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Title: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:20:46 am
Che Guevara:  Life of a Revolutionary

(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/GuerrilleroHeroico.jpg/443px-GuerrilleroHeroico.jpg)

Che Guevara at the La Coubre memorial service.

Taken by Alberto Korda on March 5, 1960


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:21:07 am
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967) commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, politician, author, physician, military theorist, and paramilitary guerrilla leader. Since his death, his stylized image has become a ubiquitous global symbol of counterculture.[4]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:21:34 am
As a young medical student, Guevara traveled throughout Latin America and was transformed by the endemic poverty he witnessed.[5] His experiences and observations during these trips led him to conclude that the region's ingrained economic inequalities were an intrinsic result of monopoly capitalism, neocolonialism, and imperialism, with the only remedy being world revolution.[6] This belief prompted his involvement in Guatemala's social reforms under President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, whose eventual CIA-assisted overthrow solidified Guevara's radical ideology.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:21:54 am
Later, in Mexico, he met Fidel Castro and joined his 26th of July Movement. In December 1956, he was among the revolutionaries who invaded Cuba under Castro's leadership with the intention of overthrowing U.S.-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista.[7] Guevara soon rose to prominence among the insurgents, was promoted to Comandante, and played a pivotal role in the successful two year guerrilla campaign that deposed Batista.[8] Following the Cuban revolution, Guevara reviewed the appeals of those convicted as war criminals during the revolutionary tribunals, ratifying sentences which in some cases involved execution by firing squad.[9] Later he served as minister of industry and president of the national bank, before traversing the globe as a diplomat to meet an array of world leaders on behalf of Cuban socialism. Such diplomacy allowed him to play a key role in acquiring for Cuba the Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles which precipitated the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.[10] He was a prolific writer and diarist, composing a seminal manual on the theory and practice of guerrilla warfare, along with what later became a best-selling memoir about his motorcycle journey across South America. Guevara left Cuba in 1965 to incite revolutions first in an unsuccessful attempt in Congo-Kinshasa and later in Bolivia, where he was captured by Bolivian forces assisted by the CIA and executed.[11]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:22:13 am
Notorious as a ruthless disciplinarian who unhesitatingly shot defectors, yet revered by supporters for his rigid dedication to professed doctrines, Guevara remains a controversial and significant historical figure. As a result of his perceived martyrdom, poetic invocations for class struggle, and desire to create the consciousness of a "new man" driven by "moral" rather than "material" incentives,[12] Guevara evolved into a quintessential icon of leftist-inspired movements. Ironically and in contradiction with his ideology, Che's visage was also reconstituted as a global marketing emblem and insignia within popular culture. He has been mostly venerated and occasionally reviled in a multitude of biographies, memoirs, books, essays, documentaries, songs, and films. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century,[13] while an Alberto Korda photograph of him entitled Guerrillero Heroico (shown), was declared "the most famous photograph in the world."[14


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:22:53 am
(http://www.che-lives.com/home/modules/coppermine/albums/userpics/pics/normal_1.jpg)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:23:23 am
(http://www.che-lives.com/home/modules/coppermine/albums/userpics/pics/12.jpg)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:24:06 am
(http://www.che-lives.com/home/modules/coppermine/albums/userpics/pics/14.jpg)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:24:24 am
(http://www.che-lives.com/home/modules/coppermine/albums/userpics/pics/normal_2.jpg)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:24:43 am
(http://www.che-lives.com/home/modules/coppermine/albums/userpics/pics/normal_4.jpg)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:25:02 am
(http://www.che-lives.com/home/modules/coppermine/albums/userpics/pics/5.jpg)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:25:40 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c5/Chefamily.jpg)

A teenage Ernesto (left) with his parents and siblings, ca. 1944. Seated beside him, from left to right: Celia (mother), Celia (sister), Roberto, Juan Martín, Ernesto (father) and Ana María.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:25:52 am
Ernesto Guevara was born to Celia de la Serna and Ernesto Guevara Lynch on June 14, 1928[1] in Rosario, Argentina, the eldest of five children in a family of Spanish, Basque and Irish descent.[15] In lieu of his parents surnames, his legal name (Ernesto Guevara) will sometimes appear with de la Serna, or Lynch accompanying it. In reference to Che's "restless" nature, his father declared "the first thing to note is that in my son's veins flowed the blood of the Irish rebels."[16] Growing up in a family with leftist leanings, Guevara was introduced to a wide spectrum of political perspectives even as a boy. His father, a staunch supporter of Republicans from the Spanish Civil War, often hosted many veterans from the conflict in the Guevara home.[17]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:26:06 am
Though suffering crippling bouts of acute asthma that were to afflict him throughout his life, he excelled as an athlete, enjoying swimming, soccer, and golf.[18] He was an avid rugby union player and earned himself the nickname "Fuser"—a contraction of El Furibundo (raging) and his mother's surname, de la Serna—for his aggressive style of play.[19] His schoolmates also nicknamed him "Chancho" ("pig"), because he rarely bathed, and proudly wore a "weekly shirt."

Guevara learned chess from his father and began participating in local tournaments by age 12. During adolescence and throughout his life he was passionate about poetry, especially that of Pablo Neruda, John Keats, Antonio Machado, Federico García Lorca, Gabriela Mistral, César Vallejo, and Walt Whitman.[20] He could also recite Rudyard Kipling's "If" and José Hernández's "Martín Fierro" from memory.[21] The Guevara home contained more than 3,000 books, which allowed Guevara to be an enthusiastic and eclectic reader, with interests including Karl Marx, William Faulkner, André Gide, Emilio Salgari and Jules Verne.[22] Additionally, he enjoyed the works of Jawaharlal Nehru, Franz Kafka, Albert Camus, Vladimir Lenin, and Jean-Paul Sartre; as well as Anatole France, Friedrich Engels, H.G. Wells, and Robert Frost.[23]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:26:22 am
As he grew older, he developed an interest in the Latin American writers Horacio Quiroga, Ciro Alegría, Jorge Icaza, Rubén Darío, and Miguel Asturias.[24] Many of these authors' ideas he would catalog in his own handwritten notebooks of concepts, definitions, and philosophies of influential intellectuals. These included composing analytical sketches of Buddha and Aristotle, along with examining Bertrand Russell on love and patriotism, Jack London on society, and Nietzsche on the idea of death. Sigmund Freud's ideas fascinated him as he quoted him on a variety of topics from dreams and libido to narcissism and the oedipus complex.[25] His favorite subjects in school included philosophy, mathematics, engineering, political science, and sociology.[26]

Years later, a February 13, 1958, declassified CIA 'biographical and personality report' would make note of Guevara’s wide range of academic interests and intellect, describing him as "quite well read" and offering the racist proclamation that "Che is fairly intellectual for a Latino".[27]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:26:52 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/CheG1951.jpg/437px-CheG1951.jpg)

A 22-year-old Guevara in 1951


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:27:40 am
Motorcycle journey

In 1948, Guevara entered the University of Buenos Aires to study medicine. But in 1951, he took a year off from studies to embark on a trip traversing South America by motorcycle with his friend Alberto Granado, with the final goal of spending a few weeks volunteering at the San Pablo Leper colony in Peru, on the banks of the Amazon River. Guevara used notes taken during this trip to write an account entitled The Motorcycle Diaries, which later became a New York Times best-seller,[28] and was adapted into a 2004 award-winning film of the same name.

By trip's end, he came to view Latin America not as collection of separate nations, but as a single entity requiring a continent-wide liberation strategy. His conception of a borderless, united Hispanic America sharing a common 'Latino' heritage was a theme that prominently recurred during his later revolutionary activities. Upon returning to Argentina, he completed his studies and received his medical degree in June 1953, making him officially "Dr. Ernesto Guevara".[29] Guevara later remarked that through his travels of Latin America, he came in "close contact with poverty, hunger and disease" along with the "inability to treat a child because of lack of money" and "stupefaction provoked by the continual hunger and punishment" that leads a father to "accept the loss of a son as an unimportant accident". It was these experiences which Guevara cites as convincing him that in order to "help these people", he needed to leave the realm of medicine, and consider the political arena of armed struggle.[5]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:28:27 am
The Motorcycle Diaries

The Motorcycle Diaries is a book that traces the early travels of Marxist revolutionary hero Ernesto 'Che' Guevara, then a 23-year-old medical student, and his friend Alberto Granado, a 29-year-old biochemist. Guevara travelled 8,000 kilometres (5,000 mi) across South America on an old 500cc single cylinder Norton motorcycle. During the journey he is transformed by witnessing the social injustices of exploited mine workers, persecuted communists, ostracized lepers, and the tattered descendants of a once-great Incan civilization. The book ends with a declaration by Guevara, originally born into an upper middle class family, displaying his willingness to fight and die for the cause of the poor, and his dream of seeing a united Latin America. It has been a New York Times bestseller several times.[1]

The book was originally marketed by Verso as "Das Kapital meets Easy Rider".[2


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:29:32 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e0/Motobook7.jpg)

Author    Ernesto Guevara
Country    South America
Language    Spanish / translated into English


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:29:53 am
Journey

Guevara and Granado leave Buenos Aires (Argentina) in January 1952 on the back of a sputtering 1939 Norton 500, dubbed La Poderosa ("The Mighty One"), (a carbureted version of Don Quixote's Rocinante).[3] They desired to explore the South America they only knew from books. By journey's end (by motorcycle, steamship, raft, horse, bus, and hitchhiking) they traveled for a symbolic nine months, covering more than 8,000 miles across places such as the Andes, Atacama Desert, and the Amazon River Basin. In the bestselling memoir, Guevara details his adventure, as well as his observations on the life of the impoverished indigenous peasantry throughout Latin America.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:30:31 am
Transformation

    "The stars streaked the night sky with light in that little mountain town and the silence and the cold dematerialised the darkness. It was as if all solid substances were spirited away in the ethereal space around us, denying our individuality and submerging us, rigid, in the immense blackness."
    Ernesto Guevara's Diary

Historians and biographers now agree that the experience had a profound impact on Guevara, who later became one of the most famous guerrilla leaders in history. "His political and social awakening has very much to do with this face-to-face contact with poverty, exploitation, illness, and suffering", said Carlos M. Vilas, a history professor at the Universidad Nacional de Lanús in Buenos Aires, Argentina.[4]

In May 2005, Alberto Granado described their journey to the BBC, stating: "The most important thing was to realise that we had a common sensibility for the things that were wrong and unjust." According to Granado, their time at the leper colony of San Pablo in the Amazon also proved pivotal. Recalling that they shared everything with the sick people and describing Guevara's wave on departure as follows: "I got the impression that Che was saying goodbye to institutional medicine and becoming a doctor of the people."[5]

According to his daughter Aleida Guevara in a 2004 article, throughout the book we can see how Guevara became aware that what poor people needed was not his scientific knowledge as a doctor, but his strength and persistence to bring social change.[6]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:30:56 am
Editions

Che Guevara's daughter Aleida Guevara explains that Che didn't intend his diary to be published, and had remained as "a sheaf of typewritten pages". Since the 1980s Che's family has been working on his unpublished manuscripts, and a Cuban publishing house published "The Motorcycle Diaries" for the first time in 1993.[6]

The director of Ocean Press assures that the book has in fact been published in Cuba and that any rumors of a conspiracy to prohibit its edition in Cuba are false. He explains that the book has an edition by publishing house of the Union of Young Communists, and will also be published by the Che Guevara Studies Center. He also assures that its publication has the support of many people including Fidel Castro.[7]

"The Motorcycle Diaries: Notes on a Latin American Journey" was published by Ocean Press and the Che Guevara Studies Center, Havana in 2003. The book has a preface by Aleida Guevara March, edited by Julie Wark, and an introduction by Cintio Vitier. This edition is edited and translated by Alexandra Keeble.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:31:10 am
Pre-expedition

Ernesto Guevara spent long periods traveling around Latin America during his studies of medicine, beginning in 1948, at the University of Buenos Aires. In January 1950, Guevara attempted his first voyage. He traversed the northern provinces of Argentina on a bicycle on which he installed a small motor. He arrived at San Francisco del Chahar, near Córdoba, where his friend Alberto Granado ran the dispensary of the leper-centre. This experience allowed Guevara to have long conversations with the patients about their disease. While he continued studying, he also worked as a nurse on trading and petroleum ships of the Argentine national shipping-company. This allowed Guevara to travel from the south of Argentina to Brazil, Venezuela and Trinidad.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:31:42 am
Expedition

Quote

    "This isn't a tale of derring-do, nor is it merely some kind of 'cynical account'; it isn't meant to be, at least. It's a chunk of two lives running parallel for a while, with common aspirations and similar dreams. In nine months a man can think a lot of thoughts, from the height of philosophical conjecture to the most abject longing for a bowl of soup – in perfect harmony with the state of his stomach. And if, at the same time, he's a bit of an adventurer, he could have experiences which might interest other people and his random account would read something like this diary."
    ~ Ernesto Guevara, Diary Introduction

In January 1952 Guevara's older friend, Alberto Granado, a biochemist, and Guevara, decided to take a year off from their medical studies to embark on a trip they had spoken of making for years: traversing South America. Guevara and the 29-year-old Granado soon set off from their hometown of Alta Gracia astride a 1939 Norton 500 cc motorcycle they named La Poderosa ("The Mighty One") with the idea of spending a few weeks volunteering at the San Pablo Leper colony in Peru on the banks of the Amazon River. The journey took Guevara through Argentina, Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, and to Miami, before returning to Argentina.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:31:59 am
The first stop: Miramar, Argentina, a small resort where Guevara's girlfriend, Chichina, was spending the summer with her upper-class family. Two days stretched into eight, and upon leaving, Chichina gave Guevara $15 (US) to buy her a swimsuit if they made it to the U.S.. Guevara swore to her that he would starve rather than spend the money on anything else; however, he later gave it away to a poor peasant couple in need of it. The two men crossed into Chile on February 14. At one point they introduced themselves as internationally renowned leprosy experts to a local newspaper, which wrote a glowing story about them. The travelers later used the press clipping as a way to score meals and other favors with locals along the way.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:32:24 am
"We are looking for the bottom part of the town. We talk to many beggars. Our noses inhale attentively the misery."
~ Ernesto Guevara's Diary of Valparaiso, Chile


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:33:01 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/94/Che_Guevara-Granado_-_Mapa_1er_viaje_-_1952.jpg/427px-Che_Guevara-Granado_-_Mapa_1er_viaje_-_1952.jpg)

Map of Guevara's trip with Alberto Granado. The red arrows correspond to trips in airplane.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:33:15 am
In reference to his experience in Chile, Guevara also writes: "The most important effort that needs to be done is to get rid of the uncomfortable 'Yankee-friend'. It is especially at this moment an immense task, because of the great amount of dollars they have invested here and the convenience of using economical pressure whenever they believe their interests are being threatened."

Unable to get a boat to Easter Island as they intended, they headed north, where Guevara's political consciousness began to stir as he and Granado moved into mining country.[8] They visited Chuquicamata copper mine, the world's largest open-pit mine and the primary source of Chile's wealth. While getting a tour of the mine he asked how many men died in its creation. At the time it was run by U.S. mining monopolies of Anaconda and Kennecott and thus was viewed by many as a symbol of "imperialist gringo domination".[8] A meeting with a homeless communist couple in search of mining work made a particularly strong impression on Guevara, who wrote: "By the light of the single candle ... the contracted features of the worker gave off a mysterious and tragic air ... the couple, frozen stiff in the desert night, hugging one another, were a live representation of the proletariat of any part of the world,"


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:33:32 am
In reference to the oppression against the Communist party in Chile, which at the time was outlawed, Guevara pontificated: "It’s a great pity, that they repress people like this. Apart from whether collectivism, the ‘communist vermin,’ is a danger to decent life, the communism gnawing at his entrails was no more than a natural longing for something better, a protest against persistent hunger transformed into a love for this strange doctrine, whose essence he could never grasp but whose translation, 'bread for the poor,' was something he understood and, more importantly, that filled him with hope. Needless to say, workers at Chuquicamata were in a living Hell.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:33:48 am
In Peru, Guevara was impressed by the old Inca civilization, forced to ride in trucks with Indians and animals after "The Mighty One" broke down. As a result he begins to develop a fraternity with the indigenous campesinos. In March 1952 they both arrived at the Peruvian Tacna. After a discussion about the poverty in the region, Guevara refers in his notes to the words of Cuban poet José Marti: "I want to link my destiny to that of the poor of this world." In May they arrived in Lima, Peru and during this time Guevara met doctor Hugo Pesce, a Peruvian scientist, director of the national leprosy program, and an important local Marxist. They discuss several nights until the early morning and years later Che identified these conversations as being very important for his evolution in attitude towards life and society. In May, Guevara and Granado leave for the leper-centre of San Pablo in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest, arriving there in June. During his stay Guevara complains about the miserable way the people and sick of that region have to live. Guevara also swam once from the side of the Amazon River where the doctors stayed, to the other side of the river where the leper patients lived, a considerable distance of two and a half miles. He describes how there were no clothes, almost no food, and no medication. After giving consultations and treating patients for a few weeks, Guevara and Granado leave for Leticia, Colombia via the Amazon River.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:34:03 am
While visiting Bogotá, Colombia he wrote a letter to his mother on July 6, 1952. In the letter he describes the conditions under the right-wing government of Conservative Laureano Gómez as the following: "There is more repression of individual freedom here than in any country we've been to, the police patrol the streets carrying rifles and demand your papers every few minutes." He also goes on to describe the atmosphere as "tense" and "suffocating" even hypothesizing that "a revolution may be brewing." Guevara was correct in his prognostication, as a military coup in 1953 would take place, bringing General Gustavo Rojas to power.

Later that month Guevara arrived in Caracas, Venezuela and from there decide to return back to Buenos Aires to finish his studies in medical science. However, prior to his return, he travels by cargo-plane to Miami, where the airplane's technical problems delay him one month. To survive, he works as a waiter and washes dishes in a Miami bar.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:34:25 am
Although he admits throughout that as a Vagabond traveler he can only see things at surface level, he does attempt to delve beneath the sheen of the places he visits. On one occasion he goes to see a woman dying of tuberculosis, leaving appalled by the failings of the public health system. This experience leads him to ruminate the following reflection: "How long this present order, based on the absurd idea of caste, will last is not within my means to answer, but it’s time that those who govern spent less time publicizing their own virtues and more money, much more money, funding socially useful works."

   "I knew that when the great guiding spirit cleaves humanity into two antagonistic halves, I will be with the people."
    ~ Ernesto Guevara's Diary


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:34:36 am
Witnessing the widespread endemic poverty, oppression and disenfranchisement throughout Latin America, and influenced by his readings of Marxist literature, Guevara later decided that the only solution for the region's structural inequalities was armed revolution. His travels and readings throughout this journey also lead him to view Latin America not as a group of separate nations, but as a single entity requiring a continent-wide strategy for liberation from what he viewed as imperialist and neo-colonial domination. His conception of a borderless, united, Hispanic-America sharing a common 'mestizo' bond, was a theme that would prominently recur during his later activities and transformation from Ernesto the traveler, into Che Guevara the iconic revolutionary.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:34:46 am
Further reading

    * Back on the Road: A Journey Through Latin America, by Ernesto "Che" Guevara & Alberto Granado, Grove Press, 2002, ISBN 0802139426
    * Chasing Che: A Motorcycle Journey in Search of the Guevara Legend, by Patrick Symmes, Vintage, 2000, ISBN 0375702652
    * Che's Chevrolet, Fidel's Oldsmobile: On the Road in Cuba, by Richard Schweid, University of North Carolina Press, 2008, ISBN 0807858870
    * Che Guevara and the Mountain of Silver: By Bicycle and Train through South America, by Anne Mustoe, Virgin Books, 2008, ISBN 0753512742
    * Looking for Mr. Guevara: A Journey through South America, by Barbara Brodman, iUniverse, 2001 ISBN 0595180698
    * Roll Over Che Guevara: Travels of a Radical Reporter, by Mark Cooper, Verso, 1996, ISBN 1859840655
    * The Motorcycle Diaries: A Journey Around South America, by Ernesto Che Guevara & translator Ann Wright, Verso, 1996, ISBN 1857023994
    * Traveling with Che Guevara: The Making of a Revolutionary, by Alberto Granado, Newmarket Press, 2004, ISBN 1557046395
    * (Travel Map) --- Che's Route: Ernesto Che Guevara Trip Across South America, by de Dios Editores, 2004, ISBN 9879445295

[edit] Film

    * Che, 2008, directed by Steven Soderbergh & starring Benicio Del Toro as Che, (268 min).
    * Chasing Che, 2007, developed by National Geographic Adventure, A ten-week series featured on V-me.
    * The Motorcycle Diaries, 2004, directed by Walter Salles, Focus Features, theatrical release, (126 min).
    * Travelling with Che Guevara, 2004, directed by Gianni Mina, Documentary, (110 min).


