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HISTORY OF WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE IN THE U.S.

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Author Topic: HISTORY OF WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE IN THE U.S.  (Read 5030 times)
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« Reply #75 on: June 02, 2008, 08:08:07 pm »









Ideological divergence with abolitionists and the women's rights movement


"The prejudice against color, of which we hear so much, is no stronger than that against sex.

It is produced by the same cause, and manifested very much in the same way."
Elizabeth Cady Stanton


After the American Civil War, both Stanton and Anthony broke with their abolitionist backgrounds and lobbied strongly against ratification of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the US Constitution granting African American men the right to vote.

Believing that African American men, by virtue of the Thirteenth Amendment, already had the legal protections, except for suffrage, offered to white male citizens and that so largely expanding the male franchise in the country would only increase the number of voters prepared to deny women the right to vote, both Stanton and Anthony were angry that the abolitionists, their former partners in working for both African American and women's rights, refused to demand that the language of the amendments be changed to include women.

Eventually, Stanton's oppositional rhetoric took on racial overtones.  Arguing on behalf of female suffrage, Stanton posited that women voters of "wealth, education, and refinement" were needed to offset the effect of former slaves and immigrants whose "pauperism, ignorance, and degradation" might negatively affect the American political system.  She declared it to be "a serious question whether we had better stand aside and see 'Sambo' walk into the kingdom [of civil rights] first."

While her frustration was palpable and perhaps understandable after her long fight for female suffrage, some scholars have argued that Stanton's emphasis on property ownership and education, opposition to black male suffrage, and desire to holdout for universal suffrage fragmented the civil rights movement by pitting African-American men against women and, together with Stanton's emphasis on "educated suffrage,"  in part established a basis for the literacy requirements that followed in the wake of the passage of the fifteenth amendment.

Stanton's position caused a significant rift between herself and many civil rights leaders, particularly Frederick Douglass, who believed that white women, already empowered by their connection to fathers, husbands, and brothers, at least vicariously had the vote. According to Douglass, their horrifying treatment as slaves entitled the now liberated African-American men, who lacked women's indirect empowerment, to voting rights before women were granted the franchise. African-American women,
he believed, would have the same degree of empowerment as white women once African-American
men had the vote; hence, general female suffrage was, according to Douglass, of less concern than black male suffrage.

Disagreeing with Douglass, and despite the racist language she sometimes resorted to, Stanton fir-
mly believed in a universal franchise that empowered blacks and whites, men and women. Speaking
on behalf of black women, she stated that not allowing them to vote condemned African American freedwomen "to a triple bondage that man never knows," that of slavery, gender, and race. 

She was joined in this belief by Anthony, Olympia Brown, and most especially Frances Gage, who was the first suffragist to champion voting rights for freedwomen.

Thaddeus Stevens, a Republican congressman from Pennsylvania and ardent supporter of abolition and, after the Civil War, Reconstruction, agreed that voting rights should be universal. In 1866, Stanton, Anthony, and several other suffragists drafted a universal suffrage petition demanding that the right
to vote be given without consideration of sex or race. The petition was introduced in the United States Congress by Stevens.

Despite these efforts, the Fourteenth Amendment was passed, without adjustment, in 1868.

By the time the Fifteenth Amendment was making its way through Congress, Stanton's position led to
a major schism in the women's rights movement itself. Many leaders in the women's rights movement, including Lucy Stone, Elizabeth Blackwell, and Julia Ward Howe, strongly argued against Stanton's "all
or nothing" position.

By 1869, disagreement over ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment had given birth to two separate women's suffrage organizations. The National Woman's Suffrage Association (NWSA) was founded in May 1869 by Anthony and Stanton, who served as its president for 21 years.  The NWSA opposed passage of the Fifteenth Amendment without changes to include female suffrage and, under Stanton's influence in particular, championed a number of women's issues that were deemed too radical by more conservative members of the suffrage movement.

The American Woman's Suffrage Association (AWSA), founded the following November and led by Stone, Blackwell, and Howe, supported the Fifteenth Amendment as written and preferred to focus
only on female suffrage rather than advocate for broader women's rights such as gender-neutral
divorce laws,  a woman's right to sexually refuse her husband, increased economic opportunities
for women, and the right of women to serve on juries, issues which were espoused by Stanton.

