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The island of Meroe

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Titiea
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« Reply #30 on: September 08, 2008, 05:10:49 am »

HISTORY OF THE LAND OF KUSH AND ATLANTIS

•   For more than two millenaries, the Kushites were in rivalry with Egyptians for the domination of the Nile valley. Greeks called them Ethiopians (black people), but their territories corresponded to the medieval Upper Nubia and now pertain to Sudan Republic province of Butana.

•   Four historic periods can be distinguished for the Land of Kush according to Egyptian and Nubian hieroglyphic texts and local archeological findings.

1) The kingdom of Kerma   (2200 to1550 B.C. : Old Kingdom and S.I.P. in Egypt)
The Kushite royal city of Kerma was settled just south of the 3rd cataract.  Pharaohs Sesostris I and Sesostris III of the XXIIth dynasty had to built several big fortresses between the 1st and the 3rd cataracts of the Nile to protect their South frontier against recurrent attacks of their bellicose neighbor. The rulers of Kerma allied to Hyksos to strangle the frail kingdom of Thebes under the 17th dynnasty. They were defeated by Kamose around 1550 B.C.

2) The Egyptian dominion   (1500 to1069 B.C. : New Kingdom in Egypt)
   From the reigns of pharaoh Ahmose (XVIIIth dynasty) to Ramses XI (XXth dynasty) the Land of Kush was administered by a viceroy, vassal of pharaoh.
(I consider the beginning of this period as the date of foundation of  Atlantis by Poseidon=Amun = Kamose=Thutmose I).

3) The kingdom of Napata    (1000 to 568 B.C.)  :

   In 752 B.C Piankhi a Kushite ruler originating from Napata conquered Egypt as far as Memphis and Sais and one of his successors Taharqa spread his kingdom from Khartum to Lebanon and as far as Etruria which is Tyrrhenia according to Strabo. These black pharaohs of the XXVth dynasty reigned on both Nubia and Egypt. Finally they were expelled from Egypt by the Assyrian king Assurbanipal in 568 B.C. but kept on to reign on Upper Nubia (Kush) for 750 years.
   But in 591 B.C. pharaoh Psametik II of the XXVIth Egyptian dynasty made a military campaign against Kushites and burnt the temples of Djebel Barkal the sacred city of Kush where reigned king Aspelta. The Egyptian army was led by a Libyan general Amasis who 20 years later will become himself pharaoh in Sais.The Egyptian soldiers were helped by a contingent of Greek mercenaries. It was a great victory for these armies who defeated completely the Kushites of Napata.
As in Djebek Barkal a rockslide caused by an earthquake has destroyed and closed the entry of the temple of Mut
: there is a possibility that Egyptian soldiers sleeping in the temple could be burried under the rocks in 591 B.C. To prove that, it would be necessary to  remove blocks of stone as big as a car... If human bones and weapons could be found there, this could date the earthquake on 591 B.C. The same earthquake could destroy the dams and ramparts in Meroe allowing a flood of the Nile to drown the city in the monsoon season. This could be the final catastrophe described by Plato taking in account that the city of Meroe was existing before the so-called period “kingdom of Meroe”.
In fact the city remained inundated only for a few months and was shorlty after reoccupied. So it was in the late 6th century B.C. that the historian Hecataeus of Miletus visited Meroe. His now lost book “Periegesis” could be the main source of information of Plato’s Atlantis and of Strabo’s report about Meroe.


4) The kingdom of Meroe    (568 B.C. to A.D 350.)

After the Egyptian raid on Napata during the reign of the Kushite king Aspelta the royal residence was transferred from Napata to Meroe in 568 B.C. It is obvious that Plato described this moment when he said in Critias 115c about the descendants of Poseidon (rulers of Napata arriving in Meroe) : “Their first work was to bridge the rings of water round their mother’s original home…* and so on. Thus improving the works previously made by Poseidon (Kamose) nine centuries before.
The floruit of the kingdom of Meroe is considered to be from the 3rd century B.C. to the A.D. 3rd century and most part of the remains discovered by archeologists were dated from the greco-roman period. (But until now, only 30% of the city were investigated).
It is around A.D. 350 that the Ethiopian (Abyssinian) king Ezana of Axum conquered Meroe which disappeared from history.

