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Europe' Smallest Countries: - THE VATICAN

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Author Topic: Europe' Smallest Countries: - THE VATICAN  (Read 3073 times)
Bianca
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« on: April 02, 2008, 10:17:57 am »



F L A G







                                                             V A T I C A N   C I T Y





Status Civitatis Vaticanae (Latin)
Stato della Città del Vaticano (Italian)
State of the Vatican City
 

 
Anthem: "Inno e Marcia Pontificale"  (Italian)
"Pontifical Hymn and March"
 
 

Capital Vatican City

41°54′N 12°27′E / 41.9, 12.45
Official languages Italian2 (de facto)

Government Theocratic Absolute
elective monarchy

 -  Sovereign Pope Benedict XVI

 -  President of the Governorate Giovanni Lajolo

Independence from the Kingdom of Italy 
 -  Lateran Treaty 11 February 1929 

Area
 -  Total 0.44 km² (232nd)
0.17 sq mi 

Population
 -  2007 estimate 821 (220th)

 -  Density 1780/km² (6th)

4,610/sq mi

Currency Euro (€)3 (EUR)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
 
Internet TLD .va

Calling code +394

1 Vatican City is a city-state

2 No official language is established by law, but government documents are published in Italian.
The language of the Papal Swiss Guard is German.

3 Prior to 2002, the Vatican lira (on par with the Italian lira).
 
4 ITU-T assigns code 379 to Vatican City. However, Vatican City is included in the Italian telephone
numbering plan and uses the Italian country code 39.



Vatican City, officially State of the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae; Italian: Stato della Città
del Vaticano), is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the
city of Rome. At approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and with a population of around 800, it is the small-
est independent state in the world by both population and area.[1][2][3]

The city-state came into existence by virtue of the Lateran Treaty in 1929, which spoke of it as a new creat-
ion (Preamble and Article III), not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756 to 1870) that had pre-
viously encompassed central Italy. Most of this territory was absorbed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, and
the final portion, namely the city of Rome with a small area close to it, ten years later, in 1870.

Vatican City is a non-hereditary, elected monarchy that is ruled by the Bishop of Rome — the Pope.

The highest state functionaries are all clergymen of the Catholic Church. It is the sovereign territory of the
Holy See (Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope's residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace.

The Popes have resided in the area that in 1929 became the Vatican City only since the return from Avignon in 1377. Previously, they resided in the Lateran Palace on the Caelian Hill on the opposite side of Rome, which was out of repair in 1377. The signing of the agreements that established the new state took place in the latter building, giving rise to the name of Lateran Pacts, by which they are known.
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Bianca
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« Reply #1 on: April 02, 2008, 10:27:17 am »



COAT OF ARMS
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« Reply #2 on: April 02, 2008, 10:31:38 am »












Territory



The name "Vatican" is ancient and predates Christianity, coming from the Latin Mons Vaticanus, meaning Vatican Mount.[4] The territory of Vatican City is part of the Mons Vaticanus, and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields where St. Peter's Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel,
and museums were built, along with various other buildings.

The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until 1929. Being separated from the city, on the
west bank of the Tiber river, the area was an outcrop of the city that was protected by being in-
cluded within the walls of Leo IV, and later expanded by the current fortification walls of
Paul III/Pius IV/Urban VIII.

When the Lateran Treaty of 1929 that gave the state its present form was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory was influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclos-
ed by this loop. For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed.

The territory included St. Peter's Square, which was not possible to isolate from the rest of Rome,
and therefore a largely imaginary border with Italy runs along the outer limit of the square where it touches on Piazza Pio XII and Via Paolo VI. St. Peter's Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione which runs from the Tiber River to St. Peter's. This grand approach was constructed
by Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty.

According to the Lateran Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See that are located in Italian terri-
tory, most notably Castel Gandolfo and the Patriarchal Basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar
to that of foreign embassies.[5][6] These properties, scattered all over Rome and Italy, house essential offices and institutions necessary to the character and mission of the Holy See.[6]

Castel Gandolfo and the named basilicas are patrolled internally by police agents of the Vatican City State and not by Italian police.

St. Peter's Square is ordinarily policed jointly by both.[5]
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« Reply #3 on: April 02, 2008, 10:33:50 am »









Head of state



The Pope is ex officio head of state and head of government of Vatican City, functions dependent
on his primordial function as the bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome. The term Holy See refers not to the Vatican state but to the Pope's spiritual and pastoral governance, largely exercised through the Roman Curia.[7] His official title with regard to Vatican City is Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City.

