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The Crusades, Templars & the Holy Grail => the Crusades => Topic started by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 12:50:39 am



Title: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 12:50:39 am
The Second Crusade (11471149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe, called in 1145 in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year.

Edessa was the first of the Crusader states to have been founded during the First Crusade (10951099), and was the first to fall. The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other important European nobles. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe and were somewhat hindered by Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus; after crossing Byzantine territory into Anatolia, both armies were separately defeated by the Seljuk Turks. Louis and Conrad and the remnants of their armies reached Jerusalem and, in 1148, participated in an ill-advised attack on Damascus. The crusade in the east was a failure for the crusaders and a great victory for the Muslims. It would ultimately lead to the fall of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade at the end of the 12th century.

The only success came outside of the Mediterranean, where Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some German crusaders, on the way by ship to the Holy Land, fortuitously stopped and helped the Portuguese in the capture of Lisbon in 1147.

Meanwhile, in Eastern Europe, the first of the Northern Crusades began with the intent of forcibly converting pagan tribes to Christianity, and these crusades would go on for centuries.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 12:53:11 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Asia_minor_1140.jpg)

The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c.1140), was the proximate cause of the Second Crusade.
Date 1145-1149
Location Iberia, Near East (Anatolia, Levant, Palestine), Egypt
Result Decisive Muslim Seljuk victory.
Failure to recreate County of Edessa. Increased hostilities between Crusader States and the Muslim empires. Portuguese conquest of Lisbon, collapse of Almoravids, and rise Almohads. Peace treaty between Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turks. Increased tension between Byzantine Empire and the Crusaders. Beginning of Crusader advances into Egypt.
Territorial
changes Status quo ante bellum
 


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 12:53:58 am
Background: the fall of Edessa

After the First Crusade and the minor Crusade of 1101 there were three crusader states established in the east: the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa. A fourth, the County of Tripoli, was established in 1109. Edessa was the most northerly of these, and also the weakest and least populated; as such, it was subject to frequent attacks from the surrounding Muslim states ruled by the Ortoqids, Danishmends, and Seljuk Turks. Count Baldwin II and future count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Baldwin and Joscelin were both captured a second time in 1122, and although Edessa recovered somewhat after the Battle of Azaz in 1125, Joscelin was killed in battle in 1131. His successor Joscelin II was forced into an alliance with the Byzantine Empire, but in 1143 both the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus and the King of Jerusalem Fulk of Anjou died. Joscelin had also quarreled with the Count of Tripoli and the Prince of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies.[citation needed]

Meanwhile, the Seljuk Zengi, Atabeg of Mosul, had added Aleppo to his rule in 1128. Aleppo was the key to power in Syria, contested between the rulers of Mosul and Damascus. Both Zengi and King Baldwin II turned their attention towards Damascus; Baldwin was defeated outside the city in 1129. Damascus, ruled by the Burid Dynasty, later allied with King Fulk when Zengi besieged the city in 1139 and 1140; the alliance was negotiated by the chronicler Usamah ibn Munqidh.[citation needed]

In late 1144, Joscelin II allied with the Ortoqids and marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support the Ortoqid Kara Aslan against Aleppo. Zengi, already seeking to take advantage of Fulk's death in 1143, hurried north to besiege Edessa, which fell to him after a month on 24 December 1144. Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly and others were sent from Jerusalem to assist, but arrived too late. Joscelin II continued to rule the remnants of the county from Turbessel, but little by little the rest of the territory was captured or sold to the Byzantines. Zengi himself was praised throughout Islam as "defender of the faith" and al-Malik al-Mansur, "the victorious king". He did not pursue an attack on the remaining territory of Edessa, or the Principality of Antioch, as was feared. Events in Mosul compelled him to return home, and he once again set his sights on Damascus. However, he was assassinated by a slave in 1146 and was succeeded in Aleppo by his son Nur ad-Din.[3]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 12:55:59 am
The Siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the capital of the crusader County of Edessa to Zengi, the atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo.





Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 12:56:25 am
The County of Edessa was the first of the crusader states to be established during and after the First Crusade. It was also the most northerly, the weakest, and the least populated; as such, it was subject to frequent attacks from the surrounding Muslim states ruled by the Ortoqids, Danishmends, and Seljuk Turks. Count Baldwin II and future count Joscelin of Courtenay were taken captive after their defeat at the Battle of Harran in 1104. Baldwin and Joscelin were both captured a second time in 1122, and although Edessa recovered somewhat after the Battle of Azaz in 1125, Joscelin was killed in battle in 1131. His successor Joscelin II was forced into an alliance with the Byzantine Empire, but in 1143 both the Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus and the King of Jerusalem Fulk of Anjou died. John II was succeeded by his son Manuel I Comnenus, who had to deal with consolidating power at home against his elder brothers, while Fulk was succeeded by his wife Melisende and his son Baldwin III. Joscelin had also quarreled with Raymond II of Tripoli and Raymond of Antioch, leaving Edessa with no powerful allies.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 12:56:44 am
The siege
In 1144, Joscelin was able to make an alliance with Kara Aslan, the Ortoqid ruler of Diyarbakır, against the growing power and influence of Zengi. Joscelin marched out of Edessa with almost his entire army to support Kara Aslan against Aleppo. Zengi, already seeking to take advantage of Fulk's death in 1143, hurried north to besiege Edessa, arriving on November 28. The city had been warned of his arrival and was prepared for a siege, but there was little they could do while Joscelin and the army were elsewhere.

The defense of the city was led by the Latin Archbishop Hugh II, the Armenian Bishop John, and the Jacobite Bishop Basil. John and Basil ensured that none of the native Christians would desert to Zengi. When Joscelin heard of the siege he took the army to Turbessel, knowing that he could never dislodge Zengi without help from the other crusader states. In Jerusalem, Queen Melisende responded to Joscelin's appeal by sending an army led by Manasses of Hierges, Philip of Milly, and Elinand of Bures. Raymond of Antioch ignored the call for help, as his army was already occupied against the Byzantine Empire in Cilicia.

Zengi surrounded the entire city, realizing that there was no army defending it. He built siege engines and began to mine the walls, while his forces were joined by Kurdish and Turcoman reinforcements. The inhabitants of Edessa resisted as much as they could, but had no experience in siege warfare; the city’s numerous towers remained unmanned. They also had no knowledge of counter-mining, and part of the wall near the Gate of the Hours collapsed on December 24. Zengi's troops rushed into the city, killing all those who were unable to flee to the Citadel of Maniaces. Thousands more were suffocated or trampled to death in the panic, including Archbishop Hugh. Zengi ordered his men to stop the massacre, although all the Latin prisoners that he had taken were executed; the native Christians were allowed to live freely. The citadel was handed over on December 26. One of Zengi’s commanders, Zayn ad-Din Ali Kutchuk, was appointed governor, while Bishop Basil, apparently willing to give his loyalty to whoever ruled the city, was recognized as leader of the Christian population.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 12:57:04 am
Aftermath
In January of 1145 Zengi captured Saruj and besieged Birejik, but the army of Jerusalem had finally arrived and joined with Joscelin. Zengi also heard of trouble in Mosul, and rushed back to take control. There, he was praised throughout Islam as "defender of the faith" and al-Malik al-Mansur, the victorious king. He did not pursue an attack on the remaining territory of Edessa, or the Principality of Antioch, as was feared. Joscelin II continued to rule the remnants of the county to the west of the Euphrates from Turbessel, but little by little the rest of the territory was captured by the Muslims or sold to the Byzantines.

Zengi was assassinated by a slave in 1146 while besieging Qalat Jabar, and was succeeded in Aleppo by his son Nur ad-Din. Joscelin attempted to take back Edessa following Zengi's murder, and recaptured all but the citadel in October of 1146. However, he had no help from the other crusader states, and his poorly planned expedition was driven out of Edessa by Nur ad-Din in November. This time, the entire population was exiled, and the city was left deserted.

