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Ancient Mediterranean Cultures => Rome: Empire & Republic => Topic started by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 12:57:32 pm



Title: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 12:57:32 pm










                                                  T H E   P A N T H E O N





 
Facade of the PantheonThe Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning "Temple of all the Gods") is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. It is the best preserved of all Roman buildings, and perhaps the best preserved building of its age in the world. It has been in continuous use throughout its history. Although the identity of the Pantheon's primary architect remains uncertain, it is largely assigned to Apollodorus of Damascus. Since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a Christian church.


(http://www.dillum.ch/html/pantheon_stierlin_153.gif)






                                (http://traumwerk.stanford.edu/philolog/cid_1349932.jpg)

Only in a city such as Rome could the Pantheon be considered quaint. Found in a city containing hundreds of opportunities to view overwhelming ruins, the Roman Pantheon slips dreamily into the landscape. Of all the great buildings constructed during the crest of the Roman Empire, only this one still stands. Seemingly impervious to time or destruction, the walls and dome of the Roman Pantheon rise from Piazza della Rotonda, and bathe the square in   a warm, protecting light.



Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 01:01:17 pm
                     (http://www.kuthumadierks.com/articoli/ries/immagini/pantheon01.jpg)






                                                      A N C I E N T




Agrippa's Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in 80 AD; the current building dates from about 125 AD, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, as date-stamps on the bricks reveal. It was totally reconstructed with the text of the original inscription ("M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT" meaning, "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, built during his third consulate") which was added to the new facade, a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome. Hadrian was a cosmopolitan emperor who traveled widely in the East and was a great admirer of Greek culture. He seems to have intended the Pantheon, a temple to all the gods, to be a kind of ecumenical or syncretist gesture to the subjects of the Roman Empire who did not worship the old gods of Rome, or who (as was increasingly the case) worshipped them under other names. How the building was actually used is not known.

                           (http://www.tesoridiroma.net/galleria/pantheon/foto/pantheon10.jpg)


Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. Dio's book appears to be the only near-contemporary writing on the Pantheon, and it is interesting that even by the year 200 there was uncertainty about the origin of the building and its purpose:

Agrippa completed the building called the Pantheon. It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus; but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens. (Cassius Dio History of Rome 53.27.2)

The building was later repaired by Septimius Severus and Caracalla in 202 AD, for which there is another, smaller inscription. This inscription reads "pantheum vetustate corruptum cum omni cultu restituerunt" ('with every refinement they restored the Pantheon worn by age').


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 01:04:02 pm








                            (http://www.romaspqr.it/roma/Foto/Pantheon1.jpeg)






                                                         M E D I E V A L




In 609 the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who reconsecrated it as a Christian church titled Santa Maria ad Martyres (in English the Church of Mary and all the Martyr Saints).

 
The coffers for the concrete dome were poured in molds, probably on the temporary scaffolding; the oculus admits the only light.The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment and spoliation which befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early mediaeval period. Paul the Deacon records the spoliation of the building by the Emperor Constans II, who visited Rome in July 663:

Remaining at Rome twelve days he pulled down everything that in ancient times had been made of metal for the ornament of the city, to such an extent that he even stripped off the roof of the church [of the blessed Mary] which at one time was called the Pantheon, and had been founded in honor of all the gods and was now by the consent of the former rulers the place of all the martyrs; and he took away from there the bronze tiles and sent them with all the other ornaments to Constantinople.

Much fine external marble has been removed in the course of the centuries, and there are capitals from some of the pilasters in the British Museum. The only other loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. The marble interior and the great bronze doors have survived, although the latter have been restored.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 01:06:16 pm













                                                     R E N A I S S A N C E




                       (http://www.italyguides.it/img/med/pantheon13.jpg)

                        THE PRONAOS OF THE PANTHEON


 
Under the portico, sometimes called by the Greek term pronaos, of the Pantheon. The Corinthian order of the Pantheon's portico provided a standard for Renaissance and later architects.Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been used as a tomb. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Caracci, the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. In the 15th century, the Pantheon was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forlě. Architects, like Brunelleschi, who used the Pantheon as help when designing the Cathedral of Florence's dome, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works.


                       (http://www.net-art.it/cirese/photodigit/oly01/images/02-pantheon.jpg)

                        THE ENTRANCE AND ONE OF THE ORIGINAL DOORS


Pope Urban VIII (died 1644) ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Camera for various other works. It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice.[2]. This led the Roman satirical figure Pasquino to issue the famous proverb: Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do, the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did").




(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/69/Pantheon-panini.jpg/466px-Pantheon-panini.jpg)


In 1747, the broad frieze below the dome with its false windows was “restored,” but bore little resemblance to the original. In the early decades of the twentieth century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 01:13:15 pm







                                                        M O D E R N





                                            (http://www.guardiadonorealpantheon.it/realitombe/pantheon_interno.jpg)

                                             THE ROYAL SAVOY TOMBS




Also buried there are two kings of Italy: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Umberto's Queen, Margherita. Although Italy has been a republic since 1946, volunteer members of Italian monarchist organisations maintain a vigil over the royal tombs in the Pantheon.

                            (http://www.guardiadonorealpantheon.it/_tombaVE/tomba_VE.jpg)


The Pantheon is still a church and masses are still celebrated in the church, particularly on important Catholic days of obligation, and for weddings.

                            (http://www.guardiadonorealpantheon.it/_tombaUeM/tomba_UeM.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 01:15:59 pm


                                                     S T R U C T U R E





                        (http://www.nycerome.com/fotos-de-roma/pantheon-inside.jpg)
                         THE OCULUS OF THE DOME

The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment opening into the rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus), the Great Eye, open to the sky. A rectangular structure links the portico with the rotunda. Though often still drawn as a free-standing building, there was a library building at its rear into which it abutted; of this building there are only archaeological remains.

In the walls at the back of the portico were niches, probably for statues of Caesar, Augustus and Agrippa, or for the Capitoline Triad, or another set of gods. The large bronze doors to the cella, once plated with gold, still remain, but the gold has long since vanished. The pediment was decorated with a sculpture in bronze showing the Battle of the Titans - holes may still be seen where the clamps which held the sculpture in place were fixed.


                 (http://www.digischool.nl/ckv2/ckv3/kunstentechniek1/pantheon/pantheon3.jpg)

The 4,535 metric ton (5,000 tn) weight of the concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter which form the oculus while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4 metre (21 ft) thick drum wall into eight piers. The thickness of the dome varies from 6.4 metres (21 ft) at the base of the dome to 1.2 metres (4 ft) around the oculus. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft.), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (alternatively, the interior could house a sphere 43.3 metres (142 ft.) in diameter). The Pantheon's dome was the largest in the world until 1781 when work was finished on the 46-meter dome of the St. Blaise Abbey in St. Blasien. The Pantheon still holds the record for the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the history of architecture.


(http://www.uvm.edu/~cmazzoni/6studentsgallery/italian121_2003/peri_pignetti/Pantheon%20ceiling.jpg)

Antoine Desgodetz' elevation of the Pantheon in Les edifices antiques de Rome, Paris, 1779: engravings served designers who never travelled to Rome.The interior of the roof was probably intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. The Great Eye at the dome's apex is the source of all light and is symbolic of the sun. Its original circular bronze cornice remains in position. The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. As wind passes over the dome of the Pantheon, it is accelerated and creates a negative pressure zone called the Venturi effect. This pulls air out of the oculus at the top of the dome, drawing more air in from the portico entrance. Obviously, when it rains, the water falls straight through the oculus. However the floor beneath has tiny holes in it to allow the water to escape.

The interior features sunken panels (coffers), which originally contained bronze star ornaments. This coffering was not only decorative, but also reduced the weight of the roof, as did the elimination of the apex by means of the Great Eye. The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick-relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork. The Pantheon is full of such devices - for example, there are relieving arches over the recesses inside - but all these arches were, of course, originally hidden by marble facing. Some changes have been made in the interior decoration.


                          (http://meltingpod.free.fr/wp-content/Pantheon%20Roma.jpg)


It may be noted that the proportions of the building are in discord with the classical ideal. Most evident is the rather large pediment, which appears far too "heavy" for the columns supporting it. The reason for this was the expectation that the building would be much taller than it actually is, which would affect larger columns. However, by the time the pediment was built, it was realised that the supply of imported stone for the columns was not enough to build to its anticipated height, and thus the builders had to settle with a building that is somewhat out of proportion.

                           (http://www.bphoto.it/images/portfolio/paesaggi/Pantheon.jpg)


The lower parts of the interior of the Pantheon are richly decorated in coloured marbles; the coffered upper parts are unadorned concrete.The exact composition of the Roman concrete used in the dome remains a mystery. An unreinforced dome in these proportions made of modern concrete would hardly stand the load of its own weight, since concrete has very low tensile strength, yet the Pantheon has stood for centuries. It is known from Roman sources that their concrete is made up of a pasty hydrate of lime, with pozzolanic ash and lightweight pumice from a nearby volcano, and fist-sized pieces of rock. In this, it is very similar to modern concrete.[2] The high tensile strength appears to come from the way the concrete was applied in very small amounts and then was tamped down after every application to remove excess water and trapped air bubbles. This appears to have increased its strength enormously.

