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Europe's Smallest Countries: - MONACO

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Author Topic: Europe's Smallest Countries: - MONACO  (Read 1753 times)
Bianca
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« on: April 03, 2008, 09:12:28 am »

« Last Edit: April 03, 2008, 09:14:44 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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Bianca
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« Reply #1 on: April 03, 2008, 09:16:15 am »



F L A G
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« Reply #2 on: April 03, 2008, 09:17:51 am »



C O A T  O F  A R M S







                                                                   M O N A C O





Principauté de Monaco

Principality of Monaco
 

 
Motto:
"Deo Juvante"  (Latin)
"With God's Help"



Anthem:
Hymne Monégasque
 


Capital
Monaco



Largest Most populated quartier
Monte Carlo



Official languages
French, Monégasque



Demonym
Monegasque or Monacan



Government
Constitutional monarchy
and Principality

 -  Prince Albert II



 -  Minister of State
    Jean-Paul Proust



 -  President of the National Council
    Stéphane Valeri (UPM)



Independence
 -  House of Grimaldi 1297 



Area
 -  Total 1.95 km² (231st)
0.76 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.0
Population



 -  2007 estimate 32,671 (210th)
 -  2000 census 32,020 
 -  Density 18,285/km² (1st)



47,358/sq mi



GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $976 million (?)
 -  Per capita $70,670 (€50,000) (Mid Sept. 07 est.) (2/3)



HDI (2003) n/a (n/a) (unranked)



Currency
Euro (EUR)



Time zone
CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)



Internet TLD .mc



Calling code +377





Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco is a tiny sovereign state located in Western Europe. The territory lies on the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and is completely enclosed by France. Monaco is regarded as a tax haven and the majority of its inhabitants are millionaires from foreign countries.

Monaco is a Constitutional Monarchy and Principality with Prince Albert II as head of state. The Grimaldi family has ruled over Monaco since 1292 and the state's sovereignty was officially recognised by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite being independent Monaco’s defence is still the responsibility of France.

Monaco is the world’s most densely populated country and is the smallest French-speaking country.
« Last Edit: April 03, 2008, 09:23:07 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #3 on: April 03, 2008, 09:24:40 am »



WARDS OF MONACO
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« Reply #4 on: April 03, 2008, 09:26:18 am »









                                                 Administrative division




 
Wards of MonacoMonaco is a small country in Europe, and the distinction between the State and City of Monaco is purely theoretical. The state in fact consists of one municipality (commune) only. According to the constitution of 1911, the principality was subdivided into three municipalities:

Monaco (Monaco-Ville), the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean, known as the Rock of Monaco, or simply le Rocher (the rock), where the palace is located
Monte Carlo, the principal residential and resort area with the casino in the east and northeast
La Condamine, the northwest section including the port area.
The three municipalities were merged into one in 1917 (after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer"), and they had the status of wards (quartiers) thereafter.

Fontvieille was added as fourth ward, a newly constructed area reclaimed from the sea (in the 1970s)
Moneghetti became the fifth ward, created from a part of La Condamine
Larvotto became the sixth ward, created from a part of Monte Carlo
La Rousse/Saint Roman (including Le Ténao) became the seventh ward, also created from a part of Monte Carlo
Subsequently, three additional wards were created:

Saint Michel, from a part of Monte Carlo
La Colle, from a part of La Condamine
Les Révoires, from a part of La Condamine
An additional ward is planned by new land reclamation, to be settled from 2014:

Le Portier
Currently the principality is subdivided into 10 wards (with their official numbers - Le Portier, the planned ward, is anticipated as number 11):
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« Reply #5 on: April 03, 2008, 09:28:22 am »









Nr Ward Area
(m²) Population
(Census
of 2000) Density
km−2 City
Blocks
(îlots) Remarks



