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Europe's Smallest Countries: - MONACO

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Author Topic: Europe's Smallest Countries: - MONACO  (Read 1753 times)
Bianca
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« Reply #15 on: April 03, 2008, 09:45:00 am »









Monaco is completely bordered by France to the north, west, and south; to the east it is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea.





Monaco Grand Prix



Since 1929, the Monaco Grand Prix has been held annually in the streets of Monaco. It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world, along with the Le Mans 24 hour race. The erecting of the circuit takes six weeks to complete, and the removal after the race another three weeks. The circuit has many elevation changes and tight corners, along with a tunnel. This together with being incredibly narrow make it perhaps the most demanding Formula One track. Only two drivers have ever crashed into the harbour, the most famous being Alberto Ascari in 1955 (Ascari would lose his life four days later at Monza). The other was Paul Hawkins during the 1965 event.





Education



Primary and secondary schools

Monaco has ten state-operated schools, including seven nursery and primary schools, one secondary school (Collège Charles III), one lycée that provides general and technological training (Lycée Albert 1er), and one lycée that provides vocational and hotel training.[10]

There are also two grant-aided denominational private schools (including Institution François d'Assise Nicolas Barré) and (Ecole des Sœurs Dominicaines) and one international school (International School of Monaco).





Colleges and universities

International University of Monaco
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« Reply #16 on: April 03, 2008, 09:46:35 am »

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« Reply #17 on: April 03, 2008, 09:49:00 am »









Demographics of Monaco

Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monegasques are a minority in their own country. The largest proportion of residents are French nationals (47%), followed by Monegasque (16%), and Italians (16%). The remaining 21% belong to one of the other 125 nationalities that make up Monaco's international population. At 45, Monaco's average age is the highest in the world.



Languages

French is the only official language, but Italian, English, and the two local languages, Monégasque (a local variety of Ligurian) and Occitan, are also spoken. The literacy rate is 99%.

The Monégasque language is expected to experience a revival in the near future following a recent decision to teach it to all children in Monaco's schools.






                                                            Religion
 



Roman Catholicism

The official religion is Roman Catholicism, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution. There are five Roman Catholic parish churches in Monaco and one cathedral presided over by an archbishop.



Anglican

There is one Anglican church (St. Paul's Church), located in the Avenue de Grande Bretagne in Monte Carlo. In 2007 this had a formal membership of 135 Anglicans resident in the principality, but was also serving a considerably larger number of Anglicans temporarily in the country, mostly as tourists. The church site also accommodates an English-language library of over 3,000 books.[11]




Jewish

The Association Culturelle Israelite de Monaco (founded 1948) is a house that has been converted into a synagogue, a community Hebrew school, and kosher food shop, located in Monte Carlo. There are weekly services on Shabbat. Several organizations, including WIZO and B’nai B’rith, are active in the Jewish community of Monaco. The community (approximately 1,500 strong) is mainly retired Jews from Britain (40%) and North Africa. There are also several Turkish and French Ashkenazi families. Half the population is Ashkenazi, while the other half are Sephardic.
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« Reply #18 on: April 20, 2008, 02:45:43 pm »

                                         









Welcome to Grimaldi.org, an official website of the ancient House of Grimaldi.

It provides an overview of nine centuries of Family history, and outlines the genealogy of some of
its main branches.

The history of the Grimaldis is inextricably linked to those of Genoa and Monaco whose House ob-
tained independence and sovereignty.

The echo of this ancient name reverberates on distant seashores of Europe, from the Black Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.






The House of Grimaldi — bearing a coat of arms described as fusilly argent and gules (a pattern of red diamonds on a white background) — descends from Grimaldo, a Genoese statesman at the time of the first Crusades. He was to pass his patronym from father to son for over 25 generations.

