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Art & Literature Throughout the Ages - Original

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Amy Principe
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« Reply #30 on: November 19, 2008, 11:07:42 am »

Miniature painting

In western India from the 16th to 18th century miniature painting developed. These small paintings were part of manuscripts written at the time and illustrate the subjects of the manuscripts. These miniatures are found in some " Jain " manuscripts and are of 2 to 4 inches in size.

The pattern of large scale wall painting which had dominated the scene, witnessed the advent of miniature paintings during the 11th & 12th centuries. This new style figured first in the form of illustrations etched on palm-leaf manuscripts. The contents of these manuscripts included literature on the Buddhism & Jainism. In eastern India, the principal centres of artistic and intellectual activities of the Buddhist religion were Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramshila and Somarpura situated in the Pala kingdom (Bengal & Bihar).

 
Mughal paintingIt was in the 14th century A.D. that paper replaced the palm leaf. The jain style of paintings attained a high degree of development by th elate 15th and 16th century. A new trend in manuscript illustration was set by a manuscript of the Nimatnama painted at Mandu, during the reign of Nasir shah (1500 - 1510 AD). This represent a synthesis of the indigenous and the Persion style, thought it was the latter which dominated the Mandu manuscripts. There was another style of painting known as Lodi Khuladar that flourished in the Sultanate's dominion of North India extending from delhi to Jaunpur.

Akbar's reign (1556-1605) ushered a new era in Indian miniature painting. He was the first morarch who established in India an atelier under the supervision of two Persian master artists, Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdul-ul-Sanad Khan. Earlier, both of them had served under the patronage of Humayun in Kabul and accompanied him to India when he regained his throne in 1555. Later, a number of artists were engaged to work under their guidance to decorate Akbar's imperial studio at fatehpur Sikri. One of the first productions of that school of miniature painting was the HAMZANAMA series, which according to the court historian, Badayuni, was started in 1567 and completed in 1582. It is interesting that most of artists beloned to the Hindu communities hailing from Gujrat, Gwalior and kashmir, who gave a birth to a new school of painting, popularly known as the Mughal School of miniature Paintings.

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Amy Principe
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« Reply #31 on: November 19, 2008, 11:09:35 am »


Mughal painting


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« Reply #32 on: November 19, 2008, 11:10:27 am »

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« Reply #33 on: November 19, 2008, 11:11:13 am »



Indischer Maler um 1595
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« Reply #34 on: November 19, 2008, 11:12:40 am »


Buddha statue from the Gandhara-culture (1st century, Afghanistan)

Buddha-Statue der Gandhara-Kultur (1 Jahrhundert, Afghanistan)

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Crystal Thielkien
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« Reply #35 on: November 20, 2008, 03:06:23 pm »

Next to ancient Egypt:

Ancient Egyptian art is five thousand years old. It emerged and took shape in ancient Egypt, the civilization of the Nile Valley. Expressed in paintings and sculptures, it was highly symbolic and fascinating — this art form revolves round the past and was intended to keep history alive.

In a narrow sense, Ancient Egyptian art refers to the canonical 2D and 3D art developed in Egypt from 3000 BC and used until the 3rd century. It is to be noted that most elements of Egyptian art remained remarkably stable over the 3000 year period that represents the ancient civilization without strong outside influence. The same basic conventions and quality of observation started at a high level and remained near that level over the period.

Egyptian papyrusFaience that was produced in ancient Egyptian antiquity as early as 3500 BC was in fact superior to the tin-glazed earthenware of the European 15th century ([2]; also see Faience). Ancient Egyptian faience was not made of clay but instead actually of a ceramic composed primarily of quartz. Approximately two hundred of these "masterpieces of faience" are the subject of the on-line article posted at [3].