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:34:57 am
References

   1. ^ NYT bestseller list: #38 Paperback Nonfiction on 2005-02-20, #9 Nonfiction on 2004-10-07 and on more occasions
   2. ^ Doreen Carvajal (1997-04-30). "30 Years After His Death, Che Guevara Has New Charisma". http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9806EFD61331F933A05757C0A961958260. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
   3. ^ On the Trail of the Young Che Guevara by Rachel Dodes, The New York Times, December 19 2004
   4. ^ "'Motorcycle Diaries' Shows Che Guevara at Crossroads", October 14 2004, Natl Geographic
   5. ^ "My best friend Che", May 9, 2005, by Alberto Granado, BBC
   6. ^ a b Aleida Guevara (2008-10-09). "Riding My Father's Motorcycle". http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/09/opinion/09guevara.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=motorcycle+diaries&st=nyt&oref=slogin&oref=slogin. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
   7. ^ David Deutschmann, Publisher and President, Ocean Press) (2008-06-02). "[Che Guevara's Diaries (letter to the editor". New York Times. . Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
   8. ^ a b Che Guevara: Symbol of Struggle, by Tony Saunois, CWI, 2005, ISBN 1870958349 pg 9



Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:35:21 am
External links
Search Wikiquote    Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Motorcycle Diaries

    * A Comparative Review of Guevara's, Granado's and Salles' Motorcycle Diaries
    * BBC Video: "Fidel Castro Visits Boyhood Home of Che Guevara" July 23 2006
    * Book Review ~ The Motorcycle Diaries: A Journey Around South America
    * CARE: Che Guevara Trail nominated for Travel Award September 20 2004
    * Guardian: "My Ride with Che", Interview with Alberto Granado February 13 2004
    * Intl Herald Tribune: "On the Motorcycle Behind My Father, Che Guevara", by Aleida Guevara October 12 2004
    * LA Times: "Che Guevara's Legacy Looms Larger than Ever in Latin America" October 8 2007
    * NY Times: "Letter From the Americas: Che Today? More Easy Rider Than Revolutionary" May 2, 2004
    * Iquitos Welcomes British Bikers Following Che Guevara’s Tracks by Glen David Short, Living Peru, April 13 2009
    * The Motorcycle Diaries: A Journey Around South America - from Motorcycle.com


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Motorcycle_Diaries


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:36:03 am
Guatemala

On July 7, 1953, Guevara set out again, this time to Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador. On December 10, 1953, before leaving for Guatemala, Guevara sent an update to his Aunt Beatriz from San José, Costa Rica. In the letter Guevara speaks of traversing through the "dominions" of the United Fruit Company, which convinced him "how terrible" the "Capitalist octopuses" were.[30] This affirmed indignation carried the "head hunting tone" that he adopted in order to frighten his more Conservative relatives, and ends with Guevara swearing on an image of the then recently deceased Josef Stalin, not to rest until these "octopuses have been vanquished."[31] Later that month, Guevara arrived in Guatemala where President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán headed a democratically elected government that, through land reform and other initiatives, was attempting to end the latifundia system. Guevara decided to settle down in Guatemala so as to "perfect himself and accomplish whatever may be necessary in order to become a true revolutionary".[32]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:36:12 am
In Guatemala City, Guevara sought out Hilda Gadea Acosta, a Peruvian economist who was well-connected politically as a member of the left-leaning Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA, American Popular Revolutionary Alliance). She introduced Guevara to a number of high-level officials in the Arbenz government. Guevara then established contact with a group of Cuban exiles linked to Fidel Castro through the July 26, 1953 attack on the Moncada Barracks in Santiago de Cuba.[33] During this period he acquired his famous nickname, due to his frequent use of the Argentine diminutive interjection che, a slang casual speech filler used similarly to "eh" or "pal."[34]

Guevara's attempts to obtain a medical internship were unsuccessful and his economic situation was often precarious. On 15 May 1954 a shipment of Škoda infantry and light artillery weapons was sent from Communist Czechoslovakia for the Arbenz Government and arrived in Puerto Barrios,[35][36] prompting a CIA-sponsored coup attempt.[35] Guevara was eager to fight on behalf of Arbenz and joined an armed militia organized by the Communist Youth for that purpose, but frustrated with the group's inaction, he soon returned to medical duties. Following the coup, he again volunteered to fight, but soon after, Arbenz took refuge in the Mexican Embassy and told his foreign supporters to leave the country. After Hilda Gadea was arrested, Guevara sought protection inside the Argentine consulate, where he remained until he received a safe-conduct pass some weeks later and made his way to Mexico.[37] He married Gadea in Mexico in September 1955.[38]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:36:23 am
The overthrow of the Arbenz regime cemented Guevara's view of the United States as an imperialist power that would oppose and attempt to destroy any government that sought to redress the socioeconomic inequality endemic to Latin America and other developing countries. This strengthened his conviction that Marxism achieved through armed struggle and defended by an armed populace was the only way to rectify such conditions.[39] Gadea wrote later, "It was Guatemala which finally convinced him of the necessity for armed struggle and for taking the initiative against imperialism. By the time he left, he was sure of this."[40]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:37:09 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Che_Guevara_-_2do_Viaje_-_1953-55.png/443px-Che_Guevara_-_2do_Viaje_-_1953-55.png)

Che Guevara's movements between 1953 and 1956, including his trip north to Guatemala, his stay in Mexico and his journey east by boat to Cuba with Fidel Castro and other revolutionaries


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:38:04 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/Che_on_Mule_in_Las_Villas_Nov_1958.jpg)

Riding a mule in Las Villas province, Cuba, November 1958


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:38:30 am
Cuba

Guevara arrived in Mexico City in early September 1954, and renewed his friendship with Ñico López and the other Cuban exiles whom he had met in Guatemala. In June 1955, López introduced him to Raúl Castro who subsequently introduced him to his older brother, Fidel Castro, the revolutionary leader who had formed the 26th of July Movement and was now plotting to overthrow the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. During a long conversation with Castro on the night of their first meeting, Guevara concluded that the Cuban's cause was the one for which he had been searching and before daybreak he had signed up as a member of the 26J Movement.[41] By this point in Guevara’s life, he deemed that U.S.-controlled conglomerates installed and supported repressive regimes around the world. In this vein, he considered Batista a "U.S. puppet whose strings needed cutting."[42]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:38:44 am
Although he planned to be the group's combat medic, Guevara participated in the military training with the members of the Movement, and, at the end of the course, was called "the best guerrilla of them all" by their instructor, Colonel Alberto Bayo.[43] The first step in Castro's revolutionary plan was an assault on Cuba from Mexico via the Granma, an old, leaky cabin cruiser. They set out for Cuba on November 25, 1956. Attacked by Batista's military soon after landing, many of the 82 men were either killed in the attack or executed upon capture; only 22 found each other afterwards.[44] Guevara wrote that it was during this bloody confrontation that he laid down his medical supplies and picked up a box of ammunition dropped by a fleeing comrade, finalizing his symbolic transition from physician to combatant.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:38:59 am
Only a small band of revolutionaries survived to re-group as a bedraggled fighting force deep in the Sierra Maestra mountains, where they received support from the urban guerrilla network of Frank País, the 26th of July Movement, and local campesinos. With the group withdrawn to the Sierra, the world wondered whether Castro was alive or dead until early 1957 when the interview by Herbert Matthews appeared in The New York Times. The article presented a lasting, almost mythical image for Castro and the guerrillas. Guevara was not present for the interview, but in the coming months he began to realize the importance of the media in their struggle. Meanwhile, as supplies and morale grew low, and with an allergy to mosquito bites which resulted in agonizing walnut-sized cysts on his body,[45] Guevara considered these "the most painful days of the war."[46]

As the war continued, Guevara became an integral part of the rebel army and "convinced Castro with competence, diplomacy and patience."[8] Guevara set up factories to make grenades, built ovens to bake bread, taught new recruits about tactics, and organized schools to teach illiterate campesinos to read and write.[8] The man who three years later would be dubbed by Time Magazine: "Castro's brain", at this point was promoted by Fidel Castro to Comandante (commander) of a second army column.[8]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:39:30 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Cheincolor.jpg)

In his trademark olive-green military fatigues, 2 June 1959


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:39:44 am
As the only other ranked Comandante besides Fidel Castro, Guevara was an extremely harsh disciplinarian. Deserters were punished as traitors, and Guevara was known to send execution squads to hunt down those seeking to go AWOL.[47] As a result, Guevara became feared for his brutality and ruthlessness.[48] During the guerrilla campaign, Guevara was also responsible for the execution of a number of men accused of being informers, deserters or spies.[49] Although he maintained a demanding and harsh disposition, Guevara also viewed his role of commander as one of a teacher, entertaining his men during breaks between engagements with readings from the likes of Robert Louis Stevenson, Cervantes, and Spanish lyric poets.[50]

His commanding officer Fidel Castro has described Guevara as intelligent, daring, and an exemplary leader who "had great moral authority over his troops."[51] Castro has further remarked that Guevara took too many risks, even having a "tendency toward foolhardiness".[52]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:40:02 am
Guevara was instrumental in creating the clandestine radio station Radio Rebelde in February 1958, which broadcast news to the Cuban people with statements by the 26th of July movement, and provided radiotelephone communication between the growing number of rebel columns across the island. Guevara had apparently been inspired to create the station by observing the effectiveness of CIA supplied radio in Guatemala in ousting the government of Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán.[53]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:40:12 am
In late July 1958, Guevara would play a critical role in the Battle of Las Mercedes by using his column to halt a force of 1,500 men called up by Batista's General Cantillo in a plan to encircle and destroy Castro's forces. Years later, Major Larry Bockman of the United States Marine Corps would analyze and describe Che's tactical appreciation of this battle as "brilliant."[54] As the war extended, Guevara led a new column of fighters dispatched westward for the final push towards Havana. In the closing days of December 1958, Guevara directed his "suicide squad" in the attack on Santa Clara, that became the final decisive military victory of the revolution.[55][56] In the six weeks leading up to the Battle of Santa Clara there were times when his men were completely surrounded, outgunned, and overrun. Che's eventual victory despite the formidable odds and being outnumbered 10:1, remains in the view of some observers a "remarkable tour de force in modern warfare."[57] Radio Rebelde broadcast the first reports that Guevara's column had taken Santa Clara on New Year's Eve 1958. This contradicted reports by the heavily controlled national news media, which had at one stage reported Guevara's death during the fighting. Batista, upon learning that his generals were negotiating a separate peace with the rebel leader, fled to the Dominican Republic the next day on January 1, 1959.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:40:47 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/13/Che_SClara.jpg/475px-Che_SClara.jpg)

After the battle of Santa Clara, January 1, 1959


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:41:13 am
After the revolution

On January 8, 1959, Castro's army rolled victoriously into Havana. In February, the revolutionary government proclaimed Guevara "a Cuban citizen by birth" in recognition of his role in the triumph.[58] When Hilda Gadea arrived in Cuba in late January, Guevara told her that he was involved with another woman, and the two agreed on a divorce,[59] which was finalized on May 22.[60] On June 2, 1959, he married Aleida March, a Cuban-born member of the 26th of July movement with whom he had been living since late 1958.[61]

During the rebellion against Batista's dictatorship, the general command of the rebel army, led by Fidel Castro, introduced into the liberated territories the 19th century penal law commonly known as the Ley de la Sierra.[62] This law included the death penalty for extremely serious crimes, whether perpetrated by the dictatorship or by supporters of the revolution. In 1959, the revolutionary government extended its application to the whole of the republic and to those it considered war criminals, captured and tried after the revolution. According to the Cuban Ministry of Justice, this latter extension was supported by the majority of the population, and followed the same procedure as those in the Nuremberg Trials held by the Allies after World War II.[63]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:41:25 am
To implement this plan, Castro named Guevara commander of the La Cabaña Fortress prison, for a five-month tenure (January 2 through June 12, 1959).[64] Guevara was charged with purging the Batista army and consolidating victory by exacting "revolutionary justice" against those considered to be traitors, chivatos (informants) or war criminals.[65] Serving in the post as commander of La Cabaña, Guevara reviewed the appeals of those convicted during the revolutionary tribunal process.[66] On some occasions the penalty delivered by the tribunal was death by firing squad.[67] Raúl Gómez Treto, senior legal advisor to the Cuban Ministry of Justice, has argued that removing restrictions on the death penalty were justified in order to prevent citizens themselves from taking justice into their own hands, as happened twenty years earlier in the anti-Machado rebellion.[68] With 20,000 Cubans estimated to have been killed at the hands of Batista's accomplices,[69] and a survey at the time showing 93% public approval for the tribunal process,[70] the newly empowered Cuban government along with Guevara concurred. Although the exact numbers differ, it is estimated that several hundred people were executed during this time.[71]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:41:57 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/Manuel_Urrutia2.jpg)

(right to left) Rebel leader Camilo Cienfuegos, Cuban President Manuel Urrutia, and Guevara (January 1959)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:42:21 am
On June 12, 1959, as soon as Guevara returned to Havana, Castro sent him out on a three-month tour of 14 countries, most of them Bandung Pact members in Africa and Asia. Sending Guevara from Havana allowed Castro to appear to be distancing himself from Che and his Marxist sympathies, that troubled both the United States and some of Castro's 26th of July Movement members.[73] He spent 12 days in Japan (July 15–27), participating in negotiations aimed at expanding Cuba's trade relations with that nation. During this visit, Guevara secretly visited the city of Hiroshima, where the American military had detonated an atom-bomb 14 years earlier. Guevara was "really shocked" at what he witnessed and by his visit to a hospital where A-bomb survivors were being treated.[74]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:42:31 am
Upon returning to Cuba in September 1959, it was evident that Castro now had more political power. The government had begun land seizures included in the agrarian reform law, but was hedging on compensation offers to landowners, instead offering low interest "bonds", which put the U.S. on alert. At this point the affected wealthy cattlemen of Camagüey mounted a campaign against the land redistributions, and enlisted the newly disaffected rebel leader Huber Matos, who along with the anti-Communist wing of the 26th of July Movement, joined them in denouncing the "Communist encroachment."[75] During this time Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo was offering assistance to the "Anti-Communist Legion of the Caribbean" who was training in the Dominican Republic. This multi-national force comprised mostly of Spaniards and Cubans, but also of Croatians, Germans, Greeks, and right-wing mercenaries, were plotting to topple Castro.[75]

These developments prompted Castro to further clean house of "counter-revolutionaries", and appoint Guevara as Director of the Industrialization Department of the National Institute of Agrarian Reform on October 7, 1959 and as President of the National Bank of Cuba on November 26, 1959. This allowed him to retain his military rank.[76]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:43:01 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Beauvoir_Sartre_-_Che_Guevara_-1960_-_Cuba.jpg)

Meeting with French existentialist philosophers Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir in March 1960. Guevara was fluent in French.[72]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:43:28 am
On March 4, 1960, the French freighter La Coubre, carrying munitions from the port of Antwerp, exploded twice while being unloaded in Havana Harbor, killing well over 100 people.[77] Guevara provided first aid to victims. It was at the memorial service for the victims of this explosion the following day that Alberto Korda took the famous photograph now known as Guerrillero Heroico.

Guevara desired to see a diversification in Cuba's economy, as well as an elimination of material incentives in favor of moral ones. He viewed capitalism as a "contest among wolves" where "one can only win at the cost of others," and thus desired to see the creation of a "new man and woman".[78] An integral part of fostering a sense of "unity between the individual and the mass", Guevara believed, was volunteer work and will.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:43:39 am
To display this, Guevara "led by example", working "endlessly at his ministry job, in construction, and even cutting sugar cane" on his day off.[79] He was known for working 36 hours at a stretch, calling meetings after midnight, and eating on the run.[80] Alongside his work schedule he wrote several publications advocating a replication of the Cuban revolutionary model, promoting small rural guerrilla groups (foco theory) as an alternative to massive armed insurrection. During this time his wife Aleida encouraged him to explore classical music, which he came to love, with Beethoven as his favorite.[81] Other luxuries which he afforded himself were maté, his favorite beverage, and Montecristo No. 4's, his cigar of choice.[81]

Guevara did not participate in the fighting of the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion, having been ordered by Castro to a secretly prearranged command post in Cuba's western Pinar del Río province, where he fended off a decoy force.[82] During this deployment, he suffered a bullet grazing to the cheek when his pistol fell out of its holster and accidentally discharged.[83]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:43:51 am
In August 1961, during an economic conference of the Organization of American States in Punta del Este, Uruguay, Che Guevara sent a note of "gratitude" to U.S. President John F. Kennedy through Richard N. Goodwin, a young secretary of the White House. It read "Thanks for Playa Girón (Bay of Pigs). Before the invasion, the revolution was shaky. Now it's stronger than ever."[84] In response to U.S. Treasury Secretary Douglas Dillon presenting the Alliance for Progress for ratification by the meeting, Guevara antagonistically attacked the United States claim of being a "democracy", stating that such a system was not compatible with "financial oligarchy, discrimination against blacks, and outrages by the Ku Klux Klan."[85] Guevara continued, speaking out against the "persecution" that in his view "drove scientists like Oppenheimer from their posts, deprived the world for years of the marvelous voice of Paul Robeson, and sent the Rosenbergs to their deaths against the protests of a shocked world."[85]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:44:07 am
Guevara, who was practically the architect of the Soviet-Cuban relationship,[86] played a key role in bringing to Cuba the Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles that precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962 and brought the world to the brink of nuclear war.[87] During an interview with the British Communist newspaper The Daily Worker a few weeks after the crisis, Guevara still fuming over the perceived Soviet betrayal, stated that if the missiles had been under Cuban control, they would have fired them off.[88] Sam Russell, the British correspondent who spoke to Guevara at the time came away with "mixed feelings", calling him "a warm character" and "clearly a man of great intelligence", but "crackers from the way he went on about the missiles."[88]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:44:45 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Che-mao.jpg)

Guevara being received in China by Chairman Mao Zedong, at an official ceremony in the Government palace, November 1960


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:45:15 am
Leaves Cuba

In December 1964, Che Guevara traveled to New York City as head of the Cuban delegation to speak at the United Nations. During his impassioned address, he criticized the United Nations inability to confront the "brutal policy of apartheid" in South Africa, proclaiming "can the United Nations do nothing to stop this?"[89] Guevara then denounced the United States policy towards their black population, stating:

    "Those who kill their own children and discriminate daily against them because of the color of their skin; those who let the murderers of blacks remain free, protecting them, and furthermore punishing the black population because they demand their legitimate rights as free men — how can those who do this consider themselves guardians of freedom?"[89]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:45:25 am
An indignant Guevara ended his speech by reciting the Second Declaration of Havana, decreeing Latin America a "family of 200 million brothers who suffer the same miseries."[89] This "epic", Guevara declared, would be written by the "hungry Indian masses, peasants without land, exploited workers, and progressive masses." To Guevara the conflict was a struggle of mass and ideas, which would be carried forth by those "mistreated and scorned by imperialism" who were previously considered "a weak and submissive flock." With this "flock", Guevara now asserted, "Yankee monopoly capitalism" now terrifyingly saw their "gravediggers."[89] It would be during this "hour of vindication" Guevara pronounced, that the "anonymous mass" would begin to write its own history "with its own blood", and reclaim those "rights that were laughed at by one and all for 500 years." Guevara ended his remarks to the United Nations general assembly by hypothesizing that this "wave of anger” would "sweep the lands of Latin America", and that the labor masses who "turn the wheel of history", for the first time were "awakening from the long, brutalizing sleep to which they had been subjected.[89]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:45:35 am
Guevara later learned that there were two failed attempts on his life by Cuban exiles during his stop at the U.N. complex.[90] The first from Molly Gonzales who tried to break through barricades upon his arrival with a seven-inch hunting knife, and later during his address by Guillermo Novo with a timer-initiated bazooka that was fired off target from a boat in the East River at the United Nations Headquarters.[90][91] Afterwards, Guevara commented on both incidents stating that "it is better to be killed by a woman with a knife than by a man with a gun", while adding with a languid wave of his cigar that the explosion had "given the whole thing more flavor."[90]

While in New York City, Guevara also appeared on the CBS Sunday news program Face the Nation[92] and met with a range of people, from U.S. Senator Eugene McCarthy[93] to associates of Malcolm X. Malcolm X expressed his admiration, declaring Guevara "one of the most revolutionary men in this country right now" while reading a statement from him to a crowd at the Audubon Ballroom.[94]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:45:48 am
On December 17, Guevara left for Paris and embarked on a three-month tour that included the People's Republic of China, the United Arab Republic (Egypt), Algeria, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Dahomey, Congo-Brazzaville and Tanzania, with stops in Ireland and Prague. During this voyage, he wrote a letter to Carlos Quijano, editor of a Uruguayan weekly, which was later re-titled Socialism and Man in Cuba.[95] Outlined in the treatise was Guevara's summons for the creation of a new consciousness, status of work, and role of the individual. Guevara ended the essay by declaring that "the true revolutionary is guided by a great feeling of love" and beckoning on all revolutionaries to "strive every day so that this love of living humanity will be transformed into acts that serve as examples", thus becoming "a moving force".[95]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:45:58 am
In Algiers on February 24, 1965, he made what turned out to be his last public appearance on the international stage when he delivered a speech at an economic seminar on Afro-Asian solidarity.[96] He specified the moral duty of the socialist countries, accusing them of tacit complicity with the exploiting Western countries. He proceeded to outline a number of measures which he said the communist-bloc countries must implement in order to accomplish the defeat of imperialism.[97] Having criticized the Soviet Union (the primary financial backer of Cuba) in such a public manner, he returned to Cuba on March 14 to a solemn reception by Fidel and Raúl Castro, Osvaldo Dorticós and Carlos Rafael Rodríguez at the Havana airport.

