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The Crime Of Galileo Galilei - Biography


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Bianca
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« Reply #30 on: April 02, 2008, 05:33:31 pm »



GALILEO FACING THE INQUISITION

Cristiano Banti - 1857









                                                              Church controversy




 
Western Christian biblical references


                                       Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30


include text stating that



                                     "the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved."



In the same tradition,



Psalm 104:5 says,


                              "the LORD set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved."



Further,

Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that



                                      "And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place, etc."



Galileo defended heliocentrism, and claimed it was not contrary to those Scripture passages.

He took Augustine's position on Scripture: not to take every passage literally, particularly when the scripture in question is a book of poetry and songs, not a book of instructions or history. The writers of the Scripture wrote from the perspective of the terrestrial world, and from that vantage point the sun does rise and set.
In fact, it is the earth's rotation which gives the impression of the sun in motion across the sky.

By 1616 the attacks on Galileo had reached a head, and he went to Rome to try to persuade the Church authorities not to ban his ideas. In the end, Cardinal Bellarmine, acting on directives from the Inquisition, delivered him an order not to "hold or defend" the idea that the Earth moves and the Sun stands still at the centre. The decree did not prevent Galileo from discussing heliocentrism hypothetically. For the next several years Galileo stayed well away from the controversy. He revived his project of writing a book on the subject, encouraged by the election of Cardinal Barberini as Pope Urban VIII in 1623. Barberini was a friend and admirer of Galileo, and had opposed the condemnation of Galileo in 1616. The book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was published in 1632, with formal authorization from the Inquisition and papal permission.

Pope Urban VIII personally asked Galileo to give arguments for and against heliocentrism in the book, and to be careful not to advocate heliocentrism. He made another request, that his own views on the matter be included in Galileo's book. Only the latter of those requests was fulfilled by Galileo. Whether unknowingly or deliberate, Simplicius, the defender of the Aristotelian Geocentric view in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, was often caught in his own errors and sometimes came across as a fool. This fact made Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems appear as an advocacy book; an attack on Aristotelian geocentrism and defense of the Copernican theory.

To add insult to injury, Galileo put the words of Pope Urban VIII into the mouth of Simplicius.

Most historians agree Galileo did not act out of malice and felt blindsided by the reaction to his book.

However, the Pope did not take the suspected public ridicule lightly, nor the blatant bias. Galileo had alienated one of his biggest and most powerful supporters, the Pope, and was called to Rome to defend
his writings.
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« Reply #31 on: April 02, 2008, 05:45:41 pm »









With the loss of many of his defenders in Rome because of "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief
World Systems", Galileo was ordered to stand trial on suspicion of heresy in 1633.

The sentence of the Inquisition was in three essential parts:

Galileo was required to abjure the opinion that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, and that the Earth is not at its centre and moves; the idea that the Sun is stationary was condemned as "formally heretical."

However, while there is no doubt that Pope Urban VIII and the vast majority of Church officials did
not believe in heliocentrism, heliocentrism was never formally or officially condemned by the Catholic Church, except insofar as it held (for instance, in the formal condemnation of Galileo) that


"The proposition that the sun is in the center of the world and immovable from its place is absurd, philosophically false, and formally heretical; because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scriptures",


and the converse as to the Sun's not revolving around the Earth.


 
He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest.

His offending Dialogue was banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future.
 
According to popular legend, after recanting his theory that the Earth moved around the Sun, Galileo allegedly muttered the rebellious phrase


                                                       "And yet it moves",


but there is no evidence that he actually said this or anything similarly impertinent.

After a period with the friendly Ascanio Piccolomini (the Archbishop of Siena), Galileo was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri near Florence, where he spent the remainder of his life under house arrest, and where he later became blind.

It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he dedicated his time to one of his finest works, "Two New Sciences". Here he summarized work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called Kinematics and Strength of Materials.