                       (http://cc.oulu.fi/~ahonkala/ADFONTES/italian_kuvat/pantheon.jpg)


As the best-preserved example of monumental Roman architecture, the Pantheon was enormously influential on European and American architects from the Renaissance, starting with Brunelleschi's 42 meter dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, completed in 1436 – the first sizeable dome to be constructed in Europe after Antiquity. The dome of the Pantheon can be detected in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: numerous city halls, universities and public libraries echo its portico-and-dome structure. Examples of notable buildings influenced by the Pantheon include The Temple in Dartrey, British Museum Reading Room, Manchester Central Library, Thomas Jefferson's Rotunda at the University of Virginia, the Rotunda of Mosta, Low Library at Columbia University, New York, The Marble Hall of the Sanssouci palace in Potsdam, Germany, the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia, the Supreme Court Library of Victoria in Melbourne, as well as the 52 m tall Prohászka Ottokár Memorial Church in Székesfehérvár, Hungary.



                               (http://valeriacataldi.freewebsites.com/lezioni/pantheon2.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 01:20:07 pm



             
                 





                      D E C O R A T I O N   W H I L E   A   C H R I S T I A N   C H U R C H





               (http://www.liceoberchet.it/ricerche/romavf/images/pantheon_intus.jpg)



The present high altar and the apse were commissioned by Pope Clement XI (1700-1721) and designed by Alessandro Specchi. In the apse, a copy of an Byzantine icon of the Madonna is enshrined. The original, now in the Chapel of the Canons in the Vatican, has been dated to the 13th century, although tradition claims that it is much older. The choir was added in 1840, and was designed by Luigi Poletti.

The first niche to the right of the entrance holds a Madonna of the Girdle and St Nicholas of Bari (1686) painted by an unknown artist. The first chapel on the right, the Chapel of the Annunciation, has a fresco of the Annunication attributed to Melozzo da Forli. On the left side is a canvas by Clement Maioli of St Lawrence and St Agnes (1645-1650). On the right wall is the Incredulity of St Thomas (1633) by Pietro Paolo Bonzi.

                                 (http://www.macalester.edu/~rife/courses/CLAS2201/Pantheon.jpg)

The second niche has a 15th century fresco of the Tuscan school, depicting the Coronation of the Virgin. In the second chapel is the tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II (died 1878). It was originally dedicated to the Holy Spirit. A competition was held to decide which architect should be given the honour of designing it. Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost - he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. Manfredio Manfredi won the competition, and started work in 1885. The tomb consists of a large bronze plaque sumounted by a Roman eagle and the arms of the house of Savoy. The golden lamp above the tomb burns in honor of Victor Emmanuel III, who died in exile in in 1947.

The third niche has a sculpture by Il Lorenzone of St Anne and the Blessed Virgin. In the third chapel is a 15th century painting of the Umbrian school, The Madonna of Mercy between St Francis and St John the Baptist. It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. It was moved to the Chapel of the Annunciation, and then to its present position some time after 1837. The bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement XI's restoration of the sanctuary. On the right wall is the canvas Emperor Phocas presenting the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV (1750) by an unknown. Three memorial plaques in the floor, one conmmemorates a Gismonda written in the vernacular. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.

On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. The first chapel on the left, is the Chapel of St Joseph in the Holy Land, and is the chapel of the Confraternity of the Virtuosi at the Pantheon. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. The first members were, among others, Antonio da Sangallo the younger, Jacopo Meneghino, Giovanni Mangone, Zuccari, Domenico Beccafumi and Flaminio Vacca. The confraternity continued to draw members from the elite of Rome's artists and architects, and among later members we find Bernini, Cortona, Algardi and many others. The institution still exists, and is now called the Academia Ponteficia di Belle Arti (The Pontifical Academy of Fine Arts), based in the palace of the Cancelleria. The altar in the chapel is covered with false marble. On the altar is a statue of St Joseph and the Holy Child by Vincenzo de Rossi. To the sides are paintings (1661) by Francesco Cozza, one of the Virtuosi: Adoration of the Shepherds on left side and Adoration of the Magi on right. The stucco relief on the left, Dream of St Joseph is by Paolo Benaglia, and the one on the right, Rest during the flight from Egypt is by Carlo Monaldi. On the vault are several 17th century canvases, from left to right: Cumean Sibyl by Ludovico Gimignani; Moses by Francesco Rosa; Eternal Father by Giovanni Peruzzini; David by Luigi Garzi and finally Eritrean Sibyl by Giovanni Andrea Carlone.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 01:36:06 pm










The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenco Felici. The bust on the left is a portrait of Baldassare Peruzzi, derived from a plaster portrait by Giovanni Duprč. The tomb of King Umberto I and his wife Margherita di Savoia is in the next chapel. The chapel was originally dedicated to St Michael the Archangel, and then to St Thomas the Apostle. The present design is by Giuseppe Sacconi, completed after his death by his pupil Guido Cirilli. The tomb consists of a slab of alabaster mounted in gilded bronze. The frieze has allegorical representations of Generosity, by Eugenio Maccagnani, and Munificence, by Arnaldo Zocchi. The royal tombs are maintained by the National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, founded in 1878. They also organize picket guards at the tombs. The altar with the royal arms is by Cirilli.




 
                                              T O M B   O F   R A P H A E L




                                        (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ef/Pantheon-raphaels-tomb.jpg/250px-Pantheon-raphaels-tomb.jpg)




(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Pantheon.raphael.bust.arp.jpg/250px-Pantheon.raphael.bust.arp.jpg)Bust of the painter Raphael, above his tomb in the Pantheon.  The third niche holds the mortal remains - his Ossa et cineres, "Bones and ashes", as the inscription on the sarcophagus says - of the great artist Raphael. His fiancee, Maria Bibbiena is buried to the right of his sarcophagus; she died before they could marry. The sarcophagus was given by Pope Gregory XVI, and its insription reads ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL TIMUIT QUO SOSPITE VINCI / RERUM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI, meaning "Here lies Raphael, by whom the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome whilst he was living, and whilst he was dying, herself to die". The epigraph was written by Pietro Bembo. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Munoz. The bust of Raphael (1833) is by Giuseppe Fabris. The two plaques commemorate Maria Bibbiena and Annibale Caracci. Behind the tomb is the statue known as the Madonna del Sasso (Madonna of the Rock) named so because she rests one foot on a boulder. It was commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524.

In the Chapel of the Crucifixion, the Roman brick wall is visible in the niches. The wooden crucifix on the altar is from the 15th century. On the left wall is a Descent of the Holy Ghost (1790) by Pietro Labruzi. On the right side is the low relief Cardinal Consalvi presents to Pope Pius VII the five provinces restored to the Holy See (1824) made by the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. The bust is a portrait of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola. The final niche on this side has a statue of St. Rasius (S. Erasio) (1727) by Francesco Moderati.


 

 References

^ Rarely Pantheum. This rare usage appears in Pliny's Natural History (XXXVI.38) in describing this edifice: Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis; in columnis templi eius Caryatides probantur inter pauca operum, sicut in fastigio posita signa, sed propter altitudinem loci minus celebrata.
^ a b c d
^ Specchi's High Altar for the Pantheon and the Statues by Cametti and Moderati, by Tod A. Marder. The Burlington Magazine (1980) The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd. Page 35.
^ Marder,TA page 35.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 02:51:59 pm
                             (http://www.fotogian.com/fotoroma/roma4.JPG)








               (http://www.abiyoyo.com/italia/roma/pantheon/pantheon11.jpg)



               (http://www.gedlc.ulpgc.es/~gustavo/viajes/fotogif/ital/ital/ital44.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 03:14:35 pm









(http://www.colonialvoyage.com/viaggi/Roma7.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 03:54:11 pm







(http://www.colonialvoyage.com/viaggi/Roma6.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 05:01:08 pm






         (http://www.maquettes-historiques.net/Pantheon.jpg)

         The Pantheon  in its architectural environment. Opposite is the square of the Arch of Piety.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 05:05:22 pm






                 (http://www.maquettes-historiques.net/R74a.jpg)

The porch of the Pantheon raised on a flight of five steps, creating a harmony between the square which was relatively empty and the volume of the building. This unequalled architecture succeeded to survive to two milleniums to offer us, still today, its original image.




Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 05:08:05 pm






                        (http://www.maquettes-historiques.net/R74b.jpg)

The fantastic cupola with a diameter of 44 m covering the hall of the Pantheon. Only the oculus in the centre allowed the lighting of the interior.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 25, 2007, 05:10:39 pm






                        (http://www.maquettes-historiques.net/R74c.jpg)

A courtyard with a portico preceded the Pantheon. In its centre stood a triumphal arch, the Arch of Piety.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 26, 2007, 01:52:42 pm

                          (http://www.livius.org/a/italy/rome/pantheon/pantheon12.JPG)


Crossing a large threshold -the world's largest known piece of Lucullan black and red marble- the visitor

entered the sanctuary itself. The interior of the Pantheon must have been more surprising than it is today. 

