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Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original

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Dawn Moline
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« on: April 15, 2008, 01:27:16 am »

Author  Topic: Art & Literature Throughout the Ages 
Dawn Moline

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   posted 07-22-2006 11:00 PM                       
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This topic shall explore ths history of art and literature and their development throughout history. It is through our culture that we comprise our civilization, and art and literature define our culture.

By art, I mean:

painting
drawing
sculpture
music
poetry
architecture
cinema


And, by literature, I mean:

epics
legends
myths
ballads
poetry
oral poetry
folktale
books


These things tell the story of human history. Uncovering their secrets tell us all we need to know about ourselves.

I would like to get into the great movements of art and all the masters - Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael, Titian, Van Gogh, and my personal favorites, the Pre-Raphaelites. I would also like us to study all the great authors and poets and who and whatever else comes to mind. All thoughts are welcome, and feel free to trear the subject as seriously or with whatever humor you like.

Cheers,

Dawn

--------------------
"The unexamined life is one not worth leading."
-Plato

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Posts: 446 | From: citizen of the world | Registered: Oct 2004 
 
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Dawn Moline
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« Reply #1 on: April 15, 2008, 01:28:43 am »

First we should get into ancent art (we had to crawl before we could walk). From Wikipedia:

Morocco

The earliest figurine the Venus of Tan-Tan discovered to date originated somewhere between 500,000 and 300,000 BC, during the Middle Acheulean period. Discovered in Morocco, it is about 6 centimeters long. Evidence suggests that this Moroccan piece may have been created by natural geological processes with a minimum of human tool-work, but the piece bears evidence of having been painted; "a greasy substance" on the stone's surface has been shown to contain iron and manganese and indicates that it was decorated by someone and used as a figurine, regardless of how it may have been formed. [1]

The oldest sculpture was found in Morocco, which borders the Atlantic. Proof that culture began in that area? Perhaps.
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Dawn Moline
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« Reply #2 on: April 15, 2008, 01:30:07 am »

Next we have Japan:

The Jomon period (縄文時代, Jōmon-jidai?) is the time in Japanese pre-history from about 10,000 BC to 300 BC.

Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. Based on archaeological evidence, between 35,000 BC and 30,000 BC Homo sapiens had migrated to the islands from eastern and southeastern Asia and had well-established patterns of hunting and gathering and stone toolmaking. Stone tools, inhabitation sites, and human fossils from this period have been found throughout all the islands of Japan. Additionally, a 1988 genetic study points to an East Asian base for the Japanese peoples. [1]

The term "Jomon" is a translation into Japanese of the English term "cord-marked". This refers to the markings made on clay vessels and figures using sticks with cords wrapped around them.

Incipient and Initial Jomon (10000 - 4000 BC)
More stable living patterns gave rise by around 10,000 BC to a Mesolithic or, as some scholars argue, Neolithic culture. Possibly distant ancestors of the Ainu aboriginal people of modern Japan, members of the heterogeneous Jomon culture (c. 10,000-300 BC) left the clearest archeological record. The culture was roughly contemporaneous with civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Nile, and the Indus Valley.


Early pottery

Incipient Jomon pottery (10,000-8,000 BC) Tokyo National Museum, Japan.According to archaeological evidence, the Jomon people may have created the first known pottery vessels in the world, dated to the 11th millennium BC [2] , as well as the earliest ground stone tools. The antiquity of this pottery was first identified after the Second World War, through radiocarbon dating methods [3]. However, some Japanese scholars also believe that pottery production technology was first invented on the mainland because of sites in China and Russia that have produced pottery "which may be as old, if not older, than ***ui Cave pottery" [4]. The Jomon people were making clay figures and vessels decorated with patterns of a growing sophistication made by impressing the wet clay with braided or unbraided cord and sticks.

Neolithic traits

The manufacture of pottery typically implies some form of sedentary life, since pottery is highly breakable and thus is useless to hunter-gatherers who are constantly on the move. Therefore, the Jomon were probably some of the earliest sedentary or at least semi-sedentary people in the world. They used chipped stone tools, ground stone tools, traps, and bows, and were probably semi-sedentary hunters-gatherers and skillful coastal and deep-water fishermen. They practised a rudimentary form of agriculture and lived in caves and later in groups of either temporary shallow pit dwellings or above-ground houses, leaving rich kitchen middens for modern anthropological study. Because of this, the earliest forms of farming are sometimes attributed to Japan (Ingpen & Wilkinson) in 10,000 BC, two thousand years before their widespread appearance in the Middle East. However, some archaeological evidence also suggests early experiments with agriculture in the hills and valleys of the Fertile Crescent in modern Syria, Jordan, Turkey and Iraq around 11,000 BC. [5].


Population expansion

This semi-sedentary culture led to important population increases, so that the Jomon exhibit some of the highest densities known for foraging populations [6]. Genetic mapping studies by Cavalli-Sforza have shown a pattern of genetic expansion from the area of the Sea of Japan towards the rest of eastern Asia. This appears as the third most important genetic movement in Eastern Asia (after the "Great expansion" from the African continent, and a second expansion from the area of Northern Siberia), which suggests geographical expansion during the early Jomon period [7]. These studies also suggest that the Jomon demographic expansion may have reached America along a path following the Pacific coast [8].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jomon

[ 07-22-2006, 11:12 PM: Message edited by: Dawn Moline ]
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HUH?