This book has received high praise from both Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein. As a result of this work, Galileo is often called, the "Father Of Modern Physics."
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« Reply #32 on: April 02, 2008, 05:47:46 pm »


GALILEO GALILEI'S TOMB

CHURCH OF SANTA CROCE
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« Reply #33 on: April 02, 2008, 05:56:13 pm »









Galileo died on January 8, 1642.

The Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II, wished to bury him in the main body of the Basilica of Santa Croce, next to the tombs of his father and other ancestors, and to erect a marble mausoleum in his honour.

These plans were scrapped, however, after Pope Urban VIII and his nephew, Cardinal Francesco Barberini, protested.

He was instead buried in a small room next to the novices' chapel at the end of a corridor from the southern transept of the basilica to the sacristy.

He was reburied in the main body of the basilica in 1737 after a monument had been erected there in his honour.

The Inquisition's ban on reprinting Galileo's works was lifted in 1718 when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works (excluding the condemned Dialogue) in Florence.

In 1741 Pope Benedict XIV authorized the publication of an edition of Galileo's complete scientific workswhich included a mildly censored version of the Dialogue.

In 1758 the general prohibition against works advocating heliocentrism was removed from the Index of prohibited books, although the specific ban on uncensored versions of the Dialogue and Copernicus's De Revolutionibus remained.

All traces of official opposition to heliocentrism by the Church disappeared in 1835 when these works were finally dropped from the Index.

In 1939 Pope Pius XII, in his first speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, within a few months
of his election to the papacy, described Galileo as being among the



"most audacious heroes of research … not afraid of the stumbling blocks and the risks on the way,

nor fearful of the funereal monuments"



His close advisor of 40 years, Professor Robert Leiber wrote: "Pius XII was very careful not to close any doors (to science) prematurely. He was energetic on this point and regretted that in the case of Galileo."

On February 15, 1990, in a speech delivered at the Sapienza University of Rome, Cardinal Ratzinger cited some current views on the Galileo affair as forming what he called "a symptomatic case that permits us to see how deep the self-doubt of the modern age, of science and technology goes today." Some of the views he cited were those of the philosopher Paul Feyerabend, whom he quoted as saying “The Church at the time of Galileo kept much more closely to reason than did Galileo himself, and she took into consideration the ethical and social consequences of Galileo's teaching too. Her verdict against Galileo was rational and just and the revision of this verdict can be justified only on the grounds of what is politically opportune.”  The Cardinal did not clearly indicate whether he agreed or disagreed with Feyerabend's assertions. He did, however, say "It would be foolish to construct an impulsive apologetic on the basis of such views".(1)

On 31 October 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled, and officially conceded that the Earth was not stationary, as the result of a study conducted by the Pontifical Council for Culture.



(1)  Ratzinger, the current pope, was at this time head of the current "Office of the Inquisition"
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« Reply #34 on: April 02, 2008, 05:58:53 pm »










                                                              Galileo's writings




 
The Little Balance (1586)

The Starry Messenger (1610; in Latin, Sidereus Nuncius)

Letters on Sunspots (1613)

Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615; published in 1636)

Discourse on the Tides (1616; in Italian, Discorso del flusso e reflusso del mare)
 
Discourse on the Comets (1619; in Italian, Discorso Delle Comete)

The Assayer (1623; in Italian, Il Saggiatore)

Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632; in Italian Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo)

Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (1638; in Italian, Discorsi e

Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze)







                                                              Legacy





The four large moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) are often referred to as the 'Galilean moons'.
 
The Galileo spacecraft was the first spacecraft to enter orbit around Jupiter, where it investigated the planet and its moons for years.
 
Galileo is also the name of a proposed, European satellite navigation system.

A transformation between inertial systems in classical mechanics is called a Galilean transformation.