The earliest Genoese Annals — which are ancient manuscripts written in latin by Caffarus — mention that Grimaldo, as well as his father and brother, had been consul of Genoa. Little is known from earlier times with any level of certainty.
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« Reply #19 on: April 20, 2008, 02:53:33 pm »



THE REPUBLIC OF GENOA






THE REPUBLIC OF GENOA COAT OF ARMS






                                                            The Republic of Genoa:


                                                           The Roots of the Grimaldi





Despite their bloody infighting — not unlike the Capulet and Montague depicted by Shakespeare — the Genoese were of a single mind in the area of exploiting commerce and banking opportunities. The power of their fleet and the safety of their harbor allowed them to negotiate generally favorable terms with the medieval rulers active in the Mediterranean Basin.

Genoa had few rivals in the Mediterranean and rarely missed an opportunity to consolidate that position whenever possible. Genoa's power crushed the maritime ambitions of Pisa (1284) and confronted the fleet of its twin rival, Venice, in four wars, which were as brutal as they were inconclusive.

Genoa's initial commercial empire stretched to the Western end of the Silk Road and came to spread across most of Europe. Genoese merchants could be seen in Byzantium, in Syria and in Africa, in London, and across to China and the New World, always seeking a business opportunity. Their regular sea routes stretched from the Black Sea to the North Sea, from Caffa and Cyprus to Bruges and Antwerp.

The sheer number of colorful characters and defining events — political, military and economic — makes the epic of the Grimaldi family remarkable. It provides an unusual, sometimes surprising view of European history in the perspective of an entire millennium.
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« Reply #20 on: April 20, 2008, 02:54:36 pm »








Grimaldo,

Founder of the House of Grimaldi





The Grimaldis emerged from the Crusades as one of the four major ruling families of the Genoese urban nobility, essentially warriors, shipowners, and bankers. Genoa experimented with several political systems to organize its City-State and, around the 11th century, chose the Commune. As such, the City was led by a committee of consuls who were generally chosen among the feudal families that had settled down in the City. Grimaldo, who gave his patronymic name to his descendants, was the youngest son of Otto Canella, a Consul of Genoa in 1133. In turn, Grimaldo rose up to become consul three times, in 1162, 1170 and again in 1184. The prominence of Grimaldo in the City's public affairs led him to be sent in embassy to negotiate some of the most important treaties with foreign rulers, such as the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and the Emperor of Byzantium. Oberto Grimaldi, son of Grimaldo, is the first of the family known to use the patronymic Grimaldi.

 
As in other Italian cities of the time, the need for political weight in the Commune pushed the Genoese nobility to pull their forces into parties representing their views. Between the 13th and 14th centuries, the Genoese families thus developed the albergo, an organizational structure incorporating several small families around a prominent House, such as the Grimaldis, that shared the same political and economical interests. In Genoa, the members of an albergo typically lived in the same neighborhoods and attended the same churches, which further reinforced the close ties.

During the power struggles between the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the Grimaldis and the Fieschis led the pro-papal Guelph party against the Emperor whose interests were backed by the Ghibelline Doria and Spinola families. In 1270, in the midst of one of those numerous political struggles, the Guelphs were forced into exile: the Grimaldis and their allies took refuge in Guelphic towns of the Western Riviera, around Nice. From the viewpoint of history, the exile of 1270 appears to be the main starting point for the old feudal branches of the House of Grimaldi, such as Monaco, Boglio, and Antibes, in the 13th and 14th centuries. By 1333, the Grimaldi Family had grown to over 100 men.
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« Reply #21 on: April 20, 2008, 02:55:45 pm »








The Epic History of the Main Branches





The fortune of merchant noblemen relied on maritime trade and access to fortified ports, like Monaco and Antibes, where they could also raise their armies. In 1297, a group of Grimaldi and Guelphic allies therefore sought to seize the fortress of Monaco at the tip of their sword from the Ghibellines, turning the place into a base for political activism and military operations against their Genoese rivals. Over the next centuries, however, the albergo alternately lost and regained control of Monaco during a period of instability and wars throughout the region.

