Atlantis Online
July 15, 2024, 10:27:56 pm
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: Satellite images 'show Atlantis'
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3766863.stm
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

Mammal Bones And Teeth From Gray's Reef & Other Places

Pages: [1] 2   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Mammal Bones And Teeth From Gray's Reef & Other Places  (Read 1409 times)
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« on: March 05, 2008, 04:10:22 pm »




http://graysreef.noaa.gov/welcome.html
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 10:09:49 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.

Share on Facebook Share on Twitter

Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #1 on: March 05, 2008, 04:13:24 pm »










COASTAL MAP OF GEORGIA


« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:57:05 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #2 on: March 05, 2008, 04:38:27 pm »









                                                VISITOR INFORMATON





Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary is one of the largest near shore live-bottom reefs of the southeastern United States. It is just one of 14 marine protected areas that make up the National Marine Sanctuary System that encompass more than 150,000 square miles of marine and Great Lakes waters from Washington State to the Florida Keys, and from Lake Huron to American Samoa; and one of three marine sanctuaries that make up the Southeast Region.

It is governed by the National Marine Sanctuaries Act and managed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Gray's Reef is the only natural area protected off the Georgia coast. The 17 square nautical miles (about 11,000 acres) of Gray's Reef protects habitat that is recognized both nationally and internationally.

Within the sanctuary there are rocky ledges and flat and rippled sand plains. Gray's Reef is not a coral reef such as those found in the tropics. It is not built by living hard corals. Instead, it is a rock outcropping which stands above the shifting sands of the continental shelf.

It supports a wide variety of invertebrates, soft corals and sponges. Those in turn support a wide variety of reef and pelagic fishes making Gray's Reef a popular spot for both diving and recreational fishing.


http://graysreef.noaa.gov/
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:51:25 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #3 on: March 05, 2008, 04:39:43 pm »









                                                            Location





The sanctuary is located 32 kilometers (17.5 nautical miles) off Sapelo Island, Georgia, between Savannah and Brunswick GA and 60-70 feet below the ocean surface.

The Sanctuary is only accessible by boat, and does not run boat tours, fishing trips or dive trips. However, many independent boat operators run fishing and dive trips to the Sanctuary.

Gray's Reef promotes compatible uses of its resources. As such, the Sanctuary is used as a living classroom by educators and a variety of education programs are based on the resources of the Sanctuary.

In addition, scientists use the Sanctuary as a living laboratory for many marine research projects.
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:52:00 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #4 on: March 05, 2008, 04:42:44 pm »









                                                       Visitor Centers





The Gray's Reef administrative offices are on the north end of Skidaway Island near Savannah, GA, on the campus of Skidaway Institute of Oceanography.


Our mailing address is 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, GA 31411.

Our main line phone number is 912-598-2345.


To reach our offices, alter the last step of these driving directions to Skidaway Institute of Ocean-
ography by following McWhorter Drive only 3.9 miles and, when you see the open field on left, the Gray's Reef drive will be a gravel driveway on the right with a 3-4 foot anchor with lettering GSU
Lab on it, by a tree at the entrance.

Gray's Reef has exhibit partnerships with the The Georgia Aquarium (Atlanta, GA) Tybee Island Marine Science Center (Tybee Island, near Savannah, GA), the Fernbank Museum of Natural History (Atlanta, GA), the University of Georgia's Marine Education Center and Aquarium (MECA) (Skidaway Island, near Savannah, GA.), Georgia Southern University (Statesboro, GA.), and the South Carolina Aquarium (Charleston, SC).

Each of these facilities hosts an exhibit about Gray's Reef, its environment, the marine life found there and its importance within the National Marine Sanctuary Program. Exhibits range from dioramas to tanks with live animals and invertebrates to interactive and videos. Gray's Reef continues to expand its exhibit outreach.
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:52:35 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #5 on: March 05, 2008, 04:44:07 pm »










                                                           Recreation





Gray's Reef is one of the most popular spots off the Georgia coast for recreational fishing and diving. The sanctuary is only accessible by private boat. The Sanctuary does not run boat tours, fishing trips or dive trips. However, independent boat operators run fishing trips and dive trips to the Sanctuary. Gray's Reef does not make recommendations.

