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the Unexplained => Vanishings & Unsolved Murders => Topic started by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:01:20 am

Title: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:01:20 am
The Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island in Dare County in present-day North Carolina was an enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 16th century to establish a permanent English settlement in the Virginia Colony. Between 1585 and 1587, groups of colonists were left to make the attempt. The final group disappeared after a period of three years elapsed without supplies from England, leading to the continuing mystery known as "The Lost Colony."

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:02:01 am

A map of the Roanoke area, by John White

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:02:39 am
Sir Walter Raleigh had received a charter for the colonization of the area of North America known as Virginia from Queen Elizabeth I of England. The charter specified that Raleigh had ten years in which to establish a settlement in North America or lose his colonization rights.

Raleigh and Elizabeth intended that the venture should provide riches from the New World, and a base from which to send privateers on raids against the treasure fleets of Spain.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:03:20 am

Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:03:58 am
In 1584, Raleigh dispatched an expedition to explore the eastern coast of North America for an appropriate location. The expedition was led by Phillip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, who chose the Outer Banks of modern North Carolina as an ideal location from which to raid the Spanish, who had settlements to the South, and proceeded to make contact with local American Indians, the Croatan tribe of the Carolina Algonquians.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:05:03 am
First group of settlers

The following spring, a colonizing expedition composed solely of men, many of them veteran soldiers who had fought to establish English rule in Ireland, was sent to establish the colony. The leader of the settlement effort, Sir Richard Grenville, was assigned to further explore the area, establish the colony, and return to England with news of the venture's success. The establishment of the colony was initially postponed, perhaps because most of the colony's food stores were ruined when the lead ship struck a shoal upon arrival at the Outer Banks, or due to punitive action taken against natives. After the initial exploration of the mainland coast and the native settlements located there, the natives in the village of Aquascogoc were blamed for stealing a silver cup. In response the last village visited was sacked and burned, and its weroance (tribal chief) executed by burning.

Despite this incident and a lack of food, Grenville decided to leave Ralph Lane and approximately 75 men to establish the English colony at the north end of Roanoke Island, promising to return in April 1586 with more men and fresh supplies.

By April 1586, relations with a neighboring tribe had degraded to such a degree that they attacked an expedition led by Lane to explore the Roanoke River and the possibility of El Dorado's Fountain of Youth. In response he attacked the natives in their capital, where he killed their weroance, Wingina.

As April passed there was no sign of Grenville's relief fleet. The colony was still in existence in June when Sir Francis Drake paused on his way home from a successful raid in the Caribbean, and offered to take the colonists back to England, an offer they accepted. The relief fleet arrived shortly after the departure of Drake's fleet with the colonists. Finding the colony abandoned, Grenville decided to return to England with the bulk of his force, leaving behind a small detachment both to maintain an English presence and to protect Raleigh's claim to Virginia.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:05:51 am
Second group

In 1587, Raleigh dispatched another group of colonists. These 121 colonists were led by John White, an artist and friend of Raleigh's who had accompanied the previous expeditions to Roanoke. The new colonists were tasked with picking up the fifteen men left at Roanoke and settling farther north, in the Chesapeake Bay area, however no trace of them was found, other than the bones of a single man. The one local tribe still friendly towards the English, the Croatans on present-day Hatteras Island, reported that the men had been attacked, but that nine had survived and sailed up the coast in their boat.

The settlers landed on Roanoke Island on July 22, 1587. On August 18, White's daughter delivered the first English child born in the Americas: Virginia Dare. Before her birth, White reestablished relations with the neighboring Croatans and tried to reestablish relations with the tribes that Ralph Lane had attacked a year previously. The aggrieved tribes refused to meet with the new colonists. Shortly thereafter, George Howe was killed by natives while searching for crabs alone in Albemarle Sound. Knowing what had happened during Ralph Lane's tenure in the area and fearing for their lives, the colonists convinced Governor White to return to England to explain the colony's situation and ask for help. There were approximately 116 colonists—115 men and women who made the trans-Atlantic passage and a new born baby, Virginia Dare, when White returned to England.