The papacy is a non-hereditary, elective monarchy, chosen by the College of Cardinals. The Pope is also technically an absolute monarch, meaning he has total legislative, executive and judicial power over Vatican City. He is the only absolute monarch in Europe. The Pope is elected for a life term in conclave by cardinals under the age of 80.

His principal subordinate government official for Vatican City is the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, who since 1952 exercises the functions previously belonging to
the Governor of Vatican City. Since 2001, the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State also has the title of President of the Governorate of the State of Vatican City.

The Pope resides in the Papal Apartments of the Papal Palace just off St. Peter's Square.
It is here he carries out his business and meets foreign representatives.

The current Pope is Benedict XVI, born Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Bavaria, Germany.

Italian Archbishop Giovanni Lajolo serves as President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City. He was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI on 11 September 2006.
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« Reply #4 on: April 02, 2008, 10:35:17 am »









                                                                       History



                                                                   Vatican City*





UNESCO World Heritage Site


 
State Party  Holy See

Type Cultural

Criteria i, ii, iv, vi

Reference 286

Region† Europe

Inscription history

Inscription 1984  (8th Session)

* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.

† Region as classified by UNESCO.





Even before the arrival of Christianity, it is supposed that this originally uninhabited part of Rome
(the Ager Vaticanus) had long been considered sacred, or at least not available for habitation.

The area was also the site of worship to the Phrygian goddess Cybele and her consort Attis during Roman
times.[8] Agrippina the Elder (14 BC – 18 October AD 33) drained the hill and environs and built her gardens
there in the early 1st century AD.

Emperor Caligula (37-41) started construction of a circus (40) that was later completed by Nero, the Circus
Gaii et Neronis.[9]

The Vatican obelisk was originally taken by Caligula from Heliopolis to decorate the spina of his circus and is
thus its last visible remnant.

This area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the great fire of Rome in 64.

Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside down.

Opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia.

Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of poly-
theistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of
St. Peter's in the first half of the 4th century.

Remains of this ancient necropolis were brought to light sporadically during renovations by various popes throughout the centuries increasing in frequency during the Renaissance until it was systematically ex-
cavated by orders of Pope Pius XII from 1939 to 1941 .

In 326, the first church, the Constantinian basilica, was built over the site that Catholic apologists as well
as noted Italian archaeologists argue was the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in a common cemetery on the spot.

From then on the area started to become more populated, but mostly only by dwelling houses connected with
the activity of St. Peter's.

A palace was constructed near the site of the basilica as early as the 5th century during the pontificate of
Pope Symmachus (b. ?? – d. Jul. 19, 514; pope 498-514).[10]
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« Reply #5 on: April 02, 2008, 10:50:03 am »







 
                             Territory of Vatican City according to the Lateran treaty.





Popes in their secular role gradually came to govern neighbouring regions and, through the Papal States,
ruled a large portion of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid 19th century,
when most of the territory of the Papal States was seized by the newly created Kingdom of Italy.

For much of this time the Vatican was not the habitual residence of the Popes, but rather the Lateran
Palace, and in recent centuries, the Quirinal Palace, while the residence from 1309-1377 was at Avignon
in France.
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« Reply #6 on: April 02, 2008, 11:01:07 am »









                                        Politics and government of Vatican City
 


 
Pope
Benedict XVI

Roman Curia

Secretariat of State

Roman Congregations

Vicariate General of Rome

Vatican City

Pontifical Commission

President

Conclave: 2005

Lateran Treaty
 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






 Politics of Vatican City



The politics of Vatican City takes place in a framework of an absolute theocratic monarchy, in which the head of the Catholic Church takes power. The Pope exercises ex officio principal legislative, executive, and judicial power over the State of the Vatican City (an entity distinct from the Holy See), which is a rare case of a non-hereditary monarchy.[11]





Political system



The government of Vatican City has a unique structure.

The Pope is the sovereign of the state. Legislative authority is vested in the Pontifical Commission
for Vatican City State, a body of cardinals appointed by the Pope for five-year periods.

Executive power is in the hands of the President of that commission, assisted by the General Secretary and Deputy General Secretary. The state's foreign relations are entrusted to the Holy See's Secretariat of State and diplomatic service. Nevertheless, the pope has full and absolute executive, legislative and judicial power over Vatican City. He is the last absolute monarch in Europe.