* There are some archeological indices indicating that the dynasty of kings of Napata originated from Meroe where some remains were dated from the 8th century B.C.

« Last Edit: September 08, 2008, 05:15:50 am by Titiea » Report Spam   Logged

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Mario Dantas
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« Reply #31 on: September 11, 2008, 04:01:36 am »


Dear Titeia,

I can't argue with that! Indeed there must be some truth in it. But i insist that perhaps it is a too brief Historical period to be considered Plato's Atlantic Island. I never knew about those ancient Empires in Africa, i mean i heard of them but never really read anything about them. The only thing i can speak of is the Geographical situation and its relation to places like the Sahara Desert, Arabia Felix, India, and the forced "diaspora", Exodus, or whatever name we would like to call it, that in fact happened.

This movement had a directional sense, Fauna and Flora literally "flew" over vast regions around the Planet, and one of the first settlements made, perhaps, were in the Land of Kush, but almost simultaneously in far away regions too. I am now sure of this. I can't prove it, but the truth will be there when eventually someone will reach it. Our disagreement should bring forth the real truth, because neither you or me are lying, only that it is forgivable that we've missed something that was hidden in the dark. It seems quite impossible to come up with the truth with so little Historical and Archaeological data.

Sincerely yours,
M
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Titiea
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« Reply #32 on: September 11, 2008, 10:00:08 am »

It is also interesting to know the Jew tradition about Moses in Ethiopia :

http://pace.mcmaster.ca/York/york/tei/jewish_history?id=55

Who has also a strong relationship with the reports of ancient authors about the Egyptian Sesostris :

http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/JHS/Articles/article_92.pdf
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Titiea
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« Reply #33 on: September 12, 2008, 11:30:56 am »

Here is the web site of the 11th International conference on Meroitic Studies just held in Vienna, September 1-4, 2008.
You can read all the abstracts. unfortunately they are not classified by alphabetical order of authors...

http://www.univie.ac.at/afrikanistik/meroe2008/
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Titiea
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« Reply #34 on: February 12, 2009, 04:53:55 am »

Thank you Qoais for your kind help.

I communicate to you the URL of my Web site where you will be able to see my last researches and particularly on Atlantis. My site is bilingual, please click on the British flag in the left up corner to obtain the english version.

http://www.antiqua91.fr/index.html

This site is only beginning and I will try to improve it quickly by translating my articles in french into english language.

However, I hope you will enjoy seeing it.

With best regards,


Therese


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Qoais
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« Reply #35 on: February 12, 2009, 09:42:28 am »

Hi Titiea
I'll look up your web site. Thanks for giving us the link.
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« Reply #36 on: April 11, 2009, 11:25:54 pm »

Hi Therese,

One thing that bugs me about your theory is the same thing that I have trouble with qhwn it comes to Georgeos. 

Obviously, Egypt fought a lot of wars with the Nubains. How could they have possibly mistook them for Atlantis?
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Titiea
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« Reply #37 on: April 13, 2009, 04:44:36 am »

Hi Ian,

Probably the word Atlantis never appeared in Egyptian language. It was certainly a late Greek word.

The Roman author Pliny the Elder (23-79 A.D.) wrote in his Natural History, book VI, 35  :

"In the days of the Ethiopian (Kushite) dominion, the island of Meroe enjoyed great renown. It was in the habit of maintaining 200 000 armed men, and 4 000 artisans. The whole of this country has successively had the names of Ætheria, Atlantia and last of all, Ethiopia.”

The form Kush appeared only in the Bible, in Egyptian hieroglyphs it is Kash. This name evoques the name Gash a great river North-East of Sudan and Erytrea, which often provokes catastrophic inundations.
See : http://www.emro.who.int/Sudan/pdf/floodwatch_18aug07.pdf

Therese

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Titiea
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« Reply #38 on: May 14, 2009, 03:43:17 am »

Here is an ancient text which could well describe the Island of Meroe as the land of god Pan :

DIODORUS, Book V, 29 : Of the holy island of Panchea.