Crossing the Atlantic as late in the year as White did was a considerable risk, as evidenced by the claim of pilot Simon Fernandez that their vessel barely made it back to England. Plans for a relief fleet were initially delayed by the captains' refusal to sail back during the winter. Then, the coming of the Spanish Armada led to every able ship in England being commandeered to fight, which left White with no seaworthy vessels with which to return to Roanoke. He did manage, however, to hire two smaller vessels deemed unnecessary for the Armada defense and set out for Roanoke in the spring of 1588. This time, White's attempt to return to Roanoke was foiled by human nature and circumstance; the two vessels were small, and their captains greedy. They attempted to capture several vessels on the outward-bound voyage to improve the profitability of their venture, until they were captured themselves and their cargo taken. With nothing left to deliver to the colonists, the ships returned to England.

Because of the continuing war with Spain, White was not able to raise another resupply attempt for two more years. He finally gained passage on a privateering expedition that agreed to stop off at Roanoke on the way back from the Caribbean. White landed on August 18th in 1590, on his granddaughter's third birthday, but found the settlement deserted. He organized a search, but his men could not find any trace of the colonists. Some ninety men, seventeen women, and eleven children had disappeared; there was no sign of a struggle or battle of any kind. The only clue was the word "Croatoan" carved into a post of the fort and "Cro" carved into a nearby tree. In addition, there were two skeletons buried. All the houses and fortifications were dismantled. Before the colony disappeared, White established that if anything happened to them they would carve a maltese cross on a tree near their location indicating that their disappearance could have been forced. White took this to mean that they had moved to Croatoan Island, but he was unable to conduct a search; a massive storm was brewing and his men refused to go any further. The next day, White stood on the deck of his ship and watched, helplessly, as they left Roanoke Island.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:06:16 am
Theories regarding the Native Americans and the disappearance of the Roanoke

The end of the 1587 colony is unrecorded (leading to its being known as the "Lost Colony"), and there are multiple theories on the fate of the colonists. The principal theory is that they dispersed and were absorbed by either the local Croatan or Hatteras Indians, or still another Algonquian people; it has yet to be established if they did assimilate with one or other of the native populations.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:07:10 am

In F.Roy Johnson's, "The lost colony in fact and legend", co author Thomas C. Parramore wrote;...The evidence that some of the Lost Colonists were still living as late as about 1610 in Tuscarora country is impressive. A map of the interior region of what is now North Carolina, drawn in 1608 by the Jamestown settler Francis Nelson, is the most eloquent testimony to this effect. This document, the so-called "Zuniga Map", reports "4 men clothed that came from roonock" still alive at the town of Pakerikinick, evidently an Iroquois site on the Neuse." It also goes on to say, "...By 1609 there were reports in London of Englishmen from Roanoke living under a chief called "Gepanocan" and apparently at Pakerikinick, It was said that Gepanocan held four men, two boys, "and a young Maid" (Virginia Dare?) from Roanoke as copperworkers..."

On February 10, 1885, Hamilton McMillan helped to pass the Croatan bill which officially designated the Indian population around Robeson County as Croatan. Two days later on February 12, 1885, the Fayetteville observer published an article quoting Mr. McMillan regarding the Robeson Indians origins. This article states "...…They say that their traditions say that the people we call the Croatan Indians (though they do not recognize that name as that of a tribe, but only a village, and that they were Tuscaroras), were always friendly to the whites; and finding them destitute and despairing of ever receiving aid from England, persuaded them to leave the Island, and go to the mainland.…They gradually drifted away from their original seats, and at length settled in Robeson, about the center of the county..."