The gal, sometimes called galileo, (symbol Gal) is a non-SI unit of acceleration named after Galileo. The gal is defined as 1 centimeter per second squared (1 cm/s²).
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« Reply #35 on: April 02, 2008, 06:07:07 pm »










                                                             References





Allan-Olney, Mary. The private Life of Galileo: Compiled primarily from his correspondence and that of his eldest daughter, Sister Maria Celeste, (nun in the Franciscan convent of St. Matthew, in Arcetri), 1870, Boston : Nichols and Noyes. -

Google Books: The private Life of Galileo - The Internet Archive

Biagioli, Mario (1993). Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Consolmagno, Guy; Schaefer, Marta (1994). Worlds Apart, A Textbook in Planetary Science.

Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN 0-13-964131-9

Brodrick, James, S.J. [c1964] (1965). Galileo : the man, his work, his misfortunes. London: G. Chapman. 

Coyne, George V., S.J. (2005). The Church's Most Recent Attempt to Dispel the Galileo Myth, In McMullin (2005, pp.340–359). 

Drake, Stillman (translator) (1953). Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 

Drake, Stillman (1957). Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo. New York: Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0-385-09239-3

Drake, Stillman (1960). Introduction to the Controversy on the Comets of 1618, In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.vii–xxv). 

Drake, Stillman (1973). "Galileo's Discovery of the Law of Free Fall". Scientific American v. 228, #5, pp. 84–92.

Drake, Stillman (1978). Galileo At Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-16226-5

Drake, Stillman, and O'Malley, C.D. (translators) (1960). The Controversy on the Comets of 1618. Philadelphia, PA: University of Philadelphia Press.
 
Einstein, Albert (1952). Foreword to (Drake, 1953)

Einstein, Albert (1954). Ideas and Opinions, translated by Sonja Bargmann, London: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-285-64724-5.
 
Fantoli, Annibale (2003). Galileo — For Copernicanism and the Church, third English edition. Vatican Observatory Publications. ISBN 88-209-7427-4

Favaro, Antonio (1890–1909), ed.[1]. Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, Edizione Nazionale (Italian). (The Works of Galileo Galilei, National Edition, 20 vols.), Florence: Barbera, 1890–1909; reprinted 1929–1939 and 1964–1966. ISBN 88-09-20881-1. Searchable online copy from the Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Florence . Brief overview of Le Opere @ Finns Fine Books, [2] and here [3]

Feyerabend, Paul (1995). Killing Time: The Autobiography of Paul Feyerabend. Chicago, MI: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-24531-4. 

Fillmore, Charles (1931, 17th printing July 2004). Metaphysical Bible Dictionary. Unity Village, Missouri: Unity House. ISBN 0-87159-067-0

Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (1989). The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06662-6.
 
Finocchiaro, Maurice A. (Fall 2007), "Book Review—The Person of the Millennium: The Unique Impact of Galileo on World History", The Historian 69 (3): 601–602

Galilei, Galileo [1623] (1960). The Assayer, translated by Stillman Drake. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.151–336). 

Galilei, Galileo 1638,1914 (1954), Henry Crew and Alfonso de Salvio, translators, Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, Dover Publications Inc., New York, NY. ISBN 486-60099-8

Galilei, Galileo, and Guiducci, Mario [1619] (1960). Discourse on the Comets, translated by Stillman Drake. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.21–65). 

Gebler, Karl von. Galileo Galilei and the Roman Curia : from authentic sources, London, C.K. Paul & co., 1879; Merrick, N.Y. : Richwood Pub. Co., 1977. - Google Books ISBN 0-915172-11-9

Geymonat, Ludovico (1965), Galileo Galilei, A biography and inquiry into his philosophy and science, translation of the 1957 Italian edition, with notes and appendix by Stillman Drake, McGraw-Hill

Grassi, Horatio [1619] (1960a). On the Three Comets of the Year MDCXIII, translated by C.D. O'Malley. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.3–19).
 
Grassi, Horatio [1619] (1960b). The Astronomical and Philosophical Balance, translated by C.D. O'Malley. In Drake & O'Malley (1960, pp.67–132).
 