They say, the breadth of this island is about two hundred furlongs, inhabited by them they call Pancheans, who transport the myrrh and frankincense into foreign parts, and sell it to the Arabian merchants, from whom others buy these and other such like merchandise, and convey them to Phoenicia, Caelosyria, and Egypt ; and from those places they are carried by the merchants over all parts of the world.…
There are many things observable in Panchea that deserve to be taken notice of. The natural inhabitants are those they call Panchaei ; the strangers that dwell among them are people of the western parts, together with Indians, Cretans, and Scythians. In this island there is a famous city, called Panara, not inferior to any for wealth and grandeur. The citizens are called the suppliants of Jupiter Triphylius, and are the only people of Panchaea, that are governed by a democracy, without a monarch. They choose every year the presidents or governors, that have all matters under their cognizance, but what concerns life and death ; and the most weighty matters they refer to the college of their priests. The temple of  Jupiter Triphylius is about sixty furlongs distant from the city, in a champaign plain. It is in great veneration because of its antiquity and the stateliness of the structure, and the fertility of the soil.
The fields round about the temple are planted with all sorts of trees, not only for fruit, but for pleasure and delight  for they abound with tall cypresses, plane trees, laurels, and myrtles, the place abounding with fountains of running water: for near the temple there is such a mighty spring of sweet water rushes out of the earth, as that it becomes a navigable river : thence it divides itself into several currents and streams, and waters all the fields thereabouts, and produces thick groves of tall and shady trees ; amongst which, in summer, abundance of people spend their time, and a multitude of birds of all sorts build their nests, which create great delight, both by affecting the eye with the variety of their colours, and taking the ear with the sweetness of their notes. Here are many gardens, sweet and pleasant meadows decked with all sorts of herbs and flowers, and so glorious is the prospect, that it seems to be a paradise worthy of the gods themselves.
There are here likewise large and fruitful palms, and abundance of walnut trees, which plentifully furnish the inhabitants with pleasant nuts.
 Besides all these, there are a multitude of vines of all sorts, spiring up on high, and so curiously interwoven one amongst another, that they are exceeding pleasant to the view, and greatly advance the delights of the place.
The temple was built of white marble, most artificially jointed and cemented, two hundred yards in length, and as many in breadth, supported with great and thick pillars, curiously adorned with carved work. In this temple are placed huge statues of the gods, of admirable workmanship, and amazing largeness. Round the temple are built apartments for the priests that attend the service of the gods, by whom every thing in that sacred place is performed. All along from the temple, is an even course of ground, four furlongs in length, and a hundred yards in breadth ; on either side of which are erected vast brazen statues, with four-square pedestals ; at the end of the course, breaks forth the river from the fountains before mentioned, from whence flows most clear and sweet water,' the drinking of which conduces much to the health of the body. This river is called the water of the sun.
 The whole fountain is lined on both sides and flagged at the bottom with stone at a vast expense, and runs out on both sides for the space of four furlongs. It is not lawful for any but the priests to approach to the brink of the fountain. All the land about for two hundred furlongs round, is consecrated to the gods, and the revenues bestowed in maintaining the public sacrifices, and service of the gods : beyond these consecrated lands, is a high mountain, dedicated likewise to the gods, which they call the throne of Coelus (Uranus) and Triphylius Olympus; for they report that Uranus, when he governed the whole world, pleasantly diverted himself in this place; and from the top of the mount observed the motion of the heavens and stars, and that he was called Triphylius Olympus, because the inhabitants were composed of three several nations, Panchteans, Oceanites, and Doians, who were afterwards expelled by Ammon; for it is said, that he not only rooted out this nation, but utterly destroyed all their cities, and laid Doia and Asterusia even with the ground. The priests every year solemnize a sacred festival in this mountain, with great devotion.