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:07:51 am

The Lumbee, an indigenous people living 250 miles to the southwest of Roanoke Island in present-day Robeson, Scotland, Hoke, and Cumberland counties, North Carolina, were purported to be the descendants of some of the Lost Colony settlers. Members of the Lost Colony had carved a single word into a tree: "Croatoan" (also spelled Croatan). Despite John White's difficulty in locating the settlers, about fifty years later, the Croatan people were reportedly found to be practicing Christianity.

Writing in 1891, Stephen B. Weeks opined that "their language is the English of 300 years ago, and their names are in many cases the same as those borne by the original colonists." Weeks, however based his report on a theory that was then being widely disseminated by Hamilton McMillan, a conservative Democrat who represented Robeson County, in the late 19th century. McMillan wanted to split the Post-Reconstruction pro-Republican Indian/Black vote in his county. The American Indians of Robeson County had suffered egregiously at the hands of White Robesonians both before and after the American Civil War. During Reconstruction, the Indians of Robeson County were politically allied with the county's Black population. By championing Indian interests, McMillan hoped to draw them into his party's fold and establish a Democratic majority in the county. In all probability, McMillan also confused the oral traditions of some ancestral Lumbee families who spoke of migrating from the Roanoke River and Neuse River basin during the mid-18th century where groups of Saponi and Tuscarora had settlements. However, contemporary anthropologists and historians posit that these particular oral traditions belong to families whose ancestors were Yeopin, Potoskite, Nansemond, Saponi, and Tuscarora--peoples who had incurred devastating loss of life and land in the wake of the Tuscarora War in the early 18th century. Anthropologists and historians contend that they may have joined with the migrating Hatteras of Roanoke Island as well as with Cheraw families on Drowning Creek, now known as the Lumbee, or Lumber River.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:08:28 am
Person County

A similar legend claims that the Native Americans of Person County, North Carolina, are descended from the English colonists of Roanoke Island. Indeed, when these Indians were first encountered by subsequent settlers, they noted that these Native Americans already spoke English and were of the Christian religion. The historical surnames of this group also correspond with those of the Roanoke Island settlers, and many exhibit European physical features along with Native American features. Others discount these coincidences and classify the Indians of Person County as an offshoot of the Saponi tribe.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:09:06 am

Other theorists contend that the colony moved wholesale, and was later destroyed. When Captain John Smith and the Jamestown colonists settled in Virginia in 1607, one of their assigned tasks was to locate the Roanoke colonists. Native people told Captain Smith of people within fifty miles of Jamestown who dressed and lived as the English.

Captain Smith was also told by Chief Wahunsunacock, the weroance of the Virginia Peninsula-based Powhatan Confederacy, and better-known as Chief Powhatan, that he had wiped out the Roanoke colonists just prior to the arrival of the Jamestown settlers because they were living with the Chesepian, a tribe living in the eastern portion of the present-day South Hampton Roads sub-region which had refused to join his Powhatan Confederacy. Archaeological evidence found at Great Neck Point in present-day Virginia Beach at a Chesepian village site suggests that the Chesepian tribe was related to the Carolina Algonquins, rather than the Powhatans.

Chief Powhatan reportedly produced several English-made iron implements to back his claim. No bodies were found, although there were reports of an Indian burial mound in the Pine Beach area of Sewell's Point in present day Norfolk, where the principal Chesepian village of Skioak may have been located.

This theory is somewhat contradicted because, according to William Strachey's The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britanica (1612), the Chesepians were eliminated because Powhatan's priests had warned him that from the Chesapeake Bay a nation should arise, which should dissolve and give end to his empire. Strachey, who arrived in the Virginia Colony in May 1610 with the Third Supply, was well aware of the mystery of the Roanoke colonists, but made no mention of them in conjunction with his writings about the fate of the Chesepian at the hands of the Powhatan.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:09:35 am
Lost at sea, starvation

Still others speculate that the colonists simply gave up waiting, tried to return to England on their own, and perished in the attempt. When Governor White left in 1587, he left the colonists with a pinnace and several small ships for exploration of the coast or removal of the colony to the mainland.