Two weeks later, in 1965 Guevara dropped out of public life and then vanished altogether. His whereabouts were a great mystery in Cuba, as he was generally regarded as second in power to Castro himself. His disappearance was variously attributed to the failure of the industrialization scheme he had advocated while minister of industry, to pressure exerted on Castro by Soviet officials disapproving of Guevara's pro-Chinese Communist stance on the Sino-Soviet split, and to serious differences between Guevara and the pragmatic Castro regarding Cuba's economic development and ideological line. Castro had grown increasingly wary of Guevara's popularity and considered him a potential threat. Castro's critics sometimes say his explanations for Guevara's disappearance have always been suspect.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:46:13 am
The coincidence of Guevara's views with those expounded by the Chinese Communist leadership was increasingly problematic for Cuba as the nation's economy became more and more dependent on the Soviet Union. Since the early days of the Cuban revolution, Guevara had been considered by many an advocate of Maoist strategy in Latin America and the originator of a plan for the rapid industrialization of Cuba which was frequently compared to China's "Great Leap Forward". According to Western observers of the Cuban situation, the fact that Guevara was opposed to Soviet conditions and recommendations that Castro pragmatically saw as necessary, may have been the reason for his disappearance. However, both Guevara and Castro were supportive publicly on the idea of a united front.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:46:38 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/CheinMoscow.jpg/545px-CheinMoscow.jpg)

Walking through Red Square in Moscow, November 1964


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:47:03 am
Following the Cuban Missile Crisis and what Guevara perceived as a Soviet betrayal when Nikita Khrushchev withdrew the missiles from Cuban territory, Guevara had grown more skeptical of the Soviet Union. As revealed in his last speech in Algiers, he had come to view the Northern Hemisphere, led by the U.S. in the West and the Soviet Union in the East, as the exploiter of the Southern Hemisphere. He strongly supported Communist North Vietnam in the Vietnam War, and urged the peoples of other developing countries to take up arms and create "many Vietnams".[98]

Pressed by international speculation regarding Guevara's fate, Castro stated on June 16, 1965 that the people would be informed when Guevara himself wished to let them know. Still, rumors spread both inside and outside Cuba. On October 3, Castro revealed an undated letter purportedly written to him by Guevara some months earlier: in it, Guevara reaffirmed his enduring solidarity with the Cuban Revolution, but declared his intention to leave Cuba to fight for the revolutionary cause abroad. Additionally, he resigned from all his positions in the government and party, and renounced his honorary Cuban citizenship.[99] Guevara's movements continued to be a closely guarded secret for the next two years.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:47:23 am
Congo

In 1965, Guevara decided to venture to Africa and offer his knowledge and experience as a guerrilla to the ongoing conflict in the Congo. According to Algerian President Ahmed Ben Bella, Guevara thought that Africa was imperialism's weak link and therefore had enormous revolutionary potential.[100] Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had fraternal relations with Che dating back to his 1959 visit, saw Guevara's plans to fight in the Congo as "unwise" and warned that he would become a "Tarzan" figure, doomed to failure.[101] Despite the warning, Guevara led the Cuban operation in support of the Marxist Simba movement, which had emerged from the ongoing Congo Crisis. Guevara, his second-in-command Victor Dreke, and 12 other Cuban expeditionaries arrived in the Congo on April 24, 1965 and a contingent of approximately 100 Afro-Cubans joined them soon afterward.[102][103] They collaborated for a time with guerrilla leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila, who had previously helped supporters of the slain Patrice Lumumba lead an unsuccessful revolt months earlier. Disillusioned with the discipline of Kabila's troops, Guevara would dismiss him, stating "nothing leads me to believe he is the man of the hour."[104]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:47:47 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/CheinCongo2.gif)

A 37-year-old Guevara, in the Congo Crisis, 1965


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:48:04 am

South African mercenaries, led by Mike Hoare in concert with Cuban exiles and the CIA, worked with the Congo National Army to thwart Guevara. They were able to monitor his communications, and so pre-empted his attacks and interdicted his supply lines. Despite the fact that Guevara sought to conceal his presence in the Congo, the U.S. government was aware of his location and activities: The National Security Agency was intercepting all of his incoming and outgoing transmissions via equipment aboard the USNS Pvt Jose F. Valdez (T-AG-169), a floating listening post that continuously cruised the Indian Ocean off Dar es Salaam for that purpose.[105]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:48:23 am
Guevara's aim was to export the revolution by instructing local anti-Mobutu Simba fighters in Marxist ideology and foco theory strategies of guerrilla warfare. In his Congo Diary, he cites the incompetence, intransigence and infighting of the local Congolese forces as key reasons for the revolt's failure.[106] Later that year, ill with dysentery, suffering from acute asthma, and disheartened after seven months of frustrations, Guevara left the Congo with the Cuban survivors. (Six members of his column had died.) At one point Guevara considered sending the wounded back to Cuba, and fighting in Congo alone until his death, as a revolutionary example; however, after being urged by his comrades and pressed by two emissaries sent by Castro, at the last moment he reluctantly agreed to retreat. A few weeks later, when writing the preface to the diary he kept during the Congo venture, he began: "This is the history of a failure."[107]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:48:41 am
Guevara was reluctant to return to Cuba, because Castro had made public Guevara's "farewell letter" — a letter intended to only be revealed in the case of his death — wherein he severed all ties in order to devote himself to revolution throughout the world.[108] As a result, Guevara spent the next six months living clandestinely in Dar es Salaam and Prague. During this time he compiled his memoirs of the Congo experience, and wrote drafts of two more books, one on philosophy and the other on economics. He then visited several Western European countries to test his new false identity papers, created by Cuban Intelligence for his later travels to South America. As Guevara prepared for Bolivia, he wrote a last letter to his five children to be read upon his death, which ended with him instructing them:

    "Above all, always be capable of feeling deeply any injustice committed against anyone, anywhere in the world. This is the most beautiful quality in a revolutionary."[109]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:49:50 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/15/Cheguevaracongo.jpg)

Listening to a Zenith Trans-Oceanic shortwave receiver are (seated from the left) Rogelio Oliva, José María Martínez Tamayo (known as "Mbili" in the Congo and "Ricardo" in Bolivia), and Guevara. Standing behind them is Roberto Sánchez ("Lawton" in Cuba and "Changa" in the Congo).


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:50:26 am
Bolivia

Guevara's location was still not public knowledge. Representatives of Mozambique's independence movement, the FRELIMO, reported that they met with Guevara in late 1966 or early 1967 in Dar es Salaam regarding his offer to aid in their revolutionary project, which they ultimately rejected.[110] In a speech at the 1967 International Workers' Day rally in Havana, the Acting Minister of the armed forces, Major Juan Almeida, announced that Guevara was "serving the revolution somewhere in Latin America". The persistent reports that he was leading the guerrillas in Bolivia were eventually shown to be true.

At Castro's behest, a parcel of montane dry forest in the remote Ñancahuazú region had been purchased by native Bolivian Communists for Guevara to use as a training area and base camp.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:51:11 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/CheinBolivia1.jpg)

In rural Bolivia shortly before his death (1967)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:51:33 am
Training at this camp in the Ñancahuazú valley proved to be more hazardous than combat to Guevara and the Cubans accompanying him. Little was accomplished in the way of building a guerrilla army. Former Stasi operative Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider, better known by her nom de guerre "Tania", who had been installed as his primary agent in La Paz, was reportedly also working for the KGB and in several Western sources she is inferred to have unwittingly served Soviet interests by leading Bolivian authorities to Guevara's trail.[111][112]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:51:43 am
Guevara's guerrilla force, numbering about 50 and operating as the ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional de Bolivia; "National Liberation Army of Bolivia"), was well equipped and scored a number of early successes against Bolivian regulars in the difficult terrain of the mountainous Camiri region. But in September, the Army managed to eliminate two guerrilla groups in a violent battle, reportedly killing one of the leaders.

Guevara's plan for fomenting revolution in Bolivia failed, apparently because:

    * He had expected to deal only with the Bolivian military, who were poorly trained and equipped. However, Guevara was unaware that the U.S. government had sent a team of the CIA's Special Activities Division commandos and other operatives into Bolivia to aid the anti-insurrection effort. The Bolivian Army would also be trained, advised, and supplied by U.S. Army Special Forces including a recently organized elite battalion of Rangers trained in jungle warfare that set up camp in La Esperanza, a small settlement close to the location of Guevara's guerrillas.[113]
    * Guevara had expected assistance and cooperation from the local dissidents which he did not receive, nor did he receive support from Bolivia's Communist Party, under the leadership of Mario Monje, which was oriented toward Moscow rather than Havana. In Guevara's own diary captured after his death, he would bristle with complaints about the Communist Party of Bolivia, which he characterized as "distrustful, disloyal and stupid."[114]
    * He had expected to remain in radio contact with Havana. However, the two shortwave transmitters provided to him by Cuba were faulty; thus the guerrillas were unable to communicate with and be resupplied, leaving them isolated and stranded.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:52:10 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/Vallegrande_location.png)

Location of Vallegrande in Bolivia


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:52:23 am
In addition, Guevara's known preference for confrontation rather than compromise, which had previously surfaced during his guerrilla warfare campaign in Cuba, contributed to his inability to develop successful working relationships with local leaders in Bolivia, just as it had in the Congo.[115] This tendency had existed in Cuba, but had been kept in check by the timely interventions and guidance of Fidel Castro.[116]

The end result was that Guevara was unable to attract any inhabitants of the local area to join his militia in the 11 months he attempted recruitment. Near the end of the venture Guevara complained in his dairy that "the peasants do not give us any help, and are turning into informers."[117]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:52:45 am
Capture and execution

Félix Rodríguez, a Cuban exile turned CIA Special Activities Division operative, headed the hunt for Guevara in Bolivia.[118] On October 7, an informant apprised the Bolivian Special Forces of the location of Guevara's guerrilla encampment in the Yuro ravine. They encircled the area, and Guevara was wounded and taken prisoner while leading a detachment with Simeón Cuba Sarabia. Che biographer Jon Lee Anderson reports Bolivian Sergeant Bernardino Huanca's account: that a twice wounded Guevara, his gun rendered useless, shouted "Do not shoot! I am Che Guevara and worth more to you alive than dead."[119]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:52:59 am
Guevara was tied up and taken to a dilapidated mud schoolhouse in the nearby village of La Higuera on the night of October 7. For the next day and a half Guevara refused to be interrogated by Bolivian officers and would only speak quietly to Bolivian soldiers. One of those Bolivian soldiers, helicopter pilot Jaime Nino de Guzman, describes Che as looking "dreadful". According to De Guzman, Guevara was shot through the right calf, his hair was matted with dirt, his clothes were shredded, and his feet were covered in rough leather sheaths. Despite his haggard appearance, he recounts that "Che held his head high, looked everyone straight in the eyes and asked only for something to smoke." De Guzman states that he "took pity" and gave him a small bag of tobacco for his pipe, with Guevara then smiling and thanking him.[120] Later on the night of October 8, Guevara, despite having his hands tied, kicked Bolivian Officer Espinosa into the wall, after the officer entered the schoolhouse in order to snatch Guevara's pipe from his mouth as a souvenir.[121] In another instance of defiance, Guevara spat in the face of Bolivian Rear Admiral Urgateche shortly before his execution.[121]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:53:09 am
The following morning on October 9, Guevara asked to see the "maestra" (school teacher) of the village, 22-year-old Julia Cortez. Cortez would later state that she found Guevara to be an "agreeable looking man with a soft and ironic glance" and that during their conversation she found herself "unable to look him in the eye", because his "gaze was unbearable, piercing, and so tranquil."[121] During their short conversation, Guevara complained to Cortez about the poor condition of the schoolhouse, stating that it was "anti-pedagogical" to expect campesino students to be educated there, while "government officials drive Mercedes cars" ... declaring "that's what we are fighting against."[121]

Later that morning on October 9, Bolivian President René Barrientos ordered that Guevara be killed. The executioner was Mario Terán, a half-drunken sergeant in the Bolivian army who had requested to shoot Che based on the fact that three of his friends named "Mario" from B Company, had been killed in an earlier firefight with Guevara's band of guerrillas.[122] To make the bullet wounds appear consistent with the story the government planned to release to the public, Félix Rodríguez ordered Terán to aim carefully to make it appear that Guevara had been killed in action during a clash with the Bolivian army.[123]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:53:20 am
Moments before Guevara was executed he was asked if he was thinking about his own immortality. "No", he replied, "I'm thinking about the immortality of the revolution."[124] Che Guevara then told his executioner, "I know you've come to kill me. Shoot, coward, you are only going to kill a man."[125] Terán hesitated, then opened fire with his semiautomatic rifle, hitting Guevara in the arms and legs. Guevara writhed on the ground, apparently biting one of his wrists to avoid crying out. Terán then fired several times again, wounding him fatally in the chest at 1:10 pm, according to Rodríguez.[126] In all Guevara was shot nine times. This included five times in the legs, once in the right shoulder and arm, once in the chest, and finally in the throat.[121]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:53:52 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/49/FreddyAlbertoChe.jpg/800px-FreddyAlbertoChe.jpg)

The day after his execution on October 10, 1967, Guevara's corpse was displayed to the World press in the laundry house of the Vallegrande hospital. (photo by Freddy Alberto)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:55:07 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/49/CheExec9B.jpg/392px-CheExec9B.jpg)

Che Guevara's post mortem face. Image taken by covert CIA operative.

10 October 1967


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:55:46 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/02/CheExec19.jpg/800px-CheExec19.jpg)


Che Guevara's corpse on display in Vallegrande, Bolivia. Image taken by covert CIA operative.
Date    

10 October 1967


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:56:34 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Exec22.gif)



Che Guevara's feet and self made "shoes" upon him being captured and executed. Image taken by covert CIA operative.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:57:35 am
Post-execution

Guevara's body was then lashed to the landing skids of a helicopter and flown to nearby Vallegrande where photographs were taken, showing a figure described by some as "Christ-like" lying on a concrete slab in the laundry room of the Nuestra Señora de Malta hospital.[127]

A declassified memorandum dated October 11, 1967 to United States President Lyndon B. Johnson from his National Security Advisor, Walt Whitman Rostow, called the decision to kill Guevara "stupid" but "understandable from a Bolivian standpoint."[128] After the execution, Rodríguez took several of Guevara's personal items, including a watch which he continued to wear many years later, often showing them to reporters during the ensuing years.[129] Today, some of these belongings, including his flashlight, are on display at the CIA.[130] After a military doctor amputated his hands, Bolivian army officers transferred Guevara's body to an undisclosed location and refused to reveal whether his remains had been buried or cremated. The hands were preserved in formaldehyde to be sent to Buenos Aires for fingerprint identification. (His fingerprints were on file with the Argentine police.) They were later sent to Cuba. On October 15, Castro acknowledged that Guevara was dead and proclaimed three days of public mourning throughout the island.[131] On October 18, Castro addressed a crowd of almost one million people in Havana and spoke about Guevara's character as a revolutionary.[132]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:57:52 am
French intellectual Régis Debray, who was captured in April 1967 while with Guevara in Bolivia, gave an interview from prison, in August 1968, where he enlarged on the circumstances of Guevara's capture. Debray, who had lived with Guevara's band of guerrillas for a short time, said that in his view they were "victims of the forest" and thus "eaten by the jungle."[133] Debray described a destitute situation where Guevara's men suffered malnutrition, lack of water, absence of shoes, and only possessed six blankets for 22 men. Debray recounts that Guevara and the others had been suffering an "illness" which caused their hands and feet to swell into "mounds of flesh" to the point where you could not discern the fingers on their hands.[133] Despite the futile situation, Debray described Guevara as "optimistic about the future of Latin America" and remarked that Guevara was "resigned to die in the knowledge that his death would be a sort of renaissance", noting that Guevara perceived death "as a promise of rebirth" and "ritual of renewal."[133]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:58:13 am
In late 1995, retired Bolivian General Mario Vargas revealed to Jon Lee Anderson, author of Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, that Guevara's body was located near a Vallegrande airstrip. The result was a multi-national search for the remains, which would last more than a year. In July 1997, a team of Cuban geologists and Argentine forensic anthropologists discovered the remnants of seven bodies in two mass graves, including one man with amputated hands (like Guevara). Bolivian government officials with the Ministry of Interior later identified the body as Guevara when the excavated teeth "perfectly matched" a plaster mold of Che's teeth, made in Cuba prior to his Congolese expedition. The "clincher" then arrived when Argentine forensic anthropologist Alejandro Inchaurregui inspected the inside hidden pocket of a blue jacket dug up next to the handless cadaver and found a small bag of pipe tobacco. Nino de Guzman, the Bolivian helicopter pilot who had given Che a small bag of tobacco, later remarked that he "had serious doubts" at first and "thought the Cubans would just find any old bones and call it Che"; however he stated "after hearing about the tobacco pouch, I have no doubts."[120] On October 17, 1997, Guevara's remains, with those of six of his fellow combatants, were laid to rest with military honors in a specially built mausoleum in the city of Santa Clara, where he had commanded over the decisive military victory of the Cuban Revolution.[134]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:58:34 am
Removed when Guevara was captured was his 30,000-word, hand-written diary, a collection of his personal poetry, and a short story he authored about a young Communist guerrilla who learns to overcome his fears.[135] His diary documented events of the guerrilla campaign in Bolivia[136] with the first entry on November 7, 1966 shortly after his arrival at the farm in Ñancahuazú, and the last dated October 7, 1967, the day before his capture. The diary tells how the guerrillas were forced to begin operations prematurely due to discovery by the Bolivian Army, explains Guevara's decision to divide the column into two units that were subsequently unable to re-establish contact, and describes their overall unsuccessful venture. It also records the rift between Guevara and the Communist Party of Bolivia that resulted in Guevara having significantly fewer soldiers than originally expected and shows that Guevara had a great deal of difficulty recruiting from the local populace, due in part to the fact that the guerrilla group had learned Quechua, unaware that the local language was actually Tupí-Guaraní.[137] As the campaign drew to an unexpected close, Guevara became increasingly ill. He suffered from ever-worsening bouts of asthma, and most of his last offensives were carried out in an attempt to obtain medicine.[138]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:58:55 am
The Bolivian Diary was quickly and crudely translated by Ramparts magazine and circulated around the world.[139] There are at least four additional diaries in existence—those of Israel Reyes Zayas (Alias "Braulio"), Harry Villegas Tamayo ("Pombo"), Eliseo Reyes Rodriguez ("Rolando")[111] and Dariel Alarcón Ramírez ("Benigno")[140]—each of which reveals additional aspects of the events. In July 2008, the Bolivian government of Evo Morales unveiled Guevara's formerly sealed diaries composed in two frayed notebooks, along with a logbook and several black-and-white photographs. At this event, Bolivia's vice minister of culture, Pablo Groux, expressed that there were plans to publish photographs of every handwritten page later in the year.[141]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 01:59:48 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5e/Che_Guevara_-_Grab_in_Santa_Clara%2C_Kuba.jpg/800px-Che_Guevara_-_Grab_in_Santa_Clara%2C_Kuba.jpg)

Che Guevara's Monument and Mausoleum in Santa Clara, Cuba


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:00:44 am
Legacy

"The current court of opinion places Che on a continuum that teeters between viewing him as a misguided rebel, a coruscatingly brilliant guerrilla philosopher, a poet-warrior jousting at windmills, a brazen warrior who threw down the gauntlet to the bourgeoisie, the object of fervent paeans to his sainthood, or a mass murderer clothed in the guise of an avenging angel whose every action is imbricated in violence – the archetypal fanatical terrorist."

– Dr. Peter McLaren, author of Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution [1]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:01:10 am
Over forty years after his execution, Che's life and legacy still remain a contentious issue. The contradictions of his ethos at various points in his life have created a complex character of unending duality, polarized in the collective imagination.

Some view Che Guevara as a hero;[143] for example, Nelson Mandela referred to him as "an inspiration for every human being who loves freedom"[144] while Jean-Paul Sartre described him as "not only an intellectual but also the most complete human being of our age."[145] Other notable figures who expressed their admiration include authors Graham Greene who remarked that Che "represented the idea of gallantry, chivalry, and adventure"[146], and Susan Sontag who expounded that "(Che's) goal was nothing less than the cause of humanity itself."[147] In the black community, philosopher Frantz Fanon professed Guevara to be "the world symbol of the possibilities of one man"[148], while Black Panther Party head Stokely Carmichael eulogized that "Che Guevara is not dead, his ideas are with us."[149] Praise was reflected throughout the political spectrum, with the anarcho-capitalist / libertarian theorist Murray Rothbard extolling Guevara as a "heroic figure", lamenting after his death that "more than any man of our epoch or even of our century, (Che) was the living embodiment of the principle of revolution",[150] while journalist Christopher Hitchens commented that "[Che's] death meant a lot to me, and countless like me, at the time. He was a role model, albeit an impossible one for us bourgeois romantics insofar as he went and did what revolutionaries were meant to do — fought and died for his beliefs."[151]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:01:45 am
 Guevara remains a beloved national hero to many in Cuba, where his image adorns the $3 Cuban Peso and school children begin each morning by pledging "We will be like Che."[152] In his native homeland of Argentina, where high schools bear his name,[153] numerous Che museums dot the country, which in 2008 unveiled a 12 foot bronze statue of him in his birth city of Rosario.[154] Additionally, Guevara has been sanctified by some Bolivian campesinos[155] as "Saint Ernesto", to whom they pray for assistance.[156]

Conversely, others view him as a spokesman for a failed ideology and as a ruthless executioner.[157] Detractors have theorized that in much of Latin America, Che-inspired revolutions had the practical result of reinforcing brutal militarism and internecine conflict for many years.[158] Alvaro Vargas Llosa of The Independent Institute has hypotheized that Guevara’s contemporary followers "delude themselves by clinging to a myth", while describing Guevara as "Marxist Puritan" who employed his dogmatic power to suppress dissent, while also operating as a "cold-blooded killing machine".[159] Llosa has also accused Guevara's "fanatical disposition" as being the linchpin of the "Sovietization" of the Cuban revolution, speculating that he possessed a "total subordination of reality to blind ideological orthodoxy."[160] Guevara remains a hated figure amongst many in the Cuban exile community, who view him with animosity as "the butcher of La Cabaña."[161] Guevara's exiled grandson Canek Sánchez Guevara, has also recently become an outspoken critic of the current Cuban regime.[162]

A high-contrast monochrome graphic of his face has become one of the world's most universally merchandized and objectified images,[163][164] found on an endless array of items, including t-shirts, hats, posters, tattoos, and bikinis,[165] ironically contributing to the consumer culture he despised. Yet, Guevara still remains a transcendent figure both in specifically political contexts[166] and as a wide-ranging popular icon of youthful rebellion.[167]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:02:12 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/ZZZ_wiki13.jpg)

A stylized graphic of Guevara's face on a flag above the words "El Che Vive" (The Che Lives).


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:02:56 am
The legacy of Argentine Marxist revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), has evolved and been passionately contested since his execution in 1967.

