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Europe's Smallest Countries: - SAN MARINO - The World's Oldest Republic

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Author Topic: Europe's Smallest Countries: - SAN MARINO - The World's Oldest Republic  (Read 2080 times)
Bianca
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« on: April 03, 2008, 10:37:29 am »

« Last Edit: April 03, 2008, 10:56:28 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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Bianca
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« Reply #1 on: April 03, 2008, 10:57:53 am »



F L A G
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« Reply #2 on: April 03, 2008, 10:59:16 am »



            C O A T   O F   A R M S








                                                 Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino



                                                  Most Serene Republic of San Marino
 



 
Motto:

Libertas  (Latin)
"Liberty"



Anthem: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica"
 

 
Capital City

of San Marino



43°56′N 12°27′E / 43.933, 12.45



Largest city

Dogana



Official languages
Italian1



Demonym Sammarinese;
San Marinese



Government

Parliamentary republic

 -  Captains Regent
     Federico Pedini Amati (PSD)
     Rosa Zafferani (PDSC)
 -  Secretary of State
Fiorenzo Stolfi (PSD)



Independence
from the Roman Empire
 
 -  Date September 3, 301
    (traditional) 



Area

 -  Total 61 kmē (223rd)
23.5 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible



Population

 -  July 2007 estimate 29,615 (212th)
 -  Density 481/kmē (20th)
1,225/sq mi



GDP (PPP) 2001 estimate

 -  Total $904 million (195th)
 -  Per capita $34,600 (12th)



HDI (2003) n/a (unranked) (n/a)

Currency Euro (€) (EUR)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Internet TLD .sm

Calling code +378  (0549 from Italy)


 
Patron saint

St. Agatha
1 SAN MARINO. UNECE.





The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino) is a country in the Apennine Mountains. It is a landlocked enclave, completely surrounded by Italy.

One of the European microstates, San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe.

San Marino claims to be the oldest constitutional republic in the world and that it was founded on 3 September 301 by Marinus of Rab, a Christian stonemason fleeing the religious persecution of Roman Emperor Diocletian.


San Marino's constitution, dating back to 1600, is the world's oldest written constitution still in effect.
« Last Edit: April 03, 2008, 11:06:18 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #3 on: April 03, 2008, 11:08:47 am »

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« Reply #4 on: April 03, 2008, 11:10:39 am »



MONTE TITANO



« Last Edit: November 08, 2008, 04:26:02 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #5 on: April 03, 2008, 11:15:31 am »












                                                                  O R I G I N S





San Marino, the world's fifth-smallest state, also claims to be the world's oldest republic.

According to tradition, San Marino was founded in AD 301 (alternative version about A.D. 350 ) when
a Christian stonemason named Marinus the Dalmatian, later venerated as Saint Marinus, after whom the country is named, fled from the Dalmatian island of Arbe to escape the persecutions under Diocletian, and settled in Monte Titano to ply his stonecutting and spread Christianity.

Marinus hid on the peak of Mount Titano (the highest of San Marino's seven hills) and founded a small community following Christian beliefs. The owner of the land, Felicissima, a sympathetic lady of Rimini, bequeathed it to the little Christian community of mountaineers, recommending to them to remain always united.

It is certain that the region had been inhabited since prehistoric times, although evidence of existence on Mount Titano dates back only to the Middle Ages. That evidence comes from a monk named Eugippio, who reports in several documents going back to 511 that another monk lived here. In memory of the stonecutter, the land was renamed "Land of San Marino", and was finally changed to its present-day name, "Republic of San Marino".

Later papers from the 9th century report a well organized, open and proud community: the writings report moreover that the close bishop, already at the time, was ruling this territory.

In the Lombard age, San Marino was a fief of the dukes of Spoleto, but the free comune dates to the tenth century. In the tenth century the abbots of the monastery were under the civil government, but they soon freed themselves and formed a free comune.

The original government structure was composed of a self-governed assembly known as the Arengo, which consisted of the heads of each family (as in the original Roman Senate, the Patres).

In 1243, the positions of Captains Regent (Capitani Reggenti) were established to be the joint heads
of state. The state's earliest statutes date back to 1263. The Holy See confirmed the ancient independence of San Marino in 1291.

Because San Marino decided not to engage in any war, it remained fairly peaceful. But to prevent other nations from attacking, it was seen as necessary to construct the Three Towers of San Marino. For more information on the subject, see that article.
« Last Edit: November 08, 2008, 01:24:13 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #6 on: April 03, 2008, 11:16:55 am »



Administrative divisions of San Marino







The feudal era
 




In quick succession the lords of Montefeltro, the Malatesta of Rimini, and the lords of Urbino attempted to conquer the little town, but without success.

The land area of San Marino consisted only of Mount Titano until 1463, at which time the republic entered into an alliance against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, who was later defeated.

As a result, Pope Pius II gave San Marino some castles and the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino and Serravalle.

Later that year, the town of Faetano joined the republic on its own accord.

Since then, the size of San Marino has remained unchanged.

« Last Edit: April 03, 2008, 11:19:04 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #7 on: April 03, 2008, 11:20:09 am »



CESARE BORGIA







San Marino adopted its written constitution on October 8, 1600.

San Marino still faced many potential threats. Thus a treaty of protection was signed in 1602 with the Pope, which came into force in 1631.