Grisar, Hartmann, S.J., Professor of Church history at the University of Innsbruck (1882). Historisch theologische Untersuchungen über die Urtheile Römischen Congegationen im Galileiprocess (Historico-theological Discussions concerning the Decisions of the Roman Congregations in the case of Galileo), Regensburg: Pustet. - Google Books ISBN 0-7905-6229-4. (LCC# QB36 - microfiche) Reviewed here (1883), pp.211–213

Hawking, Stephen (1988). A Brief History of Time. New York, NY: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-34614-8.
 
Heilbron, John L. (2005). Censorship of Astronomy in Italy after Galileo, In McMullin (2005, pp.279–322). 

Hellman, Hal (1988). Great Feuds in Science. Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever. New York: Wiley
Kelter, Irving A. (2005). The Refusal to Accommodate. Jesuit Exegetes and the Copernican System, In McMullin (2005, pp.38–53). 

Koestler, Arthur [1959] (1990). The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-019246-8.  Original edition published by Hutchinson (1959, London).

Lattis, James M. (1994). Between Copernicus and Galileo: Christopher Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic Cosmology, Chicago: the University of Chicago Press

Langford, Jerome K., O.P. [1966] (1998). Galileo, Science and the Church, third edition, St. Augustine's Press. ISBN 1-890318-25-6. . Original edition by Desclee (New York, NY, 1966)

Lessl, Thomas, "[[Arthur Koestler Koestler, Arthur. The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe 1958, Penguin (Non-Classics); Reprint edition (June 5, 1990). ISBN 0-14-019246-8ologetics/ap0138.html The Galileo Legend]". New Oxford Review, 27–33 (June 2000).

McMullin, Ernan, ed. (2005). The Church and Galileo. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-03483-4. 

McMullin, Ernan, (2005a). The Church's Ban on Copernicanism, 1616, In McMullin (2005, pp.150–190). 

Naylor, Ronald H. (1990). "Galileo's Method of Analysis and Synthesis," Isis, 81: 695–707

Newall, Paul (2004). "The Galileo Affair"

Remmert, Volker R. (2005). Galileo, God, and Mathematics. In: Bergmans, Luc/Koetsier, Teun (eds.): Mathematics and the Divine. A Historical Study, Amsterdam et al., 347–360

Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal (1994). Turning point for Europe? The Church in the Modern World—Assessment and Forecast, translated from the 1991 German edition by Brian McNeil, San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-461-8. OCLC 60292876. 

Seeger, Raymond J. (1966). Galileo Galilei, his life and his works. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 

Settle, Thomas B. (1961). "An Experiment in the History of Science". Science, 133:19–23

Shea, William R. and Arigas, Mario (2003). Galileo in Rome: The Rise and Fall of a Troublesome Genius. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516598-5. 

Sharratt, Michael (1996), Galileo: Decisive Innovator. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-56671-1

Sobel, Dava [1999] (2000). Galileo's Daughter. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-85702-712-4. 
Wallace, William A. (1984) Galileo and His Sources: The Heritage of the Collegio Romano in Galileo's Science, (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Pr.), ISBN 0-691-08355-X

White, Andrew Dickson (1898). A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. New York 1898.

White, Michael. (2007). Galileo: Antichrist: A Biography. Weidenfeld & Nicolson:London, ISBN 978-0-297-84868-4.

Wisan, Winifred Lovell (1984). "Galileo and the Process of Scientific Creation," Isis, 75: 269–286.
Zik Yaakov, "Science and Instruments: The telescope as a scientific instrument at the beginning of the seventeenth century", Perspectives on Science 2001, Vol. 9, 3, 259–284.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei
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« Reply #36 on: April 04, 2008, 05:56:29 pm »









                                               Row over Galileo's remains




 
By Mark Duff
BBC News, Milan 







 
Galileo's views saw him accused of heresy



The Renaissance genius Galileo Galilei is once again at the centre of a row between Church and
science more than 360 years after his death.

Italian researchers want to exhume his body for DNA tests to find the cause of the blindness that afflicted him.

They also want to confirm whether the body that shares his grave is that of Galileo's beloved daughter.

Galileo fell foul of the religious authorities of the day when he argued that the Earth revolved around the Sun.