On the 40th anniversary of Guevara's execution in Bolivia the compilation Che in Verse brought together a diverse collection of 135 poems and songs in tribute to Che Guevara.[1] Celebrated poets such as Pablo Neruda, Allen Ginsberg, Julio Cortázar, Nicolas Guillén, Derek Walcott, Al Purdy, Rafael Alberti, Ko Un, and Yevgeny Yevtushenko devoted the aforementioned works to, as the book states in its introduction, "celebrate the world’s icon of rebellion".[2] In September of 2007, Che was also voted "Argentina's greatest historical and political figure." [3]

To some he is known as a hero —Nelson Mandela has referred to him as: "An inspiration for every human being who loves freedom" [4] — but others view him as the spokesman of a failing ideology and a ruthless executioner who did not afford others a legal process.[citation needed] In reference to such criticisms, Cuban-American academic Uva de Aragon has hypothesized that: "We'll still have to wait many years for history to deliver a definite judgement on Che, when the passions of both sides have passed." [5]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:03:33 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/96/Che_Guevara_statue_closeup.jpg/450px-Che_Guevara_statue_closeup.jpg)

Statue of Che Guevara near the site of his execution in Bolivia.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:05:21 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/af/Dscoverche-gandhi.jpg)

In its mid-November (#46) 2005 issue, the German newsweekly Der Spiegel writes about Europe's "peaceful revolutionaries" whom it describes as the heirs of Gandhi and Guevara.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:31:38 am
British politician George Galloway has remarked that: "One of the greatest mistakes the US state ever made was to create those pictures of Che's corpse. Its Christ-like poise in death ensured that his appeal would reach way beyond the turbulent university campus and into the hearts of the faithful, flocking to the worldly, fiery sermons of the liberation theologists." [6] The Economist magazine has also pointed out how Che's post death photos resemble Andrea Mantegna's 'The Lamentation over the Dead Christ.' Thus fixing Guevara as a modern saint, the man who risked his life twice in countries that were not his own before giving it in a third, and whose invocation of the “new man”, driven by moral rather than material incentives, smacked of Saint Ignatius of Loyola more than Marx.[7]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:31:58 am
While pictures of Guevara's dead body were being circulated and the circumstances of his death debated, his legend began to spread. Demonstrations in protest against his execution occurred throughout the world, and articles, tributes, songs and poems were written about his life and death.[8][9] In Argentina, graphic novelist Héctor Oesterheld published a biography of Che in 1968 that would later be linked to Oesterheld's own politically-motivated disappearance, torture and death.[10] Latin America specialists advising the U.S. State Department immediately recognized the importance of the demise of “the most glamorous and reportedly most successful revolutionary”, noting that Guevara would be eulogized by communists and other leftists as “the model revolutionary who met a heroic death”.[11] This rung true in 1968 when among Italy's emerging new breed of Roman Catholic militants, the Jacques Maritain Circle arranged a memorial mass in Che's honor and Catholic services were held for him in several other countries. In addition, in Brazil, mythmakers began to circulate thousands of copies of a photograph of the dead Che captioned: "A Saint of Our Time", while Italian students also took up a similar tone and christened him "Angela della Pace" — "Angel of Peace."[12]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:32:14 am
Such predictions gained increasing credibility as Guevara became a potent symbol of rebellion and revolution during the global student protests of the late 1960s.[13] Left wing activists responded to Guevara's apparent indifference to rewards and glory, and concurred with Guevara's sanctioning of violence as a necessity to instill socialist ideals. [14] The Black Panthers, began to style themselves "Che-type" while adopting his trademark black beret, and Arab guerrillas began to name combat operations in his honor. [15] The slogan 'Che lives!' began to appear on walls throughout the west,[16] while Jean-Paul Sartre, a leading figure in the movement, encouraged the adulation by describing Guevara as "the most complete human being of our age".[17]

Typically, responses to Guevara's legacy followed partisan lines. The U.S. State Department was advised that his death would come as a relief to non-leftist Latin Americans, who had feared possible insurgencies in their own countries.[11] Subsequent analysts have also shed light on aspects of cruelty in Guevara’s methods, and analysed what Fidel Castro described as Guevara’s “excessively aggressive quality”.[18] Studies addressing problematic characteristics of Guevara's life have cited his principal role in setting up Cuba's first post-revolutionary labor camps, his unsympathetic treatment of captured fighters during various guerrilla campaigns, and his frequent humiliations of those deemed his intellectual inferiors.[19][20] Though much opposition to Guevara's methods has come from the political right, critical evaluation has also come from groups such as anarchists, Trotskyists, and civil libertarians, who consider Guevara an authoritarian, anti-working-class Stalinist, whose legacy was the creation of a more bureaucratic, authoritarian regime.[21] Johann Hari, for example, stated that "...Che Guevara is not a free-floating icon of rebellion. He was an actual person who supported an actual system of tyranny, one that murdered millions more actual people."[22] Detractors have also theorized that in much of Latin America, Che-inspired revolutions had the practical result of reinforcing brutal militarism for many years.[23]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:32:44 am
Legacy in Cuba

"Guevara remains a beloved national hero in Cuba (almost a secular saint, to many on the Caribbean island) [24], where he is remembered for promoting unpaid voluntary work by working shirtless on building sites or hauling sacks of sugar. To this day, he appears on a Cuban banknote cutting sugar cane with a machete in the fields."[25]

In Cuba, Guevara's death precipitated the abandonment of guerrilla warfare as an instrument of foreign policy, ushering in a rapprochement with the Soviet Union, and the reformation of the government along Soviet lines. When Cuban troops returned to Africa in the 1970s, it was as part of a large-scale military expedition, and support for insurrection movements in Latin America and the Caribbean became logistical and organizational rather than overt. Cuba also abandoned Guevara's plans for economic diversification and rapid industrialization which had ultimately proved to be impracticable in view of the country's incorporation into the COMECON system. As early as 1965, the Yugoslav communist journal Borba observed the many half-completed or empty factories in Cuba, a legacy of Guevara's tenure as Minister of Industries, "standing like sad memories of the conflict between pretension and reality".[26]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:32:54 am
The Cuban state continued to cultivate Guevara’s appreciation, constructing numerous statues and artworks in his honor throughout the land; adorning school rooms, workplaces, public buildings, billboards, and money with his image.[27] His visage is also on postage stamps and the 3-peso coin beneath the words “Patria o Muerte” — “Homeland or Death.” [24] Moreover, children across the country begin each school day with the chant "Pioneers for Communism, We will be like Che!". The University of Havana also possesses an academic concentration in "Che." [28] Guevara's mausoleum in Santa Clara has also become a site of almost religious significance to many Cubans,[16] while the nation’s burgeoning tourist industry has benefited greatly from the ongoing international interest in Guevara's life. Some 205,832 people visited the mausoleum during 2004, of whom 127,597 were foreigners.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:33:38 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3b/SculptureCheGuevaraCuba.jpg/800px-SculptureCheGuevaraCuba.jpg)

Monumental image on Cuban Ministry of the Interior, based on Irish artist Jim Fitzpatrick's graphic of Alberto Korda's March 1960 photo. During Guevara's tenure as Minister of the Ministry of Industries (MININD) from 1961 to 1965, this building was the MININD's headquarters and his office was on the top floor.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:33:57 am
Legacy in Cuban-American Community

Reverence among Cubans for Guevara's memory is by no means universal. Many Cuban exiles have spoken of Guevara in unfavorable terms, and he is remembered by some with the epithet "The Butcher of la Cabaña", a reference to Guevara’s post-revolutionary role as “supreme prosecutor” over the "revolutionary tribunals" at the fortress. The moniker was repeated by Cuban-born musician Paquito D'Rivera, who wrote an open letter castigating fellow musician Carlos Santana, for wearing a T-shirt bearing Guevara’s face to the 2005 Academy Awards ceremony.[29] Guevara's image was also removed from a CD carrying case after public opposition pressure from offended Cuban-American groups. For their part, retail group Target Corporation issued a public apology for producing the item.[30] Similar disapproval has been shared by Cuban-American actor and director Andy Garcia, who alleged in 2004 that "Che has been romanticized over the years, but there is a darker side to his story. He looks like a rock star, but he executed a lot of people without trial or defense."[31] Garcia’s 2005 film The Lost City, which was reportedly banned in several Latin American countries, portrays what could be perceived by some, as the brutality of pre and post revolution Cuba.[32]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:34:10 am
Legacy elsewhere in Latin America

In Latin America, the perceived failures of the neo-liberal reforms of the 1990s intensified opposition to the Washington consensus,[33][34] leading to a resurgence in support for many of Guevara’s political beliefs including Pan-Americanism, support for popular movements in the region, the nationalization of key industries and centralization of government.[35] In Nicaragua, the Sandinistas, a group with ideological roots in Guevarism were re-elected to government after 16 years. Supporters wore Guevara T-Shirts during the 2006 victory celebrations.[36] Bolivian president Evo Morales has paid many tributes to Guevara including visiting his initial burial site to declare "Che Lives",[37] and installing a portrait of the Argentine made from local coca leaves in his presidential suite.[38][39][40] In 2006, Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez who has referred to Guevara as an "infinite revolutionary" [37] and who has been known to address audiences in a Che Guevara T-shirt,[41] accompanied Fidel Castro on a tour of Guevara’s boyhood home in Córdoba, describing the experience as “a real honor”. Awaiting crowds of thousands responded with calls of “We feel it! Guevara is right with us!"[42] Guevara’s daughter Aleida also transcribed an extensive interview with Chávez where he outlined his plans for “The New Latin America”, releasing the interview in book form.[43] Guevara remains a key inspirational figure to the Colombian guerrilla movement, the FARC,[44] and the Mexican Zapatistas led by Subcomandante Marcos.[45][46]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:34:25 am
The "Cult of Che"

Despite the controversies, Guevara's status as a popular icon has continued throughout the world, leading commentators to speak of a global "cult of Che". Writers from Graham Greene to Susan Sontag have extolled him, while West German playwright Peter Weiss has even compared him to "a Christ taken down from the Cross." [47] A photograph of Guevara taken by photographer Alberto Korda[48] has become one of the century's most ubiquitous images, and the portrait, transformed into a monochrome graphic by Irish artist Jim Fitzpatrick, is reproduced endlessly on a vast array of merchandise, such as T-shirts, posters, cigarettes, coffee mugs, and baseball caps largely for profit. This fact led Argentine business analyst Martin Krauze to postulate that: “The admiration for El Che no longer extends to his politics and ideology. It’s a romantic idea of one man going to battle against the windmills, he’s a Quixote.” While British journalist Sean O’Hagan has described Che as “more Lennon than Lenin”. Taking the opposite hypothesis, Mexican commentator and Che Biographer Jorge Castañeda has proclaimed that: “Che can be found just where he belongs in the niches reserved for cultural icons, for symbols of social uprisings that filter down deep into the soil of society.” [49] Castañeda has further stated that "Che still possesses an extraordinary relevance as a symbol of a time when people died heroically for what they believed in", adding that in his view "people don't do that anymore."[50] The saying "Viva la revolucion!" has also become very popular and synonymous with Guevara.[51]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:34:41 am
In North America, Western Europe and many regions outside Latin America, the image had been likened to a global brand, long since shedding its ideological or political connotations, and the obsession with Guevara has been dismissed by some as merely "adolescent revolutionary romanticism".[16] Che Guevara as a cultural icon also re-emerged in the news in October 2007, when 61 year old Texas bookstore owner and collector of 60s memorabilia Bill Butler, paid $ 119,500 (US) dollars for a lock of the late Che Guevara's hair. The hair was trimmed from Guevara’s corpse by Gustavo Villoldo, a Cuban-born C.I.A. operative who helped Bolivian troops capture him in 1967, and was accompanied by a sheaf of historical documents (map, photos, & fingerprints) related to his capture.[52]

American, Latin American and European writers, Jon Lee Anderson, Régis Debray, Jorge G. Castañeda and others contributed to demystify the image of Guevara via articles and biographies, which detailed his life and legacy in less idealistic terms; and, in the case of Octavio Paz, was accompanied by a critical indictment of the Marxism espoused by many in the Latin American left.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:35:08 am
Political writer Paul Berman went further, asserting that the "modern-day cult of Che" obscures the work of dissidents and what he believes is a "tremendous social struggle" currently taking place in Cuba.[53] Author Christopher Hitchens, who was a socialist and a supporter of the Cuban revolution in the 1960s but has since changed his views, summarised Guevara's legacy thus: "Che's iconic status was assured because he failed. His story was one of defeat and isolation, and that's why it is so seductive. Had he lived, the myth of Che would have long since died."[16] Taking the opposing view, Richard Gott a Guardian journalist in Vallegrande, sent a dispatch on the day of Guevara's death stating the following:

    "It was difficult to recall that this man had once been one of the great figures of Latin America. It was not just that he was a great guerrilla leader; he had been a friend of Presidents as well as revolutionaries. His voice had been heard and appreciated in inter-American councils as well as in the jungle. He was a doctor, an amateur economist, once Minister of Industries in revolutionary Cuba, and Castro's right-hand man. He may well go down in history as the greatest continental figure since Bolivar. Legends will be created around his name."[54]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:35:30 am
References

   1. ^ A Radiant Face Driven Mad with a Rifle: Che in Verse The Latin American Review of Books
   2. ^ Intro to: Che in Verse, by Gavin O'Toole, Aflame Books, 2007, ISBN 095523395X
   3. ^ Poems Guevara lived and died by, Javier Espinoza, September 9 2007, The Observer
   4. ^ Editorial Review of The Bolivian Diary onAmazon.com --- This quote also appears in the opening trailer for The Motorcycle Diaries (film) --> Trailer
   5. ^ Uva de Aragon, Cuban-American academic at Florida International University, as quoted in "Sympathizers marks 40th anniversary of Che Guevara's death" (8 October 2007)
   6. ^ "George Galloway: Should Che be an icon? Yes", October 6 2007, The Independent
   7. ^ "Che Guevara: modern saint and sinner", Oct 11th 2007, The Economist
   8. ^ Carlos Puebla,"Carta al Che". Online, accessed February 26, 2006.
   9. ^ Carlos Puebla,"Hasta Siempre, Comandante". Online at BBC News, accessed February 26, 2006.
  10. ^ Lambiek. "Héctor Germán Oesterheld". http://lambiek.net/artists/o/oesterheld_hg.htm.
  11. ^ a b U.S. Department of State: Guevara's Death, The Meaning for Latin America p.6. October 12, 1967: Thomas Hughes, the Latin America specialist at the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research providing an interpretive report for Secretary of State Dean Rusk.
  12. ^ 'The Cult of Che', Time Magazine, May 17 1968
  13. ^ "The Cult of Che". Time Magazine. Friday, May 17, 1968. Online, accessed October 24, 2006.
  14. ^ Trento, Angelo. Castro and Cuba : From the revolution to the present". p.64. Arris books. 2005.
  15. ^ "Che: A Myth Embalmed in a Matrix of Ignorance", Time Magazine, Oct. 12 1970
  16. ^ a b c d The Guardian. "Just a pretty face?" Online, accessed October 25, 2006.
  17. ^ Michael Moynihan, "Neutering Sartre at Dagens Nyheter". Online at Stockholm Spectator. Accessed February 26, 2006.
  18. ^ Fidel Castro on Che Guevara : Speech by Fidel Castro was given on October 18, 1967. Online. Ocean Press Pty Ltd website. Accessed October 24, 2006.
  19. ^ Samuel Farber, "The Resurrection of Che Guevara", Summer 1998. William Paterson University online, accessed June 18, 2006.
  20. ^ Anderson, Jon Lee. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, New York: 1997, Grove Press, p. 567.
  21. ^ Libertarian Community, "Ernesto "Che" Guevara, 1928–1967".
  22. ^ Johann Hari: Should Che be an icon? No October 6 2007, The Independent
  23. ^ The Killing Machine: Che Guevara, from Communist Firebrand to Capitalist Brand. The Independent Institute. online. Accessed November 10, 2006.
  24. ^ a b 'Che Guevara remains a hero to Cubans', People's Weekly World, Oct 2, 2004
  25. ^ Rosa Tania Valdes in "Cuba remembers Che Guevara 40 years after his fall" in Reuters (8 October 2007)
  26. ^ Hugh Thomas. Cuba : The pursuit of freedom p. 1007.
  27. ^ "Cuba's face". Stanford University Germanic Collections.Online. Accessed October 24, 2006.
  28. ^ '40 years after Che Guevara's death, his image is a battleground', by Marc Lacey, October 8 2007
  29. ^ Paquito D'Rivera, "Open letter to Carlos Santana by Paquito D'Rivera in Latin Beat Magazine", 25 March 2005. Find Articles Online, accessed June 18, 2006.
  30. ^ Target pulls Che Guevara CD cases - Associated Press, December 24, 2006
  31. ^ "Andy Garcia Tells His Cuba Story, at Last". NewsMax.com. Friday, May 5, 2006. Online. Accessed October 24, 2006.
  32. ^ Don’t Let This Movie Get Lost Kathryn Jean Lopez. National Review. Accessed October 24, 2006.
  33. ^ BBC News. How the US 'lost' Latin America. Online accessed 10 January 2007.
  34. ^ Washington Post. Anti-U.S. Protests Flare at Summit. Online accessed 10 January 2007.
  35. ^ Foreign Affairs. Latin America's Left Turn. Online accessed 10 January 2007.
  36. ^ Photograph of Sandinista election victory parade Online
  37. ^ a b Cuba pays tribute to Che Guevara, Oct 9 2007, BBC
  38. ^ BBC News. Evo Morales 'padlocked' in palace Online accessed 10 January 2007.
  39. ^ Spiegel News online. Capitalism Has Only Hurt Latin America Online accessed 10 January 2007.
  40. ^ The Latin American and Caribbean Information Center of the Florida International University. President Evo Morales pays tribute to Che Guevara Online accessed 10 January 2007.
  41. ^ Guardian Online. Hugo Chavez superstar. Online accessed 10 January 2007.
  42. ^ MSNBC News. Castro, Chavez tour Che Guevara’s home. Online. accessed 10 January 2007.
  43. ^ Amazon books. Chavez: Venezuela and the New Latin America - Hugo Chavez Interviewed by Aleida Guevara. Online. accessed 10 January 2007.
  44. ^ Leeds University. The impact and legacy of Che Guevara’s Foco Theory, with special reference to guerrilla warfare in Colombia. Online. accessed 10 January 2007.
  45. ^ BBC News. Profile: The Zapatistas' mysterious leader Online. accessed 10 January 2007.
  46. ^ Zapatista Army of National Liberation. SIXTH DECLARATION OF THE LACANDON JUNGLE. Online. Accessed 1 March 2007
  47. ^ Che: A Myth Embalmed in a Matrix of Ignorance, Oct 12 1970, Time Magazine
  48. ^ BBC News, "Che Guevara photographer dies", 26 May 2001. Online at BBC News, accessed January 4, 2006.
  49. ^ Che Guevara: an image that keeps the spirit of revolution alive, 2005 Issue of the Socialist Worker
  50. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 76
  51. ^ CBC Radio One, "Discussion about Che Guevara". Online, accessed February 26, 2006.
  52. ^ "Lone Bidder Buys Strands of Che’s Hair at U.S. Auction", by Marc Lacey, Oct 26 2007, NY Times
  53. ^ Paul Berman, "The Cult of Che", 24 September 2004. Slate Online, accessed June 18, 2006.
  54. ^ The Final Triumph of Saint Che The Guardian, September 23 2007



Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:35:47 am
External links

    * BBC: "Che's spirit burns on in Latin America" by Daniel Schweimler, January 3 2009
    * BBC Video: "Che Remembered 40 Years On" October 8 2007
    * Daily Observer: Che Remembered: on 80th Birthday June 12 2008
    * Der Spiegel: Photo Gallery - Latin America Commemorates Che Guevara
    * Harpers Magazine: Six Questions for Greg Grandin on Che’s Legacy September 30 2007
    * Intl Herald Tribune: Che Returns to Buenos Aires, Immortalized in Bronze Statue May 28 2008
    * LA Times: "Che Guevara's Legacy Looms Larger than Ever in Latin America" October 8 2007
    * NPR Audio Report: "Thirty Years After His Death, Che Guevara Still an Icon"
    * PBS Forum: "The Legacy of Che Guevara" ~ with biographer Jon Lee Anderson November 20 1997
    * Political Affairs Magazine: The Legacy of Che Guevara by Manuel E. Yepe, March 10 2009
    * Socialist Worker: The Legacy of A Revolutionary - Who was Che? October 12 2007
    * The Independent: "Rediscovering Che Guevara: the Romantic Revolutionary" September 13 2007
    * The Observer: "The Final Triumph of Saint Che" September 23 2007
    * TIME 100: Che Guevara June 14 1999
    * Wall Street Journal: In Argentina, Che Guevara Finally Gets More Than a Lousy T-Shirt by Michael Casey, June 14 2008


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:36:51 am
Che Guevara in popular culture

Appearances of Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara (1928 – 1967) in popular culture are common throughout the world. Although during his lifetime he was a highly politicized and controversial figure, in death his stylized image has been transformed into a worldwide emblem for an array of causes, representing a complex mesh of sometimes conflicting narratives. His image has achieved a cult following and is viewed as everything from an inspirational icon of revolution, to a hipster logo of radical chic. Most commonly he is represented by a facial caricature based on Alberto Korda's famous 1960 photograph entitled Guerrillero Heroico. The evocative simulacra abbreviation of the photographic portrait allowed for easy reproduction and instant recognizability across various uses. For many around the world, Che has become a generic symbol of the underdog, the idealist, the iconoclast, or the man willing to die for a cause. He has become, as author Michael Casey notes in Che's Afterlife: The Legacy of an Image, "the quintessential postmodern icon signifying anything to anyone and everything to everyone."[1]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:37:26 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/8/80/ChePopularCulture4.jpg/154px-ChePopularCulture4.jpg)

Che Guevara in popular culture.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:38:27 am
Overview

    "Pop's depersonalization and standardization simplified Che's image and helped align him with the masses, at the same time certifying his image as everyman. Pop's aesthetic pushed towards absolutely unambiguous and uninflected meaning and repeatability. Warholian Pop deals with outlines and surfaces rather than full chiaroscuro. This reduction of the real world provided the perfect vehicle for distancing the image from the complexities and ambiguities of actual life and the reduction of the political into stereotype. Che lives in these images as an ideal abstraction."
    — Jonathan Green, UCR Museum of Photography director [2]

Che Guevara's likeness has undergone continual apotheosis while being weaved throughout the public consciousness in a variety of ways. From being viewed as a "Saintly Christ-like" figure by the rural poor in Bolivia where he was executed, to being viewed as an idealistic insignia for youth, longing for a vague sense of rebellion. His likeness can also be seen on millions of posters, hats, key chains, mouse pads, hoodies, beanies, flags, berets, backpacks, bandannas, belt buckles, wallets, watches, wall clocks, Zippo lighters, pocket flasks, bikinis, personal tattoos, and most commonly T-shirts. Meanwhile his life story can be found in an array of films, documentaries, plays, and songs of tribute. Throughout television, music, books, magazines, and ironically even corporate advertisements, Che's visage is an ever-present political and apolitical emblem that has been endlessly mutated, transformed, and morphed over the last forty years of visual pop culture.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:38:47 am
His face has evolved into many manifestations and represents a Rashomon effect to those who observe its use. To some it is a generic high street visual emblem of global marketing, while to others it represents a vague notion of dissent, civil disobedience, or political awareness. Conversely, to those ideologically opposed to Che Guevara's belief in World revolution, or to those that resent his veneration because of his violent actions, his propagation represents shallow ignorant kitsch, idolatry worthy of spoof makeovers, parody, or even ridicule. What is indisputable, however, is that Che has become a widely disseminated counter-cultural symbol that sometimes operates independent of the man himself. Hannah Charlton of the The Sunday Times made note of this practice by postulating that "T-shirt wearers might wear Che's face as an easy replacement for real activism or as a surrogate for it."[3]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:39:00 am
Genesis

    "His image has been appropriated for political, economic, and even spiritual purposes. He is the symbol of communist destiny, and yet also beloved by anticommunist rebels; his face is used to sell beer and skis, yet an English church group recently issued posters of Jesus Christ himself recast as Che. The affluent youth of Europe and North America have resurrected Che as an easy emblem of meaningless and unthreatening rebellion, a queer blending of educated violence and disheveled nobility, like Gandhi with a gun or John Lennon singing 'Give Peace a Chance.'"
    — Patrick Symmes, Author of Chasing Che: A Motorcycle Journey in Search of the Guevara Legend


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:39:14 am
Walk through any major metropolis around the globe and it is likely that you will come across an image of Che Guevara, most commonly a stylized version of Korda's iconic Guerrillero Heroico. An archetype, capable of endless visual regeneration, which depending on your opinion, helps tell the story of either 20th century visual literacy or kitsch banality. According to Hannah Charlton, editor of Che Guevara: Revolutionary and Icon, "By the 1990s the global market saw the emergence of what Naomi Klein has called a "market marsala"—a bilingual mix of North and South, some Latin, some R&B, all couched in global party politics."[5] By embodying corporate identities that appear radically individualistic and perpetually new, the brands attempt to inoculate themselves against accusations that they are selling sameness. The next stage is to present consumption as a code, where mega brands, supposedly reflecting the "indie" values of their purchasing audience, can do so with a knowing irony that of course the buyer can remain seemingly untouched by the corporate values underpinning the transaction.[5]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:39:37 am
Enter Che: the 60's symbol of student revolution, the all-pervasive ascetic gaze used to add allure and mystique to a product, because either a sophisticated audience is savvy enough to distinguish between revolution and commerce while enjoying the irony, or oblivious of who he is or what he represents. This began the metamorphosis from Che the martyred resistance fighter beloved by many, and Che the violent Marxist revolutionary despised by others, to his dual paradoxical position in the global corporate capitalist culture. The commodification of the image has been ongoing since his death, and since the late 1990s has seen a resurgence.