Another claim suggests that, with the region in drought, the colony must have suffered a massive food shortage.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:10:10 am

There are those who theorize that the Spanish destroyed the colony. Earlier in the century, the Spanish had destroyed evidence of the French colony of Fort Charles in southern South Carolina and then massacred Fort Caroline, the French colony near present-day Jacksonville, Florida. The theory however is unlikely since the Spanish were still looking for the location of England's failed colony as late as 1600, ten years after White discovered that the colony was missing

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:10:58 am
Archaeological evidence

In 1998, East Carolina University organized "The Croatoan Project", an archaeological investigation into the events at Roanoke. The excavation team sent to the island uncovered a 10 carat gold 16th century English signet ring, a flintlock musket, and two 16th century copper farthings at the site of the ancient Croatoan capital, 50 miles (80 km) from the old Roanoke colony. Genealogists were able to trace the lion crest on the signet ring to the Kendall coat of arms, and concluded that the ring most likely belonged to one "Master" Kendall who is recorded as having lived in the Ralph Lane colony on Roanoke Island from 1585 to 1586. If this is the case, the ring represents the first material connection between the Roanoke colonists and the Native Americans on Hatteras Island.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:11:39 am

16th Century Signet ring in the Croatoan Archaeological Site Collection, Special Collections Department, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 11:12:36 am
Climate factors

Also in 1998, a team led by climatologist David W. Stahle, of the University of Arkansas, Department of Geography, in Fayetteville, Arkansas, and archaeologist Dennis B. Blanton, of the Center for Archaeological Research at The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, used tree ring cores from 800-year-old bald cypresses taken from the Roanoke Island area of North Carolina and the Jamestown area of Virginia to reconstruct precipitation and temperature chronologies.

The researchers concluded that the settlers of the Lost Colony landed at Roanoke Island in the summer of the worst growing-season drought in 800 years. "This drought persisted for 3 years, from 1587 to 1589, and is the driest 3-year episode in the entire 800-year reconstruction," the team reported in the journal Science. A map shows that "the Lost Colony drought affected the entire southeastern United States but was particularly severe in the Tidewater region near Roanoke [Island]." The authors suggested that the Croatan who were shot and killed by the colonists may have been scavenging the abandoned village for food as a result of the drought.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 08:37:37 pm
Symphonic drama

Written by Pulitzer Prize winning playwright Paul Green in 1937 to commemorate the 350th anniversary of the birth of Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the New World, The Lost Colony is an epic outdoor drama combining music, dance, and acting to tell a fictional recounting of the ill-fated Roanoke Colony. It has played at Waterside Theater at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site on Roanoke Island during the summer months near-continuously since that time with the only interruption being World War II. Alumni of the cast who have gone on to fame include Andy Griffith, who played Sir Walter Raleigh; William Ivey Long, Chris Elliott; Terrence Mann; and Daily Show correspondent Dan Bakkedahl.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 08:38:21 pm
References in popular culture


On an episode of the CW program Supernatural entitled "Croatoan," an alternate reason is given for the disappearance of the colony. In this show it is attributed to a demonic virus which renders the host unable to make decisions for themselves and causes them to become bent on spreading the virus and harming those who would try to resist. After the day ended, all infectees, like in Roanoke Island, disappeared.

In episode 310 of Babylon 5, one of the EarthForce destroyers is named the Roanoke.

In episode 7 of the second season of the WB program Angel, entitled " Darla ", the disappearance of the colony is explained by the arrival of The Master, a powerful vampire disguised as a monk who turns a dying prostitute into his vampire minion. It is suggested that they devour the colonists shortly afterwards.