Former municipality of Monaco


 
05 Monaco-Ville 184,750 1,034 5597 19 Old City with palace
Former municipality of Monte Carlo
01 Monte Carlo/Spélugues (Bd. Des Moulins-Av. de la Madone) 281,461 3,034 10779 20 the casino and resort area
02 La Rousse/ Saint Roman (Annonciade-Château Périgord) 105,215 3,223 30633 15 in the northeast, incl. Le Ténao
03 Larvotto/Bas Moulins (Larvotto-Bd Psse Grace) 328,479 5,443 16570 15 eastern beach area
10 Saint Michel (Psse Charlotte-Park Palace) 142,223 3,807 26768 24 central residential area
Former municipality of La Condamine
04 La Condamine 237,283 3,847 16213 27 port area in the northwest
07 La Colle (Plati-Pasteur-Bd Charles III) 188,073 2,822 15005 15 on the western border with Cap d'Ail
08 Les Révoires (Hector Otto-Honoré Labande) 75,747 2,515 33203 11 containing the Jardin Exotique
09 Moneghetti/ Bd de Belgique (Bd Rainier III-Bd de Belgique 107,056 3,003 28051 18   
new land reclaimed from the sea
06 Fontvieille 324,157 3,292 10156 9 started 1971
11 Le Portier 275,0001) - - - planned (for 2014)
  Monaco 1,974,444 32,020 16217 173   
1) Area not included in total, as it is only proposed



For statistical purposes, the wards of Monaco are further subdivided into 173 city blocks (îlots), which are comparable to the census blocks in the United States.

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« Reply #6 on: April 03, 2008, 09:29:24 am »

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« Reply #7 on: April 03, 2008, 09:31:24 am »









                                                       History of Monaco
 




The territory of the Principality of MonacoMonaco first gained its name from the nearby Phocaean Greek colony, in the sixth century BC, which referred to the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek Μόνοικος "single house", from μόνος "alone, single" + οίκος "house", which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others.

According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area. A temple was constructed there by Phocaeans, the temple of Hercules Monoikos.

Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was re-founded in 1228 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco has been ruled by the House of Grimaldi since 1297, when François Grimaldi ("Malizia", Italian for "The Malicious") and his men captured the fortress protecting the famous Rock of Monaco while he was dressed as a Franciscan monk – or, in Italian Monaco, although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name.

From 1793 to 1814, Monaco was under French control. The Congress of Vienna designated Monaco as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1815 until 1860 when the Treaty of Turin ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice (as well as Savoy). During this time there was unrest in the towns of Menton and Roquebrune, which declared independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. The unrest continued until the ruling prince gave up his claim to the two towns (some 95% of the country) to France in return for four million francs. This transfer and Monaco's sovereignty was recognised by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861.

Until the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers. In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, part of the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests.

In 1943, the Italian army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a Fascist administration. Shortly thereafter, following Mussolini's collapse in Italy, the Nazi German Wehrmacht occupied Monaco and began the deportation of the Jewish population. Among them was René Blum (Paris, 13 March 1878 - Auschwitz, 30 April 1943), who founded the Ballet de l'Opera in Monte Carlo. He was held in the Drancy deportation camp outside of Paris, France from where he was then shipped to the Auschwitz concentration camp where he died.

Rainier III, Prince of Monaco acceded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. A new constitution, proclaimed in 1962, abolished capital punishment, provided for women's suffrage, and established a Supreme Court to guarantee fundamental liberties. In 1993, Monaco became a member of the United Nations, with full voting rights.

In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco clarified that if there are no heirs to carry on the dynasty, the principality will remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco's military defense, however, is still the responsibility of France.