This abiding 'renaissance' of Che's visage, is chronicled by filmmaker and Guggenheim scholar Trisha Ziff, who explores the genesis, continuing adaptation, and history of Che Guevara's famous image in the 2008 documentary "Chevolution".[6]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:39:48 am
Hannah Charlton hypothesizes that "appropriating the aura of Che for brand building, has now given rise to a new resurgence of "Che-ness" that transcends branding in its global appeal. In the shifting complexities of intercultural values, in the search for universal images that can speak across borders and boundaries, today's global image of Che is the most successful."[7] The Che face, more than any other icon according to Charlton, can keep accruing new application without relinquishing its essence – a generic and positive version of anti-status quo and liberation from any oppressive force, and a general, romantic, non-specific fantasy about change and revolution.[7]

Taking note of Che's malleable essence, filmmakers Adriana Marino and Douglas Duarte created the 2007 documentary "Personal Che", which documents the numerous ways that people around the world re-create Che in their own image.[8


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:40:12 am
In religion

 "Saint Ernesto" in Bolivia


    "It's like he is alive and with us, like a friend. He is kind of like a Virgin Mary for us. We say, 'Che, help us with our work or with this planting,' and it always goes well."
    — Manuel Cortez, a campesino who resides next to the schoolhouse where Guevara was executed


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:40:44 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3f/Che_Guevara_statue.jpg/800px-Che_Guevara_statue.jpg)

A memorial site in La Higuera, Bolivia, where Che Guevara was executed on October 9, 1967.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:41:02 am
Che Guevara's unlikely transformation into a "sanctified" figure began immediately after his execution. Susana Osinaga, the nurse who cleaned Guevara's corpse after his execution reminisced that locals saw an uncanny physical resemblance to the popularized artistic portrayals of Jesus. According to Osinaga, "he was just like a Christ, with his strong eyes, his beard, his long hair", adding that her in her view he was "very miraculous."[10] Jon Lee Anderson, author of Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, notes how among the hospital's nuns, and a number of Vallegrande women, the impression that Guevara bore an extraordinary resemblance to Jesus Christ quickly spread; leading them to surreptitiously clip off clumps of his long hair and keep them for good luck.[11] Jorge G. Castañeda, author of Compañero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara, discerns that "the Christ-like image prevailed" stating "it's as if the dead Guevara looks on his killers and forgives them, and upon the world, proclaiming that he who dies for an idea is beyond suffering."[12]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:41:16 am
Eleven days after Guevara's execution, journalist I. F. Stone (who himself had interviewed Guevara), drew the comparison by noting that "with his curly reddish beard, he looked like a cross between a faun and a Sunday-school print of Jesus."[13] That observation was followed by German artist and playwright Peter Weiss' remark that the post-mortem images of Guevara resembled a "Christ taken down from the cross."

In August 1968, French intellectual Régis Debray who was captured in Bolivia while living with Che Guevara, gave a jailhouse interview where he also drew the comparison. According to Debray, Che (an atheist) "was a mystic without a transcendent belief, a saint without a God." Debray went on to tell interviewer Marlene Nadle of Ramparts Magazine that "Che was a modern Christ, but I think he suffered a much harder passion. The Christ of 2,000 years ago died face-to-face with his God. But Che knew there was no God and that after his death nothing remains."[14]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:41:28 am
Beginning with the 30th anniversary of Che's death, as Western reporters returned to Bolivia to report on commemorations, they began to notice that Che Guevara had been transfigured and "canonized" by the local Bolivian campesinos. No longer was he Che Guevara the guerrilla insurgent, but he was now viewed as a "Saint" by locals who had come to refer to him as "San Ernesto de La Higuera" (Saint Ernesto of La Higuera).[15] Accompanying his "Sainthood" came prayers for favors and legends of his ghost still walking the area.[15] This prompted the development of the 2006 film "San Ernesto de la Higuera" produced by Isabel Santos, which won best short documentary at the 5th International Film Festival of Human Rights.[16]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:41:42 am
As the 40th anniversary of Che's execution approached in 2007, journalists returned to discover that in Bolivia, images of Che now hung next to images of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, & Pope John Paul II.[10] Additionally, columnist Christopher Roper observed that "in Bolivia, Che's murdered body was now compared to John the Baptist,[10] while Reuters reported that in many homes, Che's face competed for wall space with a host of Roman Catholic Saints.[9] A new legend also became known, when the Los Angeles Times reported that some rural campesinos now believed that if you whisper Che Guevara's name to the sky or light a candle to his memory, you will find your lost goat or cow.[17]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:41:51 am
A host of local campesinos went on record to journalists from The Guardian about this phenomenon as well. Melanio Moscoso, of La Higuera stated "we pray to him, we are so proud he had died here, in La Higuera, fighting for us. We feel him so close",[10] while Freddy Vallejos, of Vallegrande, proclaimed "we have a faith, a confidence in Che. When I go to bed and when I wake up, I first pray to God and then I pray to Che - and then, everything is all right. Che's presence here is a positive force. I feel it in my skin, I have faith that always, at all times, he has an eye on us."[10] Remi Calzadilla, a resident of Pucara, claimed that praying to Che had helped him regain the ability to walk, adding that "now every time I speak to Che I feel a strong force inside of me."[10]

The laundry where Guevara's corpse was displayed to the world's press in Vallegrande is now a place of pilgrimage as well, with hundreds of personal messages transcribed and carved into the surrounding walls from admiring visitors. In large letters above the table where Che's dead body once lie, an engraving now reads "None dies as long as he is remembered."


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:42:09 am
Outside Bolivia

    "The resemblance to aspects of Christ's life on earth can be easily traced in the life of Che. Both were doctors – Christ as miracle healer, Che as the trained physician, and were active as such, even or especially so when they were fighting, doctoring when others were resting or escaping. Both men were particularly concerned with leprosy, the disease of the downtrodden and outcast, as The Motorcycle Diaries (books and film) have reminded us in the case of Che. Like Che, Jesus was an egalitarian, a communist in terms of owning little and sharing all, and his disciples were bidden to hold all in common. Both were strict disciplinarians, who insisted on individuals leaving families, friends and privileges behind to join them, sacrificing comforts and, if need be, their own lives."
    — David Kunzle, author of Che Guevara: Icon, Myth, and Message [18]




Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:42:25 am

    * The Church of England caused some controversy in 1999, when they drew comparisons of Jesus to Che Guevara on a red and black poster entitled "Che Jesus", which bore the slogan: "Meek. Mild. As if. Discover the real Jesus."[19] In response to the controversy Reverend Peter Owens-Jones of the Church Advertising Network (CAN) who designed the ad stated "We are not saying that Jesus was communist, but that he was revolutionary. We are exploiting the image of revolution, not the image of Che Guevara."[20]

    * Che Guevara appears as the Christ figure in a mural called "The Last Supper of Chicano Heroes" in Stanford University's Latino Dorm (Casa Zapata).[21]

    * Actor Benicio Del Toro who played Guevara in the 2008 biopic Che, compared the guerrilla leader to Jesus Christ, stating "I think Che had perseverance and morality ... being the underdog and fighting against injustice and standing up for the forgotten moved him so hard. Kind of like Jesus, in a way - only Jesus would turn the other cheek. Che wouldn't."[22


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:42:36 am
In films

    "Che Guevara was an amazing character. He's a person that changed the world and really forces me to change the rules of what I am."
    — Gael García Bernal, portrayed Che in The Motorcycle Diaries [23]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:42:50 am
Actors who have portrayed Che Guevara:

    * Francisco Rabal in El Che Guevara (1968)

    * Omar Sharif in Che! (1969)

    * Michael Palin in Monty Python Live at the Hollywood Bowl (1982)

    * Antonio Banderas in Evita (1996)

    * Miguel Ruiz Días in El Che (1997)

    * Alfredo Vasco in Hasta la Victoria Siempre (1999)

    * Gael García Bernal in Fidel (2002)

    * Karl Sheils in Meeting Che Guevara & the Man from Maybury Hill (2003)

    * Gael García Bernal in The Motorcycle Diaries (2004)

    * Jsu Garcia in The Lost City (2005)

    * Martin Hyder in The Mark Steel Lectures: Che Guevara (2006)

    * Sam G. Preston in The True Story of Che Guevara (2007)

    * Eduardo Noriega in Che (2007)

    * Benicio Del Toro in Che (2008)


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:43:32 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/43/CheFilm7.jpg/430px-CheFilm7.jpg)

Benicio Del Toro in the 2008 biopic Che.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:43:51 am
Other

    "I think anyone who buys a t-shirt of Che has gotta be cool. If I see someone with a Che t-shirt, I think, 'He's got good taste'."
    — Benicio Del Toro, portrayed Guevara in the 2008 biopic Che [22]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:44:15 am
    * In the 1998 film Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Johnny Depp depicting Hunter S. Thompson awakens from an adrenochrome overdose and stands in front of a picture of Che Guevara stuck to a Mexican flag. Benicio Del Toro who co starred in the film (and would later play Che Guevara in Che), has stated that Thompson kept a "big" picture of Che in his kitchen.[24]

    * In the 2003 documentary "Breakfast With Hunter", acclaimed author Hunter S. Thompson can be seen in several scenes wearing different Che Guevara t-shirts.

    * Actress Lindsay Lohan dons a Che Guevara t-shirt in one scene of the 2004 film Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen.[25]

    * Indian actor Rajat Kapoor was made up to resemble Guevara in the 2009 Bollywood thriller Siddharth-The Prisoner. In describing the reasoning, director Pryas Gupta stated that the central concept of the film is "freedom from the complexities of life" while remarking "who better than Che Guevara, to represent that spirit."[26]

    * James Benning utilizes Richard Dindo's documentary Ernesto Che Guevara: The Bolivian Diaries to form his own avant-garde film entitled Utopia. The film juxtaposes Che's vehement opposition to imperialism, with the importing of low wage Mexican laborers in the California desert to farm the Imperial Valley.[27]

    * Leonardo Katz's 1998 experimental film El Día Que Me Quieras (The Way You’ll Love Me) is a meditation on Freddy Alborta's famous post-mortem photo of Che Guevara. Katz deconstructs and re-photographs the famous picture while drawing comparisons to the classic paintings of Mantegna's "Dead Christ" and Rembrandt's "The Anatomy Lesson".[28]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:44:44 am
In television

    * Che Guevara himself was a guest on Face the Nation with Tad Szulc in 1964.

    * The now canceled Fox television show Dark Angel, the main character's assumed name is Mac Guevara, an obvious reference to Che in her quest to liberate her own race of people, as well.

    * In an episode of the animated sitcom King of the Hill, Bobby's activist friend wears a Che Guevara t-shirt.

    * In an episode of American Dad!, Stan's son is sued by a communist to follow communism, after his dad ignores him. When his dad enters his room and sees communist apparel everywhere, he begins to rip them down. When he gets to a picture of Che he says "This we can agree on. Planet of the Apes was a fine picture".

    * Kyle wears a Che Guevara t-shirt in the South Park episode "Die Hippie, Die".

    * In the first season, the opening sequence of The Boondocks featured main character Huey Freeman stylized in the likeness of Che Guevara. A poster of Che Guevara was also seen in his room in the episode "The Passion of the Ruckus".

    * In the anime Eureka Seven, the character Stoner resembles Che.

    * In the anime Zoku Sayonara Zetsubō Sensei, one of the characters finds a shirt with Che Guevara's face on it in episode 12.

    * In the anime series Heat Guy J, a poster of Che Guevara hangs on a wall in Daisuke's room.

    * In That '70s Show, the character Steven Hyde often wears a Che Guevara t-shirt.

    * Eric Burdon wears a Che Guevara shirt as host of the PBS special The '60s Experience.

    * PBS held a forum entitled: ‘the Legacy of Che’ where they proclaimed that: "Che Guevara was a pop icon of mythic proportions."

    * In The Simpsons episode "Who Shot Mr. Burns? (Part Two)", the Tito Puente's mambo club is called "Chez Guevara", an obvious reference to Che.

    * In the Serbian television series, Vratiće se rode, Švaba has a poster of Che Guevara in his bedroom.

    * The Latin American Xchange, a Total Nonstop Action Wrestling tag team, show clips of Che Guevara in their entrance video.

    * In the pilot episode of Mission Hill, there is a picture of Che in the background of a classroom.

    * In the movie Lost and Delerious, the character Paulie has a Che Guevara poster over her bed.

    * In an episode of The Venture Bros., "Dia de Los Dangerous!" Dr. Venture's "colleague" is named Ernesto Guevara

    * When British comedy and TV star Ricky Gervais (of The Office) brought out a DVD of his politics live stand up show in 2004, he chose to represent himself on the cover as Che Guevara.

    * In episode 6 of the British teen drama Skins, the character James Cook (played by Jack O'Connell) runs for class president by presenting himself mocked up as Che Guevara.[29]

    * Stephen Colbert gifted Benicio Del Toro a modified Che t-shirt bearing his own image when Del Toro appeared on a January 2009 broadcast of The Colbert Report, to promote the film Che.[30]

    * The 2009 ABC animated comedy The Goode Family, parodies a liberal family whose dog is named "Che". Abhoring meat consumption, the Goode Family (whose car bumper also features the face of Che Guevara) force their dog Che to follow a vegan diet, which forces him to supplement his appetite by eating small creatures and neighborhood cats.[31]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:45:09 am
In music

    "And if there's any hope for America, it lies in a revolution, and if there's any hope for a revolution in America, it lies in getting Elvis Presley to become Che Guevara."
    — Phil Ochs, the liner notes of The Broadside Tapes

    * Punk band The (International) Noise Conspiracy's musical inspiration was stated to be the above Ochs quote.

    * Upon hearing the news of Guevara's murder, Cuban musician Carlos Puebla composed "Hasta siempre, Comandante." Since then it has been covered by numerous artists including the Buena Vista Social Club and Joan Baez. French singer Nathalie Cardone produced a modern rendition of the song entitled "Hasta Siempre" as an ode to honor Guevara.

    * Folk singer Judy Collins composed a ballad entitled "Che" as an ode to Che Guevara after his death. The song was then remixed into an "intense rhythmic interpretation" for a 2009 tribute album entitled Born to the Breed by artist James Mudriczki. Collins singled out this song as one of her favorite tracks, while describing Mudriczki's rendition as "marvelous".[32]

    * The German composer Hans Werner Henze dedicated his 1968 oratorio Das Floß der Medusa as a requiem for Guevera.

    * In 1968, Scottish songwriter Ewan MacColl composed the song "The Compañeros" in honor of Che Guevara and the Cuban Revolution. His wife Peggy Seeger also wrote "A Song for Che Guevara."

    * Grammy Award-winning Carlos Santana wore a Che Guevara shirt to the 2005 Oscar awards.

    * The cover of Madonna's 2003 album American Life emulates Guerrillero Heroico, as she revealed to the Italian version of Top of the Pops. Madonna cited Che as a "revolutionary spirit" while adding that although she does not "necessarily agree with the The Communist Manifesto, she believes that "there are aspects of socialism which are good", and that she "likes what (Che) stood for".[33]

    * In rapper Jay-Z's Black Album, the track "Public Service Announcement" contains the line "I'm like Che Guevara with bling on / I'm complex."

    * "Indian Girl" by the The Rolling Stones has a lyric referring to Che. "Mr. Gringo, my father he ain't no Che Guevara, And he's fighting the war on the streets of Masaya"

    * The Nightwatchman aka (Tom Morello) references a quote from Che Guevara - "Liberators do not exist, the people liberate themselves" - in the music video for the song 'Road I Must Travel.'

    * In rapper Nas's album, 'Stillmatic there is a controversial track named "My Country" that pays tribute to Che Guevara and others who were murdered by the United States.

    * David Bowie's album, Lodger featured an inside sleeve containing one of the famous photographs of Guevara's corpse surrounded by his executioners.

    * In Richard Shindell's 2004 album Vuelta the track "Che Guevara t-Shirt" tells the story of an illegal immigrant imprisoned after 9/11 who may be kept in jail forever because he carries a photo of his girlfriend wearing a Che Guevara t-shirt.

    * On the track "It's Your World" from the rapper Common's 2005 album Be, the artist states "Wish I was free as Che was."

    * In Pet Shop Boys's song "Left To My Own Devices" they mention with irony "Che Guevara and Debussy to a disco beat".

    * The artist Immortal Technique has made several references to Guevara in his songs (No Me Importa, Internally Bleeding) and has performed many times while wearing a shirt bearing his image.

    * In the Manic Street Preachers song, "Revol", there is the lyric "Che Guevara, you're all target now".

    * The song "Hammerblow", off the Cherry Poppin' Daddies album Susquehanna, is a story-song about an underground Marxist uprising; a character in the song tells the narrator ""We haven't gone extinct/Unlike Che Guevara, Marx and Pravda"", assuring that though said revolutionaries may be gone, the movement continues.

    * American rock band Chagall Guevara, took their name from artist Marc Chagall and Che Guevara, to imply the concept of "revolutionary art."

    * The Australian punk band the Clap has a song called "Che Guevara T-Shirt Wearer" featuring the chorus lines of "you're a Che Guevara T-shirt wearer, and you have no idea who he is."

    * A Finnish rock band Happoradio has a song called "Che Guevara". The chorus goes: "tell your husband to dress like Che Guevara when you fall into bed."

    * On October 12, 2007, musicians from the Chilean community and Grupo Amistad, performed songs dedicated to Che at a memorial celebration in Winnipeg, Canada.[34]

    * The Brazilian rock band Sepultura performed at Havana´s "Jose Marti Anti-Imperialist Tribune" in July 2008, while also visiting the memorial to Che Guevara.[35]

    * American punk rock band Against Me! have a song called "Cliché Guevara" on their album As the Eternal Cowboy.

    * Muslim-American rapper Rhymefest (whose birth name is 'Che' in honor of Guevara) titled his 2009 album "El Che", describing the overall theme as a "journey with a revolutionary."

    * Artist Dana Lyons mentions Che Guevara in his song Cows with Guns.

    * The band Rage Against the Machine has assorted band apparel with Che's image on it and recommends Guevara's manual "Guerrilla Warfare" in their liner notes.

    * American indie rock band Che Guevara T-Shirt named themselves after the phenomena outlined in this article, specifically the irony that a Marxist inspired guerilla is now used to sell Capitalist products.

    * In July 2009, Cuba's best known folk musician Silvio Rodriguez announced that had written a new song entitled "Tonada del albedrio" (Tune to Free Will) intended to "rehabilitate" the image of revolutionary Che Guevara from being an "international super-brand". According to Rodriguez the new song on his upcoming album "Segunda Cita" (Second Date) returns the emphasis and meaning of Guevara's life to "his struggle against imperialism, his love of being a revolutionary and his concept of socialism."[36]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:45:41 am
Songs in tribute

    "We've considered Che a fifth band member for a long time now, for the simple reason that he exemplifies the integrity and revolutionary ideals to which we aspire."
    — Tom Morello, guitarist for Rage Against The Machine [37]

    * Afro Cubanos All Stars ~ "Hasta Siempre Comandante" mp3

    * Ahmet Koç ~ "Hasta Siempre" (instrumental) official video

    * Ali Primera ~ "Comandante Amigo" listen

    * Biermann & Black ~ "Hasta Siempre Comandante Che Guevara" mp3

    * Bill Laswell ~ "Commander Guevara" mp3

    * Carlos Puebla ~ "Hasta Siempre Comandante Che Guevara" video

    * Chicos Nuevos ~ "Che Guevara Rap Cubano" official video

    * Elena Burke ~ "Cancion del Guerrillero Heroico" mp3

    * Jorge Drexler ~ "Al otro lado del río" = "On the other side of the river" (received the Academy Award for Best Original Song of 2004) Video --- Performed by Antonio Banderas & Carlos Santana @ 2005 Oscars Video

    * Juan Carlos Biondini ~ "Poema al Che" listen

    * La Mona Gimenez ~ "El pueblo te ama Che Guevara" listen

    * Levellers ~ "Happy birthday revolution"

    * Nathalie Cardone ~ "Hasta Siempre Comandante" official video -&- performed live

    * Oktober Klub international ~ "Comandante Che Guevara" mp3

    * Quilapayun ~ "Cancion funebre para el Che Guevara" listen

    * Shaikh Emam ~ "Guevara Mat (Guevara has died)"

    * Silvio Rodriguez ~ "Fusil contra fusil" mp3 --- live in Chile

        "Tonada del albedrio" (Tune to Free Will)

    * Soledad Bravo ~ "Hasta Siempre Comandante Che Guevara" mp3

    * United States of America - "Love Song For The Dead Che"

    * Victor Jara ~ "Zamba del Che" listen

    * Wolf Biermann ~ "Comandante Che Guevara" listen

    "He looked a lot like Che Guevara
    Drove a diesel van
    Kept his gun in quiet seclusion
    Such a humble man."
    — David Bowie, Panic in Detroit

[edit] In books & magazines

    * Che was featured on the cover of the August 8, 1960 edition of Time Magazine, where in they declared Guevara "Castro's Brain".[38]

    * Time Magazine named Che Guevara one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th Century, while listing him in the "heroes and icons" section.[39]

    * To coincide with the 40th anniversary of his execution, "Che in Verse" reproduced 134 poems and songs from 53 countries about the enigmatic revolutionary. The book contains 19 poems by North American poets, including Allen Ginsberg, Robert Lowell, John Haines, Greg Hewett, Michael McClure and Thomas Merton. It examines how Che was celebrated or remembered from before his death to the present day.

    * In the novel I, Che Guevara by John Blackthorn (a pen name of former Senator Gary Hart), Guevara returns to Cuba under an alias during its first ever democratic election. Espousing an ideology of direct democracy and a government run exclusively via New England-style town meetings, he sponsors a professor's grassroots third party run for President of Cuba, opposing both the Communist Party and a Cuban American/White House-backed right-wing party.

    * In the manga Baki the Grappler: Son of Ogre by Keisuke Itagaki, an 'alternative universe' version of Guevara exists. This Edwardo 'Che' Guevara is a former pirate of the high seas who went on to found his own sovereign nation of 'La Serna'. His appearance is nearly identical to the real Guevara as seen in the classic photograph, and he is one of the three strongest men in the entire world.