Believing that men should not be given the right to vote without women also being granted the franchise, Sojourner Truth, a former slave and feminist, affiliated herself with Stanton and Anthony's organization.  Stanton, Anthony, and Truth were joined by Matilda Joslyn Gage, who later worked on The Women's Bible with Stanton. Despite Stanton's position and the efforts of herself and others to expand the Fifteenth Amendment to include voting rights for all women, this amendment also passed,
as originally written, in 1870.
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« Reply #76 on: June 02, 2008, 08:13:05 pm »









Later years



In the decade following ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, both Stanton and Anthony increasingly took the position, first advocated by Victoria Woodhull, that the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments actually did give women the right to vote.

They argued that the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizens as "all persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof," included women and that the Fifteenth Amendment provided all citizens with the right to vote. Using this logic, they asserted that women now had the constitutional right to vote and that it was simply a matter of claiming that right. This constitutionally-based argument, which came to be called "the new departure" in women's rights circles because of its divergence from earlier attempts to change voting laws on a state-by-state basis, led to first Anthony (in 1872), and later Stanton (in 1880), going to the polls and demanding to vote. 

Despite this, and similar attempts made by hundreds of other women, it would be nearly fifty years before women obtained the right to vote throughout the United States.

During this time, Stanton maintained a broad focus on women's rights in general rather than narrowing her focus only to female suffrage in particular. After passage of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870 and its support by the Equal Rights Association and prominent suffragists such as Stone, Blackwell, and Howe, the gap between Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other leaders of the women's movement widened as Stanton took issue with the fundamental religious leanings of several movement leaders.

Unlike many of her colleagues, Stanton believed organized Christianity relegated women to an unacceptable position in society.

She explored this view in The Woman's Bible, which elucidated a feminist understanding of biblical scripture and sought to correct the fundamental sexism Stanton saw as being inherent to organized Christianity.  Likewise, Stanton supported divorce rights, employment rights, and property rights for women, issues in which the American Women's Suffrage Association (AWSA) preferred not to become involved.
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« Reply #77 on: June 02, 2008, 08:18:56 pm »









Her more radical positions included acceptance of interracial marriage. Despite her opposition to giving African-American men the right to vote without enfranchising all women and the derogatory language she had resorted to in expressing this opposition, Stanton had no objection to interracial marriage and wrote a congratulatory letter to Frederick Douglass upon his marriage to Helen Pitts, a white woman, in 1884.

Anthony, fearing public condemnation of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) and want-
ing to keep the demand for female suffrage foremost, pleaded with Stanton not to make her letter to Douglass or support for his marriage publicly known.

Stanton went on to write many of the more important books, documents, and speeches of the women's rights movement.

In 1881, Harper & Brothers Publishers issued the first volume of The History of Woman Suffrage, a seminal, six-volume work containing the full history, documents, and letters of the woman's suffrage movement.  While Stanton, along with Anthony and Gage, wrote the first three volumes, the work was eventually completed in 1922 by Ida Harper.  Stanton's other major writings included The Women's Bible, first published in 1895; Eighty Years & More: Reminiscences 1815-1897, her autobiography, published in 1898; and The Solitude of Self, or "Self-Sovereignty," which she first delivered as a speech at the 1892 convention of the National American Women's Suffrage Association in Washington, D. C..

In 1868 Stanton—together with Susan B. Anthony and Parker Pillsbury, a leading male feminist of his day—began publishing a weekly periodical, Revolution, with editorials by Stanton that focussed on a wide array of women's issues.

In a view different from many modern feminists, Stanton, who supported birth control and likely used it herself,  believed that abortion was infanticide, a position she discussed in Revolution.

At this time, Stanton also joined the New York Lyceum Bureau, embarking on a twelve-year career on the Lyceum Circuit. Traveling and lecturing for eight months every year provided her both with the funds to put her two youngest sons through college and, given her popularity as a lecturer, with a way to spread her ideas among the general population, gain broad public recognition, and further establish her reputation as a pre-eminent leader in the women's rights movement.