In the first place, the Pantheon was constructed between other buildings, and the visitor can not have   

known that he was about to enter a spacious vaulted room; in the second place, the contrast between the   

dark hall and the bright cult space,  which is striking even today- must have been even more impressive  

in Antiquity, because the inner side of the dome was covered with gilded bronze. Since the conquests of       

Trajan in Dacia, this precious metal was in abundant supply. The gold must have reminded those  who

 knew something about philosophy of the highest part of the earth's atmosphere, which was  believed

to consist of pure fire.

                            (http://www.livius.org/a/italy/rome/pantheon/pantheon11.JPG)
 
 So the visitor entered the circular sanctuary which the emperor Hadrian had rededicated to the all-

divine, i.e., heaven. Inside the rotunda were seven apses in which - as was once proposed by Theodor

Mommsen - have stood statues of the seven planets that, according to the ancients, moved around   

the earth; there was also a statue of Julius Caesar, who had, after his death, been recognized  as 

 a celestial god.  It is not recorded how the statues were arranged, but since the days of the Sicilian 

scientist Archimedes (287 - 212), it was customary to use a sequence based on revolution:   

Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn.
 

If this sequence was also applied in the Pantheon, the statue of the Sun must have stood in the central

apse.

                          (http://www.livius.org/a/italy/rome/pantheon/pantheon15.jpg)
 
 On one side, the Sun had the three male planets: son Mars, father Jupiter, and grandfather Saturn; on the 

other side were Lady Venus, the androgynous Mercury, and Mrs. Moon. Saturn and the Moon were as far   

from the Sun as possible, in accordance with the ancient theory that they were the coldest planets. The

favorable planets (Moon Jupiter, Venus) and the unfavorable ones (Saturn, Mercury, Mars) constituted   

two equilateral triangles. In this way, the seven apses were a copy of the universe. The most striking     

aspect of the vaulted space, however, was the big "eye" (oculus) in the top of the vault.   
                     
Its function in the cosmological design is described  by the Athenian

philosopher Plato, whose philosophical ideas were rapidly gaining popularity in the second century.

                        (http://www.abiyoyo.com/italia/roma/pantheon/pantheon7.jpg) 

 The gods see many blessed sights in the inner heaven, and there are many ways to and fro, along which the

blessed gods are passing, every one doing his own work; he may follow who will and can, for jealousy has no 

place in the celestial choir. But when they go to banquet and festival, then they move up to the top of 

of the  vault of heaven:

                                                                                                                                             
"For the immortals, when they are at the end of their course, go forth and stand upon the outside of

heaven, and the revolution of the spheres carries them round, and they behold the things beyond. 

But of the heaven which is above the heavens, what earthly poet ever did or ever will sing worthily?"

[Plato, Phaedrus, 247a-c;
tr. B. Jowett]

                                           (http://www.monolithic.com/thedome/pantheon/pan08x.jpg)

  The point is that the gods do not only belong to our universe, but are also transcendental: they are beyond this
world. This idea, which can for the first time be documented in the cult of Amun in ancient Egypt, was often

combined with monotheism: the gods venerated by the Greeks and Romans were manifestations of the one,

supreme being, the all-divine or Pantheon. 

                        (http://www.livius.org/a/italy/rome/pantheon/pantheon13.JPG)

The floor of the Rotunda is  covered by white and Numidian yellow marble, purple porphyry and grey granite

from Egypt.

 The movement of one the seven planets could be seen in the Pantheon as it was described by Plato: 

the projection of the Sun on the gilded ceiling, "moving up to the top of the vault of heaven" in winter, 

when theSun  is low... 
                       (http://www.livius.org/a/italy/rome/pantheon/pantheon19.JPG)

 ... and down in summer, when the Sun is high. In a sense, the Pantheon is a large planetarium. This is a

special photo, taken on the longest day of the year, 21 June, at astronomical noon. As you see, the light 

falls exactly in front of the entrance. If you would have entered the temple in Antiquity, you would have 

been absolutely blinded by the light, which appeared to come from the statue of the Sun.

                           (http://www.livius.org/a/italy/rome/pantheon/pantheon17.JPG) 

 This photo shows one of the apses in which the statues of the planets were standing. It is known from the

Natural History (9.121) by Pliny the Elder that the statue of Venus was decorated with earrings containing  

pearls that had belonged to Queen Cleopatra.


The building was reckoned among Rome's greatest wonders (Ammianus Marcellinus, 16.10.14: "a self-contained

district under a high and lovely dome"), but is not often mentioned in our sources. We know that Hadrian held

court in this temple (Cassius Dio, Roman History, 69.7.1) and that the emperor Constantius II visited it in 357.





Between the granite Corinthian columns, seven sculptures stand. These Roman gods corresponded to each   

of the seven planets (at the time) and remain in their original spots, despite the building being consecrated   

as a Christian church by Pope Boniface IV in 609. 

 

But the ROMANS' PANTHEON seems to exist independent of religious rule - more of a tribute to the

past than any specific spiritual figures.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on July 26, 2007, 01:59:14 pm
(http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/us.capitol/thirty3.jpg)








Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 08:59:53 pm




                         T H E   N A T I O N ' S   C A P I T O L   B U I L D I N G



 According to the Library of Congress' online exhibit article on the conceiving and building of the Capitol Building, titled The Temple of Liberty, Thomas Jefferson was inspired by classical temple architecture for the pattern of the Capitol. A source of this was a print of the Pantheon  (ABOVE) in Claude-Antoine Jombert, 1779 book called "Les edifices antiques de Rome".

The print, called Elevation de la face du Pantheon a Rome, was done by Antoine DesGodetz. Being classically educated and a son of the Enlghtenment, this is not surprising. Jefferson was well read regarding classical philosophers and cited them many times in his letters.

A print in Robert Wood's 1753 book, The Ruins of Palmyra impressed Jefferson for the Capitol's new east portico design. The print was Wood's conception of the Temple of the Sun (small image below), which is the temple of Bel, known also as Ba'al, the Sky and Sun God and Father in the 'Trinity of the Sun God'. Iarbibol, with crown of sun, was the Messenger of the Sun, and Agribol was of the Moon. Woods made his print based on the archeological evidence suggesting what it looked like before it fell to ruins.

Included in the sixty-four prints of this rare book is one of a Roman Eagle holding a branch on the print Soffit of the door of the cell of the Temple which is digitally reproduced from Wood's book. As you will see, It is no mere coincidence that this Eagle which decorates the temple bears such a striking resemblance to the American Eagle. Not only was the Eagle sacred to the pagans of Greece and Rome, it was a powerful sacred symbol of the pagan and animist American Indians.

When I first put this essay up, there was a site that had a great deal of these prints available for viewing. That link is now dead but here are six I found at from Manhattan Rare Books. I could find from a rare book site.

Another source of inspiration to the people involved was Plate 22 in Volume I of the 1715 Vitruvius Britannicus. The print by Colen Campbell is called The First Design of the West Front of Wansted. This image is interesting because the drawing has Goddesses on the corners and peak of the roof, a common element of classical and pagan temples when built.

One of the most famous of classical archeological ruins in the present is the Parthenon, on the majestic Acropolis in Athens, built in the time of Greek democracy. Like the temple of the Sun and the Pantheon, we can see in the Parthenon the neoclassical inspiration for our national buildings. I am reminded of the Supreme Court building when I look at the Parthenon, the Hephaesteon, or the models of the excavated wonder of the world, the Temple of Artemis. Although the Parthenon has deteriorated over the centuries, there are, based on the acheological finds, many artistic conceptions of the frieze on the east pediment and models of the overall temple. These can give us some idea of it's original appearance.

The Roman Pantheon, with it's classical portico and pediment, was the model for the Capitol's original dome and rotunda. Classical temples and their libraries were the models for the buildings of Washington, DC.

Statues and sculpted friezes of mythological deities and allegorical figures became the models for Washington's neoclassical statues and friezes. Greco-Roman classical architecture, symbolic of democracy and knowledge, suited the American Enlightenment because the founders saw themselves as lighting and carrying the torch of knowledge and wisdom that was extinquished in late antiquity.

Thomas Jefferson had a vision of education, science and wisdom that was expressed in classical architecture and enlightenment ideals. America's capitol city was to be the new Rome and Athens because America was reviving the democratic and educational philosophies of the classical age. This larger views of the Pantheon (ABOVE and BELOW) give us additional perspective regarding the origins of the Capitol's architecture.

Democratic ideas have their origins in ancient Rome and Greece. Both Solon and Lycurgus, ancient Greek lawgivers, are represented in the medallions exhibit of the House chamber. Solon, father of Athens, is also with Moses and Confucius on the east pediment (over back portico) of the Supreme Court. Both are also on the frieze in the courtroom.