Because of the highly religious nature of Ancient Egyptian civilization, many of the great works of Ancient Egypt depict gods, goddesses, and Pharaohs, who were also considered divine. Ancient Egyptian art is characterized by the idea of order. Clear and simple lines combined with simple shapes and flat areas of color helped to create a sense of order and balance in the art of ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptian artists used vertical and horizontal reference lines in order to maintain the correct proportions in their work. Political and religious, as well as artistic order, was also maintained in Egyptian art. In order to clearly define the social hierarchy of a situation, figures were drawn to sizes based not on their distance from the painter's point of view but on relative importance. For instance, the Pharaoh would be drawn as the largest figure in a painting no matter where he was situated, and a greater God would be drawn larger than a lesser god. Symbolism also played an important role in establishing a sense of order. Symbolism, ranging from the Pharaoh's regalia (symbolizing his power to maintain order) to the individual symbols of Egyptian gods and goddesses, was omnipresent in Egyptian art . Animals were usually also highly symbolic figures in Egyptian art. Color, as well, had extended meaning— Blue and green represented the Nile and life; yellow stood for the sun god; and red represented power and vitality. The colors in Egyptian artifacts have survived extremely well over the centuries because of Egypt's dry climate. Despite the stilted form caused by a lack of perspective, ancient Egyptian art is often highly realistic. Ancient Egyptian artists often show a sophisticated knowledge of anatomy and a close attention to detail, especially in their renderings of animals. During the 18th Dynasty of Egypt a Pharaoh by the name of Akhenaton took the throne and abolished the traditional polytheism. He formed a monotheistic religion based on the worship of Aten, a sun god. Artistic change followed political upheaval. A new style of art was introduced that was more naturalistic than the stylized frieze favored in Egyptian art for the previous 1700 years. After Akhenaton's death, however, Egyptian artists reverted to their old styles.
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Crystal Thielkien
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« Reply #36 on: November 20, 2008, 03:07:22 pm »

And, lastly the greatest arworks of the ancient world:

Seven Wonder of the World - Ancient Times


The task of compiling the seven wonders of the world for people would have been really a tough one. There were so many marvels to choose from. The task of compiling the list of seven wonders of the world was originally started by around 5th century BC.

We all know the difficulties of old days to travel around places. People had quite tough times in travel and collecting data like these. Imaging traveling by walk or on camels or horses for 100s of miles without a proper place to rest. Of course our generation is blessed to have a large number of hotels and lodges wherever we go. We have aero places, trains, buses, cars, bikes and what not.


In spite of all such difficulties in travel, People like Herodotus, Callimachus and some others did a good level of research and documentation. They traveled a lot, collected a lot of books, facts and proofs to produce such documentation. But all of them were destroyed when a fire broke out in Alexandria Library. The final list was compiled in the Medieval ages. Alas! such a big loss. What we are left with is only some little maps/atlas and some basic documents from them.


Pyramid of Giza

Egypt is a place any one would like to go for a vacation. Tourism is such a great money earner for Egypt. And when somebody travels, one of the most preferred place to visit would be the Cairo and the Giza city.
This is one of the largest pyramids in the world and considered to be one of the great among the seven wonders of the world. There are actually 3 Pyramids located in this place along with a Sphinx. The biggest of all is The Great Pyramid of Khufu and this is the only one among the seven wonders of the world. These architectural marvels are found in Giza City which is located at the northern edge of the Giza Plateau, about 10 miles west of present day Cairo. Read on..

Temple of Artemis

This is located on the west coast of modern Turkey, south of Selcuk county about 50 km south of Smyrna. This place was called as Ephesus during ancient times. This temple was destroyed and rebuilt over several hundred years. From the descriptions of those times, this temple should have been a great place for travel and tourism. Tourists would have loved to visit such places.

This was first built during 800 BC near the river at Ephesus. The God Artemis in Ephesus is a goddess of fertility. In some instances Artemis is linked closely to the Roman and Italian goddess, Diana. She also is goddess of night, fruitfulness, childbirth, beasts, bull and is an eternal virgin. This got its rightful recognition as one among the seven wonders of the world. Read on..

Colossus of Rhodes

If this wonder were remaining, this would have been one of the tallest artifacts in the world and also one the tallest among the seven wonders of the world. This wonder was erected to commemorate the victory of Rhodians against the Antagonids. This statue was located in the Harbor of the Mediterranean island Rhodes in Greece. The Island of Rhodes is located at the Southwestern tip of the Asia Minor, where the Aegean sea meets the Mediterranean.

If this was still available, this would have caught attention of the travelers more than any such taller statues. Read on..


http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/

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Crystal Thielkien
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« Reply #37 on: November 20, 2008, 03:11:24 pm »

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If this wonder were remaining, this would have been one of the tallest artifacts in the world. This wonder of the world was erected to commemorate the victory of Rhodians against the Antagonids.

Location:

This statue was located in the Harbor of the Mediterranean island Rhodes in Greece. The Island of Rhodes is located at the Southwestern tip of the Asia Minor, where the Aegean sea meets the Mediterranean.