Among her most popular speeches were "Our Girls", "Our Boys", "Co-education", "Marriage and Divorce", "Prison Life", and "The Bible and Woman's Rights".

Her lecture travels so occupied her that Stanton, although president, presided at only four of fifteen conventions of the National Women's Suffrage Association during this period.
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« Reply #78 on: June 02, 2008, 08:22:46 pm »









In addition to her writing and speaking, Stanton was also instrumental in promoting women's suffrage in various states, particularly New York, Missouri, Kansas, where it was included on the ballot in 1867, and Michigan, where it was put to the vote in 1874. She made an unsuccessful bid for a U.S. Congressional seat from New York in 1868, and she was the primary force behind passage of the "Woman's Property Bill" that was eventually passed by the New York State Legislature.[1] She worked toward female suffrage in Wyoming, Utah, and California, and in 1878, she convinced California Senator Aaron A. Sargent to introduce a female suffrage amendment using wording similar to that of the Fifteenth Amendment passed some eight years previously.[77]

 
As she aged, Stanton was also active internationally, spending a great deal of time in Europe, where her daughter and fellow feminist, Harriet Stanton Blatch, and son lived.

In 1888, she helped prepare for the founding of the International Council of Women.  In 1890, Stanton opposed the merger of the National Woman's Suffrage Association with the more conservative and religiously based American Woman Suffrage Association.  Over her objections, the organizations merged, creating the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Despite her opposition to the merger, Stanton became its first president, largely because of Susan B. Anthony's intervention. In good measure because of the Women's Bible and her position on issues such as divorce, she was, however, never popular among the more religiously conservative members of the "National American".

On January 18, 1892, approximately ten years before she died, Stanton—together with Anthony,
Stone, and Isabella Beecher ****—addressed the issue of suffrage before the United States House Committee on the Judiciary.  After nearly five decades of fighting for female suffrage and women's rights, it was Elizabeth Cady Stanton's final appearance before members of the United States Congress. Using the text of what became The Solitude of Self, she spoke of the central value of the individual, noting that value was not based on gender. As with the Declaration of Sentiments she had penned some 45 years earlier, Stanton's statement eloquently expressed not only the need for women's voting rights in particular, but the need for a revamped understanding of women's position in society and even of women in general:


"The isolation of every human soul and the necessity of self-dependence must give each individual the right to choose his own surroundings. The strongest reason for giving woman all the opportunities for higher education, for the full development of her faculties, her forces of mind and body; for giving her the most enlarged freedom of thought and action; a complete emancipation from all forms of bondage, of custom, dependence, superstition; from all the crippling influences of fear--is the solitude and personal responsibility of her own individual life. The strongest reason why we ask for woman a voice in the government under which she lives; in the religion she is asked to believe; equality in social life, where she is the chief factor; a place in the trades and professions, where she may earn her bread, is because of her birthright to self-sovereignty; because, as an individual, she must rely on herself."
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« Reply #79 on: June 02, 2008, 08:26:20 pm »









Death, burial, and remembrance
 

U.S. postage stamp commemorating the Seneca Falls Convention titled 100 Years of Progress of Women: 1848-1948 (Elizabeth Cady Stanton on left)

Stanton died at her home in New York City on October 26, 1902 nearly twenty years before women were granted the right to vote in the United States. Survived by six of her seven children and by seven grandchildren, she was interred in Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx, New York.

Although Elizabeth Cady Stanton had been unable to attend a formal college or university, her daughters did. Margaret Livingston Stanton Lawrence attended Vassar College (1876) and Columbia University (1891), and Harriet Stanton Blatch received both her undergraduate and graduate degrees from Vassar College in 1878 and 1891 respectively.

After Stanton's death, her radical ideas about religion and emphasis on female employment and other women's issues led many suffragists to focus on Anthony, rather than Stanton, as the founder of the women's suffrage movement.

Because of her ongoing involvement in the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), Anthony was more familiar to many of the younger members of the movement.

By 1923, in celebrating the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Seneca Falls Convention, only Harriot Stanton Blatch paid tribute to the role her mother had played in instigating the women's rights movement.  Even as late as 1977, attention was paid to Susan B. Anthony as the founder of the movement, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton was not mentioned.