The first episode of the 2000 Fox series, FreakyLinks, entitled "Fearsum" deals with the disappearance of the Roanoke Colony. This episode states there are two reasons for the colony's disappearance, the official and the "unofficial". The official reason is the colony ran out of supplies and relocated to the Croatoan Island, with the unofficial being a evil spirit being born into John White's daughter, Virginia Dare. The evil spirit killed everybody in the colony during the three years between White's last voyage and when he discovered the colony to be empty.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 08:39:11 pm
Fictional literature

The novel and TV miniseries Storm of the Century, written by Stephen King, alludes to the mystery of the Lost Colony, claiming that the Demon in the story, Andre Linoge, had demanded a child from the Roanoke colonists to raise as his heir. The colonists refused, and the demon forced them to walk into the Atlantic Ocean and commit suicide. In the novel IT, also written by King, the colony is referenced in relation to a similar, fictional mystery of a missing settlement occurring in the novel's main setting, Derry, Maine.

Harlan Ellison's 1975 short story "Croatoan" describes a subterranean colony of aborted fetuses.

The Dean Koontz novel Phantoms makes reference to the Lost Colony, insomuch as the ancient evil in the novel was credited with the massive disapperance of the people in Roanoke and other such mysteries.

A recent novel, Rising Shore Roanoke  by Deborah Homsher tells the story of the Lost Colony through the voices of two women, Elenor Dare, daughter of John Black, and her servant, Margaret Lawrence. Elenor Dare was mother of Virginia Dare, said to be the first English child born in North America. The name "Margaret Lawrence" appeared on John White's company list.

The series "Blue Bloods" by Marissa de la Cruz blames the Roanoke disappearance on rampant vampires.

In Tales of the Slayer vol. 1, the disappearance is blamed of Vampires (called Walkers in the books) and lack of a trained Slayer.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 08:39:47 pm

In DC Comics, Roanoke was visited by Melmoth, a future king, who had been exiled in the past. Using inherent magic, he trapped the entire town and impregnated all the women. Believing they had been cursed by the Devil, the women and their half-human children burrowed underground and founded Limbo Town, based on their original society and their preconceptions of witchcraft.

In the Marvel Comics 1602 Universe (see Marvel 1602#New World), the Roanoke Colony serves as the location for the entire New World miniseries. In this parallel universe, the Roanoke colony survives, and becomes home to alternate 17th Century versions of many Marvel characters.

In the DC Comics/Image Comics crossover event Batman/Spawn: War Devil, the colony's disappearance is attributed to a demon named Croatoan who sacrificed one hundred colonists of Roanoke in an effort to appease hell.

In the DC Comics/Vertigo series 100 Bullets, the mysterious carving "croatoa" found at the site of the lost colony is used to activate dormant Minute Men. The Minute Men are a group, led by Agent Graves, who police the families of The Trust, which was responsible for the destruction of the Roanoke Colony. The plan was carried out by the first group of Minute Men formed by The Trust to punish Queen Elizabeth I for not accepting their offer of peace with the monarchies of Europe. In exchange for this The Trust would receive control of the Americas thus ensuring their own empire beyond anything a crown could achieve. In issue #50 of 100 Bullets, Minute Man Victor Ray recounts the story of Lost Colony's fate and the hidden significance of the word "Croatoan" to The Trust and its agents

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 08:40:20 pm

The dramatic feature, "The Legend of Two Path" (1998), recounts the arrival of the English settlers from the viewpoint of the Native Americans of Roanoke Island in 1584. Initially the Algonquians welcomed the English, but soon their opposing views became apparent. Conflict and disease led to a profound change in the Native American world. The challenge of the two cultures meeting is explored in this fictional drama based on fact, with a Native American cast portraying the Algonquian characters of Manteo, Wanchese and Skyco (Two Path).

The film was produced by Sam L Grogg and the North Carolina School of the Arts, and directed by Harrison Engle. Presented in large-screen format, The Legend of Two Path plays several times a day in the Film Theater at Roanoke Island Festival Park.