 Behind this mount, in other parts of Panchaea, they say there are abundance of wild beasts of all kinds, as elephants, lions, leopards, deer, and many other wonderful creatures both for strength and proportion. In this island there are three chief cities, Hyracia, Dalis, and Oceanis. The whole country is very fertile, and especially in the production of all sorts of wine in great plenty,
The men are warlike, and use chariots in battles, after the ancient manner. The whole nation is divided into three parts : the first class is of the priests, with whom are joined the artificers. The other tribe consists of the husbandmen ; and the third are the militia and the shepherds.
The priests govern all, and are the sole arbitrators in every matter; for they give judgment in all controversies, and have the power and authority in all public transactions of state. The husbandmen  till the land, but the fruit is brought into the common treasury, and who is judged the most skilful in husbandry, receives the largest
share of the fruits for a reward in the first place ; and so the second, and the rest in order to the tenth, as every one merits less or more, receives his reward by the judgment of the priests. In the same manner the shepherds and herdsmen carefully bring into the public stock, the victims and other things both by number and weight, as the nature of the things are ; for it is not lawful for any to appropriate any thing to themselves particularly, except a house and a garden. For all the young breed of cattle, and other things, and all the revenues are received by the priests, and they justly distribute to every one as their necessity does require, only the priests have a double proportion.
They wear soft and fine garments ; for their sheep's wool is much finer here than anywhere else ; both men and women likewise deck themselves with golden ornaments ; for they wear necklaces of gold, and bracelets about their arms, and like the Persians have rings hanging in their ears. Their shoes are such as others wear, but richly beautified with divers sorts of colours.
Their soldiers, for ordinary pay, defend the country, fortifying themselves within camps and bulwarks; for there is a part of the island infested with most daring thieves and robbers, who often lurch and surprise the husbandmen.
To conclude, these priests for delicacy, state, and purity of life, far excel all the rest of the inhabitants: their robes are of white linen, and sometimes of pure soft wool. They wear likewise mitres, embroidered with gold. Their shoes are sandals curiously wrought with exquisite workmanship, and in their ears hang golden ear-rings like to the women's.
 They attend chiefly upon the service of the gods, singing melodious songs in their praises, setting forth their glorious acts and benefits bestowed upon men. The priests say they came orginally from Crete (probably the land of Kurru near Napata, just before the 4th cataract), and were brought over into Panchaea by Jupiter (Amun) (probably the Egyptian king Kamosis, 17th dynasty, circa 1500 B.C.), when he was upon earth, and governed all the world ; and allege their language for a confirmation of this assertion, in as much as they retain many words of the Cretan speech among them. And further say, that they derived from their ancestors that civility and kindness wherewith they entertain the Cretans, the fame and report of their ancient consanguinity descending continually in a perpetual succession to their posterity : they shew likewise a record written, as they say, by Jupiter's own hand, at the time when he was on earth, and laid the foundation of the temple.
 There are in this island likewise mines of gold, silver, brass, and iron, but not lawful for any to export them. Nay, it is not lawful for any of the priests to go out of the verge of the consecrated ground; and if any do, it is lawful for any man that finds them to kill them. They have under their charge innumerable vast vessels, and other consecrated things, both of gold and silver, which have been laid up there in honour of the gods for many ages. The gates of the temple are of admirable workmanship, beautified with gold, silver, ivory, and thyine wood.
The bed of the god is six cubits long, and four broad, of massy gold, most curiously wrought in every part; near adjoining, stands the table, as large, and of the like materials and workmanship with the other in every respect.
In the middle of the bed, is placed a great golden pillar, whereon are letters inscribed, called by the Egyptians, sacred writing, expressing the famous actions of Uranus, Jupiter, Diana, and Apollo, written, they say, by Mercury himself. But this may suffice concerning the islands lying in the ocean over against Arabia.

