. thou givest it air inside it so that it may keep alive.

46. Thou bringest it to perfection so that it may split the eggshell,

47. and it cometh forth from the egg to proclaim that it is a perfect chick,

48. and as soon as it hath come forth there from it runneth about on its feet.

49. How many are the things which thou hast created!

50. There were.............. in the face of the One God, and his ........... had rest.

51. Thou didst create the earth at thy will when thou didst exist by thyself,

52. and men and women, and beast and cattle, and flocks of animals of every kind,

53. and every thing which is upon earth and which goeth about on its feet,

54. and everything which is in the air above and which flieth about with wings,

55. and the land of Syria and Nubia, and Egypt.

56. Thou settest every man in his place,

57. and thou makest for them whatsoever they need