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Europe's Smallest Countries: - ANDORRA

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Author Topic: Europe's Smallest Countries: - ANDORRA  (Read 847 times)
Bianca
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« on: April 02, 2008, 08:42:35 pm »



LOCATION OF ANDORRA
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Bianca
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« Reply #1 on: April 02, 2008, 08:52:18 pm »



FLAG OF ANDORRA






                                                         A N D O R R A





Principat d'Andorra
Principality of Andorra


Motto:
"Virtus Unita Fortior"  (Latin)
"Strength United is Stronger"



Anthem:
El Gran Carlemany, Mon Pare  (Catalan)
The Great Charlemagne, my Father
 

 
Capital
(and largest city)
Andorra la Vella

42°30′N, 1°31′E

Official languages
Catalan

Demonym
Andorran



Government
Parliamentary democracy and Co-principality
 
 -  French Co-Prince
    Nicolas Sarkozy

 -  Episcopal Co-Prince
    Joan Enric Vives Sicília

 -  Head of Government 
     Albert Pintat Santolària



Independence
 -  Paréage 1278 

Area
 -  Total 468 km² (193rd)
181 sq mi 

 -  Water (%) 0

Population
 -  2007 estimate 71,822 (194th ?)
 -  2006 census 69,150 
 -  Density 154/km² (69th)
393/sq mi

GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $2.77 billion (177th)
 -  Per capita $38,800 (unranked)

Currency euro (€)1 (EUR)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
 
Internet TLD .ad²

Calling code +376



1 Prior to 1999: French franc and Spanish peseta. Small amounts of Andorran diners (divided into 100 centim) were minted after 1982.
 
2 Also .cat, shared with Catalan-speaking territories.
 




Andorra (Catalan: Andorra), officially the Principality of Andorra (Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small landlocked country in western Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain (Catalonia) and France (Northern Catalonia and old Occitania).

Once isolated, it is currently a prosperous country mainly because of tourism and its status as a tax haven.

The people of Andorra are currently listed as having the highest human life expectancies on Earth, at an average of 83.52 years at birth (2007 est).

« Last Edit: April 02, 2008, 08:54:36 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #2 on: April 02, 2008, 08:56:05 pm »



COAT OF ARMS OF ANDORRA







                                                     Origin and history of the name





The name "Andorra" is of unknown origin but, according to Joan Coromines, pre-Roman.

The name Andorra may be derived from al-Darra (الدّارة), the Arabic word for forest.

Many of the local toponyms are of Iberian origin.

« Last Edit: April 02, 2008, 08:57:48 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #3 on: April 02, 2008, 09:00:58 pm »










                                                       History of Andorra





Tradition holds that Charles the Great (Charlemagne) granted a charter to Andorran people in return
for fighting against the Moors. Overlordship of the territory passed to the local count of Urgell and eventually to the bishop of the diocese of Urgell. In the eleventh century a dispute arose between
the bishop and his northern neighbour over Andorra.

The conflict was resolved in 1278 by the signing of a paréage, which provided that Andorra's sovereignty be shared between the count of Foix (whose title would ultimately transfer to the
French head of state) and the bishop of La Seu d'Urgell, in Catalonia, Spain. This gave the small principality its territory and political form.

Over the years the title passed to the kings of Navarre. After Henry of Navarre became King
Henry IV of France, he issued an edict (1607) that established the head of the French state
and the Bishop of Urgell as co-princes of Andorra.

In the period 1812–13, the First French Empire annexed Catalonia and divided it in four départe-
ments. Andorra was also annexed and made part of the district of Puigcerdà (département of Sègre).

Andorra declared war on Imperial Germany during World War I but did not actually take part in
the fighting. It remained in an official state of belligerency until 1957 as it was not included in
the Versailles Peace Treaty.

In 1933 France occupied Andorra as a result of social unrest before elections. On July 12, 1934,
an adventurer named Boris Skossyreff issued a proclamation in Urgell, declaring himself Boris I, sovereign prince of Andorra, simultaneously declaring war on the bishop of Urgell.

He was arrested by Spanish authorities on July 20 and ultimately expelled from Spain. From 1936 to 1940, a French detachment was garrisoned in Andorra to prevent influences of the Spanish Civil War and Franco's Spain. Francoist troops reached the Andorran border in the later stages of the war.

During World War II, Andorra remained neutral and was an important smuggling route between Vichy France and Spain.