There are specific departments that deal with health, security, telecommunications, etc.[12]

The Cardinal Camerlengo heads the Apostolic Chamber to which is entrusted the administration of
the property and the protection of the temporal rights of the Holy See during a sede vacante (papal vacancy).

Those of the Vatican State remain under the control of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City. Acting with three other cardinals chosen by lot every three days, one from each order
of cardinals (cardinal bishop, cardinal priest, and cardinal deacon), he in a sense performs during that period the functions of head of state. All the decisions these four cardinals take must be approved by the College of Cardinals as a whole.

The nobility that was closely associated with the Holy See at the time of the Papal States continued to be associated with the Papal Court after the loss of these territories, generally with merely nominal duties (see Papal Master of the Horse, Prefecture of the Pontifical Household, Hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, Black Nobility).

They also formed the ceremonial Noble Guard. In the first decades of the existence of the Vatican City State, executive functions were entrusted to some of them, including that of Delegate for the State of Vatican City (now denominated President of the Commission for Vatican City).

But with the motu proprio Pontificalis Domus of 28 March 1968,[13] Pope Paul VI abolished the honorary positions that had continued to exist until then, such as Quartermaster General and Master
of the Horse.[14]

The State of the Vatican City, created in 1929 by the Lateran Pacts, provides the Holy See with a temporal jurisdiction and independence within a small territory. It is distinct from the Holy See. The state can thus be deemed a significant but not essential instrument of the Holy See.

The Holy See itself has existed continuously as a juridical entity since Roman Imperial times and has been internationally recognized as a powerful and independent sovereign (at times even suzerain) entity since late antiquity to the present, without interruption even at times when it was deprived of territory (e.g. 1870 to 1929). The Holy See has the oldest active continuous diplomatic service in the world, dating back to at least AD 325 with its legation to the Council of Nicea.[15]

Ambassadors are accredited to the Holy See, never to the Vatican City State.

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« Reply #7 on: April 02, 2008, 11:02:23 am »









Administration


 
Palace of the Governorate of Vatican City StateLegislative functions are delegated to the unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, led by the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. Its seven members are cardinals appointed by the Pope for terms of five years. Acts of the commission must be approved by the pope, through the Holy See's Secretariat of State, and before taking effect must be published in a special appendix of the Acta Apostolicae Sedis. Most of the content of this appendix consists of routine executive decrees, such as approval for a new set of postage stamps.

Executive authority is delegated to the Governorate of Vatican City. The Governorate consists of the President of the Pontifical Commission — using the title "President of the Governorate of Vatican City" — a General Secretary, and a Vice General Secretary, each appointed by the pope for five year terms. Important actions of the Governorate must be confirmed by the Pontifical Commission and by the Pope through the Secretariat of State.

The Governorate oversees the central governmental functions through several departments and offices. The directors and officials of these offices are appointed by the pope for five year terms. These organs concentrate on material questions concerning the state's territory, including local security, records, transportation, and finances. The Governorate oversees a modern security and police corps, the Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano.

Judicial functions are delegated to a supreme court, an appeals court, a tribunal, and a trial judge.

In all cases, the pope may choose at any time to exercise supreme legislative, executive, or judicial functions in the state.
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« Reply #8 on: April 02, 2008, 11:05:25 am »



SWISS GUARDS
IN THEIR TRADITIONAL UNIFORMS







Military and police
 


Swiss Guard in their traditional uniformThough earlier Popes recruited Swiss mercenaries as part
of an army, the Pontifical Swiss Guard was founded by Pope Julius II on 22 January 1506 as the
personal bodyguard of the Pope and continues to fulfill that function.

It is listed in the Annuario Pontificio under "Holy See", not under "State of Vatican City".

At the end of 2005, the Guard had 134 members. Recruitment is arranged by a special agreement between the Holy See and Switzerland, and is restricted to Catholic male (Swiss) citizens.




The Palatine Guard and the Noble Guard were disbanded by Pope Paul VI in 1970.[16]

While the first body was founded as a militia at the service of the Papal States, its functions within the Vatican State, like those of the Noble Guard, were merely ceremonial.




The Corpo della Gendarmeria acts as a police force. Its full name is



                            Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano


(which means "Police Corps of the Vatican City State"),


although it is sometimes referred to as Vigilanza, as a shortening of an earlier name.