Over time, formal recognition of Stanton grew.

Despite the focus on Anthony, Stanton was commemorated along with Lucretia Mott and Susan B. Anthony in a sculpture by Adelaide Johnson at the United States Capitol, unveiled in 1921. Originally kept on display in the crypt of the US Capitol, the sculpture was moved to its current location and more prominently displayed in the rotunda in 1997.

The Elizabeth Cady Stanton House in Seneca Falls was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965, and by the 1990s, interest in Stanton was substantially rekindled when Ken Burns, among others, presented the life and contributions of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Once again, attention was drawn to her central, founding role in shaping not only the woman's suffrage movement, but a broad women's rights movement in the United States that included women's suffrage, women's legal reform, and women's roles in society as a whole.
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« Reply #80 on: July 19, 2008, 10:01:54 am »



ELIZABETH CADY STANTON


                                                                             

                                                                               LUCRETIA MOTT






                   T H E   S E N E C A   F A L L S   C O N V E N T I O N   -   J U L Y   1 9 - 2 0 , 1 9 4 8






The Seneca Falls Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 to July 20, 1848, was the first women's rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often called the birthplace of feminism.

Prominent at the 1848 convention were leading reformers, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.

Different groups at different times have turned to the founding documents of the United States to meet their needs and to declare their entitlement to the promises of the Revolution of 1776. At Seneca Falls, New York, in the summer of 1848, a group of American women and men met to discuss the legal limitations imposed on women during this period.

Their consciousness of those limitations had been raised by their participation in the anti-slavery movement; eventually they used the language and structure of the United States Declaration of Independence to stake their claim to the rights they felt women were entitled to as American citizens
in the Declaration of Sentiments.

Seneca Falls was in a key location at the time, on the Great Western Highway which ran west from Albany, giving travelers access to the West. The village's water power spurred the development of manufacturing industries, most notably various mills and pump manufacturers. The village also was part of New York's canal system, as the Seneca River through the village had been turned into canals and connected to the Erie Canal.
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« Reply #81 on: July 19, 2008, 10:04:46 am »









Background



In the 1840s the United States was in the throes of cultural and economic change.

In the years since the Revolution and the Constitutional Convention, the nation's geographic boundaries and population had more than doubled, the population had shifted significantly westward, and many Americans' daily lives had drifted away from Jefferson's vision of a nation composed of independent farmers.

Instead, farmers, artisans, and manufacturers existed in a world built around cash crops, manufactured goods, banks, and distant markets. Historians generally refer to this shift from production for a local economy based on a series of shared relationships to production for a distant, unknown market as the Market Revolution.

Not all Americans welcomed these changes, which often left them feeling isolated and cut them off from traditional sources of community and comfort.

In an effort to regain a sense of community and control over their nation's future, Americans, especially women, formed and joined reform societies. They were inspired by the message of the Second Great Awakening (a religious movement that emphasized man's potential and forgiveness of sin) and the Transcendentalist message of man's innate goodness; reformers joined together in organizations aimed at improving life in the country.

These groups attacked what they perceived as the various wrongs in their society, including the lack of free public school education for both boys and girls, the inhumane treatment of mentally ill patients and criminals, the evil of slavery, the widespread use of alcohol, and the "rights and wrongs" of American women's legal position. The Seneca Falls Convention is a part of this larger period of social reform movements, a time when concern about the rights of various groups percolated to the surface.
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« Reply #82 on: July 19, 2008, 10:07:09 am »









Many factors contributed to bringing about the 1848 convention.

Women of the Revolutionary era such as Abigail Adams and Judith Sargent Murray raised questions about what the Declaration of Independence would mean to them, but there had never been a large scale public meeting to discuss this topic until Seneca Falls. According to America's History, after the American Revolution, many new social roles for women emerged. With the men preoccupied with the war effort, it was up to women to take over many of their responsibilities on the home-front.

As a result, women were able to establish a place for themselves in society. Women such as Catharine Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe began writing about women's moral superiority and publishing their works. Many women began participating in reform organizations whose goals were to improve the lives of others and to fight for the rights of those who could not speak for themselves, such as schoolchildren and the mentally ill.

