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Gobekli Tepe - The World’s First Temple - 7,000 Years Older Than Stonehenge

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Author Topic: Gobekli Tepe - The World’s First Temple - 7,000 Years Older Than Stonehenge  (Read 8115 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #15 on: April 24, 2008, 10:00:45 am »










                                  G O B E K L I   T E P E   -   E D E N    F O U N D  ?






Archaeologist now claims that Gobekli Tepe is evidence not only for the oldest temple in
the world, but also the Garden of Eden.




Gobekli Tepe looking south

(pic credit:
Andrew Collins)

Incredibly new developments are afoot surrounding the discovery of Gobekli Tepe, billed as
the Oldest Temple in the World.

The last year of excavations at the 11,500-year-old proto-Neolithic site close to Sanliurfa
(ancient Eddessa) and the ancient Sabian city of Harran, has uncovered a large number of
beautiful carved statues, including headless humans, lizards, wild birds, serpents and, I'm
always happy to reveal, vultures.

In addition to this, 20 new cult rooms have been unearthed locally.
« Last Edit: April 24, 2008, 10:33:03 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #16 on: April 24, 2008, 10:04:05 am »



Klaus Schmidt
of the German Archaeological Institute

(pic credit: Sean Thomas)








The headless human figures are a puzzle for the archaelogist Dr Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute.

However, as I revealed in FROM THE ASHES OF ANGELS, GODS OF EDEN and in the new book,
they surely represent denuded bodies undergoing the process of excarnation.

Their heads are missing because these were the symbol of the soul, shown in Neolithic murals
found at the Neolithic city of Catal Huyuk in Southern Turkey and dating to 6500 BC as being
escorted into the afterlife by vultures, the ultimate bird associated with the Neolithic cult of
the dead in the Near East.

They were seen as psychopomps, soul-carriers, the role played by swan and goose (and some-
times the crow or raven) in Europe.
« Last Edit: April 24, 2008, 10:07:14 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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Bianca
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« Reply #17 on: April 24, 2008, 10:10:59 am »











What is even more significant about the new discoveries from Gobekli Tepe is that Klaus Schmidt,
a very forward thinking archaeologist, is now beginning to realise that this must have been the
place of emergence of the Neolithic in the ancient world towards the end of the last ice age,
c. 11,500 years ago.

The fact that so many firsts in human kind's evolution occurred in this one small region of the
globe parallels not only the ideas expressed in the Book of Genesis concerning the Fall of Man,
but also the fact that legend has long asserted that here was the biblical land of Eden.

This is exactly what I said in FROM THE ASHES OF ANGELS back in 1996, repeated also in

GODS OF EDEN in 1998,

but then Gobekli Tepe had only just been discovered and was not even known to me.



Recently, Egyptologist, writer and broadcaster David Rohl also apparently come to believe that
Gobekli Tepe marks the point of genesis of civilization, and is thus the best candidate by far for
the site of the Garden of Eden.

This follows on from his claims in his book LEGEND: THE GENESIS OF CIVILIZATION, the Eden
material being inspired by FROM THE ASHES OF ANGELS (he told me so), which saw the land of
Eden as a much larger region embracing SE Turkey, Western Iran and Northern Iraq (indeed, he
placed his 'Garden' east of Lake Urmia in Western Iran).

We had friendly arguments over this, whereby I stated that textual and oral evidnence indicated
that Eden was located between the inland sea of Lake Van and the coast of the Mediterranean
in Northern Syria, and thus was essentially in SE Turkey (Turkish Kurdistan).

He insisted it wasn't, but has now, seemingly, changed his tune.

Wait till I speak to him!

All this is good news for me, for it vindicates my work, which makes me very happy indeed.





Anyway, you can read all about Gobekli Tepe and other local proto-Neolithc sites in

THE CYGNUS MYSTERY.


http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/news/gobekli_eden.htm
« Last Edit: April 24, 2008, 10:27:05 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #18 on: November 21, 2008, 04:33:03 pm »



It is likely the megaliths at the Neolithic site of Göbekli Tepe in Turkey once supported roofs.
Archaeologists have found floors constructed of burnt lime and clay within the stone circles--
the earliest such floors ever discovered.

(Haldun Aydingün)








                                                   The World's First Temple 






Archaeology Magazine
Volume 61 Number 6,
November/December 2008 
by Sandra Scham 

Turkey's 12,000-year-old stone circles were the spiritual center of a nomadic people

At first glance, the fox on the surface of the limestone pillar appears to be a trick of the bright sunlight. But as I move closer to the large, T-shaped megalith, I find it is carved with an improbable menagerie. A bull and a crane join the fox in an animal parade etched across the surface of the pillar, one of dozens erected by early Neolithic people at Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Turkey. The press here is fond of calling the site "the Turkish Stonehenge," but the comparison hardly does justice to this 25-acre arrangement of at least seven stone circles. The first structures at Göbekli Tepe were built as early as 10,000 B.C., predating their famous British counterpart by about 7,000 years.