In the Main Reading Room of the Library of Congress, there are sixteen Bronze statues representing Philosophy, Art, History, Commerce, Religion, Science, Law, and Poetry. One of the chosen figures representing Law in the Library of Congress is not Moses, but it is Solon of early Democratic Athens.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on August 19, 2007, 09:04:45 pm
(http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~klio/im/re/cities-Italy/pantheon_aerial1.jpg)

http://community-2.webtv.net/westernmind/WASHINGTONDC/


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 09:19:29 pm
(http://www.roma-antiqua.de/abbildungen/antikes_rom/marsfeld/pantheon_kuppel.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 09:23:43 pm
(http://blog.vagabondo.net/media/6/20051111-pantheon%20copy.jpg)
(http://www.nycerome.com/img-alberghi-roma/hotel-roma-pics/del-senato/albergo-del-senato-rome.jpg)
                                                                   (http://www.bluescreens.it/image/isola/big/IMG_0294.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 09:37:44 pm
(http://www.colonialvoyage.com/viaggi/Roma2.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 09:47:43 pm
(http://jheer.org/photos/Euro2004/Rome/DSC00182.JPG)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 09:51:34 pm
(http://www.abiyoyo.com/italia/roma/pantheon/pantheon12.jpg)




(http://www.capriweb.com/web/imagemelli/temaRomaPantheon.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 09:56:03 pm
(http://www.kadifeli.com/vasil/2005%20Italya/20050910-d-Roma%20Pantheon%2001.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 21, 2007, 10:02:42 pm
(http://www.unpacked.it/up_blog/wp-content/uploads/eyal_pantheon_roma_.jpg)



                                                  (http://castore.mib.infn.it/~galimber/temp/pantheon_vert1.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 22, 2007, 11:37:30 am
(http://www.goethezeitportal.de/fileadmin/Images/wd/projekte-pool/italien/goethe_in_rom/blicke_auf_rom/pantheon/Pantheon_FOTORAPIDACOLOR_284__724x500_.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 22, 2007, 11:39:47 am
(http://www.goethezeitportal.de/fileadmin/Images/wd/projekte-pool/italien/goethe_in_rom/blicke_auf_rom/pantheon/Pantheon_Brunner__783x500_.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 22, 2007, 11:44:09 am
(http://www.utexas.edu/courses/romanciv/Doug%20Boin's%20images/Hadrian/6Pantheon%20Porch.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 22, 2007, 11:51:37 am
(http://fleche.org/lutece/pict/images_petites/images_jpg/rome_pantheon_photo13.jpg)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on September 22, 2007, 11:56:44 am
(http://www.jerrypournelle.com/images/photos2002/ROME/p4260078.jpg)

VIEW OF THE REAR OF THE PANTHEON AS SEEN FROM PIAZZA DELLA MINERVA.

IN THE FOREGROUND, ATOP BERNINI'S MARBLE ELEPHANT, IS 'MINERVA'S CHICK' -

THE SMALLEST OF ROME'S 13 EGYPTIAN OBELISKS.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Krystal Coenen on October 06, 2007, 03:30:37 am
Nice work, Bianca.  It is a shame that so many more modern building have been built around the Pantheon.  It, and it's elements, look out of place these days compared to the other different styles of architecture surrounding it.  I would have liked to have seen Rome in it's prime.

Krystal


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 06:12:35 pm






Kristal,

I am so sorry I didn't see your post until now.

I do agree that so many modern buildings have been built around the Pantheon and I too wish
I could have seen Rome in its prime.

Unfortunately the city (and the country) are so old and there is so much antiquity - under and
above ground - that we tend to be very blase' about it all.  Note also that at the time of Michel-
angelo, only, interest started taking hold to rediscover the treasures of Ancient Rome. 

Aside from the millennia, the "CHURCH" and its nobility had plundered Roman buildings during all that
time.  What they couldn't tear down, they used for their new places of worship - thankfully, in the
case of the Pantheon.

Unfortunately, "to the victors go the spoils......"


P.S.  If it makes you feel any better, when I am in Italy I NEVER go to visit the churches, even
though I know that is where the works of art are. 

In protest, I have always limited myself to seeking out only more "ancient glories......"


Also, see below from the beginning if this thread:


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa Biography
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 06:19:29 pm










                                                       T H E   P A N T H E O N





Only in a city such as Rome could the Pantheon be considered quaint.

Found in a city containing hundreds of opportunities to view overwhelming ruins, the Roman Pantheon slips dreamily into the landscape.

Of all the great buildings constructed during the crest of the Roman Empire, only this one still stands.

Seemingly impervious to time or destruction, the walls and dome of the Roman Pantheon rise from Piazza della Rotonda, and bathe the square in a warm, protecting light.




PantheonThe Pantheon (Latin Pantheon), from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning "Temple of all the Gods") is
a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome.

It is the best preserved of all Roman buildings, and perhaps the best preserved building of its age in the world.
It has been in continuous use throughout its history.

Although the identity of the Pantheon's primary architect remains uncertain, it is largely assigned to Apollodorus of Damascus. Since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a Christian church.








Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa Biography
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 06:24:19 pm
(http://www.dillum.ch/html/pantheon_stierlin_153.gif)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa Biography
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 06:26:26 pm
                             (http://www.kuthumadierks.com/articoli/ries/immagini/pantheon01.jpg)







                                                                A N C I E N T




Agrippa's Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in 80 AD; the current building dates from about 125 AD, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, as date-stamps on the bricks reveal. It was totally reconstructed with the text of the original inscription ("M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT" meaning, "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, built during his third consulate") which was added to the new facade, a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome. Hadrian was a cosmopolitan emperor who traveled widely in the East and was a great admirer of Greek culture. He seems to have intended the Pantheon, a temple to all the gods, to be a kind of ecumenical or syncretist gesture to the subjects of the Roman Empire who did not worship the old gods of Rome, or who (as was increasingly the case) worshipped them under other names. How the building was actually used is not known.



(http://www.tesoridiroma.net/galleria/pantheon/foto/pantheon10.jpg)



Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. Dio's book appears to be the only near-contemporary writing on the Pantheon, and it is interesting that even by the year 200 there was uncertainty about the origin of the building and its purpose:

Agrippa completed the building called the Pantheon. It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus; but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens. (Cassius Dio History of Rome 53.27.2)

The building was later repaired by Septimius Severus and Caracalla in 202 AD, for which there is another, smaller inscription. This inscription reads "pantheum vetustate corruptum cum omni cultu restituerunt" ('with every refinement they restored the Pantheon worn by age').


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 06:45:54 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Bust_Hadrian_Musei_Capitolini_MC817.jpg/480px-Bust_Hadrian_Musei_Capitolini_MC817.jpg)

HADRIAN'S BUST

Musei Capitolini, Roma








                                         Imperator Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus




 

Reign August 10, 117 – July 10, 138

Full name Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus

Born 24 January 76(76-01-24)
Rome or Italica

Died July 10, 138 (aged 62)
 Baiae

Buried
1) Puteoli
2) Gardens of Domitia (Rome)
3) Hadrian's Mausoleum (Rome)

Predecessor Trajan

Successor Antoninus Pius

Consort to Vibia Sabina

Issue
Lucius Aelius,
Antoninus Pius
(both adoptive)

Dynasty Nervan-Antonine

Father Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer

Mother Domitia Paulina


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 07:20:53 pm








Early life



Though there was a late tradition that Hadrian was born in Italica located in the province called Hispania Baetica (the southernmost Roman province in the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal), he himself stated in his autobiography, now lost, that he was born in Rome on 24 January 76 of a family originally Italian but Hispanian for many generations. However, this might just be a political stunt to show he was Roman in every way.

His father was Hispanian Roman Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, who as a senator of praetorian rank would spend much of his time in Rome.  Hadrian’s forefathers came from Hadria, modern Atri, an ancient town of Picenum in Italy, but the family had settled in Italica in Hispania Baetica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Afer was
a paternal cousin of the future Emperor Trajan.

His mother was Domitia Paulina who came from Gades (Cádiz). Paulina was a daughter of a distinguished Hispanian Roman Senatorial family. Hadrian’s elder sister and only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina, his niece was Julia Serviana Paulina and his great-nephew was Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. His parents died in 85/86 when Hadrian was nine, and the boy then became a ward of both Trajan and Publius Acilius Attianus (who was later Trajan’s Praetorian Prefect).  Hadrian was schooled in various subjects particular to young aristocrats of the day, and was so fond of learning Greek literature that he was nicknamed Graeculus ("Little Greek").

Hadrian visited Italica when he was 14 and enlisted in the army there, but was recalled by Trajan who thereafter looked after his development. He never returned to Italica although it was later made a colonia in his honour. His first military service was as a tribune of the Legio II Adiutrix. Later, he was to be transferred to the Legio I Minervia in Germany. When Nerva died in 98, Hadrian rushed to inform Trajan personally. He later became legate of a legion in Upper Pannonia and eventually governor of said province. He was also archon in Athens for a brief time, and was elected an Athenian citizen.