By 31 March 2005, Prince Rainier III had become too ill to exercise his duties and relinquished them to his son Prince Albert, Marquis of Baux. On 6 April 2005, Prince Rainier died and his son succeeded him as Albert II of Monaco. Prince Albert II of Monaco formally became the ruler of Monaco on 12 July 2005, in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at the cathedral where his father was buried three months before, after a reign of fifty-six years. His accession to the throne was a two-step event with another ceremony drawing heads of state for an elaborate ceremony held on 19 November 2005. He is the son of the late actress and princess Grace Kelly.
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« Reply #8 on: April 03, 2008, 09:32:41 am »



View of the Port of Hercules, La Condamine
« Last Edit: April 03, 2008, 09:35:12 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #9 on: April 03, 2008, 09:34:30 am »









Law and government




 
Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as Head of state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State (the head of government), who presides over a four-member Council of Government (the Cabinet). The minister of state is a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government. Under the 1962 constitution, the prince shares his power with the unicameral National Council (parliament). The twenty-four members of this legislative body are elected from lists by universal suffrage for five-year terms. The principality's local affairs are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of fifteen elected members and is presided over by the mayor.

Monaco became a member of the United Nations in 1993, and received its first foreign diplomatic representative on 16 February 2006, when a French Ambassador was accredited to the Principality.

On both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has the largest police force (517 police officers for 32,000 people) and police presence in the world.

The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince's Company of Carabiniers) is the main ceremonial unit of the military force of Monaco. Although Monaco's defence is the responsibility of France, it maintains a small force for the protection of the Sovereign Prince of Monaco. It was formed by Prince Honoré IV in 1817 for the protection of the Principality. The company numbers exactly 112 officers and men; while the NCOs and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army.

Together with the local fire service, the Carabiniers form Monaco's total public forces. In addition to their guard duties, the company patrols the Principality's beaches and coastal waters, as well as other duties around the Palace in Monaco-Ville.
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« Reply #10 on: April 03, 2008, 09:36:58 am »



THE CASINO AT MONTECARLO
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« Reply #11 on: April 03, 2008, 09:38:21 am »









Economy
 


Monte Carlo Casino.One of Monaco's main sources of income is tourism; each year many are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate. In 2001, a major new construction project extended the pier used by cruise ships in the main harbour. The principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries such as cosmetics and biothermics.

Monaco is one of the most expensive places on Earth. As of February 2007, Monaco had Europe's most expensive real estate. The principality is often regarded as a tax haven, and most of its inhabitants are millionaires from other countries.

The state retains monopolies in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service. The telephone network (Monaco Telecom) used to be owned by the state; it now owns 45%, while the remaining 55% is owned by Cable and Wireless (49%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (6%). It is still, however, a monopoly. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

Monaco is not a member of the European Union but is very closely linked to it via a customs union with France, and as such its currency is the same as that of France: the euro. Prior to 2002, Monaco minted their own franc coins, the Monegasque franc. Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque designs on their national side.
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« Reply #12 on: April 03, 2008, 09:39:22 am »

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« Reply #13 on: April 03, 2008, 09:41:14 am »









Tax haven





The State has no income tax for individuals. The lack of personal income tax has led to a considerable number of wealthy "tax refugee" residents from European countries who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco; celebrities such as Formula One drivers attract most of the attention, but the vast majority of them are considerably less well-known business people.

In 2000, a report by French parliamentarians Arnaud Montebourg and Vincent Peillon alleged that Monaco has lax policies with respect to money laundering, including within its famed casino, and that the government of Monaco puts political pressure on the judiciary so that alleged crimes are not properly investigated.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued in 1998 a first report on the consequences of the tax havens financial systems. Monaco did not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, when OECD became indignant regarding the Monegasque situation[3] and denounced it in its last report[4] (as well as Andorra, the Principality of Liechtenstein, Liberia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands) underlining its lack of co-operation as regards financial information disclosure and availability.

In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) underlined that Monaco suffers a great lack of adequate resources. The Principality is no longer blamed in the FATF 2005 report, as well as all other territories in 2006.

Since 2003, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has identified Monaco, along with 36 other territories, as a tax haven.

The Council of Europe also decided to issue reports naming tax havens. 22 territories, Monaco included, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round. Monaco is the only territory that refuses to perform the second round, initially forecast between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories are implementing the third and last round, planned between 2005 and 2007
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« Reply #14 on: April 03, 2008, 09:42:41 am »



C A S I N O
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