For that he was accused of heresy and condemned to see out his life under house arrest at his villa
in the hills outside Florence.
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« Reply #37 on: April 04, 2008, 05:58:56 pm »









Everyone knows that Galileo Galilei dropped cannonballs off the leaning tower of Pisa, developed the
first reliable telescope, and was convicted by the Inquisition for holding a heretical belief--that the earth revolved around the sun.

But did you know he had a daughter?

In Galileo's Daughter, Dava Sobel (author of the bestselling Longitude) tells the story of the famous scientist and his illegitimate daughter, Sister Maria Celeste.

Sobel bases her book on 124 surviving letters to the scientist from the nun, whom Galileo described as
"a woman of exquisite mind, singular goodness, and tenderly attached to me." Their loving correspondence revealed much about their world: the agonies of the bubonic plague, the hardships of monastic life, even Galileo's occasional forgetfulness ("The little basket, which I sent you recently with several pastries, is not mine, and therefore I wish you to return it to me").


While Galileo tangled with the Church, Maria Celeste--whose adopted name was a tribute to her father's fascination with the heavens--provided moral and emotional support with her frequent letters, approving of his work because she knew the depth of his faith. As Sobel notes, "It is difficult today ... to see the Earth at the center of the Universe. Yet that is where Galileo found it."

With her fluid prose and graceful turn of phrase, Sobel breathes life into Galileo, his daughter, and the earth-centered world in which they lived. --Sunny Delaney --.






From Publishers Weekly



Despite its title, this impressive book proves to be less the story of Galileo's elder daughter, the oldest
of his three illegitimate children, and more the story of Galileo himself and his trial before the Inquisition for arguing that Earth moves around the Sun.

That familiar tale is given a new slant by Sobel's translationAfor the first time into EnglishAof the 124 surviving letters to Galileo by his daughter, Suor Maria Celeste, a Clarisse nun who died at age 33; his letters to her are lost, presumably destroyed by Maria Celeste's convent after her death.

Her letters may not in themselves justify a book; they are devout, full of pious love for the father she addresses as "Sire," only rarely offering information or insight. But Sobel uses them as the accompaniment to, rather than the core of, her story, sounding the element of faith and piety so often missing in other retellings of Galileo's story. For Sobel shows that, in renouncing his discoveries, Galileo acted not just to save his skin but also out of a genuine need to align himself with his church.

With impressive skill and economy, she portrays the social and psychological forces at work in Galileo's trial, particularly the political pressures of the Thirty Years' War, and the passage of the plague through Italy, which cut off travel between Florence, where Galileo lived, and Rome, the seat of the Pope and the Inquisition, delaying Galileo's appearance there and giving his enemies time to conspire.

In a particularly memorable way, Sobel vivifies the hard life of the "Poor Clares," who lived in such abject poverty and seclusion that many were driven mad by their confinement.

It's a wholly involving tale, a worthy follow-up (after four years) to Sobel's surprise bestseller.




   
   
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« Reply #38 on: December 22, 2008, 08:37:36 am »









                                                     Vatican to erect statue of Galileo






March 05, 2008
Vatican City

The Vatican will be erecting a statue of Galileo Galilei inside the city's walls - 400 years after the scientist was
tried for heresy.

The Times reports the Vatican hopes that by putting up the statue, it will "close the Galileo affair and reach a definitive understanding not only of his legacy but between science and faith."

The planned statue is to stand in the Vatican gardens near the apartment in which Galileo was incarcerated while awaiting trial in 1633 for advocating heliocentrism - the Copernican doctrine that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

Pontifical Academy of Sciences head and a nuclear physicist Nicola Cabibbo said the statue - paid for by private donations - was appropriate because Galileo had been one of the founders of the Lincei Academy, a forerunner of the papal body, in 1603.

He had not been tortured or burned at the stake, as many believed, though he was forced to recant by the Inquisition.