By this time, news of the fall of Edessa reached Europe in 1145, and Pope Eugene III was already organizing the Second Crusade. This crusade was led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, but by 1148 it had ended in disaster, and Edessa was never recovered.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 12:58:33 am
Quantum praedecessores

The news of the fall of Edessa was brought back to Europe first by pilgrims early in 1145, and then by embassies from Antioch, Jerusalem, and Armenia. Bishop Hugh of Jabala reported the news to Pope Eugene III, who issued the bull Quantum praedecessores on 1 December of that year, calling for a second crusade. Hugh also told the Pope of an eastern Christian king, who, it was hoped, would bring relief to the crusader states: this is the first documented mention of Prester John. Eugene did not control Rome and lived instead at Viterbo, but nevertheless the crusade was meant to be more organized and centrally controlled than the First Crusade: certain preachers would be approved by the pope, the armies would be led by the strongest kings of Europe, and a route would be planned beforehand. The initial response to the new crusade bull was poor, and it in fact had to be reissued when it was clear that Louis VII would be taking part in the expedition. Louis VII of France had also been considering a new expedition independently of the Pope, which he announced to his Christmas court at Bourges in 1145. It is debatable whether Louis was planning a crusade of his own or in fact a pilgrimage, as he wanted to fulfil a vow made by his brother Philip to go to the Holy Land, as he had been prevented by death. It is probable that Louis had made this decision independently of hearing about Quantum Praedecessores. In any case, Abbot Suger and other nobles were not in favour of Louis' plans, as he would potentially be gone from the kingdom for several years. Louis consulted Bernard of Clairvaux, who referred him back to Eugene. Now Louis would have definitely heard about the papal bull, and Eugene enthusiastically supported Louis' crusade. The bull was reissued on 1 March 1146, and Eugene authorized Bernard to preach the news throughout France.


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:01:35 am
Quantum praedecessores

Quantum praedecessores is a papal bull issued on December 1, 1145, by Pope Eugenius III, calling for a Second Crusade. It was the first papal bull issued with a crusade as its subject.

The bull was issued in response to the fall of Edessa, in December of 1144. Pilgrims from the east had brought news of the fall of Edessa to Europe throughout 1145, and embassies from the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and the Kingdom of Armenia soon arrived directly at the papal court at Viterbo. Hugh, Bishop of Jabala, one of the dioceses of Jerusalem, was among those who delivered the news.

As with most papal bulls, it had no specific title, and has come to be known by its opening words; in Latin the first sentence read "Quantum praedecessores nostri Romani pontifices pro liberatione Orientalis Ecclesiae laboraverunt, antiquorum relatione didicimus, et in gestis eorum scriptum reperimus" – in English, "How much our predecessors the Roman pontiffs did labour for the deliverance of the oriental church, we have learned from the accounts of the ancients and have found it written in their acts."

The bull, issued at Vetralla, briefly recounted the acts of the First Crusade, and lamented the loss of Edessa, Mesopotamia, one of the oldest Christian cities. The bull was addressed directly to Louis VII of France and his subjects, and promised the remission of sins for all those who took the cross, as well as ecclesiastical protection for their families and possessions, just as Pope Urban II had done before the First Crusade. Those who completed the crusade, or died along the way, were offered full absolution.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:01:49 am
Louis was already preparing a crusade of his own, independent of Eugenius' bull, and it appears that Louis may have at first ignored the bull completely. It is possible that the embassies from the east had visited Louis as well. However, in consultation with the preacher Bernard of Clairvaux, Louis eventually sought Eugenius' blessing, and Louis' crusade enjoyed full papal support. The bull was reissued on March 1, 1146, and Bernard began to preach the crusade throughout France and later in Germany as well, where he persuaded Conrad III to participate.

It is interesting to note that, although this is the first papal bull calling for a crusade, the Papacy was largely absent from the rest of the expedition. The First Crusade had no such bull – support was gathered at the Council of Clermont in 1095, and spread quickly through popular preaching. Urban II was seen as the leader of the crusade, through his legates, such as Adhemar of Le Puy. By the mid-12th century, papal power had dwindled somewhat, and Rome was controlled by the Commune of Rome. Although there were papal legates accompanying the crusade, the expedition was controlled by Louis and Conrad, not a religious leader.

The crusade was mostly destroyed during its march through Anatolia. Louis and Conrad later joined with the army of Jerusalem at the unsuccessful Siege of Damascus in 1148.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:03:12 am
Medieval Sourcebook:
Eugene III: Summons to A Crusade, Dec 1, 1154



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In 1146, the Crusade principality of Edessa fell to the resurgent Muslims. As a result, Pope Eugene II called for a new crusade - the Second. He was enthusiastically supported in this call by his mentor, St. Bernard of Clairvaux.

Bishop Eugene, servant of the servants of God, to his most beloved son in Christ, Louis, the illustrious king of the French, and to his beloved sons, the princes, and to all the faithful ones of God who are established throughout Gaul,-greeting and apostolic benediction.

How much our predecessors the Roman pontiffs did labour for the deliverance of the oriental church, we have learned from the accounts of the ancients and have found it written in their acts. For our predecessor of blessed memory, pope Urban, did sound, as it were, a celestial trump and did take care to arouse for its deliverance the sons of the holy Roman church from the different parts of the earth. At his voice, indeed, those beyond the mountain and especially the bravest and strongest warriors of the French kingdom, and also those of Italy, inflamed by the ardour of love did come together, and, congregating a very great army, not without much shedding of their own blood, the divine aid being with them, did free from the filth of the pagans that city where our Saviour willed to suffer for us, and where He left His glorious sepulchre to us as a memorial of His passion, -and many others which, avoiding prolixity, we refrain from mentioning.

Which, by the grace of God, and the zeal of your fathers, who at intervals of time have striven to the extent of their power to defend them and to spread the name of Christ in those parts, have been retained by the Christians up to this day; and other cities of the infidels have by them been manfully stormed. But now, our sins and those of the people themselves requiring it, a thing which we can not relate without great grief and wailing, the city of Edessa which in our tongue is called Rohais,-which also, as is said, once when the whole land in the east was held by the pagans, alone by herself served God under the power of the Christians-has been taken and many, of the castles of the Christians occupied by them (the pagans). The archbishop, moreover, of this same city, together with his clergy and many other Christians, have there been slain, and the relics of the saints have been given over to the trampling under foot of the infidels, and dispersed. Whereby how great a danger threatens the church of God and the whole of Christianity, we both know ourselves and do not believe it to be hid from your prudence. For it is known that it will be the greatest proof of nobility and probity, if those things which the bravery of your fathers acquired be bravely defended by you the sons. But if it should happen otherwise, which God forbid, the valour of the fathers will be found to have diminished in the case the of the sons.

We exhort therefore all of you in God, we ask and command, and, for the remission of sins enjoin: that those who are of God, and, above all, the greater men and the nobles do manfully gird themselves; and that you strive so to oppose the multitude of the infidels, who rejoice at the time in a victory gained over us, and so to defend the oriental church -freed from their tyranny by so great an outpouring of the blood of your fathers, as we have said, - and to snatch many thousands of your captive brothers from their hands,- that the dignity of the Christian name may be increased in your time, and that your valour which is praised throughout the whole world, may remain intact and unshaken. May that good Matthias be an example to you, who, to preserve the laws of his fathers, did not in the least doubt to expose himself with his sons and relations to death, and to leave whatever he possessed in the world; and who at length, by the help of the divine aid, after many labours however, did, as well as his progeny, manfully triumph over his enemies.