The Gendarmeria is responsible for public order, law enforcement, crowd and traffic control, and
criminal investigations in Vatican City.[16]
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« Reply #9 on: April 02, 2008, 11:12:48 am »



St. Peter's Square, and the obelisk from the Circus of Nero







Foreign relations



Vatican City State is a recognized national territory under international law, but it is the Holy See that
conducts diplomatic relations on its behalf, in addition to the Holy See's own diplomacy, entering into international agreements in its regard. The Vatican City State thus has no diplomatic service of its own.

Foreign embassies to the Holy See are located in the city of Rome; only during the Second World War were
the staffs of some embassies given what hospitality was possible within the narrow confines of Vatican City, embassies such as that of the United Kingdom while Rome was held by the Axis Powers, embassies such as Germany's when the Allies controlled Rome.

Given the distinction between the two entities, the Holy See's immense influence on world affairs is quite unrelated to the minuscule size of the Vatican City State.[17]
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« Reply #10 on: April 02, 2008, 11:16:23 am »

map of rome
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« Reply #11 on: April 02, 2008, 11:17:02 am »









 Geography of Vatican City



The Vatican City, one of the European microstates, is situated on the Vatican Hill in the west-
central part of Rome, several hundred metres west of the Tiber river.

Its borders (3.2 km or 2 miles in total, all within Italy) closely follow the city wall constructed to
protect the Pope from outside attack.

The situation is more complex at the famous St. Peter's Square in front of St. Peter's Basilica,
where the correct border is just outside the ellipse formed by Bernini's colonnade, but where police jurisdiction has been entrusted to Italy.

The Vatican City is the smallest sovereign state in the world at 0.44 square kilometres (44 ha/110 acres).

The Vatican climate is the same as Rome's; a temperate, Mediterranean climate with mild, rainy
winters from September to mid-May and hot, dry summers from May to August.

There are some local features, principally mists and dews, caused by the anomalous bulk of St Peter's Basilica, the elevation, the fountains and the size of the large paved square.

In July 2007, the Vatican agreed to become the first carbon neutral state. They plan to accomplish
this by offsetting carbon dioxide emissions with the creation of a Vatican Climate Forest in Hungary.
[18]
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« Reply #12 on: April 02, 2008, 11:22:07 am »



The reverse of the Vatican
€1 coin produced in 2006
depicting the current pope,

Benedict XVI







Rationale



This design is copyrighted by the European Central Bank (ECB), and its use is permitted by ECB, "as long as reproductions in advertising or illustrations cannot be mistaken for genuine banknotes" and [for coins] "for photographs, drawings, paintings, films, images, and generally reproductions in flat format (without relief) provided they are in faithful likeness and are used in ways which do not damage or detract from the image of the euro". Usage in the Wikipedia article on Vatican euro coins fulfills these conditions and is in accordance with the WP:NFCC.





Licensing



 The image above depicts a unit of currency issued by the European Central Bank (ECB). This design is copyrighted by the ECB, and its use is permitted by ECB, "as long as reproductions in advertising or illustrations cannot be mistaken for genuine banknotes"[1] and [for coins] "for photographs, drawings, paintings, films, images, and generally reproductions in flat format (without relief) provided they are in faithful likeness and are used in ways which do not damage or detract from the image of the euro" (CftC 2001/C 318/03). 
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« Reply #13 on: April 02, 2008, 11:28:39 am »









Economy of Vatican City



 
The unique, non-commercial economy is supported financially by contributions (part of which is
known as Peter's Pence) from Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps and
tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.[19]

The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to, or somewhat better than,
those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.[19]

The Vatican City issues its own coins. It has used the euro as its currency since January 1, 1999, owing to a special agreement with the EU (council decision 1999/98/CE). Euro coins and notes were introduced in January 1, 2002--the Vatican does not issue euro banknotes. Issuance of euro-denominated coins is strictly limited by treaty, though somewhat more than usual is allowed in a year
in which there is a change in the papacy.[20] Because of their rarity, Vatican euro coins are highly sought by collectors.[21] Until the adoption of the Euro, Vatican coinage and stamps were denominated in their own Vatican lira currency, which was on par with the Italian lira.

It also has its own bank, Istituto per le Opere di Religione (also known as the Vatican Bank, and with the acronym IOR). This bank has an ATM with instructions in Latin.[22]




Budget: Revenues (2003) 252 million USD; expenditures (2003) 264 million USD.[23]

Industries: printing and production of few mosaics and staff uniforms; worldwide financial activities.
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« Reply #14 on: April 02, 2008, 11:31:40 am »



VATICAN MUSEUMS
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