A series of celebrations will take place in the lead to next year's 400th anniversary of Galilieo's development of the telescope including a a Vatican conference on Galileo to be attended by 40 international scientists and a re-examination of his trial at an institute in Florence run by the Jesuits, who were among Galileo's fiercest opponents in the Inquisition.

In January Pope Benedict called off a visit to Sapienza University, in Rome after staff and students accused him of defending the Inquisition's condemnation of Galileo.

They cited a speech he made at La Sapienza in 1990, while still a cardinal, in which he quoted a description of the trial of Galileo as fair. The Vatican said that the Pope had been misquoted.

The Vatican's repentance over its treatment of Galileo began in 1979, when John Paul II invited the Church to rethink the trial of Galileo.

 

SOURCE

Vatican recants with a statue of Galileo (The Times 04/03/08)



http://www.cathnews.com/article.aspx?aeid=6123
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« Reply #39 on: December 22, 2008, 08:39:16 am »










                                         Vatican recants with a statue of Galileo






Richard Owen
in Rome
and Sarah Delaney
in Florence
March 2008
timesonline.co.uk

Four hundred years after it put Galileo on trial for heresy the Vatican is to complete its rehabilitation of the great scientist by erecting a statue of him inside the Vatican walls.

The planned statue is to stand in the Vatican gardens near the apartment in which Galileo was incarcerated while awaiting trial in 1633 for advocating heliocentrism, the Copernican doctrine that the Earth revolves around the Sun.

Nicola Cabibbo, head of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and a nuclear physicist, said: “The Church wants to close the Galileo affair and reach a definitive understanding not only of his great legacy but also of the relationship between science and faith.”

Professor Cabibbo said that the statue - paid for by private donations - was appropriate because Galileo had been one of the founders of the Lincei Academy, a forerunner of the papal body, in 1603. He had not been tortured or burned at the stake, as many believed, though he was forced to recant by the Inquisition.

The move coincides with a series of celebrations in Rome, Pisa, Florence and Padua in the run-up to next year's 400th anniversary of Galileo's development of the telescope. Events include a Vatican conference on Galileo to be attended by 40 international scientists and a re-examination of his trial at an institute in Florence run by the Jesuits, who were among Galileo's fiercest opponents in the Inquisition.

The celebrations begin today with the opening of an exhibition on Galileo's telescope entitled “The Instrument Which Changed the World” at the Museum of the History of Science in Florence. The museum, which is undergoing an 8 million (£6 million) renovation, contains many of Galileo's own scientific instruments.

Paolo Galluzzi, head of the Florence museum, said that “even if Galileo had been wrong, you cannot judge scientific errors in an ecclesisatical court”. Giorgio Ierano, a cultural historian, said: “The wrong done to Galileo is being put right on the territory of his historic enemies. Wherever Galileo is in the afterlife, he must be enjoying this moment.”

In January Pope Benedict XVI called off a visit to Sapienza University, Rome, after staff and students accused him of defending the Inquisition's condemnation of Galileo. They cited a speech he made at La Sapienza in 1990, while still a cardinal, in which he quoted a description of the trial of Galileo as fair. The Vatican said that the Pope had been misquoted.

The Vatican's repentance over its treatment of Galileo began in 1979, when John Paul II invited the Church to rethink the trial of Galileo.
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« Reply #40 on: December 22, 2008, 08:40:37 am »





It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation
of the moons of Jupiter.

This observation upset the notion that all celestial bodies
must revolve around the Earth.

Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in
March 1610









Faith in science



— Born in Pisa in 1564, Galileo Galilei built his first telescope in 1609 after a Dutch optician invented a device that made distant objects seem near at hand (at first called the spyglass)

— Galileo used his telescopes to observe the Moon, which he found to be “uneven, rough, full of cavities and prominences”, and then in 1610 Jupiter and its satellites

— His subsequent Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in which he asserted categorically that the Earth revolved round the Sun, was held to be offensive to Pope Urban VIII and he was ordered to stand trial for heresy in 1633

— His views were found to be “absurd, philosophically false, and formally heretical because expressly contrary to Holy Scriptures”

— He recanted to save his life, and lived under house arrest until his death in 1642
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« Reply #41 on: December 22, 2008, 08:41:41 am »


                         











Galileo's abjuration



“Wishing to remove from the minds of your Eminences and all faithful Christians this vehement suspicion reasonably conceived against me, I abjure with sincere heart and unfeigned faith, I curse and detest the said errors and heresies, and generally all and every error and sect contrary to the Holy Catholic Church.