We, moreover, providing with paternal solicitude for your tranquillity and for the destitution of that same church, do grant and confirm by the authority conceded to us of God, to those who by the promptings of devotion do decide to undertake and to carry through so holy and so necessary a work and labour, that remission of sins which our aforesaid predecessor pope Urban did institute; and do decree that their wives and sons, their goods also and possessions shall remain under the protection of our selves and of the archbishops, bishops and other prelates of the church of God. By the apostolic authority, moreover, we forbid that, in the case of any thing, which they possessed in peace, when they took the cross, any suit be brought hereafter until most certain news has been obtained concerning their return or their death. Moreover since those who war for the Lord should by no means prepare themselves with precious garments, nor with provision for their personal appearance, nor with dogs or hawks , other things which portend licentiousness: we exhort your prudence in the Lord that those who have decided to undertake so holy a work shall not strive after these things, but shall show zeal and diligence with all their strength in the matter of arms, horses and other things with which they may fight the infidels. But those who are oppressed by debt and begin so holy a journey with a pure heart, shall not pay interest for the time past, and if they or n t others for them are bound by an oath or pledge i ' he matter of interest, we absolve them by apostolic authority. It is allowed to them also when their relations, being warned, or the lords to whose fee they belong, are either unwilling or unable to advance them the money, to freely pledge without any reclamation, their lands or other possessions to churches, or ecclesiastical persons, or to any other of the faithful. According to the institution of our aforesaid predecessor, by the authority of almighty God and by that of St. Peter the chief of the apostles, conceded to us by God, we grant such remission and absolution of sins, that he who shall devoutly begin so sacred a journey and shall accomplish it, or shall die during it, shall obtain absolution for all his sins which with a humble and contrite heart he shall confess, and shall receive the fruit of eternal retribution from the Remunerator of all.

Given at Vetralle on the Calends of December.


from Doeberl, Monumenta Germania Selecta, Vol 4, p. 40, trans in Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), pp. 333-336




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This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.
Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

(c)Paul Halsall Mar 1996
halsall@murray.fordham.edu
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/eugene3-2cde.html


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:04:41 am
XLVIII. Ad Ludovicum regem Galliarum.--De expeditione in Terram Sanctam suscipienda (7) (Anno 1145, Dec. 1.)[MANSI, Concil., XXI, 626.]

[p. 1064A]

EUGENIUS episcopus, servus servorum Dei, charissimo filio LUDOVICO illustri et glorios Francorum regi, et dilectis filiis principibus, et universi Dei fidelibus per Galliam constitutis, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.

Quantum praedecessores nostri Romani pontifices pro liberatione Orientalis Ecclesiae laboraverunt, antiquorum relatione didicimus, et in gestis eorum scriptum reperimus. Praedecessor etenim noster felicis
[p. 1064B]
memoriae papa Urbanus tanquam tuba intonuit, et ad ipsius deliberationem sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae filios de diversis mundi partibus sollicitare curavit. Ad ipsius siquidem vocem, Ultramontani, et praecipue Francorum regni fortissimi et strenui bellatores, et illi etiam de Italia, charitatis ardore succensi convenerunt, ut maximo congregato exercitu, non sine magna proprii sanguinis effusione, divino eos auxilio comitante, civitatem illam, in qua Salvator noster pro nobis pati voluit, et gloriosum ipsius sepulcrum passionis suae nobis memoriale dimisit, et quamplures alias, quas prolixitatem vitantes memorare supersedemus, a paganorum spurcitia liberarent. Quae per gratiam Dei et patrum vestrorum studium, qui per intervalla temporum eas defendere,
[p. 1064C]
et Christianum nomen in partibus illis dilatare pro viribus studuerunt, usque ad nostra tempora a Christianis detentae sunt, et aliae urbes infidelium ab ipsis viriliter expugnatae.

Nunc autem nostris et ipsius populi peccatis exigentibus, quod sine magno dolore et gemitu proferre non possumus, Edessa civitas, quae nostra lingua Rohais dicitur; quae etiam, ut fertur, cum quondam in Oriente tota terra a paganis detineretur, ipsa sola sub Christianorum potestate Domino serviebat, ab inimicis crucis Christi capta est, et multa Christianorum castella ab ipsis occupata. Ipsius quoque civitatis archiepiscopus cum clericis suis, et multi alii Christiani, ibidem interfecti sunt;
[p. 1064D]
et sanctorum reliquiae in infidelium conculcationem datae sunt et dispersae. In quo quantum Ecclesiae Dei et toti Christianitati periculum immineat, et nos cognoscimus, et prudentiam vestram latere non credimus. Maximum namque nobilitatis et probitatis indicium fore cognoscitur, si ea quae patrum strenuitas acquisivit, a vobis filiis strenue defendantur. Verumtamen si, quod absit! secus contigerit, patrum fortitudo in filiis imminuta probatur.

Universitatem itaque vestram in Domino commonemus, rogamus, atque praecipimus, et in peccatorum
[p. 1065A]
remissionem injungimus, ut qui Dei sunt, et maxime potentiores et nobiles, viriliter accingantur, infidelium multitudini, quae fere semper victoria super nos adepta laetatur (8) , sic occurrere, et Ecclesiam Orientalem tanta patrum vestrorum, ut praediximus, sanguinis effusione ab eorum tyrannide liberatam, ita defendere, et multa captivorum millia confratrum nostrorum de ipsorum manibus eripere studeatis, ut Christiani nominis dignitas vestro tempore augeatur, et vestra fortitudo, quae per universum mundum laudatur, integra et illibata servetur. Sit vobis etiam in exemplum bonus ille Mathathias, qui pro paternis legibus conservandis seipsum cum filiis et parentibus suis morti exponere, et quidquid in mundo possidebat relinquere nullatenus
[p. 1065B]
dubitavit: atque tandem, divino cooperante auxilio, per multos tamen labores tam ipse quam sua progenies de inimicis viriliter triumphavit.

Nos autem, vestrorum quieti et ejusdem ecclesiae destitutioni paterna sollicitudine providentes, illis qui tam sanctum tamque pernecessarium opus et laborem devotionis intuitu suscipere et perficere decreverint, illam peccatorum remissionem quam praefatus praedecessor noster papa Urbanus institnit, auctoritate nobis a Deo concessa concedimus et confirmamus; atque uxores et filios eorum, bona quoque et possessiones, sub sanctae Ecclesiae, nostra etiam et archiepiscoporum, episcoporum et aliorum praelatorum Ecclesiae Dei protectione manere
[p. 1065C]
decernimus.

Auctoritate etiam apostolica prohibemus ut de omnibus quae, cum crucem acceperint, quiete possederint, ulla deinceps quaestio moveatur, donec de ipsorum reditu vel obitu certissime cognoscatur.

Praeterea, quoniam illi qui Domino militant nequaquam in vestibus pretiosis, nec cultu formae, nec canibus, vel accipitribus, vel aliis, quae portendant lasciviam, debent intendere, prudentiam vestram in Domino commonemus, ut qui tam sanctum opus incipere decreverint, nullatenus in vestibus variis aut grisiis, sive in armis aureis vel argenteis intendant, sed in talibus armis (9) , equis, et caeteris quibus infideles expugnent, totis viribus studium et diligentiam adhibeant.


[p. 1065D]
Quicunque vero aere premuntur alieno, et tam sanctum iter puro corde incoeperint, de praeterito usuras non solvant; et si ipsi, vel alii pro eis occasione usurarum astricti sunt, sacramento vel fide apostolica eos auctoritate absolvimus.

Liceat eis etiam terras, sive caeteras possessiones suas, postquam commoniti propinqui sive domini, ad quorum feudum pertinent, pecuniam commodare aut noluerint, aut non valuerint, ecclesiis, vel personis ecclesiasticis, vel aliis quoque fidelibus libere sine ulla reclamatione impignorare.