The 2004 crime thriller Mindhunters makes reference to the Roanoke Colony's disappearance.

Roanoke The Lost Colony is an independent feature film produced in the UK. The film follows the story of the first English settlement on American soil at Roanoke Island in 1587, when mysteriously all 117 of the colonists vanished without a trace. The film is believed to be shot for under £10,000 and was made exclusively by university students

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 08:41:02 pm
Other cultural references

Former North Carolina State Senator, Charles E. Whitmeyer (1918-1975) was given the nickname "Croatan" after he invented one of the first child leashes and stated: "No More will we have generations of Lost Children."

In the online video game City of Heroes, Croatoa is a mid-level city zone inhabited by supernatural denizens. Roanoke is mentioned briefly.

In 2006, author Clint Krausse wrote and published a role-playing game called Roanoke, in which the players can explore what might have happened with the colony. Game rules are based on the Wushu system.

Title: Re: the Lost Colony of Roanoke
Post by: Tiffany Rossette on August 14, 2007, 08:42:49 pm
Return To Ronoake
John White (1590)

From Richard Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, Voyages of the English Nation, III (1600).


      The 15 of August towards Euening we came to an anker at Hatorask, in 36 degr. and one third, in fiue fadom water, three leagues from the shore. At our first comming to anker on this shore we saw a great smoke rise in the Ile Roanoak neere the place where I left our Colony in the yeere 1587, which smoake put vs in good hope that some of the Colony were there expecting my returne out of England.
      The 16 and next morning our 2 boates went a shore, & Captaine Cooke, & Captain Spicer, & their company with me, with intent to passe to the place at Roanoak where our countreymen were left. At our putting from the ship we commanded our Master gunner to make readie 2 Minions and a Falkon well loden, and to shoot them off with reasonable space betweene euery shot, to the ende that their reportes might bee heard to the place where wee hoped to finde some of our people. This was accordingly performed, & our twoe boats put off vnto the shore, in the Admirals boat we sounded all the way and found from our shippe vntill we came within a mile of the shore nine, eight, and seuen fadome: but before we were halfe way betweene our ships and the shore we saw another great smoke to the Southwest of Kindrikers mountes: we therefore thought good to goe to that second smoke first: but it was much further from the harbour where we landed, then we supposed it to be, so that we were very sore tired before wee came to the smoke. But that which grieued vs more was that when we came to the smoke, we found no man nor signe that any had bene there lately, nor yet any fresh water in all this way to drinke. Being thus wearied with this iourney we returned to the harbour where we left our boates, who in our absence had brought their caske a shore for fresh water, so we deferred our going to Roanoak vntill the next morning, and caused some of those saylers to digge in those sandie hilles for fresh water whereof we found very sufficient. That night wee returned aboord with our boates and our whole company in safety.
      The next morning being the 17 of August, our boates and company were prepared againe to goe vp to Roanoak, but Captaine Spicer had then sent his boat ashore for fresh water, by meanes whereof it was ten of the clocke aforenoone before we put from our ships which were then come to an anker within two miles of the shore. The Admirals boat was halfe way toward the shore, when Captaine Spicer put off from his ship. The Admirals boat first passed the breach, but not without some danger of sinking, for we had a sea brake into our boat which filled vs halfe full of water, but by the will of God and carefull styrage of Captaine Cooke we came safe ashore, sauing onely that our furniture, victuals match and powder were much wet and spoyled. For at this time the winde blue at Northeast and direct into the harbour so great a gale, that the Sea brake extremely on the barre, and the tide went very forcibly at the entrance. By that time our Admirals boate was halled ashore, and most of our things taken out to dry, Captaine Spicer came to the entrance of the breach with his mast standing vp, and was halfe passed ouer, but by the rash and vndiscreet styrage of Ralph Skinner his Masters mate, a very dangerous Sea brake into their boate and ouerset them quite, the