And I swear that for the future I will neither say nor assert in speaking or writing such things as may bring upon me similar suspicion; and if I know any heretic, or one suspected of heresy, I will denounce him to this Holy Office, or to the Inquisitor and Ordinary of the place in which I may be."



— Source: Solange Strong Hertz: Beyond Politics: A Meta-Political View of History. 
« Last Edit: December 22, 2008, 09:10:32 am by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #42 on: December 22, 2008, 09:01:11 am »











                                                  Recantation of Galileo (June 22, 1633)








Concluding portion of Galileo's Recantation
(or Abjuration)



I, Galileo, son of the late Vincenzo Galilei, Florentine, aged seventy years, arraigned personally before this tribunal, and kneeling before you, Most Eminent and Reverend Lord Cardinals, Inquisitors-General against heretical depravity throughout the entire Christian commonwealth, having before my eyes and touching with my hands, the Holy Gospels, swear that I have always believed, do believe, and by God's help will in  the future believe, all that is held, preached, and taught by the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. But whereas -- after an injunction had been judicially intimated to me by this Holy Office, to the effect that I must altogether abandon the false opinion that the sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center of the world, and moves, and that I must not hold, defend, or teach in any way whatsoever, verbally or in writing, the said false doctrine, and after it had been notified to me that the said doctrine was contrary to Holy Scripture -- I wrote and printed a book in which I discuss this new doctrine already condemned, and adduce arguments of great cogency in its favor, without presenting any solution of these, and for this reason I have been pronounced by the Holy Office to be vehemently suspected of heresy, that is to say, of having held and believed that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable, and that the earth is not the center and moves: 


Therefore, desiring to remove from the minds of your Eminences, and of all faithful Christians, this vehement suspicion, justly conceived against me, with sincere heart and unfeigned faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies, and generally every other error, heresy,  and sect whatsoever contrary to the said Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert, verbally or in writing, anything that might furnish occasion for a similar suspicion regarding me; but that should I know any heretic, or person suspected of heresy, I will denounce him to this Holy Office, or to the Inquisitor or Ordinary of the place where I may be. Further, I swear and promise to fulfill and observe in their integrity all penances that have been, or that shall be, imposed upon me by this Holy Office. And, in the event of my contravening, (which God forbid) any of these my promises and oaths, I submit myself to all the pains and penalties imposed and promulgated in the sacred canons and other constitutions, general and particular, against such delinquents. So help me God, and these His Holy Gospels, which I touch with my hands. 



I, the said Galileo Galilei, have abjured, sworn, promised, and bound myself as above; and in witness of the truth thereof I have with my own hand subscribed the present document of my abjuration, and recited it word for word at Rome, in the Convent of Minerva, this twenty-second day of June, 1633. 

I, Galileo Galilei, have abjured as above with my own hand.
 




[Galileo's Recantation excludes two points included in the original formula for abjuration presented to him by the Cardinals.  These two points, objected to by Galileo, would have had him declare that he was not a good Catholic and that he deceived others in publishing his book.]



Source: 

Giorgio de Santillana,

The Crime of Galileo

(University of Chicago Press 1955),
pp. 312-313.
Trial of Galileo Homepage
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« Reply #43 on: January 04, 2009, 11:47:02 pm »












                                                         Galileo's library recreated


                                         Volumes that formed his personal collection on show






 (ANSA)
- Florence,
December 23, 2008

- The books that shaped one of the greatest scientific minds in Western history are the focus of a new exhibition
in this Tuscan city.