Sport fishing occurs year-round but at different levels of intensity. Fishing for pelagic species such as king mackerel is one of the most popular activities; sport fishing tournaments sponsored by private fishing clubs and marinas take place in the spring and Gray's Reef is a popular destination for participants.

When the new regulations become effective on February 16, 2007, only specific types of fishing gear will be allowed (i.e. rod and reed, handline, and spearfishing gear without powerheads) at Gray's Reef. It will also be against regulations to drop an anchor in Gray's Reef except during an emergency. See the regulations section for details.

The Georgia Department of Natural Resources' Coastal Resources Division publishes numerous brochures that can be mailed or downloaded and offer information about the Environment, Fishing - Fisheries (Angler's Guide, Offshore Artificial Reef, Fishing Regulations, etc.), Coastal Management and Shellfish.

Gray's Reef is an open ocean environment; divers encounter strong currents and occasionally low visibility. Temperatures vary by season and range from 50 F (10C) to 80F (26C.).

Pelagic bird watching at Gray's Reef is growing in popularity. Some of the species seen in the Sanctuary include true pelagic birds - birds like shearwaters, petrels and bridled terns that spend their entire lives at sea except when they nest or are blown inshore during heavy storms-- as well as seabirds like gulls and royal terns that forage at sea but return regularly to land.
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:53:40 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #6 on: March 05, 2008, 04:45:18 pm »









                                          Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles





It is possible that you will encounter a highly endangered North Atlantic Right Whale when visiting Gray's Reef; the Sanctuary is near the only known calving ground for the whales and near an area designated as critical habitat. Federal rules require that you get no closer to a north atlantic right whale than 500 yards - the length of five football fields. Further information can be found at NOAA Fisheries Service: Atlantic Large Whale Take Reduction Plan site.

Both bottlenose and spotted dolphin are seen in the Sanctuary. To report a whale sighting or to report an injured or distressed whale, dolphin or sea turtle, call the Georgia Department of Natural Resources at 1-800-272-8363.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recommends you stay at least 100 yards away from all animals, whether in the water or on shore. In addition, it is illegal to feed any marine mammals. It could be dangerous to you and is not healthy for the animals.

Loggerhead sea turtles are frequently seen resting and foraging at Gray's Reef; other sea turtle species sometimes pass through the sanctuary. It is illegal to harm or harass these animals. Divers need to resist the temptation of touching or prodding a resting loggerhead; never try to hitch a ride on a sea turtle. And remember, all sea turtles can mistake floating plastic for food - stash your trash!
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:54:09 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #7 on: March 05, 2008, 04:50:21 pm »










                                            Geoarcheology in the Georgia Bight:


                 A Study of Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (NOAA) and J Reef, Georgia






ABSTRACT: Fluctuations in sea level and variable rates of shoreline change can greatly alter the availability of land for human habitation. Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS) may have been a site of ancient human settlement during the last geologic time period and thus may hold the key to ancient culture and history along the coast. Studies are currently examining this possibility.

PURPOSE: Scientists studying the geoarchaeology of Gray's Reef and nearby J-Reef are attempting to document the reefs' existance above sea level during geologic time. Such documentation would provide the foundation for studies concerning the possible existance of prehistoric humans and their prey in this area.

DESCRIPTION: Researchers currently believe that both Gray's Reef and nearby J-reef existed above sea level, exposed to air from approximately 15,000 to 3 million years ago, implying these areas to have been coastal and available for human settlement. High resolution sea floor imaging was used to examine the ocean bottom to substantiate this hypothesis. Researchers previously searching for plant and animal fossils from these geologic time frames (Pleistocene Age: 18,000 to 3 million years ago and Holocene Age: present to 18,000 years ago) and analyzation is currently underway to determine if fossilized bone samples found in the area are of marine or terrestrial origin. Results will be evaluated to determine when these reef areas of the continental shelf were exposed to air, documenting their existence above sea level.