Given its relative isolation, Andorra has existed outside the mainstream of European history, with few ties to countries other than France and Spain. In recent times, however, its thriving tourist industry along with developments in transportation and communications have removed the country from its isolation. Its political system was thoroughly modernized in 1993, the year in which it became a member of the United Nations.
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« Reply #4 on: April 02, 2008, 09:04:26 pm »










Politics of Andorra





Andorra is a co-principality with the President of France and the Bishop of Urgell, Spain as co-princes, in a duumvirate. The politics of Andorra take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the Prime Minister of Andorra is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Responsibility for defending Andorra rests with Spain and France. Andorra currently has no military force.









MAP OF ANDORRA AND ITS SEVEN PARISHES





Parishes of Andorra




Andorra la Vella

Canillo

Encamp

Escaldes-Engordany

La Massana

Ordino

Sant Julià de Lòria
« Last Edit: April 02, 2008, 09:07:00 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #5 on: April 02, 2008, 09:10:18 pm »










Geography of Andorra



Due to its location in the eastern Pyrenees mountain range, Andorra consists predominantly of rugged mountains of an average height of 1,996 m with the highest being the Coma Pedrosa at 2,946 m. These are dissected by three narrow valleys in a Y shape that combine into one as the main stream, the Valira river, leaves the country for Spain (at Andorra's lowest point of 870 m). Andorra's surface area is 468 km².

Andorra's climate is similar to that of its neighbours' temperate climates, but its higher altitude means there is, on average, more snow in winter and it is slightly cooler in summer.





Economy of Andorra



Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of adjoining France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs.

The banking sector, with its tax haven status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited—only 2% of the land is arable—and most food has to be imported. Some tobacco is grown locally. The principal livestock activity is domestic sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra's natural resources include hydroelectric power, mineral water, timber, iron ore, and lead.

There are no Patent Laws in Andorra.

Andorra is not a full member of the European Union, but enjoys a special relationship with it, such as being treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products. Andorra lacks a currency of its own and uses that of its two surrounding nations. Prior to 1999 these were the French franc and the Spanish peseta, which have since been both replaced by the EU's single currency, the euro.






Demographics of Andorra



Andorrans are a minority in their own country; Spaniards, Portuguese, Frenchmen, Britons, and Italians resident in Andorra make up 67.7% of the population. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Andorra has the world's longest life expectancy – 83.5 years.

The national language is Catalan, a Romance language. Andorra is one of only four nations (together with France, Monaco, and Turkey) that never signed the Council of Europe Framework Convention on National Minorities.





Religion



The population of Andorra is predominantly Roman Catholic.
« Last Edit: April 02, 2008, 09:46:58 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #6 on: April 02, 2008, 09:11:32 pm »



COAT OF ARMS AT ANDORRAN PARLIAMENT







Culture of Andorra





The official and historic language is Catalan. Other languages stemming from immigration, historical links and close geographic proximity, such as Spanish and French are also commonly spoken.

Andorra's long history has provided it with a rich folklore and an abundance of folk tales, with roots originating as far as Andalusia in the south and the Netherlands in the north.

Andorran culture is Catalan in essence. It has given a significant and easily identifiable contribution to the conglomerate of Catalan culture.

Two writers renowned in Catalonia and the region, Michèle Gazier and Ramon Villeró, both come from Andorra.

Andorra is home to folk dances like the contrapàs and marratxa, which survive in Sant Julià de Lòria especially. Andorran folk music has similarities to all of its neighbors, but is especially Catalan in character, especially in the presence of dances like the sardana. Other Andorran folk dances include contrapàs in Andorra la Vella and Saint Anne's dance in Escaldes-Engordany.

Andorra's national holiday is Our Lady of Meritxell Day, September 8.
« Last Edit: April 02, 2008, 09:13:47 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #7 on: April 02, 2008, 09:15:35 pm »

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« Reply #8 on: April 02, 2008, 09:17:04 pm »



ANDORRA LA VELLA
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« Reply #9 on: April 02, 2008, 09:22:27 pm »



ANDORRA LA VELLA




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andorra
« Last Edit: April 02, 2008, 09:23:33 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #10 on: April 02, 2008, 09:26:31 pm »

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« Reply #11 on: April 02, 2008, 09:27:42 pm »

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« Reply #12 on: April 02, 2008, 09:29:13 pm »










Andorra La Vella 'Andorra the Old'

(est. pop. 20,437, 1990) is the capital of the principality of Andorra.


The town is lying at the confluences of the Gran Valira, the Valira del Oriente and the Valira del Norte rivers. The town was the capital of the principality since 1278 when the French and the Episcopal coprinces agreed to joint suzerainty.

 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[EU|Andorra|Andorra La Vella]
« Last Edit: April 02, 2008, 09:30:53 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #13 on: April 02, 2008, 09:33:55 pm »

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« Reply #14 on: April 02, 2008, 09:35:33 pm »

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