Details:

This is a statue of the Sun god, Helios. On the Island of Rhodes 3 cities Ialysos, Kamiros and Lindos formed a unified city with their capital as Rhodes. During the period around 408 BC they had strong economic and commercial alliance with Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt.
In 357 B.C. this island was captured by Mausolus of Halicarnassus. It was then captured by Persians in 340 B.C. Then it fell into the hands of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. After Alexander's death, 3 of his generals succeeded in dividing the kingdom for themselves. They are Ptolemy, Seleucus and Antigous. After this Rhodians supported Ptolemy which angered Antigous.
Antagonids in 305 BC, wanted to break their alliance and tried invading Rhodes and found this city to be impenetrable. Antagonids were fighting for almost one full year. By this time the support for Rhodes have started coming in from Egypt. So Antagonids started withdrawing their forces and fled, leaving behind lots of their arms and ammunitions, which lead to the construction of one of the seven wonders of world.
Rhodians sold some of those equipments and to celebrate their victory, erected a statue for their Sun God, Helios. Lot of the metals used in this construction came from the left off belongings of Antagonids. This is the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the seven wonders of world.
The construction took 12 years and the stature was erected in 282 BC. During the earthquake at about 226 BC, this Colossus of Rhodes (statue) was damaged and fell down. When they planned to rebuild it, the idea was dropped because some Oracle said the city will face misfortune if this statue is rebuilt. That was the final chapter to the story of this wonder of the world.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_colossus_of_rhodes.html
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Crystal Thielkien
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« Reply #38 on: November 20, 2008, 03:11:51 pm »

Seven Wonders of the World - Hanging Gardens of Babylon




This is one of the most venerated marvels among the seven wonders of world.

Location:
This wonder of the world was located in the east bank of Euphrates, South of Baghdad in Iraq.

Description:
The King Hammurabi is the most famous king of the Babylonian kingdom. The whole kingdom flourished under his rule. His son Nebuchadnezzar is the one who built the Hanging gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven wonders of world.
Nebuchadnezzar ruled the country for 43 years from 605 BC. He constructed impressive array of temples, palaces and streets. It is being told that he built this garden to please his wife, Amyitis. Amyitis, daughter of the king Medes seems to have had a passion for mountainous surroundings. There are some other accounts which say that this wonder of the world was actually built by the Assyrian Queen Semiramis.
The ancient accounts of this hanging gardens (one of the seven wonders of the world) describes the structure to be a stairs like one. The Greek geographer Strabo, describes it as , "the garden consists of vaulted terraces raised one above another, and resting upon cube-shaped pillars. These are hollow and filled with earth to allow trees of the largest size to be planted. The pillars, the vaults, and terraces are constructed of baked brick and asphalt."
The irrigation system was supposedly the complex part built on this gardens. This region had very scarce rains. Slaves were used to push the water upwards using some ancient method of irrigation. Of course there must be some exploitation of slave labor to maintain one among the seven wonders of the world. The gardens did not really hang on the roof using cables or ropes. But this name from the sense that it was built on the roof top. Some accounts state that the gardens are 400 by 400 feet and 80 feet high.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_gardens_babylon.html

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« Reply #39 on: November 20, 2008, 03:12:13 pm »

Seven Wonders of the World - Statue of Zeus



This is one of the interesting stories to know about. This statue is associated with our favorite Olympic games which is being a widely watched event all over the world. The only sporting marvel among all the seven wonders of world

Location:
Olympia the ancient Greek city.

Description:
In ancient times the Greek city states used to play games every 4 years. This is what is now called as Olympic games. During those times truce is declared and wars are stopped. Players and athletes from all over the places traveled to a place in Greece called Peloponnesus. These Olympic games were started during 776 BC. Incidentally this is the period when Green calendar starts. These Olympic games were held in honour of their King of gods, Zeus. He is also known as God of Jupiter.
During the 5th century, they decided to have a temple for their king of gods and Libon was assigned the task of completing the work. Libon designed the temple and Pheidias was asked to build a big statue for Zeus. Pheidias had good techniques with him to build big statues. He used wooden frame to make the outer casings for the statues in gold. His workshop still remains and incidentally its size can accommodate building of such big statues. He built a statue of approximately 40 ft height.
The statue was so high that, even while sitting the head of the god Zeus was near the roof of the temple. This is what amazed the historians and poets of those times. This simply illustrates that the god Zeus is so big that even if he stands, the whole roof would come off its place. Zeus was seated on a throne, draped in gold robe. Zeus had a wreath around his head and held a figure of his messenger in his right hand.
The statue, one among the seven wonders of world was occasionally presented with gifts from rulers. The most notable one was the woolen curtain dedicated by the Syrian king.
In the I century AD, Roman emperor Caligula tried to take the statue to Rome but failed. But before 5th century AD, wealthy Greeks have moved it to Constantinople which saved the statue for some more years. After that a severe fire has destroyed the statue. Even before this the temple site was ravaged by floods, landslides and earthquakes to the extent that the structure was badly damaged. Now the remnants of this statue, one among the seven wonders of world have gone without even a small trace except for the reproduction in some of the medieval coins.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_statue_zeus.html