PROJECT PARTICIPANTS: GRNMS; University of Georgia; Rice University; Coastal Carolina University

PROJECT TIME LINE: (Status: Year 3)

BENEFIT: Geographically, the late Pleistocene age marked a great expansion of human settlement in the New World. Radiocarbon dating studies indicate humans entered the New World, including what is now Georgia, by 12,000 BP-when sea level was 60 feet below its current level. From archaeological findings in the southeastern US, it is clear that these prehistoric inhabitants, or Paleoindians, occupied and hunted the coastal plain. Fossilized remains of these have been found on Gray's Reef. Dating samples will help to identify which animals were present, since particular species existed in certain eras.

YEAR 1 Archeological findings, Sea Floor Imaging Survey, Preliminary data analysisRepeat sampling; further survey Gray's Reef bone bed; perform fossilized bone carbon dating

YEAR 2 Bone-bed underwater survey, Sea floor sampling and imaging, Core analysis

YEAR 3 Bone-bed underwater survey

PRELIMINARY RESULTS: Fossil bones were found in the central part of the study area during spring 1996 scuba dives.

A fragment of fossilized bone and a mineralized burrow cast were dated at 18,970+/-400 years before present.

In addition, coring studies revealed sediment from J-Reef to have laminated (layered) sequences of quartz sand and silt with high organic concentrations (wood). These wood chips are coniferous (probably eastern cedar or juniper) indicating a cold climate existed during the tree's growth period.

Alternatively, the core from Gray's Reef clearly depicts geologic time boundary around 18,000 years ago, but has little preserved organic material. 
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:54:59 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #8 on: March 05, 2008, 05:00:49 pm »










                           Pleistocene/Holocene Sea Level Change in the Georgia Bight:



          A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary and J Reef






A Thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of The University of Georgia in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science,
 
Athens, GA 2000

by: SHERRI LYNN LITTMAN

(under the direction of ERVAN G. GARRISON)

Research at Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and nearby I Reef have focused on the study of sub bottom and sea floor sediments of late Pleistocene/early Holocene age.


The purpose of this study was to

( I ) map sediments in the Sanctuary and its immediate vicinity (I Reef);

(2) describe the lithofacies and their stratigraphy;

(3) examine the relationship of the lithostratigraphy to sea level change in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene; and

(4) examine the likelihood for human occupation of this now drowned coastal plain.


High resolution acoustic reflection and side scan sonar were utilized to map the sea floor and near-sea floor facies. Geophysical data indicates shallow (~5m) sediments at Gray's Reef and I Reef. Both areas were subaerial during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene. In addition to the geophysical data, geological coring was carried out on the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments at both Gray's and I Reefs. These cores were analyzed to illuminate the respective lithofacies and their stratigraphy.

Diver surveys of Gray's Reef and J Reef recovered fossil bones, a burrow cast and relic sedimentological features.

Results of these data have been correlated to show when these ancient reefs were subaerial and that a strong possibility exists that this ancient coastal plain was available for human habitation. Since sub-aerial erosional surfaces existed in the vicinity of I and Gray's Reefs, after the time that humans first entered the New World ca 13,400BP, the geoarchaeological reconstruction ofplausible paleo-
environments has merit.




INDEX WORDS:



Paleoenvironments,

Sea Level Rise,

Pleistocene,
 
Holocene,
 
Megafauna,

Outer Continental Shelf,

Paleoindian Clovis,
 
Georgia Bight,
 
Vibracores,

Subbottom Profiling,
 
Paleochannels,
 
Lithostratigraphy,
 
Geoarchaeology
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:55:31 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #9 on: March 05, 2008, 09:21:13 pm »










                  ARCHEOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN GRAY'S REEF NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY





Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary may have been a site of ancient human settlement during the last geologic time period and thus may hold the key to ancient culture and history along the coast. Dr. Erv Garrison, University of Georgia marine archeologist, is attempting to document the reefs' existence above sea level some 15,000 years ago when Georgia's shoreline extended more than 60 miles eastward. Off the coast, divers have turned up fossils of now-extinct land-dwelling animals, such as ground sloths, mastodons and early camels, horses and bison. "Where you find the animals, you most likely are going to find humans, " says Garrison.

Fossils and plant life discovered in our underwater sanctuaries may give us vital clues and insight into future climate changes and sea level rise.