Peccatorum remissionem et absolutionem, juxta praefati praedecessoris nostri institutionem, omnipotentis
[p. 1066A]
Dei et beati Petri apostolorum principis auctoritate nobis a Deo concessa, talem concedimus, ut qui tam sanctum iter devote incoeperit et perfecerit, sive ibidem mortuus fuerit, de omnibus peccatis suis, de quibus corde contrito et humiliato confessionem susceperit, absolutionem obtineat, et sempiternae retributionis fructum ab omnium remuneratore percipiat.

Datum Vetrallae, Kalendis Decembris.

http://colet.lib.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/getobject_?c.4603:1:1:46./projects/artflb/databases/efts/PLD/IMAGE1/


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:07:34 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ce/Stained_glass_St_Bernard_MNMA_Cl3273.jpg/396px-Stained_glass_St_Bernard_MNMA_Cl3273.jpg)

St Bernard in stained glass. Upper Rhine, ca. 1450.


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:10:00 am
Bernard of Clairvaux

The Pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade and granted the same indulgences for it which Pope Urban II had accorded to the First Crusade.[4] A parliament was convoked at Vezelay in Burgundy in 1146, and Bernard preached before the assembly on March 31st. Louis VII of France, his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and the princes and lords present prostrated themselves at the feet of Bernard to receive the pilgrims' cross. Bernard then passed into Germany, and the reported miracles which multiplied almost at his every step undoubtedly contributed to the success of his mission. At Speyer,Conrad III of Germany and his nephew Frederick Barbarossa, received the cross from the hand of Bernard.[5] Pope Eugenius came in person to France to encourage the enterprise.

For all his overmastering zeal, Bernard was by nature neither a bigot nor a persecutor. As in the First Crusade, the preaching inadvertently led to attacks on Jews; a fanatical French monk named Rudolf was apparently inspiring massacres of Jews in the Rhineland, Cologne, Mainz, Worms, and Speyer, with Rudolf claiming Jews were not contributing financially to the rescue of the Holy Land. Bernard, the Archbishop of Cologne and the Archbishop of Mainz were vehemently opposed to these attacks, and so Bernard traveled from Flanders to Germany to deal with the problem and quiet the mobs. Bernard then found Rudolf in Mainz and was able to silence him, returning him to his monastery.[6]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:12:30 am
Wendish Crusade

When the Second Crusade was called, many south Germans volunteered to crusade in the Holy Land. The north German Saxons were reluctant. They told St Bernard of their desire to campaign against the Slavs at a Reichstag meeting in Frankfurt on 13 March 1147. Approving of the Saxons' plan, Eugenius issued a papal bull known as the Divina dispensatione on 13 April. This bull stated that there was to be no difference between the spiritual rewards of the different crusaders. Those who volunteered to crusade against the Slavs were primarily Danes, Saxons, and Poles,[7] although there were also some Bohemians.[8] The Papal legate, Anselm of Havelberg, was placed in overall command. The campaign itself was led by Saxon families such as the Ascanians, Wettin, and Schauenburgers.[9]

Upset by German participation in the crusade, the Obotrites preemptively invaded Wagria in June 1147, leading to the march of the crusaders in late summer 1147. After expelling the Obodrites from Christian territory, the crusaders targeted the Obodrite fort at Dobin and the Liutizian fort at Demmin. The forces attacking Dobin included those of the Danes Canute V and Sweyn III, Adalbert II, Archbishop of Bremen, and Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony. When some crusaders advocated ravaging the countryside, others objected by asking, "Is not the land we are devastating our land, and the people we are fighting our people?"[10] The Saxon army under Henry the Lion withdrew after the pagan chief, Niklot, agreed to have Dobin's garrison undergo baptism. After an unsuccessful siege of Demmin, a contingent of crusaders was diverted by the margraves to attack Pomerania instead. They reached the already Christian city Stettin, whereupon the crusaders dispersed after meeting with Bishop Albert of Pomerania and Prince Ratibor I of Pomerania. According to Bernard of Clairvaux, the goal of the crusade was to battle the pagan Slavs "until such a time as, by God's help, they shall either be converted or deleted".[11] However, the crusade failed to achieve the conversion of most of the Wends. The Saxons achieved largely token conversions at Dobin, as the Slavs resorted to their pagan beliefs once the Christian armies dispersed. Albert of Pomerania explained, "If they had come to strengthen the Christian faith ... they should do so be preaching, not by arms".[12]

By the end of the crusade, the countryside of Mecklenburg and Pomerania was plundered and depopulated with much bloodshed, especially by the troops of Henry the Lion.[13] This was to help bring about more Christian victories in the future decades. The Slavic inhabitants also lost much of their methods of production, limiting their resistance in the future.[14]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:14:44 am
Wendish Crusade

The Wendish Crusade (German: Wendenkreuzzug) was an 1147 campaign, one of the Northern Crusades and also a part of the Second Crusade, led primarily by the Kingdom of Germany inside the Holy Roman Empire and directed against the Polabian Slavs (or "Wends").

By the early 12th century, the German archbishoprics of Bremen and Magdeburg sought the conversion of neighboring pagan West Slavs to Christianity through peaceful means. During the preparation of the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, however, a papal bull was issued which supported a crusade against these Slavs.

The Slavic leader Niklot preemptively invaded Wagria in June, 1147, leading to the march of the crusaders in late summer, 1147. They achieved an ostensible baptism of Slavs at Dobin and were repulsed from Demmin. Another crusading army marched on the already Christian city Stettin, whereupon the crusaders dispersed upon arrival.

The Christian army, composed primarily of Saxons and Danes, forced tribute from the pagan Slavs and affirmed German control of Wagria and Polabia, but failed to convert the bulk of the population immediately.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:16:24 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3f/Bishop_Absalon_topples_the_god_Svantevit_at_Arkona.PNG/800px-Bishop_Absalon_topples_the_god_Svantevit_at_Arkona.PNG)

Danish Bishop Absalon destroys the idol of Slavic god Svantevit at Arkona in a painting by Laurits Tuxen


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:16:50 am
The Ottonian dynasty supported eastward expansion of the Holy Roman Empire towards Wendish (West Slavic) lands during the 10th century. The campaigns of King Henry the Fowler and Emperor Otto the Great led to the introduction of burgwards to protect German conquests in the lands of the Sorbs. Otto's lieutenants, Margraves Gero and Hermann Billung, advanced eastward and northward respectively to claim tribute from conquered Slavs. Bishoprics were established at Meissen, Brandenburg, Havelberg, and Oldenburg to administer the territory. A great Slavic rebellion in 983 reversed the initial German gains, however. While the burgwards allowed the Saxons to retain control of Meissen, they lost Brandenburg and Havelberg. The Elbe River thus became the eastern limit of German-Roman control.

By the early 12th century, the Archbishoprics of Bremen and Magdeburg sought the conversion of the pagan Slavs to Christianity through peaceful means: notable missionaries included Vicelin, Norbert of Xanten, and Otto of Bamberg. Lacking support from the Salian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, secular Saxon princes seeking Slavic territory found themselves in a military stalemate with their adversaries. Christians, especially Saxons from Holstein, and pagans raided each other across the Limes Saxonicus, usually for tribute.