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Crystal Thielkien
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« Reply #40 on: November 20, 2008, 03:12:31 pm »

Temple of Artemis

This was supposed to be one of the most beautiful structures on the Earth. No wonder it got recognized as one of the seven wonders of the world.

Location:
This is located on the west coast of modern Turkey, south of Selcuk county about 50 km south of Smyrna. This place was called as Ephesus during ancient times.

Details:

This temple was destroyed and rebuilt over several hundred years. This was first built during 800 BC near the river at Ephesus. The God Artemis in Ephesus is a goddess of fertility. In some instances Artemis is linked closely to the Roman and Italian goddess, Diana. She also is goddess of night, fruitfulness, childbirth, beasts, bull and is an eternal virgin.
This earliest temple supposedly contained a sacred stone, probably fallen from Jupiter. By 600 BC, a Greek architect named Chersiphron (and his son, Metagenes) was engaged and the temple was built. The temple was decorated with beautiful bronze statues sculpted by artists Pheidias, Polycleitus, Kresilas and Phradmon. This was destroyed by the Lydian king Croesus when he conquered Ephesus. He later built a large temple at the same place with the help of Theodorus.
This temple was both a market place and a place of worship. For years this place was visited by lots of merchants, tourists, artisans, kings to pay their homage and share their profits with the Artemis goddess. Lots of scholars venerated to the extent that this came to be recognized as one of the seven wonders of the world.
On July 21, 356 BC, a man named HeroStratus burned the temple. He did this in order to gain a big name in the history. For an inquisitive info, Alexander was also born the same night. The reconstruction was commenced very shortly with an architect called Scopas of Paros. He was the best architect of those times. When Alexander conquered Asia Minor, he offered to rebuild the temple. The reconstruction was in progress when he reached this place. Even then, it was restored only after his death. When he came into this place in 333 BC, the temple was still being rebuilt.
This Temple was the last of the Great Goddess Temples to remain open and was the site of Goddess worship well into the Christian era. When St. Paul visited Ephesus to preach Christianity, he was not at all accepted by the local Artemisians. But after the temple was destroyed by Goths in AD 262, most of the people had got themselves converted to Christianity. In AD 401 St. John Chrysostom torn the whole structure down. That was the end to this wonder of the world. This site got excavated only in 19th century.
This one of the seven wonders of world supposed to have contained 106 columns and each of them believed to be from 40 to 60 ft height. foundation was approximately 200 feet by 400 feet.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_artemis_temple.html
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« Reply #41 on: November 20, 2008, 03:12:49 pm »

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus


This is such an elegant piece of architectural wonder that, it found a place in the list of ancient wonders among the great seven wonders of the world, like pyramids.

Location:
This Wonder of the World, is located in the city of Bodrum, on the Aegan sea, in south-west Turkey. This is actually closer to the ancient Temple of Artemis.