The oldest man-made place of worship yet discovered, Göbekli Tepe is "one of the most important monuments in the world," says Hassan Karabulut, associate curator of the nearby Urfa Museum. He and archaeologist Zerrin Ekdogan of the Turkish Ministry of Culture guide me around the site. Their enthusiasm for the ancient temple is palpable.

By the time of my visit in late summer, the excavation team lead by Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute has wrapped up work for the season. But there is still plenty to see, including three excavated circles now protected by a large metal shelter. The megaliths, which may have once supported roofs, are about nine feet tall.

Göbekli Tepe's circles range from 30 to 100 feet in diameter and are surrounded by rectangular stone walls about six feet high. Many of the pillars are carved with elaborate animal figure reliefs. In addition to bulls, foxes, and cranes, representations of lions, ducks, scorpions, ants, spiders, and snakes appear on the pillars. Freestanding sculptures depicting the animals have also been found within the circles. During the most recent excavation season, archaeologists uncovered a statue of a human and sculptures of a vulture's head and a boar.

As we walk around the recently excavated pillars, the site seems at once familiar and exotic. I have seen stone circles before, but none like these.
« Last Edit: November 21, 2008, 04:37:35 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #19 on: November 21, 2008, 04:39:15 pm »



Hunter-gatherers used stone tools to create
images of male creatures on T-shaped pillars.

Most of the carvings show dangerous animals,
such as this lion.

(Klaus Schmidt)
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« Reply #20 on: November 21, 2008, 04:40:19 pm »



Hunter-gatherers used stone tools to create
images of male creatures on T-shaped pillars.

Most of the carvings show dangerous animals,
such as this lion.

(Klaus Schmidt)
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« Reply #21 on: November 21, 2008, 04:41:31 pm »



A crocodile creature
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« Reply #22 on: November 21, 2008, 04:42:53 pm »



Vultures flying above a scorpion.

(Haldun Aydingün)
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« Reply #23 on: November 21, 2008, 04:44:14 pm »



Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute believes Göbekli
Tepe attracted small nomadic groups from numerous regions throughout
southeastern Anatolia.

(Haldun Aydingün)










Excavations have revealed that Göbekli Tepe was constructed in two stages.

The oldest structures belong to what archaeologists call the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period, which ended around 9000 B.C. Strangely enough, the later remains, which date to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, or about 8000 B.C., are less elaborate.

The earliest levels contain most of the T-shaped pillars and animal sculptures.

Archaeologist Klaus Schmidt downplays extravagant spiritual interpretations of Göbekli Tepe, such as the idea, made popular in the press, that the site is the inspiration for the Biblical Garden of Eden. But he does agree that it was a sanctuary of profound significance in the Neolithic world. He sees it as a key site in understanding the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture, and from tribal to regional religion.

Schmidt and his colleagues estimate that at least 500 people were required to hew the 10- to 50-ton stone pillars from local quarries, move them from as far as a quarter-mile away, and erect them. How did Stone Age people achieve the level of organization necessary to do this? Hauptmann speculates that an elite class of religious leaders supervised the work and later controlled the rituals that took place at the site. If so, this would be the oldest known evidence for a priestly caste--much earlier than when social distinctions became evident at other Near Eastern sites.
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« Reply #24 on: November 21, 2008, 07:22:03 pm »










Before the discovery of Göbekli Tepe, archaeologists believed that societies in the early Neolithic were organized into small bands of hunter-gatherers and that the first complex religious practices were developed by groups that had already mastered agriculture. Scholars thought that the earliest monumental architecture was possible only after agriculture provided Neolithic people with food surpluses, freeing them from a constant focus on day-to-day survival. A site of unbelievable artistry and intricate detail, Göbekli Tepe has turned this theory on its head.

Schmidt believes the people who created these massive and enigmatic structures came from great distances. It seems certain that once pilgrims reached Göbekli Tepe, they made animal sacrifices. Schmidt and his team have found the bones of wild animals, including gazelles, red deer, boars, goats, sheep, and oxen, plus a dozen different bird species, such as vultures and ducks, scattered around the site. Most of these animals are depicted in the sculptures and reliefs at the site.

There is still much that we don't understand about religious practices at Göbekli Tepe, Schmidt cautions. But broadly speaking, the animal images "probably illustrate stories of hunter-gatherer religion and beliefs," he says, "though we don't know at the moment." The sculptors of Göbekli Tepe may have simply wanted to depict the animals they saw, or perhaps create symbolic representations of the animals to use in rituals to ensure hunting success.