From 1140-43 Holsatian nobles advanced into Wagria to permanently settle in the lands of the pagan Wagri. Count Adolf II of Holstein and Henry of Badewide took control of Polabian settlements which would later become Lübeck and Ratzeburg; Vicelin was subsequently installed as bishop at Oldenburg. Adolf sought peace with the chief of the Obodrite confederacy, Niklot, and encouraged German colonization and missionary activity in Wagria.[1]

The fall of Edessa in 1144 shocked Christendom, causing Pope Eugenius III and St. Bernard of Clairvaux to preach a Second Crusade to reinforce Outremer. While many south Germans volunteered to crusade in the Middle East, the north German Saxons were reluctant. They told Bernard of their desire to campaign against the Slavs at a Reichstag meeting in Frankfurt on 13 March 1147. Approving of the Saxons' plan, pope Eugenius issued a papal bull known as the Divina dispensatione on 13 April; there was to be no difference between the spiritual rewards of the different crusaders. Those who volunteered to crusade against the Slavs were primarily Danes, Saxons, and Poles,[2] although there were also some Bohemians.[3] The German monarchy took no part in the crusade, which was led by Saxon families such as the Ascanians, Wettin, and Schauenburgers.[4] Papal legate Anselm of Havelberg was placed in overall command.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:17:20 am
Holy war
Upset at Adolph's participation in the crusade, Niklot preemptively invaded Wagria in June 1147, leading to the march of the crusaders in late summer 1147. After expelling the Obodrites from his territory, Adolf signed a peace treaty with Niklot. The remaining Christian crusaders targeted the Obodrite fort Dobin and the Liutizian fort Demmin.

The forces attacking Dobin included those of the Danes Canute V and Sweyn III, Archbishop Adalbert II of Bremen, and Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony. Avoiding pitched battles, Niklot ably defended the marshland of Dobin. One army of Danes was defeated by Slavs from Dobin, while another had to defend the Danish fleet from Niklot's allies, the Rani of Rügen. Henry and Adalbert maintained the siege of Dobin after the retreat of the Danes. When some crusaders advocated ravaging the countryside, others objected by asking, "Is not the land we are devastating our land, and the people we are fighting our people?"[5] The Saxon army under Henry the Lion withdrew after Niklot agreed to have Dobin's garrison undergo baptism.

The Saxon army directed against Demmin was led by several bishops, including those of Mainz, Halberstadt, Münster, Merseburg, Brandenburg, Olmütz, and Bishop Anselm of Havelberg. While their stated goal was to achieve the conversion of the pagans, most also sought additional territory and tithe for their dioceses; Abbot Wibald of Corvey went in the hopes of acquiring the island of Rügen. The Demmin campaign also included the secular margraves Conrad I and Albert the Bear, who hoped to expand their marches. A Royal Polish contingent wanted to add to the Bishopric of Lebus. Marching from Magdeburg, Albert the Bear recovered Havelberg, lost since the 983 Slavic rebellion. The crusaders then destroyed a pagan temple and castle at Malchow. After an unsuccessful siege of Demmin, a contingent of crusaders was diverted by the margraves to attack central Pomerania instead. They reached the already Christian city Stettin, whereupon the crusaders dispersed after meeting with Bishop Adalbert of Pomerania and Christian duke Ratibor I of Pomerania.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:17:57 am
Consequences
The Wendish Crusade achieved mixed results. While the Saxons affirmed their possession of Wagria and Polabia, Niklot retained control of the Obodrite land east of Lübeck. The Saxons also received tribute from Niklot, enabled the colonization of the Bishopric of Havelberg, and freed some Danish prisoners. However, the disparate Christian leaders regarded their counterparts with suspicion and accused each other of sabotaging the campaign.

According to Bernard of Clairvaux, the goal of the crusade was to battle the pagan Slavs "until such a time as, by God's help, they shall either be converted or deleted".[6] However, the crusade failed to achieve the conversion of most of the Wends. The Saxons achieved largely token conversions at Dobin, as the Slavs resorted to their pagan beliefs once the Christian armies dispersed; Albert of Pomerania explained, "If they had come to strengthen the Christian faith ... they should have done so by preaching, not by arms".[7]

The countryside of Mecklenburg and central Pomerania was plundered and depopulated with much bloodshed, especially by the troops of Henry the Lion.[1] Of Henry's campaigns, Helmold of Bosau wrote that "there was no mention of Christianity, but only of money".[1] The Slavic inhabitants also lost much of their methods of production, limiting their resistance in the future.[8]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:18:55 am
Reconquista and the fall of Lisbon

In the spring of 1147, the Pope authorized the expansion of the crusade into the Iberian peninsula, in the context of the Reconquista. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade.[5] In May 1147, the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England for the Holy Land. Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast, at the northern city of Porto on 16 June 1147. There they were convinced to meet with King Afonso I of Portugal.[15]

The crusaders agreed to help the King attack Lisbon, with a solemn agreement that offered to them the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners. The Siege of Lisbon lasted from 1 July to 25 October 1147 when, after four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender, primarily due to hunger within the city. Most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, but some of them set sail and continued to the Holy Land.[15] Some of them, who had departed earlier, helped capture Santarém earlier in the same year. Later they also helped to conquer Sintra, Almada, Palmela and Setúbal, and were allowed to stay in the conquered lands, where they had offspring.

Elsewhere on the Iberian Peninsula at almost at the same time, Alfonso VII of León, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, and others led a mixed army of Catalan and French crusaders against the rich port city of Almería. With support from a Genoese-Pisan navy, the city was occupied in October 1147.[16] Ramon Berenger then invaded the lands of the Almoravid taifa kingdom of Valencia and Murcia. In December 1148, he captured Tortosa after a five-month siege again with the help of French and Genoese crusaders.[16] The next year, Fraga, Lleida and Mequinenza in the confluence of the Segre and Ebro rivers fell to his army.[17]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:20:19 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ab/Siege_of_Lisbon_-_Muslim_surrender.jpg)

The Siege of Lisbon by D. Afonso Henriques by Joaquim Rodrigues Braga (1840): a Romantic view.


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:21:40 am
The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords. The Siege of Lisbon was one of the few Christian victories of the Second Crusade and is seen as a pivotal battle of the wider Reconquista.

The Fall of Edessa in 1144 led to a call for a new crusade by Pope Eugene III in 1145 and 1146. In the spring of 1147, the Pope authorized the crusade in the Iberian peninsula. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. In May 1147, the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England for the Holy Land. Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast, at the northern city of Porto on 16 June 1147. There they were convinced to meet with King Afonso I of Portugal.

The crusaders agreed to help the Count attack Lisbon, with a solemn agreement that offered to the crusaders the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners. The siege began on 1 July. After four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender on 24 October, primarily due to hunger within the city. Most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, but some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land. Lisbon eventually became capital city of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1255.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:22:17 am
Second Crusade
The Fall of Edessa in 1144 led to a call for a new crusade by Pope Eugene III in 1145 and 1146. In the spring of 1147, the Pope also authorized a crusade in the Iberian peninsula, where the war against the Moors had been going on for hundreds of years.[1]

At the beginning of the First Crusade in 1095, Pope Urban II had urged Iberian crusaders (Portuguese, Castilians, Leonese, Aragonese and others) to remain at home, where their own warfare was considered just as worthy as that of crusaders travelling to Jerusalem.

Eugene III encouraged Marseille, Pisa, Genoa, and other Mediterranean cities to fight in Iberia. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade.[2]

On 19 May 1147 the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England, consisting of Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some crusaders from Cologne,[3] who collectively considered themselves "Franks".[4]

No prince or king led this part of the crusade, England at the time was in the midst of The Anarchy. The fleet was commanded by Henry Glanville, Constable of Suffolk.[5][6] Other crusader captains included Arnold III of Aerschot, Christian of Ghistelles, Simon of Dover, Andrew of London, and Saher of Archelle.[7]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:22:40 am
Redirected efforts
According to Odo of Deuil there were 164 ships bound for the Holy Land, and there may have been as many as 200 by the time they reached the Iberian shore.

Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast, at the northern city of Porto on 16 June 1147. There they were convinced by the bishop, Pedro II Pitões, to meet with King Afonso of Portugal.

The King, who had reached the Tagus River and conquered Santarém in March, had also been negotiating with the Pope for the recognition of his title of King.

He was notified of the arrival of a first party and hastened to meet them.[5]

The undisciplined multi-national group agreed to help him there, with a solemn agreement that offered to the crusaders the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners.

For the city, "they shall have it and hold it until it has been searched and despoiled, both of prisoners for ransom and of everything else. Then, when it has been as thoroughly searched as they wish, they shall turn it over to me..."[8]

Afonso promised to divide the conquered territories as fiefs among the leaders. He reserved the power of advocatus and released those who were at the siege and their heirs trading in Portugal from the commercial tax called the pedicata.

The English crusaders were at first unenthusiastic, but Henry Glanville convinced them to participate.[9] Hostages were exchanged as sureties for the oaths.[5]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:23:12 am
Fall of Lisbon

The siege began on 1 July. The Christians soon captured the surrounding territories and besieged the walls of Lisbon itself, although the Muslim defenders were able to destroy their siege engines.

After four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender (21 October), primarily due to hunger within the city, which was sheltering populations displaced from Santarém as well as "the leading citizens of Sintra, Almada, and Palmela."[10]

After a brief riotous insurrection the Anglo-Norman chronicler attributes to "the men of Cologne and the Flemings", the city was entered by the Christian conquerors, on 25 October.

The terms of the surrender indicated that the Muslim garrison of the city would be allowed to keep their lives and property, but as soon as the Christians entered the city these terms were broken.[5]

According to the Expugnatione Lyxbonensi,

“ The enemy, when they had been despoiled in the city, left the town through three gates continuously from Saturday morning until the following Wednesday. There was such a multitude of people that it seemed as if all of Hispania were mingled in the crowd.[8]


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:23:54 am
Aftermath
Most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, and Gilbert of Hastings was elected bishop, but some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land.[5]

In spite of the contractual nature of the city's surrender, a legend arose that the brave Portuguese warrior and nobleman, Martim Moniz, sacrificed himself in order to keep the city doors open to the conquering Christian armies.

Lisbon eventually became capital city of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1255.

The victory was a turning-point in the history of Portugal and the wider Reconquista, which would be completed in 1492.[11]


In Fiction
The siege is the central theme in the 1989 novel "The History of the Siege of Lisbon", by Portuguese author José Saramago, which takes a look at the Medieval events from a critical and ironical 20th Century perspective.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:26:27 am
Crusade in the East
Joscelin tried to take back Edessa following Zengi's murder, but Nur ad-Din defeated him in November 1146. On 16 February 1147 the French crusaders met at Étampes to discuss their route. The Germans had already decided to travel overland through Hungary, as the sea route was politically impractical because Roger II, King of Sicily, was an enemy of Conrad. Many of the French nobles distrusted the land route, which would take them through the Byzantine Empire, the reputation of which still suffered from the accounts of the First Crusaders. Nevertheless it was decided to follow Conrad, and to set out on 15 June. Roger II was offended and refused to participate any longer. In France, Abbot Suger and Count William II of Nevers were elected as regents while the king would be on crusade. In Germany, further preaching was done by Adam of Ebrach, and Otto of Freising also took the cross. On 13 March, 1147, at Frankfurt, Conrad’s son Frederick was elected king, under the regency of Henry, Archbishop of Mainz. Five years later Conrad III designated his nephew, Friedrich Barbarossa, as his successor. The Germans planned to set out at Easter, but did not leave until May.[18]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:27:00 am
German route
The German crusaders, accompanied by the papal legate and cardinal Theodwin, intended to meet the French in Constantinople. Ottokar III of Styria joined Conrad at Vienna, and Conrad's enemy Geza II of Hungary allowed them to pass through unharmed. When the German army of 20,000 men arrived in Byzantine territory, Manuel feared they were going to attack him, and Byzantine troops were posted to ensure that there was no trouble. There was a brief skirmish with some of the more unruly Germans near Philippopolis and in Adrianople, where the Byzantine general Prosouch fought with Conrad’s nephew, the future emperor Frederick. To make things worse, some of the German soldiers were killed in a flood at the beginning of September. On 10 September, however, they arrived at Constantinople, where relations with Manuel were poor and the Germans were convinced to cross into Asia Minor as quickly as possible. Manuel wanted Conrad to leave some of his troops behind, to assist in defending against attacks from Roger II, who had taken the opportunity to plunder the cities of Greece, but Conrad did not agree, despite being a fellow enemy of Roger.[19] In Asia Minor, Conrad decided not to wait for the French, and marched towards Iconium, capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rüm. Conrad split his army into two divisions. The king led one of these, which was almost totally destroyed by the Seljuks on 25 October 1147 at the second battle of Dorylaeum.[20]

In battle, the Turks used their typical tactic of pretending to retreat, and then returning to attack the small force of German cavalry which had separated from the main army to chase them. Conrad began a slow retreat back to Constantinople, and his army was harassed daily by the Turks, who attacked stragglers and defeated the rearguard. Even Conrad was wounded in a skirmish with them. The other division, led by the King's half-brother, Bishop Otto of Freising, had marched south to the Mediterranean coast and was similarly defeated early in 1148.[21]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_crusade


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:27:38 am
French route
The French crusaders had departed from Metz in June 1147, led by Louis, Thierry of Alsace, Renaut I of Bar, Amadeus III of Savoy and his half-brother William V of Montferrat, William VII of Auvergne, and others, along with armies from Lorraine, Brittany, Burgundy, and Aquitaine. A force from Provence, led by Alphonse of Toulouse, chose to wait until August, and to cross by sea. At Worms, Louis joined with crusaders from Normandy and England. They followed Conrad’s route fairly peacefully, although Louis came into conflict with Geza of Hungary when Geza discovered Louis had allowed an attempted Hungarian usurper to join his army. Relations within Byzantine territory were also poor, and the Lorrainers, who had marched ahead of the rest of the French, also came into conflict with the slower Germans whom they met on the way.[22]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:28:14 am
Since the original negotiations between Louis and Manuel, Manuel had broken off his military campaign against the Sultanate of Rüm, signing a truce with his enemy Sultan Mesud I. This was done so that Manuel would be free to concentrate on defending his empire from the Crusaders, who had gained a reputation for theft and treachery since the First Crusade and were widely suspected of harbouring sinister designs on Constantinople. Nevertheless, Manuel's relations with the French army were somewhat better than with the Germans, and Louis was entertained lavishly in Constantinople. Some of the French were outraged by Manuel's truce with the Seljuks and called for an alliance with Roger II and an attack on Constantinople, but they were restrained by Louis.[23]

When the armies from Savoy, Auvergne, and Montferrat joined Louis in Constantinople, having taken the land route through Italy and crossing from Brindisi to Durazzo, the entire army was shipped across the Bosporus to Asia Minor. The Greeks were encouraged by rumours that the Germans had captured Iconium, but Manuel refused to give Louis any Byzantine troops. Byzantium had just been invaded by Roger II of Sicily, and all of Manuel's army was needed in the Balkans. Both the Germans and French therefore entered Asia without any Byzantine assistance, unlike the armies of the First Crusade. In the tradition set by his grandfather Alexios I, Manuel also had the French swear to return to the Empire any territory they captured.[24] The French met the remnants of Conrad's army at Nicaea, and Conrad joined Louis' force. They followed Otto of Freising's route, moving closer to the Mediterranean coast, and they arrived at Ephesus in December, where they learned that the Turks were preparing to attack them. Manuel also sent ambassadors complaining about the pillaging and plundering that Louis had done along the way, and there was no guarantee that the Byzantines would assist them against the Turks. Meanwhile Conrad fell sick and returned to Constantinople, where Manuel attended to him personally, and Louis, paying no attention to the warnings of a Turkish attack, marched out from Ephesus with the French and German survivors. The Turks were indeed waiting to attack, but in a small battle outside Ephesus, the French were victorious.[25]