In 1419, the Grimaldis succeeded in permanently securing possession of Monaco, and stubbornly embarked on defending its independence, sometimes at the price of their personal freedom or their life. As often for all the feudal possessions of Genoese families in Provence, Liguria and Corsica, the Grimaldis ruled over Monaco with the title of signori, or lords, and only assumed the title of prince in the 17th century. The princely title can also be found among the distinctions of other branches of the Grimaldi Family, although traditionally the Grimaldis — and the Genoese nobility in general — carried few titles. However, owing to its long independence and the prestige associated with its sovereignty, the principality of Monaco undoubtedly rose to become the jewel of the House of Grimaldi.

The history of Monaco and of the Grimaldis was largely symbiotic until the 17th century, when a first controversial act of succession saw Jacques de Goyon Matignon climbing the throne of the principality. Before long, the French Revolution rolled over Europe and annexed the principality. Monaco was however reinstated when quieter times returned in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars. In the 20th century, in another turn of events, a new succession affair brought to the throne the current dynasty, issued this time from the Polignacs. (Read more)

The Kingdom of Naples and the fertile island of Sicily were strategically located on the Mediterranean trade routes; this fact did not escape the Genoese merchants. The long presence of the Grimaldis in Sicily goes back to the 14th century, where they served as advisors and captains of justice, or in battle on the side of the Angevin kings.

Wedged in the Alps between France, Provence, Savoy, and Piedmont, the fiefdom of Boglio (Beuil, in today's France) was among the largest in the region. In the early 14th century, a marriage with the heiress of Boglio brought this territory to the Grimaldis. Quickly, they went on an expansion spree that regularly put them at war with their neighbors.

In a fascinating page of diplomatic history, those Grimaldis managed to bring peacefully the entire Nice country — originally part of Provence — to the counts of Savoy in what is called the "Dedition of Nice" (1388). The Grimaldis governed the region of Nice at a time of war when their "lord," the king of Hungary, could not come to the rescue of his subjects. With the help of the Grimaldis, Nice and other nearby towns put themselves under the protection of the Count of Savoy. As a result, landlocked Savoy and Piedmont acquired a reliable access to the sea. The Grimaldi of Boglio received therefore over 20 fiefdoms and reinforced their gubernatorial position in Nice.

With a legendary determination, they eventually patched together a small "kingdom," to which only independence was missing. Hearing about those maneuverings, the counts of Savoy put a mortal end to this branch's ambitions in the 17th century.
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« Reply #22 on: April 20, 2008, 02:56:46 pm »









Earlier, in the 14th century, the Grimaldis also received possession of the ancient city of Antibes — as collateral to a loan made to a pope. They established a branch of marquises in Provence that produced several knights of Malta, as well as governors and bishops. Two centuries later, descendants of the lords of Antibes spread over the Alps to Piedmont. They acquired the old fiefdom of Puget in Provence (Pogetto, in Italian), of which they still bear the name of Puget to this day. More sword than robe, they produced a long line of officers that, for instance, could be found serving in the royal armies of Savoy, the imperial army of Napoleon or fighting for the independence of Italy. The campaign of 1848 did not turn to the revolutionaries' advantage, however, and several of their leaders ended up in exile to Brussels in Belgium. (Read more)

Representatives of an international and business-savvy nobility, the Grimaldis were active as early as the Late Middle Age in all the large political and economic centers of Europe, notably Byzantium, France, Spain, the Netherlands and England.

 
In Genoa, the Grimaldis participated in the creation of the Bank of Saint George — one of the first incorporated banks in the world, founded in 1407 — and financed popes, kings, and emperors, including Charles V of Spain. At the time of the constitutional reform of 1528, which gave birth to the aristocratic Republic of Genoa with the support of the Habsburg Crown, the Grimaldis were put at the helm of one of the 28 alberghi. As such, they could participate in the government of the Republic and run in the biennial election of the Doge, the Genoese presidency. These Genoese patricians were listed in the Liber Civilitatis (later called Liber Nobilitatis) and exercised the sovereignty of the Republic until the troops of Napoleon entered Genoa.