San Marino has been occupied by foreign militaries three times in its history, each for only a short period of time. Two of these periods were in the feudal era.

In 1503, Cesare Borgia occupied the republic until his death several months later.

On October 17, 1739, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, legate (papal governor) of Ravenna who in 1739, aiding certain rebels, possibly contrary to the orders of Pope Clement XII, used military force to occupy the country, imposed a new constitution, and endeavored to force the Sanmarinesi to submit to the government of the Pontifical States.

However, civil disobedience was used to protest this, and clandestine notes sent to the Pope to obtain justice were answered by papal recognition of San Marino's rights, which restored them to independence.
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« Reply #8 on: April 03, 2008, 11:26:03 am »



Bust of Giuseppe Garibaldi in San Marino,
the first monument in the world dedicated
to the "Hero of the Two Worlds".

The work of Stefano Galletti,
it was erected in 1882.








                                                            Unification of Italy





The state was recognized by Napoleon by the Treaty of Tolentino, in 1797 and by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.

On 1825 and 1853 new attempts to submit it to the Papal States failed; and its wish to be left out of Garibaldi's Italian unification in the mid-nineteenth century was granted, since it had offered a safe refuge to numerous supporters of unification in earlier years.

During the early phase of the Italian unification process of the 19th century, San Marino served as a haven of refuge for numerous persons who were persecuted because of their support for the unification. In memory of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the new Italian state. Napoleon III refused to take the country. He commented, "Why, it's a model republic!"




The government of San Marino made United States President Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen. He wrote in reply, saying that the republic proved that



"Government founded on Republican Principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring."





After the unification of the Kingdom of Italy a treaty of 1862 confirmed San Marino's independence.

It was revised in 1872.
« Last Edit: April 03, 2008, 12:01:26 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #9 on: April 03, 2008, 11:27:40 am »











In World War I, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915.

San Marino declared war with Austria-Hungary on 3 June 1915.





                                                                    World War II





The last occupation of the country was during 1944.

San Marino stayed neutral.

German forces used the country to retreat through, and they were followed by Allied forces.

The Allied armies only remained in occupation for as long as militarily necessary, which turned out to
be only a few weeks, although 60 people were killed.

After the war, San Marino became the first country in Western Europe to be ruled by a communist party (the San Marinese Communist Party, in coalition with the San Marinese Socialist Party) through democratic elections.

The coalition lasted from 1945 to 1957.
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« Reply #10 on: April 03, 2008, 12:02:56 pm »

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« Reply #11 on: April 03, 2008, 12:04:17 pm »











                                                   Geography of San Marino





San Marino is located in Southern Europe, an enclave (landlocked) in central Italy, which it borders for
39 km.

It is the smallest independent state by area in Europe, after Vatican and Monaco and dominated by the Apennines.

Located at 43°46′N, 12°25′E, it covers an area of 60.5 kmē, which is about the size of Syracuse, New York.

It has a Mediterranean climate with mild to cool winters and warm, sunny summers.

Dominatated by mountains, this country is known to extract building stone, for only 17% of it is arable.

Several rivers flow through here, the largest being the Ausa, the Marano, and the San Marino River.
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« Reply #12 on: April 03, 2008, 12:10:06 pm »



SATELLITE IMAGE







List of cities in San Marino



                          San Marino is divided into 9 castelli, or municipalities. They are:

Acquaviva

Borgo Maggiore

Chiesanuova

Domagnano

Faetano

Fiorentino

Montegiardino

City of San Marino (Cittā di San Marino),
capital town

Serravalle
« Last Edit: April 03, 2008, 12:12:04 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #13 on: April 03, 2008, 12:13:51 pm »



F L A G







The City of San Marino


is the capital city of the Republic of San Marino on the Italian peninsula, near the Adriatic Sea.
The city has a population of 4,493. It is on the western slopes of San Marino's highest point,
Monte Titano.

Although the capital, most of the businesses are in Borgo Maggiore. It is the third largest city in the country, after Dogana and Borgo Maggiore. It borders the San Marino municipalities Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Fiorentino, and Chiesanuova and the Italian municipality San Leo.

Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino is centered here.
« Last Edit: April 03, 2008, 12:15:47 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #14 on: April 03, 2008, 12:16:57 pm »









Due to being the capital and, for a time, the only city in San Marino, the history of this city is almost the
same as the History of  the country of San Marino.

The city was founded Saint Marinus and several Christian refugees in the year 301. From then on the city became a center of Christian refugees who fled from the Roman persecutions, which caused that the city become the oldest republic of Europe, for the Sanmarinense territory at that time corresponded to the single city of San Marino.

The urban heart of the city was protected by three towers: the first, Guaita, constructed in the 11th century, had intraspasable fame, which to a great extent reduced the attacks to the city.

Due to Crusades, the necessity was seen to construct a second tower, Cesta (13th century). But the Sanmarinense defensive system was not completed until the construction of the one third tower, - the Montale (14th century) - smallest of all and constructed on the last one of summits of the Monte Titano.

With the population of the city increasing, the territory of the country was extendeded few kilometers.
Since the Sanmarinense policy is not to invade or use war for the obtaining of new territories, is by means of purchases and of treaties that San Marino manage to obtain the other nine castelli on which it counts at the present time.

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