In 1834 the New York Female Reform Society was established with Lydia Finney as its president. It attempted to provide a moral working atmosphere to keep women out of prostitution. Other female leaders such as Dorothea Dix focused their energies on prison reform in the 1830s.

It was during this time that women's role as educators also emerged. Catharine Beecher established several academies for women and her writings suggested that women were the most appropriate candidates for teaching positions. Finally the abolitionist movement gave women another opportunity to become involved outside of the domestic sphere. With all of these structural changes, the time was ripe for a close examination of women's rights as well. A consciousness-raising experience, however, was necessary to turn these women's thoughts to their own condition.
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« Reply #83 on: July 19, 2008, 10:09:15 am »









The triggering incident was a direct result of participation in anti-slavery organizations by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.

Anti-slavery societies proliferated in the Northeast region of the United States and in some parts of what today we call the Midwest. Many of these organizations had female members.

According to Cristine Stansell in her article The Road from Seneca Falls, the abolitionist movement was what allowed women to get their foot in the door. They then began to use their involvement to promote women's rights. This caused the movement to split into two groups, the radicals and the conservatives.

 The radicals promoted equality for all, including women, while the conservatives clung to traditional gender roles. It was these conservatives who attempted to constrain women to the domestic sphere by refusing to let them participate in the abolitionist cause.

In 1840 the World Anti-Slavery Convention met in London; some of the American groups elected women as their representatives to this meeting.

Once in London, after a lengthy debate, the female representatives were denied their rightful seats and consigned to the balcony by conservative abolitionists.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott met at this meeting while sitting on the balcony and walking through the streets of London.

Eight years later Stanton and Mott called a convention to discuss women's rights.
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« Reply #84 on: July 19, 2008, 10:13:14 am »










The Call for Women's Rights 1848



On July 14, 1848, the Seneca County Courier announced that on the following Wednesday and
Thursday (the 19th and 20th) a "convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of women" would be held.

The Convention had been planned at a meeting a few days earlier in nearby Waterloo, NY, attended
by Lucretia Mott of Philadelphia, Elizabeth Cady Stanton of Seneca Falls, Jane Hunt of Waterloo and Elizabeth McClintock of Waterloo. The meeting took place at the home of Jane Hunt.

The Convention would take place in the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York.

While the first session was planned to be exclusively for women, the men who arrived for the event were not turned away.

On the second day, the Convention approved a document titled the Declaration of Sentiments,
a statement written by Stanton and others and modeled on the Declaration of Independence.
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« Reply #85 on: July 19, 2008, 10:16:45 am »










In adapting the Declaration of Independence, Stanton and her co-authors replaced "King George" with "all men" as the agent of women's oppressed condition and compiled a suitable list of grievances, just as the colonists did in the Declaration of Independence.

These grievances reflected the severe limitations on women's legal rights in America at this time:
women could not vote; they could not participate in the creation of laws that they had to obey;
their property was taxed.

Further, in the relatively unusual case of a divorce, custody of children was virtually automatically awarded to the father; access to the professions and higher education generally was closed to
women; and most churches barred women from participating publicly in the ministry or other posi-
tions of authority.

The Declaration of Sentiments proclaimed that "all men and women were created equal" and that
the undersigned would employ all methods at their disposal to right these wrongs.

The document was discussed in length by those in attendance.

It was the voting provision which caused the most debate, but ultimately the document was adopted and signed with hardly any alterations and was published as a pamphlet.

Of the approximately 300 people who attended the Convention, 100 signed the Declaration of Sentiments.
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« Reply #86 on: July 19, 2008, 10:21:22 am »








David Walker, in his efforts to gain recognition of the legal rights of Black Americans, similarly used
the Declaration of Independence in his call to the American people on behalf of the oppressed Black population, both freed and enslaved.

In the 1840s and even today, the language of Thomas Jefferson resonates through American life.

Many Americans believe that the ideals of the Revolution are applicable to life in the present, just as
the women of the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention felt those ideals spoke to them.





Historian Gerda Lerner has pointed out that, in addition to ideas of social contract and natural rights, religious ideas provided a second fundamental source for the Declaration of Sentiments.