Description:
This Mausoleum was built in memory and as a burial tomb for the King Mausolus. King Mausolus was married to his sister Artemisia in his family. In those times, Caria rulers had a custom to marry their own sisters. When the king died, Artemisia decided to build this monument in his memory, which later found a place among the seven wonders of the world.
Mausolus was the son of Hecatomnus. Hecatomnus ruled the Mediterranean coast of Asia minor with a small kingdom. He took control of several of his neighboring regions, during his reign. After Hecatomnus' death, Mausolus also extended the kingdom.
Mausolus ruled this kingdom with the capital as Halicarnassus for 24 years. There was nothing worth mentioning as his achievement during his tenure except for this monument with its exceptional beauty later to be called as one of the seven wonders of the world.
This Mausoleum was built around 353 BC. This lasted strong for 16 centuries till an earthquake damaged the roof and the colonnade of this structure. In the early 15th century AD Knights of John of Malta, used the stone blocks in this structure to construct a castle. That was the end to the story of this Mausoleum, one among the seven wonders of the world in ancient times.
This Mausoleum had a lot of beautiful statues sculpted by the best sculptors like Bryaxis, Leochares, Scopas, and Timotheus. Some of the artifacts are still kept in London.
Soon after the construction of this wonder of the world, Mausoleum Artemisia found herself in a crisis. Before death, Mausolus used to control the small neighboring regions like Rhodes island and others. When the Rhodes island king came to know that Mausolus has died, he sent a number of ships to capture the city of Halicarnassus. But Artemisia beat them cleverly by hiding her ships and then attacking her enemies.
Then she successfully sent her troops to the Rhodes island on the enemy ships and captured Rhodes Island. The Rhodes Island soldiers thought that it is their people who are coming back with victory. They did not put up any defense. So they were easily conquered.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_halicarnassus_mausoleum.html
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Crystal Thielkien
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« Reply #42 on: November 20, 2008, 03:13:14 pm »

Light House of Alexandria

This light house of Alexandria was one of the useful wonders among all the seven wonders of the world (for the sailors to return to the Great Harbor). This is a small point that differentiates it from the rest of the wonders of the world. The mirror which was mounted on this lighthouse could reflect the light more than 35 miles off-shore. Of the 6 ancient destroyed wonders, this was the last to be destroyed around 1480 AD.

Location:
On the ancient island of Pharos, now a promontory on the harbor of the city of Alexandria in Egypt.

Description:
This lighthouse was built around 280 BC and was around 134 m in height. This was built in the city of Alexandria.
The light house had a good mirror which can reflect the sun light to a very long distance. Mythical stories used to say that this mirror was used to burn the enemy ships.
The Macedonian conqueror, Alexander during his successful reign, had tried establishing approximately 17 cities in the name of Alexandria. The only one survived long was the one in Egypt. That too even this city was not completely built by Alexander. The completion of the construction of this city was achieved by his commander Ptolemy I Soter.
Ptolemy connected Alexandria to the Pharos island by a bridge. It was realized that the sailing in this coastal region is very dangerous. That is why he decided to build a light house. This project was initiated during Ptolemy's reign in 290 BC and completed after his death by his son Ptolemy Philadelphus. Sostratus who lived in the same time as Euclid, was the architect. This used to remain in the harbor for centuries. This wonder of the world also depicted in the Roman coins that time.
The writings of the Arab conquerors are very good source of information about this lighthouse. The new rulers moved the capital to the Cairo. So this place had lost its importance. Three earthquakes stuck in various periods (around AD 956, AD 1303 and AD 1323 ) have damaged the lighthouse significantly. The during AD 1480 the Egyptian Mamelouk Sultan, has built a medieval fort at the same place. That was the end to the story of the light house.
There are some more tales to the light house. Sostratus after he completed the lighthouse wanted his name to be carved on the light house. This was not allowed by Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Ptolemy II wanted his name to be carved on the structure. But what Sostratus did is he first carved his name underneath, put plasters on it and then carved Ptolemy II's name. After some years, the plasters worn out and his name has come out to be known to all.
The design of the lighthouse was unlike the modern slim lighthouse towers. This was built in 3 stages, each built on top of the lower.
This lighthouse was so popular that the word Pharos came into French, Spanish and Italian to mean lighthouse.

http://www.sevenwondersworld.com/wonders_of_world_lighthouse_alexandria.html

[ 07-22-2006, 11:37 PM: Message edited by: Dawn Moline ]
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Crystal Thielkien
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« Reply #43 on: November 20, 2008, 03:13:27 pm »

Ian Nottingham

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   posted 07-23-2006 01:16 AM                       
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Great work, Dawn, our Egypt and Greek sections seems a little lacking, though.
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Posts: 240 | From: the void | Registered: Nov 2004   
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Crystal Thielkien
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« Reply #44 on: November 20, 2008, 03:13:36 pm »

Amy Lewton

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   posted 07-23-2006 02:04 AM                       
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My favorite of the seven wonders of the world would have to be the Colossus of Rhodes, which is odd cause no one has ever seen it. It only stood something like fifty years, then an earthquake knocked it down.

Odd that the oldest of the Seven Wonders, the Great Pyramid, is the only one still around.
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