The National Library of Florence is showcasing 70 volumes that were once part of the personal collection of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642).

''The material on display was selected from the Galileo collection stored in our library,'' explained library director Antonia Idea Fontana. ''They were the source of his research and bear witness to his successes but also show the polemics, the legal arguments and the trials linked to his work''.

The renowned Tuscan astronomer, scientist and mathematician had eclectic taste in reading material, the exhibition shows.

His collection not only included scientific treatises but also copies of Dante's Divine Comedy, the romantic epic poem Orlando Furioso and works by Petrarch. In addition, the show features a number of Galileo's scientific sketches, as well as original ideas and notes he jotted down while reading the various volumes.

''While this is not the first time these books have been displayed, the idea of reconstructing Galileo's personal library is completely new,'' added Fontana. The exhibition is part of a series of events this year commemorating 400 years since Galileo produced his first telescope, revolutionising conceptions of the universe and sparking religious uproar.

He created the device in 1608, initially producing a lens able to magnify objects threefold and soon after 32-fold.

This put him in a nearly unique position, as he was one of the few people at the time with a lens powerful enough to observe the sky.

His discovery of three of Jupiter's moons and his observation of Venus's phases helped him conclude that the sun was at the centre of the universe, rather than the Earth, as was commonly believed at the time.

Church opposition to Galileo's sun-centred model flared up immediately in 1612 and would dog Galileo for the rest of his life.

An exhibition at the Museum of the History of Science in Florence until the end of December explores this discovery, showing the only two surviving telescopes created by Galileo, as well as dozens of original documents and instruments.

The exhibition on Galileo's personal book collection can be visited at the National Library of Florence until February 28.
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« Reply #44 on: January 24, 2009, 08:14:58 am »



















                                          Pope praises Galileo, celebrates the Solstice



                                                             Galileo magnifico?






By Joe Fay •
Posted in
Science,
22nd December 2008

The Pope tipped his hat to long-time Vatican bugbear Galileo this weekend as he helped kick off the 2009 International Year of Astronomy.

Pope Benedict also gave some comfort to pagans by acknowledging the connection between the date of Christmas and the Winter Solstice.

Pope Benedict's predecessor, John Paul II, formally apologised for the Church's hounding of Galileo for pointing out that the Earth - and therefore man - was not at the centre of the Universe, never mind the solar system. But the relationship between Benedict and the sciences in general and astronomy in particular, has been somewhat pricklier.

So, it might have seemed perverse that the pope this weekend decided to highlight Unesco's International Year of Astronomy, which marks 400 years since Galileo first used the telescope. Still, the occasionally surprising Benedict - he wears Prada after all - rose to the occasion, paying tribute to Galileo and his ilk for promoting further understanding of the laws of nature.

Of course, in the Vatican's world, it doesn't stop there. Understanding the laws of nature therefore stimulates an appreciation of God's work. This would normally be the point at which we kick off an unholy row by asking whether the pope is then saying the laws of nature were laid down by God, and are not independent of him, whether he exists or not.

But instead, we're going to marvel at how Benedict, after veering into science, then seems to have swerved into Dan Brown territory. After pointing how Christmas uncannily coincides with the Winter solstice, he gave an account of how astronomy, and the solstice, underlie the very architecture of the Vatican.

According to AsiaNews.it, Benedict pointed out that "not everyone knows that St Peter's Square is also a meridian: the obelisk, in fact, casts its shadow along a line that runs along the pavement toward the fountain under this window, and in these days the shadow is at its longest of the year.

"This reminds us of the function of astronomy in marking out the rhythm of prayer. The Angelus, for example, is recited in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, and with the meridian, which was used in ancient times to identify 'true noon', clocks were adjusted."





Of course, this is what the Pope wants you to think. As any good conspiracy theorist knows, he is clearly trying to distract attention from the fact that the obelisk naturally points to the grave of Mary Magdalene, who is interred with the Templar's gold, the Ark of the Covenant and the outline for Dan Brown's next novel. ®
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