Most of the women attending the convention had been active in Quaker or evangelical Methodist movements.



http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Seneca+Falls+Convention

The document therefore draws from writings by the evangelical Quaker Sarah Grimke to make biblical claims that God had created women equal and that man had usurped this authority by establishing "absolute tyranny" over woman.

According to Jami Carlacio, Grimke's writings opened the public's eyes to ideas like women's rights and for the first time they were willing to question convention.
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« Reply #87 on: July 19, 2008, 07:01:51 pm »

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« Reply #88 on: July 19, 2008, 07:08:54 pm »










                                                   160th Anniversary of the



                                               First Women's Rights Convention 






Women's National Historic Park

Seneca Falls, NY



July 19, 2008

 Come Celebrate with Us!




Breakfast

                                                                                                                  RETIRE THE DEBT!  Event Details
Honoring Hillary

Hillary's Remarks at the 150th Anniversary

Guest Essays

Support Women's History Museum in DC



Co-Sponsors:

                          National Women's Hall of Fame and the Women’s Interfaith Institute





Convention Celebration



What: "Celebrate Hillary" Breakfast

When: Saturday, July 19, 2008 from 8am-10am

Where: Abigail's Restaurant, 1978 Route 20 Waterloo, NY 13165

Info: Hillary Clinton supporters gather for a casual meet-and-greet breakfast and to celebrate the historic achievements of the Presidential campaign of Hillary Clinton. Breakfast buffet cost is $15.99 per attendee. Speaker TBA.

What: "Celebrate Hillary" Mixer

When: Saturday, July 19, 2008 from 8PM -11PM

Where: Seneca Falls Country Club, 2790 Route 89, Seneca Falls, NY 13148

Info: Casual mixer with complimentary hors d'oeuvres. Cash bar.


Seneca 160

July 19, 2008
Seneca Falls, NY
Read the New Declaration, on-line.

July 19th will mark the 160th anniversary of the First Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, NY.  Please join Hillary Clinton supporters along with advocates for and historians of womens' rights from around the nation on this historic day. 

Our Mission is to celebrate Hillary's historic campaign by:

1) Wearing/Bringing our Hillary Gear to the public events at the Women's National Historic Park from 10:30 AM to 7:00 PM on July 19th, and particularly the 5:00 PM speakers.

2) Holding a private reception in Seneca Falls, NY for Clinton supporters on July 19th, location TBA. See the Event Page for More.

3) Signing a Declaration of Sentiments II to declare our celebration and support for Senator Clinton and the continued advancement of women in all fields.

What better opportunity for Hillary supporters to join together and show our appreciation for Hillary"s candidacy and for the women who have fought for equality and progress from the First Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 through the present day. 

We hope you will support this event in whaever way you can.  If you cannot attend, we would greatly appreciate your financial support so that we can subsidize transport and accomodations for others, and offest costs of our reception for Hillary supporters.
 
See you in Seneca Falls on July 19th!
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« Reply #89 on: July 19, 2008, 07:11:24 pm »









                                                       Seneca Falls Convention





July 18-19, 1848

Seneca Falls, NY



The First Women's Rights Convention was held in Seneca Falls , NY on July 19 and 20, 1848.  At that time women were not permitted to vote, little less run for elective office.  160 years later, Hillary Clinton ran for President of the United States and won 18 million votes!

An estimated three hundred women and men attended the Convention in 1848, includingLucretia Mott  and Frederick Douglass. At the conclusion, 68 women and 32 men signed the Declaration of Sentiments .

It is fitting that we take this historic moment in time and reflect upon Hillary's historic candidacy.  It uplifted and empowered women around the globe, shattering the highest and hardest glass celing, as Hillary said in her speech on June 7th.

Someday it will be unremarkable for women to lead both Presidential tickets and for women to have parity and equality across the globe.  Hillary's campaign was a great step for all women and we hope to come together on July 19th to acknowledge how  monumental Hillary"s candidacy is in the context of women"s history and the struggle for women"s equality in the United States.



For more information about this historic event, go to:   

http://www.nps.gov/wori/historyculture/index.htm
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