men kept the boat some in it, and some hanging on it, but the next sea set the boat on ground, where it beat so, that some of them were forced to let goe their hold, hoping to wade ashore, but the Sea still beat them downe, so that they could neither stand nor swimme, and the boat twise or thrise was turned the keele vpward; whereon Captaine Spicer and Skinner hung vntill they sunke, & seene no more. But foure that could swimme a litle kept themselues in deeper water and were saued by Captain Cookes meanes, who so soone as he saw their ouersetting, stripped himselfe, and foure other that could swimme very well, & with all haste possible rowed vnto them, & saued foure. They were a 11 in all, & 7 of the chiefest were drowned, whose names were Edward Spicer, Ralph Skinner, Edward Kelley, Thomas Beuis, Hance the Surgion, Edward Kelborne, Robert Coleman. This mischance did so much discomfort the saylers, that they were all of one mind not to goe any further to seeke the planters. But in the end by the commandement & perswasion of me and Captaine Cooke, they prepared the boates: and seeing the Captaine and me so resolute, they seemed much more willing. Our boates and all things fitted againe, we put off from Hatorask, being the number of 19 persons in both boates: but before we could get to the place, where our planters were left, it was so exceeding darke, that we ouershot the place a quarter of a mile: there we espied towards the North end of the Iland ye light of a great fire thorow the woods, to the which we presently rowed: when wee came right ouer against it, we let fall our Grapnel neere the shore, & sounded with a trumpet a Call, & afterwardes many familiar English tunes of Songs, and called to them friendly; but we had no answere, we therefore landed at day-breake, and comming to the fire, we found the grasse & sundry rotten trees burning about the place. From hence we went thorow the woods to that part of the Iland directly ouer against Dasamongwepeuk, & from thence we returned by the water side, round about the Northpoint of the Iland, vntill we came to the place where I left our Colony in the yeere 1586. In all this way we saw in the sand the print of the Saluages feet of 2 or 3 sorts troaden yt night, and as we entred vp the sandy banke vpon a tree, in the very browe thereof were curiously carued these faire Romane letters C R O: which letters presently we knew to signifie the place, where I should find the planters seated, according to a secret token agreed vpon betweene them & me at my last departure from them, which was, that in any wayes they should not faile to write or carue on the trees or posts of the dores the name of the place where they should be seated; for at my comming away they were prepared to remoue from Roanoak 50 miles into the maine. Therefore at my departure from them in Anno 1587 I willed them, that if they should happen to be distressed in any of those places, that then they should carue ouer the letters or name, a Crosse in this forme, but we found no such signe of distresse. And hauing well considered of this, we passed toward the place where they were left in sundry houses, but we found the houses taken downe, and the place very strongly enclosed with a high palisado of great trees, with cortynes and flankers very Fort-like, and one of the chiefe trees or postes at the right side of the entrance had the barke taken off, and 5. foote from the ground in fayre Capitall letters was grauen CROATOAN without any crosse or signe of distresse; this done, we entred into the palisado, where we found many barres of Iron, two pigges of Lead, foure yron fowlers, Iron sacker-shotte, and such like heauie things, throwen here and there, almost ouergrowen with grasse and weedes. From thence wee went along by the water side, towards the poynt of the Creeke to see if we could find any of their botes or Pinnisse, but we could perceiue no signe of them, nor any of the last Falkons and small Ordinance which were left with them, at my departure from them. At our returne from the Creeke, some of our Saylers meeting vs, tolde vs that they had found where diuers chests had bene hidden, and long sithence digged vp againe and broken vp, and much of the goods in them spoyled and scattered about, but nothing left, of such things as the Sauages knew any vse of, vndefaced. Presently Captaine Cooke and I went to the place, which was in the ende of an olde trench, made two yeeres past by Captaine Amadas: wheere wee found fiue Chests, that had been carefully hidden of the Planters, and of the same chests three were my owne, and about the place