    * In the novel "King Dork" by Frank Portman, there are many mentions of the main character, Tom Henderson wearing his "Che Guevara T-Shirt" while playing in his band.

    * In the memoir "Persepolis" by Marjane Satrapi, the main character dressed up as Che as a child and played with her friends who portrayed other revolutionaries.

    * Guevara's image is on the cover of the book The Rebel Sell.

    * The December 2008 issue of Rolling Stone Argentina features Che's well known Guerrillero Heroico image on the cover.[40]

    * Robert Arellano's 2009 novel Havana Lunar is set during the 1992 Special Period in Cuba, and tells the story of Manolo Rodríguez, a doctor who in spite of being estranged from the Communist party, idealizes their revolutionary principles and talks to a Che Guevara portrait in his home.[41]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:46:52 am
In advertising

    "There's something about that man in the photo, the Cuban revolutionary with the serious eyes, scruffy beard and dark beret. Ernesto "Che" Guevara is adored. He is loathed. Dead for nearly 40 years, he is everywhere - as much a cultural icon as James Dean or Marilyn Monroe, perhaps even more so among a new generation of admirers who've helped turn a devout Marxist into a capitalist commodity."
    — Martha Irvine, The Washington Post [42]

    * In 1970 The Italian company Olivetti utilized Che's image for an ad celebrating its creative sales force, it read "We would have hired him".[43]

    * For an advertising campaign Taco bell dressed up a chihuahua like Che Guevara and had him state: "Yo quiero Taco Bell", Spanish for: "I want Taco Bell!". Chuck Bennett, Taco Bell's advertising director when asked about the allusion to Che has stated: "We wanted a heroic leader to make it a massive taco revolution."

    * There is an "El Ché-Cola", which donates 50 % of their net profits to NGOs, and has the slogan: "Change your habits to change the world."[44]

    * In Peru you can purchase packs of El Che Cigarettes (ultra lights).[45]

    * Smirnoff vodka attempted to use the image of Che Guevara in an advertising campaign in 2000, but was stopped in court by photographer Alberto Korda who took the original iconic image.

    * Converse uses the image of Che Guevara in one of their shoe ad campaigns.

    * Ben and Jerry's has a brand of ice cream called: "Cherry Guevara", whose label states: "The revolutionary struggle of the cherries was squashed as they were trapped between two layers of chocolate. May their memory live on in your mouth." As you finish the ice cream you're left with a wooden stick with the words "We will bite to the end!"

    * A French businessman has introduced a perfume & cologne - Che Perfume by Chevignon: "Dedicated to those who want to feel and smell like revolutionaries."

    * In an advertisement for Jean Paul Gaultier sunglasses circulated in Europe in 1999, Che is painted as a Frida Kahlo-type landscape, in front of a blazing desert sun.[5]

    * Leica (which was the camera used by Alberto Korda to capture Guerrillero Heroico) has used an image of their camera with Che's red star to advertise their "revolutionary camera."

    * The offices of the Financial Times in London, features a large poster of a Che-esque Richard Branson greeting visitors in a beret, while pronouncing "We live in financial times".[46]

    * In November 2008, The Bobblehead LLC company released a limited edition of 100 Che Guevara bobbleheads. Creator and owner Rick Lynn announced that it had been a "long time dream" to create the hand painted and custom designed pieces, which will be hand signed and numbered as a collectors item.[47]

    * In December 2008, the Tartan Army began selling t-shirts with "Scotland's favorite son" Robert Burns in the mould of the iconic image of Che Guevara. The proceeds will go to organizations that assist disadvantaged and chronically ill children in countries the Tartan Army visit.[48]

    * In 2008, Romanian auto maker Dacia (a subsidiary of Renault) produced a new commercial advertising their new Logan MCV station wagon entitled "revolution.” The add utilizing actors begins with Fidel Castro arriving at a remote villa where he finds a host of other modern era revolutionaries, and ends with him standing on the back patio where Che Guevara tells Karl Marx that "it is time for another revolution", to which Marx responds "Che, it's about what people need."[49]

    * In June 2009, the granddaughter of Che, Lydia Guevara, posed semi-naked in camouflage pants, a red beret, and bandoliers of baby carrots for a shirt, in an advertisement promoting vegetarianism for the animal rights group PETA.[50] The ad/poster [51] will first debut in Che's native Argentina before going international, and asks viewers to "Join the vegetarian revolution!" PETA spokesman Michael McGraw told reporters that "it very much evokes the tag line of the ad" while adding that it was also a "homage of sorts to her late grandfather."[52]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:47:08 am
Businesses

    * There is a 'Che Café' in La Jolla California where atop the menu it reads: "The Che Café is a great place to hang out with other people who envision a better world."

    * The Russian capital of Moscow also features a 'Club Che', which is a vibrant Latin American-themed club staffed by Cuban waiters. [53]

    * The Russian city of St. Petersburg features a 'Cafe Club Che' (lounge, bar, & jazz club) where patrons can get their hands on a shot of Cuban rum and a fine Cuban cigar at the drop of a military beret. [54]

    * Cairo, Egypt features a "Che Guevara" themed nightclub, where the waiters dress in uniformed black berets.[43]

    * The Slovenian capital Ljubljana contains a 'Che Bar', where images of the man decorate every wall and surface.[55]

    * Manchester, England features a Latin American themed bar called: 'Che'.

    * Dallas, Texas, features a "Club Che" which is both a nightclub and restaurant.

    * Blackpool, England features a new Cuban themed club called 'Che Bar'.

    * San Diego, California features 'Che Cafe' on the UCSD campus.

    * Tucson, Arizona features 'Che's Lounge' on Fourth Avenue.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:47:29 am
In fashion

    "I don't want people to use my father's face unthinkingly. I don't like to see him stitched on the backside of a pair of mass-produced jeans. But look at the people who wear Che T-shirts. They tend to be those who don't conform, who want more from society, who are wondering if they can be better human beings. That, I think he would have liked."
    — Aleida Guevara, daughter of Che Guevara [56]

    * Actor Johnny Depp wears a pendant of Che Guevara around his neck, as can be seen on the February 2005 cover of Rolling Stone Magazine.

    * Supermodel Gisele Bündchen donned a bikini adorned with Che Guevara's image for the São Paulo fashion week in July 2002.

    * Prince Harry was spotted in July 2006 adorning a Che Guevara t-shirt, leading London tabloids to proclaim him "Havana Henry".

    * Rapper Jay-Z, who raps in one of his songs "I'm like Che Guevara with bling on", commonly is seen wearing a Che Guevara T-shirt.

    * Model/actress Elizabeth Hurley was spotted in 2004 clubbing in London with a $4,500 Che-embroidered Louis Vuitton handbag.[57]

    * Burlington Coat Factory ran a television ad called "Values" featuring a teenager in a Guevara shirt. Later they removed the ad after protest by conservative Cuban-American exiles.

    * A store called La La Ling in Los Angeles sells a Che Guevara shirt for babies — actually, a "onesie." The ad text is as follows: "Now even the smallest rebel can express himself in these awesome baby one-sies. This classic Che Guevara icon is also available on a long-sleeve tee in kids' sizes ... Long live the rebel in all of us ... there's no cooler iconic image than Che!"

    * In 2004 the New York Public Library's gift shop featured a Che Guevara watch. The ad for the watch stated: "Revolution is a permanent state with this clever watch, featuring the classic romantic image of Che Guevara, around which the word 'revolution'-revolves."

    * During the October 7, 2002, Vanity Fair photo shoot of the Osbourne family by Annie Leibovitz, son Jack Osbourne is wearing a Che Guevara t-shirt.

    * The Onion offers a satirical shirt with Che Guevara himself wearing a Che Guevara shirt. The accompanying sardonic advertisement refers to the "iconic" image as "scarcely seen" since the days when Guevara "freed thousands from the restrictive yoke of T-shirt selection."[58]



Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:47:50 am
In art

    "Possibly more than the Mona Lisa, more than images of Christ, more than comparable icons such as The Beatles or Monroe, Che's image has continued to hold the imagination of generation after generation."
    — Hannah Charlton, The Sunday Times [59]

    * British pop artist Sir Peter Blake has referred to Guerrillero Heroico as "one of the great icons of the 20th century."[60]

    * Irish artist Jim Fitzpatrick converted Korda's picture into a high contrast stylized drawing, which since has become iconic and is frequently seen in silkscreen or stencil art.

    * The Cuban Ministry for the Interior building features a large, stylised outline of Che's face above the phrase "Hasta la Victoria Siempre" (English): "Until the Everlasting Victory Always".

    * In 2005 an exhibition examining the Korda portrait entitled Revolution & Commerce: The Legacy of Korda's Portrait of Che Guevara, was organized by Jonathan Green and Trisha Ziff for UCR/California Museum of Photography. This exhibition has traveled to International Center of Photography, New York; Centro de la Imagen, Mexico City; and the Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

    * The cover of the January 1972 edition of National Lampoon magazine features a parody of the Alberto Korda's iconic photo in which Che is hit in the face with a cream pie.

    * Rage Against the Machine's 1992 debut single, Bombtrack, uses Che's image on its cover.

    * A parody of the famous Che Guevara poster was used on the cover of the March 2008 edition of MAD Magazine, with Alfred E. Neuman's head replacing Guevara's.

    * Manhattans International Center of Photography held a 2006 exhibit entitled: "Che ! Revolution and Commerce."

    * The Montreal Museum of Fine Art used Guevara's image to advertise their 2004 expose entitled Global Village: The 1960s.[43]

    * In October 2007, the Frieze Art Fair unveiled a life size bronze statue by Christian Jankowski in London's Regent's Park.[61] The piece, which in 2008 was also displayed in New York City's Central Park,[62] portrays a well known Barcelona street performer [63] dressed as Che Guevara.

    * In January 2009, artist Juan Vazquez Martin, who fought alongside Che Guevara during the Cuban Revolution, held an exhibition with 13 of his paintings in Derry, Northern Ireland. The Guevara inspired works were shown as part of the Bloody Sunday commemoration weekend. Martin stated that he was "emotional" and "inspired" during his visit, upon seeing a mural celebrating Che Guevara's Irish connection to the Bogside.[64]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:48:06 am
Body art

    * Argentine football legend Diego Maradona, has a tattoo portrait of Che Guevara on his right arm.

    * Former Heavy Weight Boxing champion Mike Tyson who has a tattoo of Che Guevara on his rib, in 2003 described Che as "An incredible individual. He had so much, but sacrificed it all for the benefit of other people." [65]

    * Veteran English professional footballer Darren Currie has a large tattoo on the left side of his stomach of Che Guevara. When asked about the motivation for the piece, Currie stated that he had been reading Che's book since he was 14, and that he "admired the way he went out of his way about things."[66]

    * Argentine Juan Sebastian Veron, the 2008 South American Footballer of the Year, has a tattoo of Che's face on his shoulder. When his S.S. Lazio won the 1999 Serie A championship, some of the teams Italian fans who initially didn't like the tattoo, came into the dressing room and kissed it.[67]

    * Italian footballer Fabrizio Miccoli who plays striker for Palermo, has a large Che Guevara tattoo on his left calf.[68] As a result, the teams fans unveiled a large stadium sized banner, bearing the image of Che along with the hammer and sickle.[69]

    * Swedish Olympic boxer Kwamena Turkson has the image of Che Guevara tattooed on his arm.[21]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:48:46 am
In theater

Musicals/plays


    * In the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical, Evita, the narrator and main protagonist is a revolutionary based on Che Guevara. Though never referred to by his name "Che" in the musical itself, the character is identified as "Che" in the libretto, and in the title of one song "The Waltz for Eva and Che", wherein he cynically tells the story of Eva Perón, and the two finally confront one another during the Waltz.

    * Hispanic-American Marcelino Quiñonez wrote and performed a 2007 play entitled El Che, about the revolutionary. The Spanish language drama portrays the human side of Guevara as a father and friend, and debuted in 2009 as part of Phoenix, Arizona's Teatro Bravo series.[70]

    * José Rivera wrote and performed a play entitled School of the Americas which focuses on Che's last few hours alive. The play starring John Ortiz as Che, imagines Che's final conversations, mainly with a young and fairly naive female schoolteacher, in the one-room village schoolhouse where he is imprisoned before his execution. The play was featured in New York City 2006-2007 and later San Francisco 2008.[71]

Other plays featuring a Che Guevara character include:

        * Guerrillas, by Rolf Hochhuth, Production: 1970

        * Che Guevara, Written by Zhang Guangtian, Productions: 2007 Beijing China, 2008 China Art Institute. [72]



Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:49:00 am
Comedy

    * American comedian Margaret Cho, on the cover of her stand-up act Revolution (2003) combines her face into an obvious appropriation of Che Guevara's famous graphic-portrait.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:49:18 am
In games

    "Rebels and activists the world over still take inspiration from Guevara. But the image has lost something; Che's face on a poster in 1968 isn't quite the same thing as it is on a mousepad 40 years later. Perhaps it is precisely that loss -- the shedding of Che's radicalism and ideological rigor -- that renders him so supremely marketable today."
    — Ben Ehrenreich, Los Angeles Times [73]

    * His exploits during the Cuban Revolution were very loosely dramatized in the 1987 video game Guevara, released by SNK in Japan and "converted" into Guerrilla War for Western audiences, removing all references to Guevara but keeping all the visuals and a game map that clearly resembles Cuba. As a result of its rarity, original copies of the "Guevara" edition of the Japanese Famicom edition go for high amounts on the collectors' market.

    * The 2001 construction and management simulation computer game Tropico allows players to govern a tropical island while amidst a theme similar to that of Cuba after the Cuban revolution. Players may either design their own "El Presidente" character or select one from a list of pre-made historical figures, one of which is Che Guevara.[74]

    * The box art for Just Cause, (the 2006 videogame for PC, Xbox, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 2) imitates the famous photograph of Che Guevara taken by Alberto Korda. The main character in the game of Rico Rodriguez is also based on CIA agent Félix Rodríguez, whom was present for Che Guevara's capture and eventual execution in Bolivia.

    * On November 16, 2008, a new world record for the number of dominoes toppled in one turn was set in the Netherlands. The 4,345,027 falling dominoes tumbled for two hours and along with other images, revealed a portrait of Che Guevara.[75]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:49:50 am
In tourism

    "With the recent and euphoric globalization, the image of Che prevails as an activist icon amongst many in the Western World. Within the indigenous Zapatistas in Chiapas, the image of Che blends in with that of Christ, Virgin Mary, truck drivers, vendettas, taggers, commercialists, popular musicians, and gangsters of Mexico and other countries. These people wear him as an accent on their clothing and stickers on their vehicles, as if the image still maintained its primitive innocence."
    — Rogelio Villarreal, editor-in-chief of Replicante Magazine [76]

    * Bolivia features a 'Che Guevara Trail' which is overseen by Care Bolivia and the Bolivian Ministry of Tourism. The trail leads by road from the Bolivian city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, via the Inca site of Samaipata, onto the villages of Vallegrande and La Higuera (the 'holy grail' for Che pilgrims). The tour allows visitors to travel just as Che and his comrades did — by mule or on foot through rocky forested terrain — or in four-wheel-drive vehicles along unpaved roads. The trail visits places of historical interest including the site of Che's guerrilla camp, the school where after 11 months as a guerrilla he was captured and killed, and his former grave. Visitors also are able to meet local people who met or traveled with Guevara.

    * Cuba also offers a `14 day "Che Guevara Tour", (organized in collaboration with the Ernesto Che Guevara center in Havana) - which allows travelers to follow the historical footsteps of Che Guevara in his guerrilla struggle to oust Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista.

    * Journey Latin America, offers a three-week escorted Motorcycle Diaries tour from Buenos Aires to Lima. The company also offers tailor-made trips to any of the locations along the Guevara-Granado route.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:50:20 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3b/Ernesto_Guevara_Lynch_Mural.JPG/737px-Ernesto_Guevara_Lynch_Mural.JPG)

Wall mural in Bogside in Derry, Northern Ireland


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:50:54 am
Monuments & memorials


    "Guevara is everywhere. He is being reborn. And nowadays, he has won. You will see."
    — Eladio Gonzalez, Che memorabilia store owner in Buenos Aires [77]


    * An average of about 800 international visitors each day make the trek to Che Guevara's mausoleum in Santa Clara, Cuba. The site which contains a 22 foot tall bronze statue of Guevara, also includes his remains, a museum of his exploits, and a eternal flame in honor of his memory.[78]

    * In Venezuela, along the Andean mountain highway near the city of Merida, an 8 foot glass plate bearing Guevara's image is erected near the top of El Aguila Peak. Guevara visited the spot in 1952 during his travels through South America, which he recorded in his diary.[79]

    * Rosario, Argentina, the city of his birth, features a Ernesto "Che" Guevara plaza. The centerpiece is a 13 foot bronze "Monument to Che" statue of Guevara, cast from thousands of donated and melted-down keys.[80]

    * The Bolivian town of La Higuera (where Che was executed) hosts a statue of Guevara [81] as does the bus terminal in El Alto, Bolivia, which features a 23 foot scrap metal sculpture of his likeness.[82]

    * The Jintai Museum park in Beijing, China (Where Guevara visited Chairman Mao in 1960), is home to a sculpted bust of Che, designed by Chinese artist Yuan Xikun.[83]

    * A park along the Danube river in Vienna, Austria, features a 28 inch bronze bust of a bearded Che in his "trademark" beret. At the 2008 unvieling, the city's Social Democratic mayor Michael Haeupl proclaimed the statue "a symbol of Vienna's intention to eradicate poverty."[84]

    * In the autonomous community of Oleiros, Galicia, a ten meter high outline of Guevara's face was constructed by Cuban artist Juan Quintani. The mayor of Oleiros, Angel García Seoane, promoted the 2008 project to "honor Che and all the revolutionaries of the world."[85]

    * In 2009, the South African city of Durban, renamed Moore Road (in honor of colonial era British General Sir John Moore) to Che Guevara Road, in the revolutionary's honor.[86] This was followed by a statue[87] of Guevara being added to the gallery of "liberation struggle heroes" at Pretoria's Freedom Park.[88]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:51:17 am
In politics

Political imagery


    "The guy's face is shorthand for 'I'm against the status quo.' He's politics' answer to James Dean, a rebel with a very specific cause."
    — David Segal, The Washington Post [89]

    * In February 2008, a minor internet-based "controversy" emerged when a local news report in Houston, Texas, featured the independently funded office of Cuban-American Maria Isabel, a volunteer staffer for the then Barack Obama presidential campaign.[90] Some conservatives and Obama political opponents were angered when the clip portrayed that Isabel had used a large Cuban flag superimposed with the image of Che Guevara to decorate her office.[91] For his part, Obama addressed the issue and called the flag's presence "inappropriate."[92]

    * In July 2008, Colombian secret agents posing as leftist rebels were able to rescue Ingrid Betancourt and 15 other hostages held by FARC guerrillas. Part of the ruse involved the agents posing as fellow rebels by wearing Che Guevara t-shirts (considered a heroic figure by the Marxist inspired insurgents).[93]

    * During a November 2008 interview with Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda, he disclosed that a band of his rebels refer to themselves as the "Group of Che" and insist on wearing Che Guevara t-shirts as their uniform.[94]

    * Street artist Shepard Fairey, has stated that when he designed the two-tone red and blue stylized portrait of then presidential candidate Barack Obama, his "inspiration" was Alberto Korda's portrait of Che Guevara.[95]

    * In April 2009, Poland's equality minister, Elzbieta Radziszewska, proposed an amendment to the present Polish law prohibiting the production of "fascist" and "totalitarian propaganda". However, critics of the addition worry that it could extend to punish those wearing the popular Che Guevara t-shirts or CCCP (USSR) jackets. If passed, many of Communism's leading figures (and thus presumably Che) would have their images outlawed for public use, with those guilty facing a two-year prison sentence.[96


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:51:35 am
Political praise

    "Despite the spectacularization of the image of Che, what remains compelling are the many instances worldwide which the photograph persists as a rallying point for political struggles. To articulate resistance, to define local rebellions, to announce solidarity with others, activist artists will undoubtedly continue to remake, reclaim and recontextualize Korda's photograph."
    — Brian Wallis, International Center of Photography [97]

    * Cuban school children begin every day of class with a salute and pledge of: "We will be like Che!"[98]

    * Former South African President Nelson Mandela in 1991 on a visit to Havana declared that: "Che's life is an inspiration for every human being who loves freedom. We will always honor his memory."[99]

    * American civil rights activist Jesse Jackson, in a 1984 visit to the University of Havana declared: "Long live our cry of freedom. Long Live Che!"[100]

    * One week before his own assassination on October 15, 1987, in a speech marking the 20th anniversary of Guevara's execution, Burkina Faso's revolutionary leader Thomas Sankara (himself coined "Africa's Che")[101] declared: "ideas cannot be killed, ideas never die."[102]

    * Former Cuban President Fidel Castro (who fought alongside Che during the Cuban revolution) has proclaimed that Guevara was "a flower prematurely cut from its stem" who "sowed the seeds of social conscience in Latin America and the world."[103] Castro has also remarked that Che's "luminous gaze of a prophet has become a symbol for all the poor"[104] and that "today he is in every place, wherever there is a just cause to defend."[105]

    * Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez has performed several symbolic acts of solidarity with Guevara, which include wearing a red Che t-shirt to the 2005 World Social Forum,[106] laying a wreath in remembrance of the 40th anniversary of his death at his Mausoleum, naming a state-funded adult education programme "Mission Che Guevara", and granting doctors of the Venezuelan public health system a 60 percent pay raise in "honor of Che" who was a physician.[107]

    * After winning President of Bolivia in 2006, Evo Morales installed a portrait of Che Guevara made from coca leaves in the presidential palace.[108] At a ceremony the following year marking the 40th anniversary of his execution, Morales declared "the ideals and actions of Commander Ernesto Guevara are examples for those who defend equality and justice. We are humanists and followers of the example of Guevara."[109]

    * In October of 2007, Irish Republicans in Derry, Northern Ireland and Sinn Fein organized a weekend celebration on the "life and legacy" of Irish-Argentine Che Guevara. The weekend featured numerous events including a meeting on freeing the "Cuban Five" and a youth discussion in Pilots Row, while concluding with the unveiling of a new Che Guevara mural in the Bogside.[110]

    * On 9 November 2007, the British House of Commons held an early day motion proposed by John McDonnell and signed by 27 other Members of Parliament which read: "This House notes that 9th October marks the 40th anniversary of the murder of Ernesto Che Guevara in Bolivia; further notes the inspiration that Che Guevara has brought to national liberation movements and millions of socialists around the world; and believes that the sustained social gains of the Cuban revolution and the government of Evo Morales in Bolivia are fitting tributes to his legacy." [111]