Hadrian was active in the wars against the Dacians (as legate of the V Macedonica) and reputedly won awards from Trajan for his successes. Due to an absence of military action in his reign, Hadrian's military skill is not well attested, however his keen interest and knowledge of the army and his demonstrated skill of administration show possible strategic talent.

Hadrian joined Trajan's expedition against Parthia as a legate on Trajan’s staff. Neither during the initial victorious phase, nor during the second phase of the war when rebellion swept Mesopotamia did Hadrian do anything of note. However when the governor of Syria had to be sent to sort out renewed troubles in Dacia, Hadrian was appointed as a replacement, giving him an independent command.  Trajan, seriously ill by that time, decided to return to Rome while Hadrian remained in Syria to guard the Roman rear. Trajan only got as far as Selinus before he became too ill to go further. While Hadrian may have been the obvious choice as successor, he had never been adopted as Trajan's heir. As Trajan lay dying, nursed by his wife, Plotina (a supporter of Hadrian), he at last adopted Hadrian as heir. Then he died. Allegations that the order of events was the other way round have never quite been resolved.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 07:22:19 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Emperor_Hadrianus_Crete_2th_cent_Istanbul_Museum.JPG/250px-Emperor_Hadrianus_Crete_2th_cent_Istanbul_Museum.JPG)







Securing power


 
Marble statue of Emperor Hadrian (Istanbul Archeological Museum).Hadrian quickly secured the support of the legions — one potential opponent, Lusius Quietus, was instantly dismissed.  The Senate's endorsement followed when possibly falsified papers of adoption from Trajan were presented (although he had been the ward of Trajan). The rumor of a falsified document of adoption carried little weight — Hadrian's legitimacy arose from the endorsement of the Senate
and the Syrian armies.

Hadrian did not at first go to Rome — he was busy sorting out the East and suppressing the Jewish revolt that had broken out under Trajan, then moving on to sort out the Danube frontier. Instead, Attianus, Hadrian's former guardian, was put in charge in Rome. There he "discovered" a plot involving four leading Senators including Lusius Quietus and demanded of the Senate their deaths. There was no question of a trial — they were hunted down and killed out of
hand. Because Hadrian was not in Rome at the time, he was able to claim that Attianus had acted on his own initia-
tive. According to Elizabeth Speller the real reason for their deaths was that they were Trajan's men.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 07:25:33 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Roman_Empire_under_Hadrian.png/800px-Roman_Empire_under_Hadrian.png)







Hadrian and the military


 
Extent of the Roman Empire under Hadrian.Despite his own great stature as a military administrator, Hadrian's reign was marked by a general lack of major military conflicts, apart from the Second Roman-Jewish War. He surrendered Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia, considering them to be indefensible. There was almost a war with Parthia around 121, but the threat was averted when Hadrian succeeded in negotiating a peace.

The peace policy was strengthened by the **** of permanent fortifications along the empire's borders (limites, sl. limes). The most famous of these is the massive Hadrian's Wall in Great Britain, and the Danube and Rhine borders were strengthened with a series of mostly wooden fortifications, forts, outposts and watchtowers, the latter specifically improving communications and local area security. To maintain morale and keep the troops from getting restive, Hadrian established intensive drill routines, and personally inspected the armies. Although his coins showed military images almost as often as peaceful ones, Hadrian's policy was peace through strength, even threat.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 07:30:45 pm








The Second Roman-Jewish War



Further information: Bar Kokhba revolt

In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 66–73. He promised to rebuild the city, but planning it as a pagan metropolis to be called Aelia Capitolina. A
new pagan temple on the ruins of the Second Temple was to be dedicated to Jupiter.

In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision (brit milah), which he, as an avid Hellenist, viewed as mutilation.  A Roman coin inscribed Aelia Capitolina was issued in 132. Hadrian's policies triggered the massive Jewish uprising (132–135), led by Bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed.  Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian's report to the Roman Snate omitted the customary salutation "I and the legions are well" .

Hadrian's army eventually defeated the revolt however. According to Cassius Dio, during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. After the end of the war, Hadrian continued the religious persecution of Jews, according to the Babylonian Talmud. He attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars. The sacred scroll was ceremoniously burned on the Temple Mount. At the former Temple sanctuary, he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea, he removed the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina, after the Philistines, the ancient enemies of the Jews. He reestablished Jerusalem as the Roman pagan polis of Aelia Capitolina, and Jews were forbidden from entering it.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 07:32:05 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/92/Mauzoleum_Hadriana.jpg/800px-Mauzoleum_Hadriana.jpg)

Castel Sant'Angelo, the ancient Hadrian Mausoleum.







Cultural pursuits and patronage
 


Castel Sant'Angelo, the ancient Hadrian Mausoleum.Hadrian has been described, by Ronald Syme among
others, as the most versatile of all the Roman Emperors. He also liked to display a knowledge of all intellectual and artistic fields. Above all, Hadrian patronized the arts: Hadrian's Villa at Tibur (Tivoli) was the greatest Roman example of an Alexandrian garden, recreating a sacred landscape, lost in large part to the despoliation
of the ruins by the Cardinal d'Este who had much of the marble removed to build Villa d'Este. In Rome, the Pantheon, originally built by Agrippa but destroyed by fire in 80, was rebuilt under Hadrian in the domed form it retains to this day. It is among the best preserved of Rome's ancient buildings and was highly influential to a many of the great architects of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods.

From well before his reign, Hadrian displayed a keen interest in architecture, but it seems that his eagerness was not always well received. For example, Apollodorus of Damascus, famed architect of the Forum of Trajan, dismissed his designs. When Trajan, predecessor to Hadrian, consulted Apollodorus about an architectural problem, Hadrian interrupted to give advice, to which Apollodorus replied, "Go away and draw your pumpkins. You know nothing about these problems." "Pumpkins" refers to Hadrian's drawings of domes like the Serapeum in his Villa. It is rumored that once Hadrian succeeded Trajan to become emperor, he had Apollodorus exiled and later put to death. It is very possible that this later story was a later attempt to defame his character, as Hadrian, though popular among a great many across the empire, was not universally admired, either in his lifetime or afterward.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 07:43:20 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Hadrian_Greek_BM_Sc1381.jpg/359px-Hadrian_Greek_BM_Sc1381.jpg)

Hadrian, wreathed and in Greek dress
offers a sprig of laurel to Apollo.

Marble, from the temple of Apollo
at Cyrene, ca. 117–125.







Hadrian wrote poetry in both Latin and Greek; one of the few surviving examples is a Latin poem he reportedly composed on his deathbed (see below). He also wrote an autobiography – not, apparently, a work of great length or revelation, but designed to scotch various rumours or explain his various actions. The work is lost but was apparently used by the writer — whether Marius Maximus or someone else – on whom the Historia Augusta principally relied for its vita of Hadrian: at least, a number of statements in the vita have been identified (by Ronald Syme and others) as probably ultimately stemming from the autobiography.

Another of Hadrian's contributions to the arts was the beard. The portraits of emperors up to this point were all clean shaven, idealized images of Greek athletes. Hadrian wore a beard as evidenced by all his portraits. Subsequent emperors would be portrayed with beards for more than a century and a half.

Hadrian was a humanist and deeply Hellenophile in all his tastes. He favoured the doctrines of the philosophers Epictetus, Heliodorus and Favorinus and was generally considered an Epicurean, as were some of his friends such as Caius Bruttius Praesens. At home he attended to social needs. Hadrian mitigated but did not abolish slavery, had the legal code humanized and forbade torture. He built libraries, aqueducts, baths and theaters. Hadrian is considered by many historians to have been wise and just: Schiller called him "the Empire's first servant", and Edward Gibbon admired his "vast and active genius", as well as his "equity and moderation".

While visiting Greece in 125, he attempted to create a kind of provincial parliament to bind all the semi-autonomous former city states across all Greece and Ionia (in Asia Minor). This parliament, known as the Panhellenion, failed despite spirited efforts to instill cooperation among the Hellenes.

Hadrian was especially famous for his romance with a Greek youth, Antinous, whom he met in Bythinia in 124 when the boy was thirteen or fourteen. While touring Egypt in 130, Antinous mysteriously drowned in the Nile. Deeply saddened, Hadrian founded the Egyptian city of Antinopolis. Hadrian drew the whole Empire into his mourning, making Antinous the last new god of antiquity.

Hadrian died at his villa in Baiae. He was buried in a mausoleum on the western bank of the Tiber, in Rome, a building later transformed into a papal fortress, Castel Sant'Angelo. The dimensions of his mausoleum, in its original form, were deliberately designed to be slightly larger than the earlier Mausoleum of Augustus.

According to Cassius Dio a gigantic equestrian statue was erected to Hadrian after his death. "It was so large that the bulkiest man could walk through the eye of each horse, yet because of the extreme height of the foundation persons passing along on the ground below believe that the horses themselves as well as Hadrian are very small."