The following is a list of fossil bones found by researchers at the Gray's reef National Marine Sanctuary during studies beginning in April,1995 to August, 1998. This project is led by Dr. Erv Garrison, Univeristy of Georgia marine archeologist

 
See article on Dr. Garrison's research on the Year of the Ocean Daily News.


http://graysreef.noaa.gov/arch.html
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:56:06 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #10 on: March 05, 2008, 09:24:37 pm »









1995:



1 bone fragment; mammal

1 non-bone, marine worm burrow cast; Radiocarbon date of 18,000 + years





1996:



4 bone fragments, mammal;
 
2 are rib-like and quite large - over 150 mm in length;
one is less mineralized and identified as an extiinct species of bovine animal.
This bone was radiocarbon dated to 8000 years.


1 tooth, Pleistocene horse; heavily mineralized



http://graysreef.noaa.gov/arch.html
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 09:41:40 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #11 on: March 05, 2008, 09:30:15 pm »









1997:



1 bone fragment, mammal; small less than 100mm in length; found on NPR- National Geographic Radio Expedition

2 bone fragments, mammal; one may tooth fragment

1 antler or bone fragment, heavily mineralized; possibly worked by humans as a tool

2 non-bone,marine worm burrow casts





1998:



2 unidentified fossil fragments; one does not appear to be bone - horn or antler?

1 bone fragment, mammal; appears to be limb bone fragment - over 135 mm in length

1 non-bone, burrow cast fragment


http://graysreef.noaa.gov/arch.html


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



LEAD THANKS TO 'DHILL'


http://graysreef.noaa.gov/
« Last Edit: March 05, 2008, 10:10:21 pm by Bianca » Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #12 on: March 05, 2008, 10:13:47 pm »









Mark Ponta
Hero Member

Posts: 659



      Re: Philosophy of Science
Reply #7 on: December 30, 2007, 04:36:51 am Quote 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I've found the abstract for the article at the Science website. I'm very disappointed ... There is no suggestion that the finds were off Portugal but instead came from the American Continental Shelf!..

If Frank Joseph really just imagined his claims..  If this has been a wild goose chase. 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Science 16 June 1967:
Vol. 156. no. 3781, pp. 1477 - 1481
DOI: 10.1126/science.156.3781.1477
 Prev | Table of Contents | Next 

Articles

Elephant Teeth from the Atlantic Continental Shelf
Frank C. Whitmore Jr. 1, K. O. Emery 2, H. B. S. Cooke 3, and Donald J. P. Swift 4
1 U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.
2 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
3 Department of Geology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia
4 Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, Mayaguez



Teeth of mastodons and mammoths have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, anz relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25,000 years.

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/156/3781/1477

It's $10 to purchase the one article. I assume a credit card is needed. it doesn't say.
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #13 on: March 05, 2008, 10:15:35 pm »









dhill757

Member
Member # 1890

Member Rated:
   posted 10-04-2004 09:45 PM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





Great point about ancient cremation, Rockessence!



Here is an article I promised Essan a long time ago. It has to do with the bones of ancient mastadons and mammoths washing up along the coasts of the Atlantic. These bones come from the ocean floor along the coastline of the Carolinas. Follow the link and the article has some pictures. These same bones have also been seen in the Azores, but I'm still looking for those specific pictures.

This article comes from the Regional Review in1939, incidentally:


quote:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Volume III - No. 3

September, 1939
In the ordinary course of events, the ocean is the great receiver ---- the world's greatest collector. It collects the sediments that are eroded from the land by streams, winds, waves and glaciers. As the earth's most populous burial ground, it receives the shells and bodies of countless organisms that swim in it or drift upon its surface. It also, upon occasion, receives the bodies of animals that lived upon the land. During times of Widespread upheaval many or these things are restored to the land, but only rarely does the ocean itself become an active agent in a process of giving back to the land the bones of animals that once roamed upon it. It is our purpose here to describe such a case. At Edisto Beach State Park in South Carolina the bones and teeth of long-extinct animals --- animals that lived upon the land in the Ice Age --- are being excavated from the ocean floor and washed ashore by storm waves of the modern Atlantic.