They reached Laodicea early in January 1148, around the same time Otto of Freising’s army had been destroyed in the same area.[26] Resuming the march, the vanguard under Amadeus of Savoy became separated from the rest of the army, and Louis’ troops were routed by the Turks. Louis himself, according to Odo of Deuil, climbed a rock and was ignored by the Turks, who did not recognize him. The Turks did not bother to attack further and the French marched on to Adalia, continually harassed from afar by the Turks, who had also burned the land to prevent the French from replenishing their food, both for themselves and their horses. Louis no longer wanted to continue by land, and it was decided to gather a fleet at Adalia and sail for Antioch.[20] After being delayed for a month by storms, most of the promised ships did not arrive at all. Louis and his associates claimed the ships for themselves, while the rest of the army had to resume the long march to Antioch. The army was almost entirely destroyed, either by the Turks or by sickness.[27]



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:29:00 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Manuelcomnenus.jpg)

Emperor Manuel I


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on March 15, 2009, 01:29:57 am
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_crusade


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 03:59:12 am
Journey to Jerusalem

Louis eventually arrived in Antioch on March 19 after being delayed by storms; Amadeus of Savoy had died on Cyprus along the way. Louis was welcomed by Eleanor’s uncle Raymond of Poitiers. Raymond expected him to help defend against the Turks and to accompany him on an expedition against Aleppo, the Muslim city that was the gateway to Edessa, but Louis refused, preferring instead to finish his pilgrimage to Jerusalem rather than focus on the military aspect of the crusade.[27]


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 03:59:36 am
Eleanor enjoyed her stay, but her uncle implored her to remain to enlarge family lands and divorce Louis if the king refused to help what was assuredly the military cause of the Crusade. Louis quickly left Antioch for Tripoli with Eleanor in arrest. Meanwhile, Otto of Freising and the remnant of his troops arrived in Jerusalem early in April, and Conrad soon after.[28] Fulk, Patriarch of Jerusalem, was sent to invite Louis to join them. The fleet that had stopped at Lisbon arrived around this time, as well as the Provençals who had left Europe under the command of Alfonso Jordan, Count of Toulouse. Alphonso himself did not make it to Jerusalem as he died at Caesarea. He was supposedly poisoned either by Eleanor of Aquitaine or Raymond II of Tripoli, the nephew who feared his political aspirations in the county. The original focus of the crusade was Edessa, but the preferred target of King Baldwin III and the Knights Templar was Damascus.[27]


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:00:03 am
Council of Acre

The nobility of Jerusalem welcomed the arrival of troops from Europe, and it was announced that a council should meet to decide on the best target for the crusaders. This took place on 24 June 1148, when the Haute Cour of Jerusalem met with the recently-arrived crusaders from Europe at Palmarea, near Acre, a major city of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. This was the most spectacular meeting of the Cour in its existence.[29][30]

In the end, the decicion was made to attack the city of Damascus, an former ally of the Kingdom of Jerusalem that had shifted its allegiance to that of the Zengids and attacked the Kingdom's allied city of Bosra in 1147. In July their armies assembled at Tiberias and marched to Damascus, around the Sea of Galilee by way of Banyas. There were perhaps 50,000 troops in total.[31]


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:00:49 am
The Council of Acre met at Palmarea, near Acre, a major city of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, on 24 June 1148. The Haute Cour of Jerusalem met with recently-arrived crusaders from Europe, to decide on the best target for the crusade. The Second Crusade had been called after the fall of Edessa to Zengi in 1144. In 1147, armies led by Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France began their separate journeys to the east. Conrad arrived at Acre in April 1148, and Louis marched south from Antioch.

The nobility of Jerusalem welcomed the arrival of troops from Europe, and it was announced that a council should meet. After much discussion, it was determined that the crusaders would march against Damascus. Whatever the reasons for the Siege of Damascus were, the results were disastrous for the crusaders. As a result, Antioch, which lay in closer proximity than Damascus to Jerusalem, was to become vulnerable. William of Tyre recorded numerous participants at the Council.


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:01:27 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/William_of_tyre.jpg)

Image of William of Tyre writing his history, from a 13th century Old French translation, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, MS 2631, f.1r


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:01:51 am
The Second Crusade had been called after the fall of Edessa to Zengi in 1144. In 1147, armies led by Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France began their separate journeys to the east; after passing through Constantinople, Conrad suffered a heavy defeat in Anatolia, and retreated to meet Louis at Nicaea. Conrad then spent the winter in Constantinople while Louis continued south to the Mediterranean coast, harassed by the Turks along the way, and finally sailed to Antioch, then ruled by Raymond of Poitiers, uncle of his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. Conrad arrived at Acre in April, and Louis marched south from Antioch.[1] The nobility of Jerusalem welcomed the arrival of troops from Europe, and it was announced that a council should meet in Acre; as William of Tyre says, "together with the nobles of the realm who possessed an accurate knowledge of affairs and places, they entered into a careful consideration as to what plan was most expedient."[2]


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:02:10 am
Target of the crusaders

There were a number of choices for the target of the crusade. In northern Syria, Edessa was firmly in the control of Nur ad-Din, the successor of Zengi; its count, Joscelin II, was in captivity and there was no hope of retrieving him or the city, so the matter, so important to the original call for the crusade, was apparently not even discussed. In Antioch, Raymond of Poitiers had tried to convince Louis to attack Aleppo, Nur ad-Din's capital and the greatest threat to that city, but Raymond and Louis had quarrelled (partly over rumours of an incestual relationship between Eleanor and the prince) and Raymond was not present at the Council. The County of Tripoli was also not represented, although an attack on Aleppo would have benefitted Tripoli as well; however, the rule of Raymond II of Tripoli was challenged by Alfonso Jordan, Count of Toulouse, his cousin, and when Alfonso was poisoned on the way to the Council, Raymond was implicated in his murder. Conrad and Louis were, in any case, unconcerned with matters in northern Syria; for them, pilgrimage to Jerusalem was an inherent part of the crusading vow, and defense of Jerusalem was of utmost importance.[3]


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:02:24 am
In the south, the most immediate threats to Jerusalem came from Ascalon and Damascus. The crusade had coincidentally arrived during a political crisis in Jerusalem: King Baldwin III had ruled jointly with his mother Melisende since the death of King Fulk of Jerusalem in 1143, when Baldwin was only 13 years old; but Baldwin was now 18 and wished to assert his authority. The option of Ascalon did not suit Baldwin, since his brother Amalric, who supported their mother, was already Count of Jaffa and Ascalon would have been added to his territory. Ascalon had also been contained by a number of castles built during the reign of Fulk and was not an immediate threat. The capture of Damascus, on the other hand, would benefit Baldwin; despite being a sometime-ally of Jerusalem, Nur ad-Din also desired it, and capturing it would help limit the emir's power.[4] It would please Conrad and Louis, who were interested in capturing a city which, unlike Ascalon, was important to the history of Christianity.[5] It was therefore determined that the crusaders should march against Damascus. William of Tyre passes over these discussions, saying only that "various opinions of diverse factions were offered and arguments pro and con presented, as is customary in matters of such importance. At last it was agreed by all that under the circumstances it would be best to besiege Damascus, a city of great menace to us."[6


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:02:50 am
Aftermath of the council