many of my things spoyled and broken, and my bookes torne from the couers, the frames of some of my pictures and Mappes rotten and spoyled with rayne, and my armour almost eaten through with rust; this could bee no other but the deede of the Sauages our enemies at Dasamongwepeuk, who had watched the departure of our men to Croatoan; and assoone as they were departed, digged vp euery place where they suspected any thing to be buried: but although it much grieued me to see such spoyle of my goods, yet on the other side I greatly ioyed that I had safely found a certaine token of their safe being at Croatoan, which is the place where Manteo was borne, and the Sauages of the Iland our friends.
      When we had seene in this place so much as we could, we returned to our Boates, and departed from the shoare towards our Shippes, with as much speede as we could: For the weather beganne to ouercast, and very likely that a foule and stormie night would ensue. Therefore the same Euening with much danger and labour, we got our selues aboard, by which time the winde and seas were so greatly risen, that wee doubted our Cables and Anchors would scarcely holde vntill Morning; wherefore the Captaine caused the Boate to be manned with fiue lusty men, who could swimme all well, and sent them to the little Iland on the right hand of the Harbour, to bring aboard sixe of our men, who had filled our caske with fresh water: the Boate the same night returned aboard with our men, but all our Caske ready filled they left behinde, vnpossible to bee had aboard without danger of casting away both men and Boates; for this night prooued very stormie and foule.
      The next Morning it was agreed by the Captaine and my selfe, with the Master and others, to wey anchor, and goe for the place at Croatoan, where our planters were: for that then the winde was good for that place, and also to leaue that Caske with fresh water on shoare in the Iland vntill our returne. So then they brought the cable to the Capston, but when the anchor was almost apecke, the Cable broke, by meanes whereof we lost another Anchor, wherewith we droue so fast into the shoare, that wee were forced to let fall a third Anchor; which came so fast home that the Shippe was almost aground by Kenricks mounts: so that wee were forced to let slippe the Cable ende for ende. And if it had not chanced that wee had fallen into a chanell of deeper water, closer by the shoare then wee accompted of, wee could neuer have gone cleare of the poynt that lyeth to the Southwardes of Kenricks mounts. Being thus cleare of some dangers, and gotten into deeper waters, but not without some losse; for wee had but one Cable and Anchor left vs of foure, and the weather grew to be fouler and fouler; our victuals scarse, and our caske and fresh water lost: it was therefore determined that we should goe for Saint Iohn or some other Iland to the Southward for fresh water. And it was further purposed, that if wee could any wayes supply our wants of victuals and other necessaries, either at Hispaniola, Sant Iohn, or Trynidad, that then wee should continue in the Indies all the Winter following, with hope to make 2. rich voyages of one, and at our returne to visit our countrymen at Virginia. The captaine and the whole company in the Admirall (with my earnest petitions) thereunto agreed, so that it rested onely to knowe what the Master of the Moonelight our consort would doe herein. But when we demanded them if they would accompany vs in that new determination, they alleged that their weake and leake Shippe was not able to continue it; wherefore the same night we parted, leauing the Moone-light to goe directly for England, and the Admirall set his course for Trynidad, which course we kept two dayes.
      On the 28. the winde changed, and it was sette on foule weather euery way: but this storme brought the winde West and Northwest, and blewe so forcibly, that wee were able to beare no sayle, but our forecourse halfe mast high, wherewith wee ranne vpon the winde perforce, the due course for England, for that wee were dryuen to change our first determination for Trynidad, and stoode for the Ilands of Acores, where wee purposed to take in fresh water, and also there hoped to meete with some English men of warre about those Ilands, at whose hands wee might obtaine some supply of our wants.  .  .  .
      The 2. of October in the Morning we saw S. Michaels Iland on our Starre board quarter.
      The 23. at 10. of the clocke afore noone, we saw Vshant in Britaigne.
      On Saturday the 24. we came in safetie, God be thanked, to an anker at Plymmouth.