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 07:49:09 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/05/Aureus_-_Adriano_-_RIC_0144.jpg)

This aureus by Hadrian celebrates the games
held in honor of the 874th birthday of Rome.






                                                           Hadrian's travels





Purpose
 


This aureus by Hadrian celebrates the games held in honor of the 874th birthday of Rome.The Stoic-Epicurean Emperor traveled broadly, inspecting and correcting the legions in the field. Even prior to becoming emperor, he had traveled abroad with the Roman military, giving him much experience in the matter. More than half his reign was spent outside of Italy. Other emperors often left Rome to simply go to war, returning soon after conflicts concluded. A previous emperor, Nero, once traveled through Greece and was condemned for his self indulgence. Hadrian, by contrast, traveled as a fundamental part of his governing, and made this clear to the Roman senate and the people. He was able to do this because at Rome he possessed a loyal supporter within the upper echelons of Roman society, a military veteran by the name of Marcius Turbo. Also, there are hints within certain sources that he also employed a secret police force, the frumentarii, to exert control and influence in case anything should go wrong while he journeyed abroad.

Hadrian's visits were marked by handouts which often contained instructions for the construction of new public buildings. Hadrian was willful of strengthening the Empire from within through improved infrastructure, as opposed to conquering or annexing perceived enemies. This was often the purpose of his journeys; commissioning new structures, projects and settlements. His almost evangelical belief in Greek culture strengthened his views: like many emperors before him, Hadrian's will was almost always obeyed. His traveling court was large, including administrators and likely architects and builders. The burden on the areas he passed through were sometimes great. While his arrival usually brought some benefits it is possible that those who had to carry the burden were of different class to those who reaped the benefits. For example, huge amounts of provisions were requisitioned during his visit to Egypt, this suggests that the burden on the mainly subsistence farmers must have been intolerable, causing some measure of starvation and hardship.  At the same time, as in later times all the way through the European Renaissance, kings were welcomed into their cities or lands, and the financial burden was completely on them, and only indirectly on the poorer class.

Hadrian's first tour came in 121 and was initially aimed at covering his back to allow himself the freedom to concern himself with his general cultural aims. He traveled north, towards Germania and inspected the Rhine-Danube frontier, allocating funds to improve the defenses. However it was a voyage to the Empire's very frontiers that represented his perhaps most significant visit; upon hearing of a recent revolt, he journeyed across the sea to Britannia.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 07:53:24 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Hadrians_Wall_from_Housesteads1.jpg/450px-Hadrians_Wall_from_Housesteads1.jpg)

Hadrian's Wall, a fortification in
Northern England
(viewed from Vercovicium)







Britannia
 


Prior to Hadrian's arrival on Great Britain there had been a major rebellion in Britannia, spanning roughly two years (119–121).[17] It was here where he initiated the building of Hadrian's Wall during 122. The wall was built chiefly to safeguard the frontier province of Britannia, by preventing future small scale invasions and unwanted immigration from the northern country of Caledonia (now modern day Scotland).

Caledonia was inhabited by tribes known to the Romans as Caledonians. Hadrian realized that the Caledonians would refuse to cohabitate with the Romans. He also was aware that although Caledonia was valuable, the harsh terrain and highlands made its conquest costly and unprofitable for the Empire at large. Thus, he decided instead on building a wall. Unlike the Germanic limes, built of wood palisades, the lack of suitable wood in the area required a stone construction. Hadrian is perhaps most famous for the construction of this wall whose ruins still span many miles and to date bear his name. In many ways it represents Hadrian's will to improve and develop within the Empire, rather than waging wars and conquering.

Under him, a shrine was erected in York to Britain as a Goddess, and coins were struck which introduced a female figure as the personification of Britain, labeled BRITANNIA.   By the end of 122 he had concluded his visit to Britannia, and from there headed south by sea to Mauretania.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:00:01 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Hadrianus_gate.jpg/800px-Hadrianus_gate.jpg)







Parthia and Anatolia



In 123, he arrived in Mauretania where he personally led a campaign against local rebels.  However this visit was to be short, as reports came through that the Eastern nation of Parthia was again preparing for war, as a result Hadrian quickly headed eastwards. On his journey east it is known that at some point he visited Cyrene during which he personally made available funds for the training of the young men of well bred families for the Roman military. This might well have been a stop off during his journey East. Cyrene had already benefited from his generosity when he in 119 had provided funds for the rebuilding of public buildings destroyed in the recent Jewish revolt.

 
Hadrian's Gate, in Antalya, southern Turkey was built to honour Hadrian who visited the city in 130 AD.When Hadrian arrived on the Euphrates, he characteristically solved the problem through a negotiated settlement with the Parthian king Osroes I. He then proceeded to check the Roman defenses before setting off West along the coast of the Black Sea.  He probably spent the winter in Nicomedia, the main city of Bithynia. As Nicomedia had been hit by an earthquake only shortly prior to his stay, Hadrian was generous in providing funds for rebuilding. Thanks to his generosity he was acclaimed as the chief restorer of the province as a whole. It is more than possible that Hadrian visited Claudiopolis and there espied the beautiful Antinous, a young boy who was destined to become the emperor's eromenos — his pederastic beloved. Sources say nothing about when Hadrian met Antinous, however, there are depictions of Antinous that shows him as a young man of 20 or so. As this was shortly before Antinous's drowning in 130 Antinous would more likely have been a youth of 13 or 14.  It is possible that Antinous may have been sent to Rome to be trained as page to serve the emperor and only gradually did he rise to the status of imperial favorite.

After meeting Antinous, Hadrian traveled through Anatolia. The route he took is uncertain. Various incidents are described such as his founding of a city within Mysia, Hadrianutherae, after a successful boar hunt. (The building of the city was probably little more than a mere whim — lowly populated wooded areas such as the location of the new city were already ripe for development). Some historians dispute whether Hadrian did in fact commission the city's construction at all. At about this time, plans to build a temple in Asia minor were written up. The new temple would be dedicated to Trajan and Hadrian and built with dazzling white marble.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:06:51 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Athenstemplezeus.jpg)

Temple of Zeus in Athens







Greece
 


The climax of this tour was the destination that the hellenophile Hadrian must all along have had in mind, Greece. He arrived in the autumn of 124 in time to participate in the Eleusinian Mysteries. By tradition at one stage in the ceremony the initiates were supposed to carry arms but this was waived to avoid any risk to the emperor among them. At the Athenians' request he conducted a revision of their constitution — among other things a new phyle (tribe) was added bearing his name.

During the winter he toured the Peloponnese. His exact route is uncertain, however Pausanias reports of tell-tale signs, such as temples built by Hadrian and the statue of the emperor built by the grateful citizens of Epidaurus in thanks to their "restorer". He was especially generous to Mantinea which supports the theory that Antinous was in fact already Hadrian's lover because of the strong link between Mantinea and Antinous's home in Bithynia.

By March 125, Hadrian had reached Athens presiding over the festival of Dionysia. The building program that Hadrian initiated was substantial. Various rulers had done work on building a temple to Olympian Zeus — it was Hadrian who ensured that the job would be finished. He also initiated the construction of several public buildings on his own whim and even organized the building of an aqueduct.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:10:34 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7e/Pantheon_Agrippa.jpg)

The Pantheon







Return to Italy
 


On his return to Italy, Hadrian made a detour to Sicily. Coins celebrate him as the restorer of the
island though there is no record of what he did to earn this accolade.

Back in Rome he was able to see for himself the completed work of rebuilding the Pantheon.

Also completed by then was Hadrian's villa nearby at Tibur a pleasant retreat by the Sabine Hills for whenever Rome became too much for him. At the beginning of March 127 Hadrian set off for a tour of Italy. Once again, historians are able to reconstruct his route by evidence of his hand-outs rather than the historical records. For instance, in that year he restored the Picentine earth goddess Cupra in the town of Cupra Maritima. At some unspecified time he improved the drainage of the Fucine lake. Less welcome than such largesse was his decision to divide Italy into 4 regions under imperial legates with consular rank. Being effectively reduced to the status of mere provinces did not go down well and this innovation did not long outlive Hadrian.

Hadrian fell ill around this time, though the nature of his sickness is not known. Whatever the illness was, it did not stop him from setting off in the spring of 128 to visit Africa. His arrival began with the good omen of rain ending a drought. Along with his usual role as benefactor and restorer he found time to inspect the troops and his speech to the troops survives to this day. Hadrian returned to Italy in the summer of 128 but his stay was brief before setting off on another tour that would last three years.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:15:42 pm






Greece and Asia



In September 128 Hadrian again attended the Eleusinian mysteries.

This time his visit to Greece seems to have concentrated on Athens and Sparta — the two ancient rivals for dominance of Greece.

Hadrian had played with the idea of focusing his Greek revival round Amphictyonic League based in Delphi but he by now had decided on something far grander. His new Panhellenion was going to be a council that would bring together Greek cities wherever they might be found. The meeting place was to be the new temple to Zeus in Athens. Having set in motion the preparations — deciding whose claim to be a Greek city was genuine would in itself take time — Hadrian set off for Ephesus.