Whatever the reasons for the Siege of Damascus were, the results were disastrous for the crusaders. The combined forces besieged the city in July, but the campaign was a terrible blunder and failed after only four days. The crusaders blamed each other and there were rumours of bribery. Conrad and Louis lingered in Jerusalem for some time, accomplishing nothing, before returning to Europe. Just as had been feared, Nur ad-Din used the opportunity to impose his power over Damascus, and was in personal control of the city by 1154.[7] The general historical debate now appears to view the decision to attack Damascus as somewhat inevitable. The campaign is viewed by historians, such as Martin Hoch, that the decision was the logical conclusion of Damascene foreign policy shifting into alignment with the Zengid dynasty. King Baldwin III had previously launched a campaign with the sole objective of capturing the city. This aided in shifting the Burid dynasty's relations with the Kingdom of Jerusalem.[8]


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:03:13 am
The original target of the crusade, Edessa, was an unfeasible target in any case. King Baldwin III was locked in a family dispute with his mother Queen Melisende over territory in Nablus and would therefore be reluctant to campaign in the North. This was echoed by the general consensus of the nobility of Jerusalem, who wished to strike out the threat of increasing Zengid influence in Damascus. If the city fell to the army of an enemy, which it did in 1154, the strategic importance of the city would allow for a campaign to be assembled directly into the heartland of Jerusalem. The Byzantine-Antioch treaty of 1137, which outlined the rights of the Byzantine Emperor to former Byzantine lands captured by the crusading armies, would also persuade many not to campaign in the North. Despite this, an attack on a neutral territory for the benefit of Jerusalem would compromise security in the North, particularly with the growing strength of the Zengid dynasty in the territory around Aleppo and, from 1144, Edessa. By deciding against a campaign at Aleppo, Antioch, which lay in closer proximity than Damascus to Jerusalem, was to become vulnerable.[9]


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:03:32 am
Participants

William of Tyre lists numerous participants at the Council. The Germans and others allied to the Holy Roman Empire included:

    * Conrad III of Germany
    * Otto, Bishop of Freising
    * Stephan of Bar, Bishop of Metz
    * Heinrich I von Lothringen, Bishop of Toul
    * Theodwin, Bishop of Porto, papal legate
    * Henry II Jasomirgott, Duke of Bavaria and Margrave of Austria
    * Duke Welf VI
    * Frederick III, Duke of Swabia
    * Herman III, Margrave of Baden
    * Berthold III of Andechs
    * William V, Marquess of Montferrat
    * Guido, Count of Biandrate


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:03:44 am
There were also "other noted men of high rank, whose names and titles we do not recall."[10] Otto of Freising would later write the Gesta Friderici, a history of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who himself attended the Council while still only Duke of Swabia. He lists Conrad, Henry of Bavaria, Welf, and Frederick, as well as Ortlieb, Bishop of Basel, and Arnold of Wied, Conrad's chancellor, "and other counts and illustrious men and nobles"; however, he passes over the Council and the siege completely, saying "what issue and event this expedition to Damascus also experienced must be related elsewhere, and possibly by others."[11] From the French, participants included:

    * Louis VII of France
    * Godefroy de la Rochetaillée, Bishop of Langres
    * Arnulf, Bishop of Lisieux
    * Guy of Florence, cardinal priest of San Crisogono, papal legate
    * Robert I of Dreux
    * Henry I, Count of Champagne
    * Thierry, Count of Flanders
    * Ivo de Nesle


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:03:59 am
"Many other important nobles of high rank were also present...but since it would take too long to record them here, their names are intentionally omitted."[12] From the Kingdom of Jerusalem, attendees included:

    * Baldwin III of Jerusalem
    * Melisende of Jerusalem
    * Patriarch Fulk of Jerusalem
    * Baldwin, Archbishop of Caesarea
    * Robert, Archbishop of Nazareth
    * Rorgo, Bishop of Acre
    * Bernard, Bishop of Sidon
    * William, Bishop of Beirut
    * Adam, Bishop of Banyas
    * Gerald, Bishop of Bethlehem
    * Robert of Craon, Grand Master of the Knights Templar
    * Raymond du Puy de Provence, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller
    * Manasses of Hierges
    * Philip of Nablus
    * Elinand of Tiberias
    * Gerard Grenier
    * Walter of Caesarea
    * Pagan the Butler
    * Barisan of Ibelin
    * Humphrey II of Toron
    * Guy of Beirut

"...and many others."[13]


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:05:40 am
(http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Louis_VII_le_Jeune.jpg/421px-Louis_VII_le_Jeune.jpg)

King Louis VII of France attended the council.


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:06:08 am
References

   1. ^ Thomas Madden, "The New Concise History of the Crusades" (Rowan and Littlefield, 2005, pp. 58-60.
   2. ^ William of Tyre, "A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea", trans. E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey (Columbia University Press, 1943), vol. 2, bk. 16, ch. 29, pg. 183.
   3. ^ Christopher Tyerman, "God's War: A New History of the Crusades" (Penguin, 2006), pp. 330-331.
   4. ^ Tyerman, pg. 332.
   5. ^ Hans Eberhard Mayer, "The Crusades", trans. John Gillingham (Oxford University Press, 1972), pg. 103.
   6. ^ William, vol. 2, bk. 17, ch. 2, pg. 186.
   7. ^ Tyerman, pg. 333.
   8. ^ Hoch (2002)
   9. ^ Smail (1956)
  10. ^ William of Tyre, vol. 2, bk. 17, ch. 1, pg. 185.
  11. ^ Otto of Freising, "The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa", trans. Charles Christopher Mierow (Columbia University Press, 1953), pg. 102-103.
  12. ^ William of Tyre, ibid.
  13. ^ Ibid.



Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:06:26 am
Further reading

    * Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187. Cambridge University Press, 1952; repr. Folio Society, 1994.
    * R.C. Smail, Crusading Warfare, 1097-1193. Barnes & Noble Books, 1956.
    * James Brundage, The Crusades: A Documentary History. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1962.
    * M. W. Baldwin, ed. "The first hundred years," vol. 1 of A History of the Crusades, ed. Kenneth M. Setton. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.
    * Jonathan Riley-Smith, Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Facts on File, 1991.
    * Martin Hoch & Jonathan Phillips, eds., The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences. Manchester University Press, 2002.
    * Jonathan Phillips, The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom. Yale University Press, 2007.


Title: Re: The Second Crusade
Post by: Panita Ristau on August 17, 2009, 04:07:08 am
Siege of Damascus

The crusaders decided to attack Damascus from the west, where orchards would provide them with a constant food supply.[30] They arrived at Daraiya on 23 July. The following day, the Muslims were prepared for the attack and constantly attacked the army advancing through the orchards outside Damascus. The defenders had sought help from Saif ad-Din Ghazi I of Aleppo and Nur ad-Din of Mosul, who personally led an attack on the crusader camp. The crusaders were pushed back from the walls into the orchards, where they were prone to ambushes and guerrilla attacks.[27]

According to William of Tyre, on 27 July the crusaders decided to move to the plain on the eastern side of the city, which was less heavily fortified but had much less food and water.[30] It was recorded by some that Unur had bribed the leaders to move to a less defensible position, and that Unur had promised to break off his alliance with Nur ad-Din if the crusaders went home.[27] Meanwhile Nur ad-Din and Saif ad-Din had by now arrived. With Nur ad-Din in the field it was impossible to return to their better position.[27] The local crusader lords refused to carry on with the siege, and the three kings had no choice but to abandon the city.[30] First Conrad, then the rest of the army, decided to retreat back to Jerusalem on 28 July, though for their entire retreat they were followed by Turkish archers who constantly harassed them.[32] While in retreat in Jerusalem, the French got word of the beheading of Raymond, King of Antioch by the enemy, a major blow for the crusade.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_crusade