The Grimaldis were involved in most of the great enterprises of those times, including the colonial ventures to the New World, until the costly bankruptcy of Philip II's Spanish Treasury. We owe them several of the most important palaces of Genoa, such as the superb Tursi Palace, which now hosts the town hall.

After the reform of 1576 that abolished the alberghi, the Family continued to manage the common patrimony of the ancient albergo — composed of Oberto Grimaldi's descendants and their accredited allies, such as the Cebà and Oliva families — and its members still enjoyed glorious years until the French revolution. The Grimaldis kept serving in finance as well as in public service for the Republic of Genoa, the Spanish Empire and the Roman Catholic Church, frequently rising to the highest functions. In Spain, for example, Charles III chose a Grimaldi of Genoa — who would later become prime minister of Spain from 1763 to 1777 — to negotiate an alliance with the king of France, Louis XV, causing Spain to enter the war with England at the eve of the American insurrection.
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« Reply #23 on: April 20, 2008, 02:57:48 pm »








Other branches also deserve a place in this historical overview of the Grimaldi Family. They settled, for example, in Bologna, Carignano, Régusse, and London, this last branch being more extensively covered in the genealogical section of this site. (Read more)

Some authors also mention branches in remote regions, for which the lack of documents unfortunately makes any serious genealogical study difficult. The Grimaldi name is indeed not uncommon.

Paradoxically, the large House described in these pages has almost entirely disappeared. According to independent genealogists, most of the legitimate branches mentioned in this overview are now extinct.

Another paradox is that the jewel of the House of Grimaldi, Monaco, has managed to preserve its independence through most wars and revolutions. Wedged between snow-white summits and a glittering sea, Monaco and its Monégasques are living proof that small States have their place in the concert of nations.


Other branches also deserve a place in this historical overview of the Grimaldi Family. They settled, for example, in Bologna, Carignano, Régusse, and London, this last branch being more extensively covered in the genealogical section of this site. (Read more)

Some authors also mention branches in remote regions, for which the lack of documents unfortunately makes any serious genealogical study difficult. The Grimaldi name is indeed not uncommon.

Paradoxically, the large House described in these pages has almost entirely disappeared. According to independent genealogists, most of the legitimate branches mentioned in this overview are now extinct.

Another paradox is that the jewel of the House of Grimaldi, Monaco, has managed to preserve its independence through most wars and revolutions. Wedged between snow-white summits and a glittering sea, Monaco and its Monégasques are living proof that small States have their place in the concert of nations.
 
 
ww.grimaldi.org
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« Reply #24 on: April 20, 2008, 03:08:10 pm »

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« Reply #25 on: April 20, 2008, 03:25:10 pm »







                                   LIST OF MONEGASQUE SOVEREIGNS SINCE 1297



                                          LORDSHIP OF MONACO 1297-1301:



                                                   HOUSE OF GRIMALDI






1297-1301: RAINIER I
Born in 1267.
Father: Lanfranco Grimaldi. Mother: Aurelia del Caretto.
Married firstly Salvatica del Caretto.
Married secondly Andriola Grillo.
His issue who reigned: CHARLES I (+1357).
Deposed in 1301.
Died in 1314.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1301-1331: GENOESE RULE

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« Reply #26 on: April 20, 2008, 03:29:34 pm »









LORDSHIP OF MONACO 1331-1357:
HOUSE OF GRIMALDI
1331-1357: CHARLES I
Born in ?
Father: Rainier I of Monaco.
Married Lucinette Spinola.
His issue who reigned: RAINIER II (*1350,+1407).
Died in 1357.





1352-1357: RAINIER II
Born in 1350.
Father: Charles I of Monaco. Mother: Lucinette Spinola.
Married firstly Maria del Caretto.
Married secondly Isabella Asinari (+1417).
His issue who reigned:
-AMBROSE (+1433),
-ANTHONY (+1427),
-JOHN I (*1382,+1454).
Deposed in 1357.
Died in 1407.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



1357-1419: GENOESE RULE

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« Reply #27 on: April 20, 2008, 03:32:26 pm »











                                               LORDSHIP OF MONACO 1419-1612:



                                                        HOUSE OF GRIMALDI





1419-1427: AMBROSE (Ambroise)
Born in ?
Father: Rainier II of Monaco.
Unmarried.
Abdicated as co-ruler of Monaco in 1427.
Died in 1433.