In October 130, while Hadrian and his entourage were sailing on the Nile, Antinous drowned, for unknown reasons, though accident, suicide, murder or religious sacrifice have all been postulated.

The emperor was grief struck. He ordered Antinous deified, and cities were named after the boy, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire. Temples were
built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour
and oracles delivered in his name. The city of Antinoöpolis or Antinoe was founded on the ruins of
Besa where he died (Dio Cassius lix. 11; Spartianus, Hadrian).


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:17:07 pm








Greece, Palestine, Illyricum



Hadrian’s movements subsequent to the founding of Antinoöpolis on October 30, 130 are obscure.

Whether or not he returned to Rome, he spent the winter of 131–32 in Athens and probably remained in Greece or further East because of the Jewish rebellion which broke out in 132.

Inscriptions make it clear that he took the field in person against the rebels with his army in 133; he then returned to Rome, probably in that year and almost certainly (judging again from inscriptions) via Illyricum.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:18:12 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/12/Adriano5.jpg/451px-Adriano5.jpg)







                                                              Final years





Succession
 


Hadrian spent the final years of his life at Rome. In 134, he took an Imperial salutation for the end of the Jewish War (which was not actually concluded until the following year). In 136, he dedicated a new Temple of 'Venus and Rome' on the former site of Nero's Golden House.

About this time, suffering from poor health, he turned to the problem of the succession.

In 136 he adopted one of the ordinary consuls of that year, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, who took the name Lucius Aelius Caesar. He was both the stepson and son-in-law of Gaius Avidius Nigrinus, one of the "four consulars" executed in 118, but was himself in delicate health. Granted tribunician power and the governorship of Pannonia, Aelius Caesar held a further consulship in 137, but died on January 1, 138.

Following Aelius’s death Hadrian next adopted Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (the future emperor Antoninus Pius), who had served as one of the four imperial legates of Italy (a post created by Hadrian) and as proconsul of Asia. On 25 February 138 Antoninus received tribunician power and imperium. Moreover, to ensure the future of the dynasty, Hadrian required Antoninus to adopt both Lucius Ceionius Commodus (son of the deceased Aelius Caesar) and Marcus Annius Verus (who was the grandson of an influential senator of the same name who had been Hadrian’s close friend; Annius was already betrothed to Aelius Caesar’s daughter Ceionia Fabia).

Hadrian’s precise intentions in this arrangement are debatable. Though the consensus is that he wanted Annius Verus (who would later become the Emperor Marcus Aurelius) to succeed Antoninus, it has also been argued that he actually intended Ceionius Commodus, the son of his own adopted son, to succeed, but was constrained to show favour simultaneously to Annius Verus because of his strong connections to the Hispano-Narbonensian nexus of senatorial families of which Hadrian himself was a part.

It may well not have been Hadrian, but rather Antoninus Pius — who was Annius Verus’s uncle – who advanced the latter to the principal position. The fact that Annius would divorce Ceionia Fabia and re-marry to Antoninus' daughter Annia Faustina points in the same direction. When he eventually became Emperor, Marcus Aurelius would co-opt Ceionius Commodus as his co-Emperor (under the name of Lucius Verus) on his own initiative.

The ancient sources present Hadrian's last few years as marked by conflict and unhappiness.

The adoption of Aelius Caesar proved unpopular, not least with Hadrian's brother-in-law Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Servianus' grandson Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. Servianus, though now far too old, had stood in line of succession at the beginning of the reign; Fuscus is said to have had designs on the imperial power for himself, and in 137 he may have attempted a coup in which his grandfather was implicated. Whatever the truth, Hadrian ordered that both be put to death.

Servianus is reported to have prayed before his execution that Hadrian would "long for death but be unable to die".

The prayer was fulfilled; as Hadrian suffered from his final, protracted illness, he had to be prevented from suicide on several occasions.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:24:32 pm








Death



Hadrian died in 138 on the tenth day of July, in his villa at Baiae at age 62.

However, the man who had spent so much of his life traveling had not yet reached his journey's end.

He was buried first at Puteoli, near Baiae, on an estate which had once belonged to Cicero. Soon
after, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the Gardens of Domitia, close by the almost-complete mausoleum.

Upon the completion of the Tomb of Hadrian in Rome in 139 by his successor Antoninus Pius, his body was cremated, and his ashes were placed there together with those of his wife Vibia Sabina and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius, who also died in 138. Antoninus also had him deified in 139 and given a temple on the Campus Martius.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:31:21 pm







                                                       Poem by Hadrian





According to the Historia Augusta Hadrian composed shortly before his death the following poem:



Animula, vagula, blandula
Hospes comesque corporis
Quae nunc abibis in loca
Pallidula, rigida, nudula,
Nec, ut soles, dabis iocos...
 
P. Aelius Hadrianus Imp.



Little soul, roamer and charmer
Body's guest and companion
Who soon will depart to places
Darkish, chilly and misty
An end to all your jokes...


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrian


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:37:00 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/Agrippa_pushkin_museum.jpg/425px-Agrippa_pushkin_museum.jpg)







                                         M A R C U S   V E S P A S I A N U S   A G R I P P A





Place of birth Unknown

Place of death Campania

Allegiance Roman Empire

Years of service 45 BC – 12 BC

Rank General

Commands Roman army






BATTLES/WARS



Caesar's civil war

Battle of Munda

Battle of Mutina

Battle of Philippi

Battle of Actium


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:44:23 pm








Agrippa was born in 64–62 BC[1] in an uncertain location. His father was Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa.

He had an elder brother whose name was also Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa, and a sister named Vipsania Polla. The family had not been prominent in Roman public life.

However, Agrippa was about the same age as Octavius (the future emperor Augustus), and the two were educated together and became close friends. Despite Agrippa's association with the family of Julius Caesar, his elder brother chose another side in the civil wars of the 40s BC, fighting under Cato against Caesar in Africa. When Cato's forces were defeated, Agrippa's brother was taken prisoner but freed after Octavius interceded on his behalf.

It is not known whether Agrippa fought against his brother in Africa, but he probably served in
Caesar's campaign of 46–45 BC against Gnaeus Pompeius, which culminated in the Battle of Munda.

At any rate, Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study in Apollonia with the Macedonian legions, while Caesar consolidated his power in Rome.

It was in the fourth month of their stay in Apollonia that the news of Julius Caesar's assassination in March 44 BC reached them. Despite the advice of Agrippa and another friend, Quintus Salvidienus Rufus, that he march on Rome with the troops from Macedonia, Octavius decided to sail to Italy with
a small retinue.

After his arrival, he learnt that Caesar had adopted him as his legal heir. (Octavius now took over Caesar's name, but is referred to by modern historians as "Octavian" during this period.)


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:47:09 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/33/Marcus_agrippa_louvre_portrait.jpg/450px-Marcus_agrippa_louvre_portrait.jpg)

Marble bust

The Louvre,
Paris







After Octavian's return to Rome, he and his supporters realized they needed the support of legions.

Agrippa helped Octavian to levy troops in Campania. Once Octavian had his legions, he made a pact with Mark Antony and Lepidus, legally established in 43 BC as the Second Triumvirate. Octavian and his consular colleague Quintus Pedius arranged for Caesar's assassins to be prosecuted in their absence, and Agrippa was entrusted with the case against Gaius Cassius Longinus.  It may have been in the same year that Agrippa began his political career, holding the position of Tribune of the Plebs, which granted him entry to the Senate.

 
In 42 BC, Agrippa probably fought alongside Octavian and Antony in the Battle of Philippi. After their return to Rome, he played a major role in Octavian's war against Lucius Antonius and Fulvia Antonia, respectively the brother and wife of Mark Antony, which began in 41 BC and ended in the capture of Perusia in 40 BC.

However, Salvidienus remained Octavian's main general at this time.

After the Perusine war, Octavian departed for Gaul, leaving Agrippa as urban praetor in Rome with instructions
to defend Italy against Sextus Pompeius, an opponent of the Triumvirate who was now occupying Sicily. In July 40, while Agrippa was occupied with the Ludi Apollinares that were the praetor's responsibility, Sextus began a raid in southern Italy. Agrippa advanced on him, forcing him to withdraw.

However, the Triumvirate proved unstable, and in August 40 Antony sided with Sextus in a joint invasion of Italy. Agrippa's success in retaking Sipontum from Antony helped bring an end to the conflict.

Agrippa was among the intermediaries through whom Antony and Octavian agreed once more upon peace.
During the discussions Octavian learned that Salvidienus had offered to betray him to Antony, with the result
that Salvidienus was executed or committed suicide. Agrippa was now Octavian's leading general.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:52:32 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1c/Agrippa_Ara_Pacis.PNG/492px-Agrippa_Ara_Pacis.PNG)

Agrippa depicted in a relief of the "Altar of Peace," the ARA PACIS.