« Reply #3 on: April 28, 2008, 12:31:21 pm »

It interesting that agricultural activities started to happen around the same time that glacial retreat became appearent. Some beleive that it was this knowledge of agriculture that was the forbidden fruit of Adam and Eve. Then we will take into account the popular beleif of Atlantis disappearing at around this time as well. This could very well mark the time of when modern man became the greatest inventor of all the beasts in the feild.

It also shows how Earth changes helped the evolution of man to give us a greater understanding into how further events may shape our way of life in the future.

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« Reply #4 on: November 18, 2008, 01:09:37 pm »



Incipient Jomon pottery (10,000-8,000 BCE), Tokyo National Museum, Japan.
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« Reply #5 on: November 18, 2008, 01:10:54 pm »



 三内丸山遺跡復元六本柱建物。The Reconstructed Pillar Supported Structure in Sannai-Maruyama site, Aomori.
 
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« Reply #6 on: November 18, 2008, 01:11:23 pm »

The Early and Middle Jōmon periods saw an explosion in population, as indicated by the number of excavations from this period. These two periods occurred during the prehistoric Holocene Climatic Optimum (between 4000 BC and 2000 BC), when temperatures reached several degrees Celsius higher than the present, and the seas were higher by 5 to 6 metres.[7] Beautiful artistic realisations, such as highly decorated "flamed" vessels, remain from that time. After 1500 BC, the climate cooled, and populations seem to have contracted dramatically. Comparatively few archaeological sites can be found after 1500 BC.

The Early Jōmon is the first stage in the Jomon era of Japanese pre-history. The Jomon period itself ranged from 10,000 to 300 BC. This stage lasted from 4000 to 3000 BC. The Early Jomon is characterized by the high sea level (2 to 3 meters higher than the modern day) and a significant population increase. [8] This period saw a rise in complexity in the design of pit houses, the most commonly used method of housing at the time. [9] The Middle Jōmon covers the period of Jōmon history from 3000 to 2000 BC. Following the Early Jōmon period, the Middle Jōmon periods saw an explosion in population, as indicated by the number of excavations from this period. These two periods correspond to a portion of the prehistoric Holocene climatic optimum (between 4000 and 2000 BC), when temperatures were several degrees Celsius higher than the present and the seas were five to six meters higher as well("Prehistoric Japan", Imamura).

The Late Jōmon covered the period of history from around 2000 to 1000 BC, while the Final Jōmon spanned from around 1000 to 400 BC.

By the end of the Jōmon period, a dramatic shift had taken place according to archaeological studies. New arrivals from the continent seem to have invaded Japan from the West, bringing with them new technologies such as rice farming and metallurgy. The settlements of the new arrivals seem to have coexisted with those of the Jōmon for some time. Under these influences, the incipient cultivation of the Jōmon evolved into sophisticated rice-paddy farming and government control. Many other elements of Japanese culture also may date from this period and reflect a mingled migration from the northern Asian continent and the southern Pacific areas. Among these elements are Shinto mythology, marriage customs, architectural styles, and technological developments such as lacquerware, textiles, laminated bows, metalworking, and glass making. The Jōmon is succeeded by the Yayoi period.

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« Reply #7 on: November 18, 2008, 01:12:06 pm »



Jomon vessel with flame-like ornamentation. Middle Jomon (3000-2000 BCE). Attributed provenance: Umataka, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata. Tokyo National Museum.
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« Reply #8 on: November 18, 2008, 01:12:46 pm »



Middle Jomon Jar 2000 BCE
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« Reply #9 on: November 18, 2008, 01:13:25 pm »



A Final Jomon statuette (1000-400 BCE), Tokyo National Museum, Japan.
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« Reply #10 on: November 18, 2008, 01:14:07 pm »



Jar With Spirals. Final Jomon, Kamegaoka Style
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« Reply #11 on: November 18, 2008, 01:14:48 pm »



Final Jomon Jar, Kamegaoka style
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« Reply #12 on: November 18, 2008, 01:21:04 pm »

Art of ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian art refers to the style of painting, sculpture, crafts and architecture developed by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 50000 BC to 300 AD. Ancient Egyptian art as expression in painting and sculpture was both highly stylized and symbolic. Much of the surviving art comes from tombs and monuments and thus there is an emphasis on life after death and the preservation of knowledge of the past.

In a more narrow sense, Ancient Egyptian art refers to the canonical 2nd and 3rd Dynasty art developed in Egypt from 3000 BC and used until the 3rd century. Most elements of Egyptian art remained remarkably stable over that 3000 year period. There wasn't strong outside influence. The same basic conventions and quality of observation started at a high level and remained near that level over the period.

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« Reply #13 on: November 18, 2008, 01:21:46 pm »



Miniature Egyptian glassware from the New Kingdom period.
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« Reply #14 on: November 18, 2008, 01:22:03 pm »

Symbolism also played an important role in establishing a sense of order. Symbolism, ranging from the pharaoh's regalia (symbolizing his power to maintain order) to the individual symbols of Egyptian gods and goddesses, is omnipresent in Egyptian art. Animals were usually also highly symbolic figures in Egyptian art. Colors were more expressive rather than natural: red skin implied vigorous tanned youth, whereas yellow skin was used for women or middle-aged men who worked indoors; blue or gold indicated divinity because of its unnatural appearance and association with precious materials; the use of black for royal figures expressed the fertility of the Nile from which Egypt was born. Stereotypes were employed to indicate the geographical origins of foreigners
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