« Last Edit: May 14, 2009, 03:44:04 am by Titiea » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #39 on: May 14, 2009, 09:13:53 am »

Hi Titiea

When we were chatting some time ago, long before the last conference, we were saying that the island of Meroe was an inland island, in other words, surrounded by rivers.

In the last line of Siculus in your post, he is saying these islands were in the ocean against Arabia.  Now I realize he likely means the Red Sea as being part of the ocean as there really aren't many islands there right?  So in this case, the island being referred to as Panchea would have to be in the Red Sea - no?
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« Reply #40 on: May 17, 2009, 10:45:21 am »

Hi Qoais,

There are many small islands in the Red Sea, but not any has a breadth of 40 km (200 furlongs) and all are desertic without any springs. Particularly in the Dahlak archipelago in front of Asmara in Erythrea, antique tanks for water were found. So I maintain my opinion that all lands of East Africa delimited by rivers facing Arabia and Indian ocean were named islands by ancient authors.
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« Reply #41 on: May 18, 2009, 10:41:16 pm »

Quote
So I maintain my opinion that all lands of East Africa delimited by rivers facing Arabia and Indian ocean were named islands by ancient authors.

So how many would there be then?  I mean, how many lands are there in E. Africa delimited by rivers - facing Arabia and the Indian Ocean?
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« Reply #42 on: May 24, 2009, 08:54:56 am »

The Egyptians used a lot of words for Atlantis most of which I forgot because of Alzheimer's syndrome.
The underworld was Atlantis:" ARAU " SETHET=CHETA-land, ANTHAT, FIeld of the NINE BOWS, PTAH/ PUNT/ BUTO/ PUT  etc.

OCEAN meant river in ancient greek you thought to " out-Clever " out -wit," the other Atlantologists  by claiming
that Since Ocean is no Sea but River the PELAGOUS  ATLANTIKOUM were a River-Isle and no Oceanic- Isle
Thus you thought of a NILE-River ISLE !

Very clever,

But you forget that the FOUR Paradise Rivers were named OCEAN too.
The Western Ocean was the RED- SEA ( or KISSOON, which name later " Transferred" to the Blue Nile( Ribver.)

and the Eastern OCEAN was the Persian Gulf(= PISON.)Which name later transferred to the Septa Hindi or INDUS( River.)

THUS IT WAS POSSIBLE FOR THE PARADISE GARDEN AT ADEN TO UNITE THE four PARADISER( Rivers-)at ADEN
where the river LADON or LETHE was the generic source, TIGRIS & Euphrates were names of TIGRE in Ethiopioa and
Euphtrates was the Sea-Shore/ River at Erytraea. Others thought that DILMUN was the Paradise Mountain with the 4 Paradise Rivers all in the Persian Gulf.  HAVILA or KABIRIA was actually HADRAMAUT or HYPERBOREA in Yemen.

Hi Ian,

Probably the word Atlantis never appeared in Egyptian language. It was certainly a late Greek word.

The Roman author Pliny the Elder (23-79 A.D.) wrote in his Natural History, book VI, 35  :

"In the days of the Ethiopian (Kushite) dominion, the island of Meroe enjoyed great renown. It was in the habit of maintaining 200 000 armed men, and 4 000 artisans. The whole of this country has successively had the names of Ætheria, Atlantia and last of all, Ethiopia.”

The form Kush appeared only in the Bible, in Egyptian hieroglyphs it is Kash. This name evoques the name Gash a great river North-East of Sudan and Erytrea, which often provokes catastrophic inundations.
See : http://www.emro.who.int/Sudan/pdf/floodwatch_18aug07.pdf

Therese


« Last Edit: May 24, 2009, 08:55:49 am by BlueHue » Report Spam   Logged

( Blue's)THEORY, locating"original" Atlantis( in Aden-Yemen.)
1: ATLANTIS =Fake=Latin name, original Greek: ATHE(=a Region in Aden)
2: Atlantic-OCEAN=Greek: RIVER-of-Atlas+also" Known "World-OCEAN(=Red-Sea)
3: Greek-obsolete-Numeral 'X' caused Plato's Atlantisdate:9000=900
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