In 39 or 38 BC, Octavian appointed Agrippa governor of Transalpine Gaul, where in 38 he put down a rising of the Aquitanians. He also fought the Germanic tribes, becoming the first Roman general to cross the Rhine after Julius Caesar. He was summoned back to Rome by Octavian to assume the consulship for 37 BC.

He was well below the usual minimum age of 43, but Octavian had suffered a humiliating naval defeat against Sextus Pompey and needed his friend to oversee the preparations for further warfare. Agrippa refused the offer of a triumph for his exploits in Gaul – on the grounds, says Dio, that he thought it improper to celebrate during a time of trouble for Octavian.

Since Sextus Pompeius had command of the sea on the coasts of Italy, Agrippa's first care was to provide a safe harbor for his ships. He accomplished this by cutting through the strips of land which separated the Lacus Lucrinus from the sea, thus forming an outer harbor, while joining the lake Avernus to the Lucrinus to serve as an inner harbor.  The new harbor-complex was named Portus Julius in Octavian's honour.  Agrippa was also responsible for technological improvements, including larger ships and an improved form of grappling hook.  About this time, he married Caecilia Pomponia Attica, daughter of Cicero's friend Titus Pomponius Atticus.

In 36 BC Octavian and Agrippa set sail against Sextus. The fleet was badly damaged by storms and had to withdraw; Agrippa was left in charge of the second attempt. Thanks to superior technology and training, Agrippa and his men won decisive victories at Mylae and Naulochus, destroying all but seventeen of Sextus' ships and compelling most of his forces to surrender. Octavian, with his power increased, forced the triumvir Lepidus into retirement and entered Rome in triumph.

Agrippa received the unprecedented honor of a naval crown decorated with the beaks of ships; as Dio remarks, this was

                                      "a decoration given to nobody before or since".


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 08:58:35 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/Pantheon_rome_2005may.jpg/800px-Pantheon_rome_2005may.jpg)

Hadrian's Pantheon was built to Agrippa's design. It bears the legend

                                               M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIVM·FECIT

which means Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, built during his third consulate


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 09:06:59 pm








Agrippa participated in smaller military campaigns in 35 and 34 BC, but by the autumn of 34 he had returned to Rome.

He rapidly set out on a campaign of public repairs and improvements, including renovation of the aqueduct known as the Aqua Marcia and an extension of its pipes to cover more of the city.

Through his actions after being elected in 33 BC as one of the aediles (officials responsible for
Rome's buildings and festivals), the streets were repaired and the sewers were cleaned out, while lavish public spectacles were put on.

Agrippa signalized his tenure of office by effecting great improvements in the city of Rome, restoring and building aqueducts, enlarging and cleansing the Cloaca Maxima, constructing baths and porticos, and laying out gardens. He also gave a stimulus to the public exhibition of works of art.

It was unusual for an ex-consul to hold the lower-ranking position of aedile, but Agrippa's success
bore out this break with tradition. As emperor, Augustus would later boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", thanks in part to the great services provided by Agrippa under his reign.

Agrippa's father-in-law Atticus, suffering from a serious illness, committed suicide in 32 BC. According to Atticus' friend and biographer Cornelius Nepos, this decision was a cause of serious grief to Agrippa.

Agrippa was again called away to take command of the fleet when the war with Antony and Cleopatra broke out. He captured the strategically important city of Methone at the southwest of the Pelo-
ponnese, then sailed north, raiding the Greek coast and capturing Corcyra (modern Corfu).
Octavian then brought his forces to Corcyra, occupying it as a naval base.  Antony drew up his ships and troops at Actium, where Octavian moved to meet him. Agrippa meanwhile defeated Antony's supporter Quintus Nasidius in a naval battle at Patrae.

Dio relates that as Agrippa moved to join Octavian near Actium, he encountered Gaius Sosius, one of Antony's lieutenants, who was making a surprise attack on the squadron of Lucius Tarius, a supporter of Octavian. Agrippa's unexpected arrival turned the battle around.

As the decisive battle approached, according to Dio, Octavian received intelligence that Antony
and Cleopatra planned to break past his naval blockade and escape. At first he wished to allow the flagships past, arguing that he could overtake them with his lighter vessels and that the other opposing ships would surrender when they saw their leaders' cowardice. Agrippa objected that Antony's ships, although larger, could outrun Octavian's if they hoisted sails, and that Octavian ought to fight now because Antony's fleet had just been struck by storms. Octavian followed his friend's advice.

On September 2 31 BC, the Battle of Actium was fought. Octavian's victory, which gave him the mastery of Rome and the empire of the world, was mainly due to Agrippa.

As a token of signal regard, Octavian bestowed upon him the hand of his niece Claudia Marcella Major in 28 BC. He also served a second consulship with Octavian the same year. In 27 BC, Agrippa held a third consulship with Octavian, and in that year, the senate also bestowed upon Octavian the imperial title of Augustus.

In commemoration of the Battle of Actium, Agrippa built and dedicated the building that served as the Roman Pantheon before its destruction in 80. Emperor Hadrian used Agrippa's design to build his own Pantheon, which survives in Rome.

The inscription of the later building, which was built around 125, preserves the text of the inscription from Agrippa's building during his third consulship. The years following his third consulship, Agrippa spent in Gaul, reforming the provincial administration and taxation system, along with building an effective road system and aqueducts.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 09:08:01 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Merida_Roman_Theatre2.jpg/775px-Merida_Roman_Theatre2.jpg)

The theatre at Merida, Spain; it was promoted by Agrippa, built between 16 and 15 BC.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 09:11:58 pm








His friendship with Augustus seems to have been clouded by the jealousy of his brother-in-law Marcellus, which was probably fomented by the intrigues of Livia, the third wife of Augustus, who feared his influence over her husband.

Traditionally it is said the result of such jealousy was that Agrippa left Rome, ostensibly to take over the governorship of eastern provinces - a sort of honorable exile, but, he only sent his legate to Syria, while he himself remained at Lesbos and governed by proxy, though he may have been on a secret mission to negotiate with the Parthians about the return of the Roman legions standards which they held.

On the death of Marcellus, which took place within a year of his exile, he was recalled to Rome by Augustus, who found he could not dispense with his services. However, if one places the events in
the context of the crisis in 23 BC it seems unlikely that, when facing significant opposition and about to make a major political climb down, the emperor Augustus would place a man in exile in charge of the largest body of Roman troops. What is far more likely is that Agrippa's 'exile' was actually the careful political positioning of a loyal lieutenant in command of a significant army as a back up plan in case the settlement plans of 23 BC failed and Augustus needed military support.

It is said that Maecenas advised Augustus to attach Agrippa still more closely to him by making him his son-in-law. He accordingly induced him to divorce Marcella and marry his daughter Julia the Elder by 21 BC, the widow of the late Marcellus, equally celebrated for her beauty, abilities, and her shameless profligacy.

In 19 BC, Agrippa was employed in putting down a rising of the Cantabrians in Hispania (Cantabrian Wars). He was appointed governor of the eastern provinces a second time in 17 BC, where his just
and prudent administration won him the respect and good-will of the provincials, especially from the Jewish population. Agrippa also restored effective Roman control over the Cimmerian Chersonnese (modern-day Crimea) during his governorship.

Agrippa’s last public service was his beginning of the conquest of the upper Danube River region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC.

He died at Campania in March of 12 BC at the age of 51.

His posthumous son, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, was named in his honor. Augustus honored his memory by a magnificent funeral and spent over a month in mourning. Augustus personally oversaw all of Agrippa's children’s educations.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 09:14:36 pm
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Maison_carree_side.jpg)

The Maison Carrée at Nîmes, modern France, built in 19 BC; Agrippa was its patron.


Title: Re: THE PANTHEON/Agrippa & Hadrian Biographies
Post by: Bianca on March 25, 2008, 09:20:50 pm







Agrippa was also known as a writer, especially on the subject of geography.

Under his supervision, Julius Caesar's dream of having a complete survey of the empire made was carried out. He constructed a circular chart, which was later engraved on marble by Augustus, and afterwards placed in the colonnade built by his sister Polla. Amongst his writings, an autobiography, now lost, is referred to.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, along with Gaius Maecenas and Octavian, was a central person in the establishing of the Principate system of emperors, which would govern the Roman Empire up until the Crisis of the Third Century and the birth of Dominate system.

His grandson Gaius is known to history as the Emperor Caligula, and his great-grandson Lucius Domi-
tius Ahenobarbus would rule as the Emperor Nero.





Marriages and issue



Agrippa left several children




By his first wife, Caecilia Attica

Vipsania Agrippina (first wife of Emperor Tiberius).





By his second wife, Claudia Marcella Major

Vipsania Marcella (first great niece of Augustus)


 


By his third wife, Julia the Elder (Daughter of Augustus)



Gaius Caesar

Vipsania Julia or Julia the Younger

Lucius Caesar

Agrippina the elder (wife of Germanicus)

Agrippa Postumus (a posthumous son)


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Vipsanius_Agrippa