There is, of course, no actual migration as in the fanciful sketch which appears on this page, but the event nevertheless has some of the elements of an anachronism. Ancient animals are being washed ashore by the sea which, contrary to its custom, is acting as the giver rather than the receiver. If this situation is not anachronistic it certainly is paradoxical --- a reversal of a normal process of nature. The cavalcade of animals that comes piecemeal to the shores of Edisto includes beasts that seem strangely un-American. It includes elephants --- Woolly Mammoths and Mastodons --- Ground Sloths, Giant Beavers, Tapirs, Giant Armadillos, Royal Bison. It includes horses that lived and died here long before the Spaniards brought the first of our present stock in the early 16th century. But these venerable inhabitants of South Carolina are not un-American. It is we who are the newcomers! Associated with the forms mentioned above are others that are more familiar, such as the teeth of bears, antlers of elk and deer, and plates of large land turtles together with the bones of still other animals that lived in the sea. In this last group are the globular ear bones of whales, curved ribs of sea cows that were the ancestors of the rare individuals still living along the coast of southern Florida, plates of alligator and marine turtles, along with teeth of sharks and spines of rays that lived in periods before the Ice Age. During the summer of 1937 Student Technician Hugh M. Rutledge, with the help of volunteers from the CCC camp, collected more than 1,500 vertebrate fossils of which he identified more than 200. The following summer Student Technician Rudolph A. Jaworski added nearly a thousand specimens to the collection. We may well pause and wonder. How did such a motley crew of early Americans find their way into a common graveyard?

Before we can arrive at a satisfactory answer to this question we shall have to learn a little more about the existing situation at Edisto Beach. In picturing the ocean at Edisto as a giver we were being overly generous with that relentless foe of the land. Edisto lies in a broad reentrant in the coast line --- an arc, concave landward, that extends 180 miles from Charleston to the Florida boundary. In this arc today at Edisto, the waves are eating into the land at the measured rate of 15 feet a year, and there is clear evidence to indicate that the process has been going on for a long time.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/regional_review/vol3-3b.htm   
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Bianca
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 41646



« Reply #14 on: March 05, 2008, 10:18:04 pm »









dhill757

Member
Member # 1890

Member Rated:
   posted 10-04-2004 09:48 PM                       
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





The article continued:

quote:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
On the present beach at Edisto a bed of green mud outcrops close to low tide level. During his early investigations in the area Mr. Rutledge discovered bones in this layer of mud. Believing the bones to be fossil he carefully excavated them, pleased with the prospect of obtaining a complete skeleton. To his dismay the skeleton proved to be that of a very modern cow! Since the cow could not have become buried in the mud at the present site of outcrop, this strange occurrence indicates that what is now the beach was once marsh land and that the sea has moved inland a considerable distance within historic times. The ocean exacts a stiff price for our collection of old bones!
A glance at a Hydrographic Chart gives us additional information of interest. The sea off Edisto is very shallow, the "continental shelf" being about 70 miles wide. All the sea bottom within five miles of shore is less than 40 feet deep. If sea level were to be lowered 150 feet the shore would be extended 55 miles! This point is significant and will be referred to later. From actual observations we know little about the materials that form the sea floor but we do know that the flat strip of country forming the present coast is underlain by marine deposits of the Ice Age. From this strip --- known as the Pamlico Terrace --- marine shells have been collected to levels 12 feet above low tide. This assemblage includes a large number of species that live today only in warmer latitudes.1 We shall show later that this fact is not extraordinary, for the shells lived during an inter-glacial epoch when the sea stood higher and the climate was warmer.

We do not know the exact thickness of the Ice Age deposits at Edisto Beach but the fossiliferous portion is probably only a few feet thick and probably lies close to sea level. At Coffin Point 10 miles to the southwest, where the Service's core drill put down an exploratory well, we entered sediments at a depth of 72 feet that appeared to be definitely older than the Ice Age. This gives us at least a maximum figure for this general area and one that compares favorably with other drilling records. The deposits of the Ice Age consist of beds of dark mud with some sand and shell. The vertebrate fossils are impregnated with mineral matter and their outer surfaces are stained nearly black by organic material. Some of the larger ones come ashore encrusted with sand and recent marine shells, indicating that they have lain exposed on the sea bottom for some time before being cast upon the beach.
Report Spam   Logged

Your mind understands what you have been taught; your heart what is true.
Pages: [1] 2   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines
Privacy Policy