    * After attending a private screening of Steven Soderbergh's 2008 biopic Che, British politician George Galloway professed that "no one could be more alive - his image, his example, his spirit, is abroad in every struggle throughout the world." Galloway ended his praise by stating that "Guevara radiates out from the photos a goodness, with the power to move millions forever."[112]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:51:58 am
In everything else

    Gael García Bernal (played Che in The Motorcycle Diaries): "How would Ernesto feel about having his face all over the world on a T-shirt?"
    Alberto Granado (travel mate of Che who accompanied him): "Well, knowing him, I think he wouldn't mind, especially if it was a girl." [113]

    * On May 15, 1960, Che Guevara competed against acclaimed author Ernest Hemingway at the "Hemingway Fishing Contest" in Havana, Cuba. The winner of the competition however was fellow boat mate Fidel Castro.[114]

    * In October 2007, former Central Intelligence Agency operative Gustavo Villoldo, auctioned off a lock of Che Guevara's hair for $ 119,500 to Bill Butler. The purchaser describes Guevara as "one of the greatest revolutionaries of the 20th century", and thus intends to display the 3-inch tress in his Butler & Sons books store in Rosenberg, Texas.[115]

    * On December 14, 2008, Iraqi journalist Muntadhar al-Zeidi threw both of his shoes at President George W. Bush, as an "act of defiance" during a Baghdad press conference. When reporters visited his one-bedroom apartment in west Baghdad, they found the home decorated with a poster Che Guevara, who according to The Associated Press "is widely lionized in the Middle East."[116]

    * Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf owns a German Shepherd dog named "Che", in honor of the revolutionary.[117]

    * At the 2009 Groundhog Day celebrations, the groundhog "Staten Island Chuck" bit the finger of New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg. As a result, Brooklyn entrepreneur Devery Doleman began selling shirts showing Chuck "revolting against the plutocrat mayor", while donning a Che Guevara beret. Creator Doleman, proclaimed the bite an obvious metaphor, while decreeing "Bloomberg cares only about rich people. He's the Marie Antoinette of mayors."[118]

    * In protest of losing Shea stadium for the newly built Citi field, two New York Mets fans Dave Croatto and Ryan Flanders, created "Viva Shea" t-shirts. The phonetic word play inspired shirt features Che Guevara in blue over an orange background (Met's colors) and perched atop Guevara's head is a NY Mets baseball hat.[119]

    * In April of 2009, Raymond Scott a 52 year old British book dealer accused of stealing the 1623 first edition of William Shakespeare's works from Durham University in 1998, arrived in the Consett Magistrates' Court dressed as Che Guevara.[120] His attire to face the charge of stealing the $ 4.5 million dollar book, also included two air guns and a Cuban flag.[121]

    * The University of Texas offers a course entitled "Che Guevara's Latin America", in which students read two of Guevara's travel diaries and his memoir of the Cuban revolutionary war. The aim of the course is to have students analyze the "sudden revival of Che's image in pop culture throughout the world", study Che's own personal observations, and survey class relations in those countries mentioned in Che's memoirs (Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Guatemala, and Mexico).[122]

    * As an act of international solidarity, Cuba dispersed a group of medical doctors to the nation of Nicaragua in 2007. By the start of 2009, the unit titled the "Ernesto Che Guevara Brigade", were credited with treating 1,764,000 people, saving 363 lives, and operating on 3,893 patients.[123] There is also a Cuban supplied and staffed "Che Guevara Medical Brigade" serving in Haiti, composed of 575 doctors and health professionals.[124]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:52:18 am
Criticism

There are those, both supporters and detractors that object to the mass dissemination of Che's image in popular and counter-culture. His detractors dislike the widespread pictorial dissemination of someone they deem to be a "murderer" but also delight in the contradiction and/or irony of a Marxist being utilized as a Capitalist commodity. Conversely, some Che supporters object to the commodification or diminishing of his image by its use in popular culture, and resent those entrepreneurial companies who profit from and/or exploit his legacy; viewing such marketing as an obvious conflict to Guevara's personal ideology.

Regardless of the varying sentiments, Jonathan Green director of the UCR/Museum of Photography believes that there is no escaping the phenomenological influence of Che's symbolism, remarking that "we cannot get away from the context of Che Guevara, whether we like him or hate him, whether we called him a revolutionary or a butcher. The fact that he lived and died for the ideas in which he believed, penetrates constantly in the image."[125]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:52:34 am
From an anti-Che perspective

    "The cult of Ernesto Che Guevara is an episode in the moral callousness of our time. Che was a totalitarian. He achieved nothing but disaster ... The present-day cult of Che - the t-shirts, the bars, the posters — has succeeded in obscuring this dreadful reality."
    — Paul Berman, Slate Magazine [126]

Mexican author Rogelio Villareal has noted how "the famous image is not venerated by all ... it has also been aged, laughed about, parodied, insulted, and distorted around the world."[127] Conservative Mark Falcoff has remarked that Guevara is "a cultural icon" not because of "his example for poor countries" but as a result of "his capacity to provoke empathy among the spoiled youth of the affluent West."[128] Historian Robert Conquest, of the Hoover Institution, has referred to such "empathy" and adulation among the young, as the "unfortunate affliction" of "adolescent revolutionary romanticism."[60] Sean O'Hagan of The Observer contends that the appeal to such empathy is one of superficiality, remarking that "if Che hadn't been born so good-looking, he wouldn't be a mythical revolutionary."[60] In the view of Ana Menéndez, author of the fictional novel Loving Che, the fascination with Che is not with the man, but the photograph.[129] While herself acknowledging him as a "great idealist", Menéndez believes there is a "fallibility of memory", which leads many to "gloss over the fact that he was also a brutal man, the head of a firing squad in the opening days of the revolution."[129] Menéndez theorizes that such unsavory aspects are glossed over in the way one glosses over someone's flaws when in love.[129] Jazz musician Paquito D'Rivera, himself a Cuban exile who fled the island after a run in with Guevara, has criticized the positive portrayal of Che by musicians such as Santana, by noting the strict censorship of music at the time deemed "immoral" and "imperialist" by the Cuban government.[130] In deference to such contradictions, Patrick Symmes, author of Chasing Che: A Motorcycle Journey in Search of the Guevara Legend, has hypothesized that "the more time goes by, the chicer and chicer Che gets because the less he stands for anything."[131] Barcelona museum director Ivan de la Nuez, in the 2008 documentary "Chevolution" describes the overall phenomena by observing that "Capitalism devours everything - even its worst enemies."[132]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:52:50 am
From a pro-Che perspective

    "During the lifetime of great revolutionaries, the oppressing classes constantly hounded them, received their theories with the most savage malice, the most furious hatred and the most unscrupulous campaigns of lies and slander. After their death, attempts are made to convert them into harmless icons, to canonize them, so to say, and to hallow their names to a certain extent for the “consolation” of the oppressed classes and with the object of duping the latter, while at the same time robbing the revolutionary theory of its substance, blunting its revolutionary edge and vulgarizing it."
    — Vladimir Lenin, The State and Revolution [133]

Duke Latin American studies professor Ariel Dorfman hypothesizes that Che's been "comfortably transmogrified into a symbol of rebellion" precisely because those in power no longer believe him to be dangerous.[134] However, Dorfman suspects the attempt to subvert Che could backfire, positing that 3 billion people now live on less than $2 a day and thus "the powerful of the earth should take heed: deep inside that T shirt where we have tried to trap him, the eyes of Che Guevara are still burning with impatience."[134] Expressing a similar sentiment, director Jonathan Green acknowledges that "Che is turning over in his grave" because of the commercialization; however in Green's view, Che's visage also has the potential to be a "Trojan horse" of capitalist marketing, by embedding itself into pop iconography. In his example, corporations in their desperate drive to sell goods, create the opportunity for observers to see the "logo" and ask "who was that guy?"[125] Trisha Ziff, curator of Che! Revolution and Commerce believes that regardless of the "postmodern" diffusion, you can't disassociate Che from "radical ideas and change", nor can one control it. In Ziff's view, despite the endless array of merchandising, the symbol of Che will continue to be worn and have resonance.[125] Critical pedagogical theorist Peter McLaren theorizes that American capitalism is responsible for the Che phenomenon, stating that "the United States has a seductive way of incorporating anything that it can’t defeat and transforming that 'thing' into a weaker version of itself, much like the process of diluting the strength and efficacy of a virus through the creation of a vaccine."[135] Author Susan Sontag spoke of the potential positive ramifications of utilizing Che as a symbol, positing:

    "I don’t disdain the impact of Che as a romantic image, especially among newly radicalized youth in the United States and Western Europe; if the glamour of Che’s person, the heroism of his life, and the pathos of his death, are useful to young people in strengthening their disaffiliation from the life-style of American imperialism and in advancing the development of a revolutionary consciousness, so much the better."[136]


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:53:11 am
References

   1. ^ Brand Che: Revolutionary as Marketer’s Dream by Michiko Kakutani, The New York Times, April 20 2009
   2. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 81
   3. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 8
   4. ^ Chasing Che: A Motorcycle Journey in Search of the Guevara Legend, by Patrick Symmes, Vintage, 2000.
   5. ^ a b c "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 11
   6. ^ Tribeca Review: Chevolution by Joel Keller, April 27, 2008.
   7. ^ a b "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 12
   8. ^ Official Website of "Personal Che" directed by Adriana Mariño & Douglas Duarte
   9. ^ a b "In Bolivia, Push for Che Tourism Follows Locals' Reverence by Kevin Hall, August 17, 2004, Knight-Ridder
  10. ^ a b c d e f "The final triumph of Saint Che" by Andres Schipani, September 23, 2007, The Observer
  11. ^ Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, by Jon Lee Anderson, 1997, New York: Grove Press, pg 742
  12. ^ Just A Pretty Face? by Sean O'Hagan, The Observer, July 11, 2004
  13. ^ "The spirit of Che Guevara" by I F Stone, 20 October 1967 (published 20 September 2007), The New Statesman
  14. ^ "Régis Debray Speaks from Prison", by Marlene Nadle, Ramparts Magazine, August 24, 1968, pg 40
  15. ^ a b "International Commemorations Mark Thirty Year Anniversary of Ernesto "Che" Guevara's Death" October 17, 1997, Volume 7 / Number 37, Latin American Institute
  16. ^ "International 5th International Film Festival of Human Rights". Festivalcinebolivia.org. http://www.festivalcinebolivia.org/3thFestival.htm. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  17. ^ "On a tourist trail in Bolivia's hills, Che's fame lives on" By Hector Tobar, October 17, 2004, Los Angeles Times
  18. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 90
  19. ^ ""Jesus ad campaign"". BBC News. 1999-01-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/250752.stm. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  20. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 87
  21. ^ a b Che Guevara: Guerrilla Heroica by Jane Franklin, The Nation, May 19 1997
  22. ^ a b Benicio del Toro sees Shades of Jesus in Che Guevara Yahoo India, December 20, 2008
  23. ^ "Che Trippers" by Lawrence Osborne, The New York Observer, June 15, 2003
  24. ^ Hunter S Thompson: The Movie by Alex Gibney, The Sunday Times, December 14, 2008
  25. ^ Why Che Guevara's Image is Still a Bestseller The Independent, January 5 2009
  26. ^ Rajat Looking for Che Indian Info, February 12 2009
  27. ^ Interview with James Benning on California Trilogy March 17, 2002
  28. ^ Films on Photography, pg 4
  29. ^ Skins bad boy Cooks up Storm by Keeley Bolger, The Sun
  30. ^ VIDEO: Benicio Del Toro talks about meeting Castro to prepare for "Che" on The Colbert Report
  31. ^ Goode Family Clip: Che The Vegan Dog Has A Dark Side
  32. ^ Folk legend Jody Collins hits the road with new songs and old favorites by John Soeder, Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 24 2009
  33. ^ Madonna Interview on Top Of The Pops - 6:47-7:25
  34. ^ Successful Evening Commemorates 40th Anniversary of the Death of Ché Guevara
  35. ^ Brazilian Rock Band Sepultura Pays Tribute to Che Guevara by Nelson García Santos, July 26, 2008
  36. ^ Cuba's Silvio Rodriguez Dedicates Song to 'Che' AP, July 23 2009
  37. ^ Interview With Tom Morello by Charles M. Young
  38. ^ Castro's Brain Time Magazine, August 8, 1960
  39. ^ Dorfman, Ariel. "Time 100: Che Guevara". Time.com. http://www.time.com/time/time100/heroes/profile/guevara01.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  40. ^ "December 2008 Rolling Stone Magazine Cover". http://i23.ebayimg.com/01/i/001/24/23/b2fe_1.JPG. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  41. ^ El Período Especial Revisited in Two Novels by Carlos Rodríguez Martorell, New York Daily News, April 10 2009
  42. ^ 'Che' Guevara's Iconic Image Endures by Martha Irvine, The Washington Post, September 23, 2006
  43. ^ a b c Ernesto Goes to the Movies by J. Hoberman, The American Prospect, September 19, 2004
  44. ^ (Company's website)[dead link]
  45. ^ El Che Cigarettes[dead link]
  46. ^ In various shades of Che by Peter Aspden, Financial Times, December 13, 2008
  47. ^ The Bobblehead, LLC Releases its’ Che Guevara Bobblehead Collection Press Release, November 25, 2008
  48. ^ Army Backs Burns to Raise Cash Evening Times, December 1, 2008
  49. ^ [ http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2008/fidel-castro-in-dacia-revolucion/ "Revolution": The New Dacia Logan MCV Commercial]
  50. ^ Che Guevara's Granddaughter to Appear in PETA Campaign, The Telegraph, June 18 2009
  51. ^ Lydia Guevara's PETA Campaign Poster to Join the Veggie Revolution
  52. ^ Guevara's Granddaughter to Appear in PETA Campaign Associated Press, June 18 2009
  53. ^ ""Info"". Globosapiens.net. http://www.globosapiens.net/moscow-travel-tip/club-che-3868.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  54. ^ ""Site"". St Petersburg Life. 2007-10-11. http://www.st-petersburg-life.com/drink/pubs_cafes_details/16-Cafe_Club_Che. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  55. ^ Che Guevara in popular culture by Fiona Thompson
  56. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 122
  57. ^ Handbags of the Apocalypse by Alexander Boldizar, C-Arts Magazine, September 4 2008
  58. ^ Che Wearing Che T-shirt T-shirt from The Onion
  59. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 7
  60. ^ a b c Just a Pretty Face? by Sean O'Hagan, The Observer, July 11, 2004
  61. ^ September 17, 2007 Press Release
  62. ^ Central Park Statue[dead link]
  63. ^ "Image of the Barcelona Street Performer". http://i.pbase.com/u46/nicksie/large/29954829.IMG_8613.wjpg.jpg. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  64. ^ Artist who Fought with Che Guevara Holds Exhibit in Derry Derry Journal, January 30 2009
  65. ^ Che Trippers The New York Observer, by Lawrence Osborne, June 15, 2003
  66. ^ Albion star has more tattoos than Becks The Argus, November 25 2004
  67. ^ Veron: I've made my own History FIFA, February 2 2009
  68. ^ Palermo 1 - 0 Livorno, Bad Day at The Barbera by Marco Stucazzo, February 2 2008
  69. ^ Banner for footballer Fabrizio Miccoli of Palermo
  70. ^ 'El Che' Playwright Shares Guervara's Passion by Tatiana Hensley, The Arizona Republic, January 14 2009
  71. ^ Diction and Contradiction by Michael Feingold, Village Voice, July 4 2006
  72. ^ "Article". App1.chinadaily.com.cn. 2001-03-08. http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2001/0308/wh26-1.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  73. ^ Capitalizing on Che Guevara's image by Ben Ehrenreich, LA Times, June 1 2008
  74. ^ Haemont Games to release Tropico 3 by Dave Webb, West Palm Beach Examiner, July 14 2009
  75. ^ New Domino Toppling Record Set 3News, November 16, 2008 ---> Video
  76. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 70
  77. ^ Che's Spirit Burns on in Latin America by Daniel Schweimler, BBC News, January 3 2009
  78. ^ "Santa Clara's Che Guevara Memorial and Museum". Hellocuba.ca. http://www.hellocuba.ca/itineraries/310Che_Memorial.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  79. ^ Guevara Monument in Venezuela Destroyed Associated Press, October 19, 2007
  80. ^ Argentina Recognizing Che at Last Reuters, June 15, 2008
  81. ^ "Reuters Pictures: Che Statue". Daylife. http://www.daylife.com/photo/09rKgc7fQEgUQ. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  82. ^ "AP Photo by Dado Galdieri". Daylife. http://www.daylife.com/photo/049Mb1b3Ep5ai. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
  83. ^ Beijing Unveils Che Guevara Bust Prensa Latina, January 18, 2008
  84. ^ Amid protests, City of Vienna Unveils Che Guevara Monument October 9, 2007
  85. ^ Honoring Che Guevara: a Statue in Oleiros Galicia
  86. ^ Old and New Street Names in the Ethekwini Municipal Area
  87. ^ A Statue of Che Guevara in South Africa Ahore, March 30 2009
  88. ^ Trust Honours Struggle Heroes News 24, March 18 2009
  89. ^ "The Che Cachet" by David Segal, Washington Post, February 7, 2006
  90. ^ Texas Primary Crucial for Democratic Presidential Hopefuls My Fox Houston, February 6, 2008
  91. ^ Che-bama? by Nick Gillespie, Reason Magazine, February 12, 2008
  92. ^ Che Guevara Flag In Obama Campaign Office Causes Controversy NBC6 News, February 13, 2008
  93. ^ Rescue Hinged on Fake 'International Mission' CNN, July 3, 2008
  94. ^ Encounter With A Rebel Leader by David McDougall, CBC News, November 17, 2008
  95. ^ 'Obey' Street Artist Churns Out 'Hope' for Obama by Jenna Wortham, September 21, 2008
  96. ^ Wear a Che T-shirt, Go to Jail Krakow Post, April 30 2009
  97. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 30-31
  98. ^ A Revolutionary Afterlife New York Times, October 8, 2007
  99. ^ quoted in the trailer for the film Motorcyle Diaries (2004)
 100. ^ Fidel Castro, the First Superdelegate by Greg Grandin, Baltimore Chronicle, March 6, 2008
 101. ^ Burkina Faso Salutes "Africa's Che" Thomas Sankara by Mathieu Bonkoungou, Reuters, October 17, 2008
 102. ^ Sankara 20 years Later: A Tribute to Integrity by Demba Moussa Dembélé, Pambazuka News, October 15, 2008
 103. ^ Cuba Remembers Che Guevara 40 Years After his Fall by Rosa Tania Valdes, Reuters, October 8, 2007
 104. ^ Cuba Salutes 'Che' Guevara CNN, October 17, 1997
 105. ^ Che Remembered 40 Years After Death by Alvaro Suazo, The Washington Post, October 6, 2007
 106. ^ Hugo Chavez Gets Hero's Welcome at Forum The Associated Press, January 31, 2005
 107. ^ Chavez, Honoring Che, Gives Venezuela Doctors 60 Percent Raise by Matthew Walter, Bloomberg, October 9, 2007
 108. ^ "Image: Che coca portrait with President Morales". http://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/0c0V85f1nIeH8/610x.jpg. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
 109. ^ Evo Morales Praises Example of Ernesto Che Guevara ACN, October 9, 2007
 110. ^ Che Remembered 40 Years on in Derry Ógra Shinn Fein, October 17 2007
 111. ^ "Early Day Motion 2041: 40th Anniversary of the Death of Che Guevara". Edmi.parliament.uk. 2007-04-17. http://edmi.parliament.uk/EDMi/EDMDetails.aspx?EDMID=33914&SESSION=885. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
 112. ^ Che Spirit Lives On by George Galloway, Daily Record, December 22 2008
 113. ^ Sympathy for the Rebel by Jessica Winter, Village Voice, September 28 2004
 114. ^ The 2007 Hemingway Fishing Tournament Steve Gibbs
 115. ^ Lock of Che Guevara's Hair Sells for $100,000 AP, October 26, 2007
 116. ^ Family: Shoe Thrower Hates Both US, Iran Role by Robert H. Reid, Associated Press, December 16, 2008
 117. ^ Musharraf and a Dog Named Che by Amit Baruah, Hindustan Times, March 2 2009
 118. ^ Bite Lands Staten Island Chuck's Mug on Shirt Staten Island Advance, February 5 2009
 119. ^ Viva Shea': Mets' Old Home Lives in Fan's Heart by Daniel Howley, Independent, April 16 2009
 120. ^ Man dressed as Che Guevara for court Market Watch, April 15 2009
 121. ^ Book rap dealer in court as red Che The Sun, April 15 2009
 122. ^ Semester Summer 2008: 'Che Guevara's Latin America' at the University of Texas
 123. ^ Cuban Doctors Efforts Extolled in Nicaragua February 10 2009
 124. ^ Salud International to Back Cuban Internationalist Doctors by Phil Lenton, August 16 2004
 125. ^ a b c Che as Revolutionary and Icon review by Corinna Lotz
 126. ^ The Cult of Che by Paul Berman, September 24, 2004.
 127. ^ "Che Guevara: Revolutionary & Icon", by Trisha Ziff, Abrams Image, 2006, pg 104
 128. ^ "He Thinks We Still Care" - A Review of 'Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life' by Jon Lee Anderson, by Mark Falcoff, The American Spectator, June 1997
 129. ^ a b c Che Chic by Elizabeth Armstrong, The Christian Science Monitor, March 5 2004
 130. ^ Killer Chic: Hollywood’s sick obsession with Che Guevara at Reason TV. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
 131. ^ Give Me a Rebel, But Hold the Politics by Ginia Bellafante, New York Times, March 30, 2004
 132. ^ Capitalizing on Che Guevara’s Image by Ben Ehrenreich, Los Angeles Times, June 1, 2008
 133. ^ The State and Revolution, by Vladimir Lenin, 1999, Resistance Books, ISBN 0909196826, pg 15
 134. ^ a b Time 100: Che Guevara by Ariel Dorfman, June 14, 1999
 135. ^ Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution, by Peter McLaren, 2000, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0847695336, pg Xxii
 136. ^ Viva Che!: The Strange Death and Life of Che Guevara, by Andrew Sinclair, 1968/re-released in 2006, Sutton publishing, ISBN 0750943106, pg 124



Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:53:25 am
External links

    * Che-Lives.com
    * DeviantART: Che Guevara
    * Che Guevara Photos from daylife
    * RevLeft: Che Discussion Forum
    * The Many Faces of Che - a slideshow by PBS
    * BBC News Video: Che Honored in Argentina June 15, 2008
    * NPR Audio Report: "In Latin America, Che's Legend on the Rise"
    * Salon: "Che Anything" by Amy Reiter, May 5, 2008
    * The New York Times: "A Revolutionary Icon, and Now, a Bikini" by Marc Lacey, October 9, 2007
    * Wall Street Journal (photo gallery): "The Ubiquitous Che"
    * Washington Post: "The Che Cachet" by David Segal, February 7, 2006
    * Che from Rebel to Icon by Christophe Chataign, Socialist Review, July 2004
    * Why is Che Guevara such a Pop Culture Icon? a photo essay by Designboom
    * Advertising World’s Obsession with Che Guevara by Adoholic, February 21, 2009


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:54:14 am
Notes

   1. ^ a b c The date of birth recorded on his birth certificate was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year. Constenla alleges that she was told by an unidentified astrologer that his mother, Celia de la Serna, was already pregnant when she and Ernesto Guevara Lynch were married and that the date on the birth certificate of their son was forged to make it appear that he was born a month later than the actual date to avoid scandal. (Anderson 1997, pp. 3, 769.)
   2. ^ Partido Unido de la Revolución Socialista de Cuba, aka PURSC
   3. ^ Hall 2004
   4. ^ Casey 2009, p. 128.
   5. ^ a b On Revolutionary Medicine Speech by Che Guevara to the Cuban Militia on August 19, 1960
   6. ^ At the Afro-Asian Conference in Algeria A speech by Che Guevara to the Second Economic Seminar of Afro-Asian Solidarity in Algiers, Algeria on February 24, 1965
   7. ^ Beaubien, NPR Audio Report, 2009, 00:09-00:13
   8. ^ a b c d "Castro's Brain" 1960.
   9. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 267.
  10. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 526-530.
  11. ^ Ryan 1998, p. 4
  12. ^ Guevara 2005
  13. ^ Dorfman 1999.
  14. ^ Maryland Institute of Art, referenced at BBC News May 26, 2001
  15. ^ Che's last name "Guevara" derives from the Castilianized form of the Basque "Gebara", a habitational name from the province of Álava. Through his grandmother, Ana Lynch, he was a descendant of Patrick Lynch, an emigrant from Galway, Ireland in the 1740s.
  16. ^ Lavretsky 1976
  17. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 22-23.
  18. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 8.
  19. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 28.
  20. ^ Hart 2004, pg 98.
  21. ^ Hart 2004, pg 98.
  22. ^ Haney 2005, p. 164.
  23. ^ (Anderson 1997, p. 37–38)
  24. ^ (Anderson 1997, p. 37–38)
  25. ^ (Anderson 1997, p. 37–38)
  26. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 10.
  27. ^ Ratner 1997, p. 25.
  28. ^ NYT bestseller list: #38 Paperback Nonfiction on 2005-02-20, #9 Nonfiction on 2004-10-07 and on more occasions.
  29. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 98.
  30. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 126.
  31. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 31.
  32. ^ Guevara Lynch 2000, p. 26.
  33. ^ Radio Cadena Agramonte 2006.
  34. ^ Ignacio 2007, p. 172.
  35. ^ a b U.S. Department of State 2008.
  36. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 144.
  37. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 39.
  38. ^ Snow, Anita. "'My Life With Che' by Hilda Gadea." Associated Press at WJXX-TV. August 16, 2008. Retrieved on February 23, 2009.
  39. ^ Che Guevara 1960–67 by Frank E. Smitha
  40. ^ Sinclair, Andrew (1970). Che Guevara. The Viking Press. p. 12.
  41. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 55.
  42. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 28.
  43. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 194.
  44. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 213.
  45. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 32.
  46. ^ DePalma 2006, pp. 110–111.
  47. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 269–270.
  48. ^ Castañeda 1998, pp. 105, 119.
  49. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 269–270, 277–278.
  50. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 35.
  51. ^ Ignacio 2007, p. 177.
  52. ^ Ignacio 2007, p. 193.
  53. ^ Moore, Don. "Revolution! Clandestine Radio and the Rise of Fidel Castro". Patepluma Radio. http://www.pateplumaradio.com/central/cuba/rebel1.html.
  54. ^ Bockman 1984.
  55. ^ Castro 1972, pp. 439–442.
  56. ^ Dorschner 1980, pp. 41–47, 81–87.
  57. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 39.
  58. ^ Anderson 1997, 397.
  59. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 400–401.
  60. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 424.
  61. ^ Guevara had children from both his marriages, and one illegitimate child, as follows: With Hilda Gadea (married August 18, 1955; divorced May 22, 1959), Hilda Beatriz Guevara Gadea, born February 15, 1956 in Mexico City; died August 21, 1995 in Havana, Cuba; with Aleida March (married June 2, 1959), Aleida Guevara March, born November 24, 1960 in Havana, Cuba, Camilo Guevara March, born May 20, 1962 in Havana, Cuba, Celia Guevara March, born June 14, 1963 in Havana, Cuba, and Ernesto Guevara March, born February 24, 1965 in Havana, Cuba; and with Lilia Rosa López (extramarital), Omar Pérez, born March 19, 1964 in Havana, Cuba (Castañeda 1998, pp. 264–265).
  62. ^ Gómez Treto 1991, p. 115. "The Penal Law of the War of Independence (July 28, 1896) was reinforced by Rule 1 of the Penal Regulations of the Rebel Army, approved in the Sierra Maestra February 21, 1958, and published in the army's official bulletin (Ley penal de Cuba en armas, 1959)" (Gómez Treto 1991, p. 123).
  63. ^ Gómez Treto 1991, pp. 115–116).
  64. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 372, 425.
  65. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 376.
  66. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 267.
  67. ^ Niess 2007, p. 60
  68. ^ Gómez Treto 1991, p. 116).
  69. ^ Niess 2007, p. 61
  70. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 267.
  71. ^ Different sources cite different numbers of executions. Anderson (1997) gives the number specifically at La Cabaña prison as 55 (p. 387.), while also stating that as a whole "several hundred people were officially tried and executed across Cuba" (p. 387.). This is supported by Lago who gives the figure as 216 documented executions across Cuba in two years.
  72. ^ Dumur 1964 shows Che Guevara speaking French.
  73. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 423.
  74. ^ Niwata 2007. Guevara requested that the Japanese government arrange for him to visit Hiroshima. When they refused, he covertly left his Osaka hotel to visit Hiroshima by night train, along with his aide Omar Fernández.
  75. ^ a b Anderson 1997, p. 435.
  76. ^ Sierra, J.A.. "Che Guevara Timeline". historyofcuba.com. http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/time/Che-1.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-19.
  77. ^ Cuban Information Archives.
  78. ^ Socialism and man in Cuba by Che Guevara, March 1965
  79. ^ PBS: Che Guevara, Popular but Ineffective
  80. ^ Sandison 1996, p. 62.
  81. ^ a b Sandison 1996, p. 66.
  82. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 506.
  83. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 507.
  84. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 509.
  85. ^ a b "Economics Cannot be Separated from Politics" speech by Che Guevara to the ministerial meeting of the Inter-American Economic and Social Council (CIES), in Punta del Este, Uruguay on August 8, 1961
  86. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 492.
  87. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 530.
  88. ^ a b Anderson 1997, p. 545.
  89. ^ a b c d e "Colonialism is Doomed" speech to the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations in New York City by Cuban representative Che Guevara on December 11, 1964
  90. ^ a b c Bazooka Fired at U.N. as Cuban Speaks by Homer Bigart, The New York Times, December 12, 1964 - page 1
  91. ^ Guillermo Novo Biography by Spartacus Educational Encyclopedia
  92. ^ Snow 2007.
  93. ^ Hart 2004, pg 271.
  94. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 618.
  95. ^ a b "Socialism and Man in Cuba" A letter to Carlos Quijano, editor of Marcha, a weekly published in Montevideo, Uruguay; published as "From Algiers, for Marcha: The Cuban Revolution Today" by Che Guevara on March 12, 1965
  96. ^ Guevara 1969, p. 350.
  97. ^ Guevara 1969, pp. 352–59.
  98. ^ Message to the Tricontinental A letter sent by Che Guevara from his jungle camp in Bolivia, to the Tricontinental Solidarity Organisation in Havana, Cuba, in the Spring of 1967
  99. ^ Guevara 1965.
 100. ^ Ben Bella 1997.
 101. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 624.
 102. ^ Gálvez 1999, p 62.
 103. ^ Gott 2004 p. 219.
 104. ^ BBC News January 17, 2001.
 105. ^ "The intercept operators knew that Dar-es-Salaam was serving as a communications center for the fighters, receiving messages from Castro in Cuba and relaying them on to the guerrillas deep in the bush (Bamford 2002, p. 181).
 106. ^ Ireland's Own 2000.
 107. ^ Guevara 2000, p. 1.
 108. ^ Castañeda 1998, p. 316.
 109. ^ Guevara 2009, p. 167.
 110. ^ Mittleman 1981, p. 38.
 111. ^ a b Selvage 1985.
 112. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 693.
 113. ^ U.S. Army 1967 and Ryan 1998, pp. 82–102, inter alia. "U.S. military personnel in Bolivia never exceeded 53 advisers, including a sixteen-man Mobile Training Team (MTT) from the 8th Special Forces Group based at Fort Gulick, Panama Canal Zone" (Selvage 1985).
 114. ^ "Bidding for Che", Time Magazine, Dec 15 1967
 115. ^ Guevara 1972.
 116. ^ Castañeda 1998, pp. 107–112; 131–132.
 117. ^ Wright 2000, p. 86.
 118. ^ Shadow Warrior: The CIA Hero of 100 unknown battles, Felix Rodriguez and John Weisman, Publisher: Simon & Schuster, October 1989,
 119. ^ Anderson 1997, p.733.
 120. ^ a b "The Man Who Buried Che" by Juan O. Tamayo, Miami Herald, September 19, 1997
 121. ^ a b c d e Ray, Michèle (March 1968). "In Cold Blood: The Execution of Che by the CIA". Ramparts Magazine: 33.
 122. ^ Taibo 1999, p. 267.
 123. ^ Grant 2007. René Barrientos has never revealed his motives for ordering the summary execution of Guevara.
 124. ^ Time magazine 1970.
 125. ^ Anderson 1997, p. 739.
 126. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 739.
 127. ^ Almudevar 2007 and Gott 2005.
 128. ^ Lacey 2007a.
 129. ^ After the Cuban revolution, seeing that Guevara had no watch, his friend Oscarito Fernández Mell gave him his own gold watch. Sometime later, Che handed him a piece of paper; a receipt from the National Bank declaring that Mell had "donated" his gold wristband to Cuba's gold reserve. Guevara was still wearing his watch, but it now had a leather wristband (Anderson 1997, p. 503).
 130. ^ Kornbluh 1997.
 131. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 740.
 132. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 741.
 133. ^ a b c Nadle, Marlene (August 24, 1968). "Régis Debray Speaks from Prison". Ramparts Magazine: 42.
 134. ^ Cuba salutes 'Che' Guevara: Revolutionary Icon Finally Laid to Rest CNN, October 17, 1997 CNN VIDEO
 135. ^ "Bidding for Che", Time Magazine, Dec 15 1967
 136. ^ Guevara 1967b.
 137. ^ Ryan 1998, p. 45
 138. ^ Ryan 1998, p. 104
 139. ^ Ryan 1998, p. 148
 140. ^ Ramírez 1997.
 141. ^ Bolivia unveils original Che Guevara diary by Eduardo Garcia, Reuters, July 7, 2008
 142. ^ McLaren 2000, p. 7.
 143. ^ Che's Second Coming? by David Rieff, November 20, 2005, New York Times
 144. ^ Guevara 2009, p. II.
 145. ^ Moynihan 2006.
 146. ^ Sinclair 1968 / 2006, p. 80.
 147. ^ Sinclair 1968 / 2006, p. 127.
 148. ^ McLaren 2000, p. 3.
 149. ^ Sinclair 1968 / 2006, p. 67.
 150. ^ Ernesto Che Guevara R.I.P. by Murray Rothbard, Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought, Volume 3, Number 3 (Spring-Autumn 1967)
 151. ^ Just a Pretty Face? by Sean O'Hagan, The Observer, July 11, 2004
 152. ^ People's Weekly 2004.
 153. ^ Argentina pays belated homage to "Che" Guevara by Helen Popper, Reuters, June 14, 2008
 154. ^ Statue for Che's '80th birthday' by Daniel Schweimler, BBC News, June 15, 2008
 155. ^ On a tourist trail in Bolivia's hills, Che's fame lives on By Hector Tobar, Los Angeles Times, October 17, 2004
 156. ^ Schipani 2007.
 157. ^ Behind Che Guevara’s mask, the cold executioner Times Online, September 16, 2007
 158. ^ Vargas Llosa 2005.
 159. ^ Vargas Llosa 2005.
 160. ^ Vargas Llosa 2005.
 161. ^ D'Rivera 2005.
 162. ^ ""Chávez es díficil de encasillar, pero a final de cuentas queda claro que es un pobre rico"". El Nacional. http://el-nacional.com/www/site/p_contenido.php?q=nodo/76704/Internacional/Canek-S%C3%A1nchez-Guevara:-Ch%C3%A1vez-es-una-mezcla-de-caudillo,-peronista-y-guerrillero-en-tiempos-de-paz.
 163. ^ BBC News May 26, 2001
 164. ^ see also Che Guevara (photo)
 165. ^ Lacey 2007b.
 166. ^ BBC News 2007.
 167. ^ O'Hagan 2004.



Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:54:42 am
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    * Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (1967a). "English Translation of Complete Text of his Message to the Tricontinental"
    * Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (1967b). "Diario (Bolivia)". Written 1966–1967.
    * Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (editors Bonachea, Rolando E. and Nelson P. Valdés; 1969). Che: Selected Works of Ernesto Guevara, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-52016-8
    * Guevara, Ernesto (2009). Che: The Diaries of Ernesto Che Guevara. Ocean Press. ISBN 1920888934.
    * Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (1972). Pasajes de la guerra revolucionaria.
    * Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (translated from the Spanish by Patrick Camiller; 2000). The African Dream. New York: Grove Publishers. ISBN 0-8021-3834-9.
    * Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (2005). "Socialism and man in Cuba" (First published March 12, 1965 as "From Algiers, for Marcha. The Cuban Revolution Today"). The Che Reader. Ocean Press.
    * Guevara Lynch, Ernesto (2000). Aquí va un soldado de América. Barcelona: Plaza y Janés Editores, S.A. ISBN 84-01-01327-5.
    * Hall, Kevin (2004). "In Bolivia, Push for Che Tourism Follows Locals' Reverence". Common Dreams. commondreams.org. Accessed November 15, 2008.
    * Haney, Rich (2005). Celia Sánchez: The Legend of Cuba's Revolutionary Heart. New York: Algora Pub. ISBN 0875863957.
    * Hari, Johann (October 6, 2007). "Johann Hari: Should Che be an icon? No". The Independent.
    * Hart, Joseph (2004). Che: The Life, Death, and Afterlife of a Revolutionary. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1560255196.
    * Ramonez, Ignacio (2007). Translated by Andrew Hurley. Fidel Castro: My Life London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978 0 1410 2626 8
    * Ireland's Own (August 12, 2000). From Cuba to Congo, Dream to Disaster for Che Guevara. Accessed January 11, 2006.
    * Kornbluh, Peter (1997). Electronic Briefing Book No. 5. National Security Archive. Accessed March 25, 2007.
    * Lacey, Mark (October 26, 2007). "Lone Bidder Buys Strands of Che's Hair at U.S. Auction". New York Times.
    * Lacey, Mark (October 9, 2007). "A Revolutionary Icon, and Now, a Bikini". The New York Times.
    * Lago, Armando M (September 2005). "216 Documented Victims of Che Guevara in Cuba: 1957 to 1959PDF (24.8 KB)". Cuba: the Human Cost of Social Revolution. (Manuscript pending publication.) Summit, New Jersey: Free Society Project.
    * Lavretsky, Iosif (1976). Ernesto Che Guevara. translated by A. B. Eklof. Moscow: Progress. p. 5. ASIN B000B9V7AW. OCLC 22746662.
    * McLaren, Peter (2000). Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0847695336.
    * Mittleman, James H (1981). Underdevelopment and the Transition to Socialism – Mozambique and Tanzania. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-500660-8
    * Moynihan, Michael. "Neutering Sartre at Dagens Nyheter". Stockholm Spectator. Accessed February 26, 2006.
    * Murray, Edmundo (November-December 2005). "Guevara, Ernesto [Che] (1928–1967)". Irish Migration Studies in Latin America (www.irlandeses.org).
    * Che Guevara, by Frank Niess, Haus Publishers Ltd, 2007, ISBN 1-904341-99-3
    * Niwata, Manabu, Mainichi correspondent (October 14, 2007). Aide reveals Che Guevara's secret trip to Hiroshima. HDR Japan.
    * O'Hagan, Sean (July 11, 2004). "Just a pretty face?". The Guardian. Accessed October 25, 2006.
    * Radio Cadena Agramonte, "Ataque al cuartel del Bayamo". Accessed February 25, 2006.
    * Ramírez, Dariel Alarcón (1997). Le Che en Bolivie. Paris: Éditions du Rocher. ISBN 2-268-02437-7.
    * Ramonez, Ignacio (2007). Translated by Andrew Hurley. Fidel Castro: My Life London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978 0 1410 2626 8
    * Ratner, Michael (1997). Che Guevara and the FBI: The U.S. Political Police Dossier on the Latin American Revolutionary. Ocean Press. ISBN 1875284761.
    * Rodriguez, Félix I. and John Weisman (1989). Shadow Warrior/the CIA Hero of a Hundred Unknown Battles. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-66721-1.
    * Ryan, Henry Butterfield (1998). The Fall of Che Guevara: A Story of Soldiers, Spies, and Diplomats. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511879-0.
    * Sandison, David (1996). The Life & Times of Che Guevara. Paragon. ISBN 0752517767.
    * Schipani, Andres (September 23, 2007). "The Final Triumph of Saint Che". The Observer. (Reporting from La Higuera.)
    * Selvage, Major Donald R. – USMC (April 1, 1985). Che Guevara in Bolivia. Globalsecurity.org. Accessed January 5, 2006.
    * Sinclair, Andrew (1968 / re-released in 2006). Viva Che!: The Strange Death and Life of Che Guevara. Sutton publishing. ISBN 0750943106.
    * Snow, Anita (October 8, 2007). "Castro Pays Homage to Che Guevara". ABC News.
    * Taibo II, Paco Ignacio (1999). Guevara, Also Known as Che. St Martin's Griffin. 2nd edition. pp. 691. ISBN 312206526.
    * Time Magazine (October 12, 1970). "Che: A Myth Embalmed in a Matrix of Ignorance".
    * Time Magazine cover story (August 8, 1960). "Castro's Brain".
    * U.S. Army (April 28, 1967). Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Activation, Organization and Training of the 2d Ranger Battalion – Bolivian Army. Accessed June 19, 2006.
    * U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations, Guatemala, 1952–1954. Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs. Accessed February 29, 2008.
    * Vargas Llosa, Alvaro (July 11, 2005). "The Killing Machine: Che Guevara, from Communist Firebrand to Capitalist Brand". The Independent Institute. Accessed November 10, 2006.
    * "World Combined Sources" (October 2, 2004). "Che Guevara remains a hero to Cubans". People's Weekly World.
    * Wright, Thomas C. (2000 Revised edition). Latin America in the Era of the Cuban Revolution. Praeger. ISBN 0275967069.


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:54:59 am
External links

    * BBC: Che Guevara Images:   Set 1, Set 2, Set 3
    * Che Guevara Internet Archive: Speeches, Images
    * CNN (video): "Che Guevara, Superstar"
    * Death of Che Guevara: Declassified U.S. Archives
    * Democracy Now: "Life & Legacy of Che Guevara"
    * Discovery Channel: Ernesto "Che" Guevara
    * Documentary: Che Guevara, The Body & The Legend
    * Documentary: El Che Investigating a Legend

   

    * History International: Tracing Che: A Motorcycle Journey
    * MSNBC Slideshow: "In Cuba, Che Still Sells Revolution"
    * New York Post: Ernesto "Che" Guevara Photo Gallery
    * NY Times Interactive Gallery: "A Revolutionary Afterlife"
    * Reuters Slideshow: "Honoring Che"
    * Slate Magazine: Picture Essay of Che
    * The Guardian: "Making of a Marxist" ~ Che's Early Journals
    * The History Channel: The True Story of Che Guevara



Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:56:11 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:56:27 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 02:56:47 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:27:07 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:27:26 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:27:43 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:38:43 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:39:02 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:39:19 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:39:37 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:39:54 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:40:17 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:40:53 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:41:35 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:42:10 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:43:03 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:43:21 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:43:49 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:44:13 am
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Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:46:11 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/Che_por_Jim_Fitzpatrick.svg/100px-Che_por_Jim_Fitzpatrick.svg.png)

Che Guevara
Events    
Guatemalan Coup · Granma Voyage · 26th of July Movement · Battle of Santa Clara · Radio Rebelde · La Cabaña · Cuban Missile Crisis
   
People    
Alberto Granado · Jacobo Arbenz · Fulgencio Batista · Raúl Castro · Fidel Castro · Camilo Cienfuegos · "Tania" · "Willy" · "Pombo" · Régis Debray · Félix Rodríguez · Mario Terán · Aleida Guevara · Orlando Borrego · Carlos Puebla · Silvio Rodríguez · Subcomandante Marcos
Theory    
Guevarism · Focalism · Foco theory · Guerrilla warfare · Marxism · Socialism · Neocolonialism · Anti-imperialism · Anti-Capitalism · World Revolution
Books    
The Motorcycle Diaries · Guerrilla Warfare · Episodes of the Cuban Revolutionary War · Jon Lee Anderson · Jorge Castañeda · Paco Ignacio Taibo
Film    
The Motorcycle Diaries · Che (Part 1 & Part 2)  · Che! · The Hands of Che Guevara
Icon    
His Legacy · In Popular Culture · Famous Photo · Korda · Feltrinelli · Jim Fitzpatrick · Sartre · La Higuera · Mausoleum

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Che_Guevara_in_popular_culture

http://www.che-lives.com/home/modules.php?name=coppermine&file=displayimage&album=1&pos=59


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:46:33 am
Che Guevara, Imperialism speech 1965, translated

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdo6FwAPyng


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:47:10 am
Che Guevara at the UN in 1964

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=amug--VFo_0&feature=related


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:47:52 am
Che talking about the Bay of Pigs Invasion.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMA7Jv1RWIA&feature=related


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:48:53 am
Ernesto Guevara speech

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dsFdtqYFsC0&feature=related


Title: Re: Che Guevara: Life of a Revolutionary
Post by: Che Guevera on August 02, 2009, 03:49:44 am
Che Guevara Recites a poem.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQI0BhEq4U8