1419-1427: ANTHONY (Antoine)
Born in ?
Father: Rainier II of Monaco.
Married Blanche.
Abdicated as co-ruler of Monaco in 1427.
Died in 1427.





1419-1454: JOHN I (Jean I)
Born in 1382.
Father: Rainier II of Monaco.
Married in 1407 Pomellina Fregoso (*1387/88 Genoa,+1462 Monaco).
His issue who reigned: CATALAN (*1415,+1457).
Died in 1454.





1454-1457: CATALAN
Born in 1415 in Monaco.
Father: John I of Monaco. Mother: Pomellina Fregoso.
Married Blanche del Caretto (*1432 Finale,+1458 Monaco).
His issue who reigned: CLAUDINE (*1451,+1515).
Died in 1457 in Monaco.





1457-1494: CLAUDINE
Born in 1451.
Father: Catalan of Monaco. Mother: Blanche del Caretto.
Married in 1457 Lambert Grimaldi (*1420,+1494).
Her issue who reigned:
-LUCIEN (*1481,+1523),
-JOHN II (*1468,+1505),
-AUGUSTIN (+1532).
Abdicated in 1494.
Died in 1515.
Buried at Monaco Cathedral.





1458-1494: LAMBERT
Born in 1420.
Father: Niccoló Grimaldi. Mother: Cesarina d'Oneglia.
Married in 1457 Claudine Grimaldi of Monaco (*1451,+1515).
His issue who reigned:
-LUCIEN (*1481,+1523),
-JOHN II (*1468,+1505),
-AUGUSTIN (+1532).
Died in 1494.
His consort Claudine of Monaco was buried at Monaco Cathedral.





1494-1505: JOHN II (Jean II)
Born in 1468.
Father: Lambert of Monaco. Mother: Claudine Grimaldi of Monaco.
Married in 1486 Antonia of Savoy (+1500).
Died in 1505 (murdered).
Buried at Monaco Cathedral.
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« Reply #28 on: April 20, 2008, 03:33:34 pm »












1505-1523: LUCIEN
Born in 1481.
Father: Lambert of Monaco. Mother: Claudine Grimaldi of Monaco.
Married in 1514 Jeanne de Cabannes (+1555).
His issue who reigned: HONORIUS I (*1522,+1581).
Died in 1523 (murdered).
Buried at Monaco Cathedral.





1523-1532: AUGUSTIN
Born in ?
Father: Lambert of Monaco. Mother: Claudine Grimaldi of Monaco.
Unmarried.
Died in 1532.
Buried at Monaco Cathedral.





1532-1581: HONORIUS I (Honoré I)
Born in 1522.
Father: Lucien of Monaco. Mother: Jeanne de Cabannes.
Married in 1545 Isabella Grimaldi (+1583).
His issue who reigned:
-CHARLES II (*1555,+1589),
-HERCULES I (*1562,+1604).
Died in 1581.
Buried at Monaco Cathedral.
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« Reply #29 on: April 20, 2008, 03:35:53 pm »











1581-1589: CHARLES II
Born in 1555.
Father: Honorius I of Monaco. Mother: Isabella Grimaldi.
Unmarried.
Died in 1589 in Monaco.
Buried at Monaco Cathedral.





1589-1604: HERCULES I (Hercule I)
Born in 1562.
Father: Honorius I of Monaco. Mother: Isabella Grimaldi.
Married in 1595 Maria di Landi (+1599).
His issue who reigned: HONORIUS II (*1597,+1662).
Died in 1604 in Monaco (assassinated).
Buried with his consort Maria di Landi at Monaco Cathedral.
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