Schmidt has another theory about how Göbekli Tepe became a sacred place. Though he has yet to find them, he believes that the first stone circles on the hill of the navel marked graves of important people. Hauptmann's team discovered graves at Nevali Cori, and Schmidt is reasonably confident that burials lie somewhere in the earliest layers of Göbekli Tepe. This leads him to suspect the pillars represent human beings and that the cult practices at this site may initially have focused on some sort of ancestor worship. The T-shaped pillars, he points out, look like human bodies with the upper part of the "T" resembling a head in profile. Once, Schmidt says, they stood on the hillside "like a meeting of stone beings."



Sandra Scham is ARCHAEOLOGY's
Washington, D.C.,
correspondent and a fellow at the

American Association for the Advancement of Science.



http://www.archaeologynews.org/link.asp?ID=340029&Title=From%20the%20Trenches
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« Reply #25 on: November 21, 2008, 07:23:31 pm »

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« Reply #26 on: November 21, 2008, 07:25:19 pm »

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« Reply #27 on: November 21, 2008, 07:31:45 pm »



Klaus Schmidt








                          DISCOVERY OF 12,000-YEAR-OLD TEMPLE COMPLEX COULD ALTER



                                                THEORY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT






As a child, Klaus Schmidt used to grub around in caves in his native Germany in the hope of finding prehistoric paintings.

Thirty years later, representing the German Archaeological Institute, he found something infinitely more important -- a temple complex almost twice as old as anything comparable on the planet.


"This place is a supernova",


says Schmidt, standing under a lone tree on a windswept hilltop 35 miles north of Turkey’s border
with Syria.


"Within a minute of first seeing it I knew I had two choices:
go away and tell nobody,
or spend the rest of my life working here."


Behind him are the first folds of the Anatolian plateau.

Ahead, the Mesopotamian plain, like a dust-colored sea, stretches south hundreds of miles to
Baghdad and beyond.

The stone circles of Gobekli Tepe are just in front, hidden under the brow of the hill.
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« Reply #29 on: November 21, 2008, 10:12:15 pm »
















                                                    G O B E K L I   T E P E






Angelica Portagnuolo
Archaeology
2008/04/08

Translated by
Giusy Loglisci


An extraordinary discovery of a place of worship dating back to 9000 B.C. has been made in Turkey.

In the south of Turkey, in Göbekli Tepe, in an area well-known as "Mount of belly button", a giant and mysterious work of architecture has been brought to light by an equipe of researchers from Dai (German Archeological Institute of Istanbul) and from the museum of Urfa, under the direction of Klaus Schmidt, a German archaeologist.

The excavation campaign, which started in 1994, has soon revealed the presence of finds, which are outstanding and unique in their genre: a templar structure made of 240 pilasters which are around 4 meters high and form a range of concentric circles.

These circles appear to date back to around 9000 B.C. and are completely buried underground. Most of the pilasters have engravings on the surface referring to either the religious sphere or the daily life of those who used to go to the site of worship.

For example, one of the engraving represents a pig and two ducks flying in the net.

The discoverer says: "I believe that Göbekli Tepe celebrates the catch, the lifestyle of hunters-pickers". "Why should it not be?"

"It was such a rich and easy life that offered them enough spare time to devote themselves to sculpture".

The hunters of Göbekli decided to leave the temple in around 8000 B.C., probably because the need to feed more people that used to meet in this place for religious purposes, caused a change of the ecosystem of the territory itself.




Göbekli Tepe Current view of the excavation area


It might have happened that lots of trees were chopped down and many animals which were "easy prey of these hunters" were chased away. By looking at the top of brownish and dry hills, you can deduct that the heavenly earth had become indeed an uncultivated and bare plain.

It is a surprise to discover how these Neolithic semi nomad hunters had managed to build such a work of architecture by assembling both the religious and the social aspects in a refined and complex way.

This is something even more ancient than the so well-known anatolic sanctuaries of Çatal Hűyűk dating back to 6500 B.C. Following a first research on the findings, Schmidt sustains that the temple might have been linked to the story of Eden, as told in the Bible.

According to the Muslims, Sanliurfa, a city close to Göbekli, should be the city called Ur, as mentioned in the Bible; the rivers that flow down from Heaven could be, instead, Tigris and Euphrates which wet the half-moon shaped fertile area where Göbekli Tepe is located; in the Bible it is told that some mountains surround Eden and that by looking at the top of Göbekli hills you can see the mountainous chain of Taurus.



It still a mystery how a population, apparently not civilized yet, could have built such a big place of worship with pilasters of fifty tons weight, in such a historical and ancient period; it is important to remember, indeed, that the only place comparable to this one, which has been discovered, is Stonehenge in Great Britain which dates back to 3100 B.C.
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