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Roman aqueducts

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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #15 on: March 02, 2008, 02:59:24 am »

Roman rule

Herod built his palace on a promontory jutting out into the sea, with a decorative pool surrounded by stoas. In 13 BCE, Caesarea became the civilian and military capital of Judaea, and the official residence of the Roman procurators and governors, Pontius Pilatus, praefectus and Antonius Felix. Remains of the principal buildings erected by Herod and the medieval town are still visible today, including the city walls, the castle and a Crusader cathedral and church.

Archaeological excavations in the 1950s and 1960s uncovered remains from many periods, in particular, a complex of Crusader fortifications and a Roman theatre. Other buildings include a temple dedicated to Caesar; a hippodrome rebuilt in the 2nd century as a more conventional amphitheater; the Tiberieum, which has a limestone block with a dedicatory inscription [2]that is the only secular record of Pontius Pilate; a double aqueduct that brought water from springs at the foot of Mount Carmel; a boundary wall; and a 200 ft (60 m) wide moat protecting the harbour to the south and west. The harbor was the largest on the eastern Mediterranean coast. Caesarea grew rapidly, becoming the largest city in Judea, with an estimated population of 125,000 over an urban area of 3.7 square kilometers.

In 66 CE, a massacre of Jews here and the desecration of the local synagogue led to the disastrous Jewish revolt.[3]

Vespasian declared it a colony and renamed it Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Caesarea.

Early Christian mentions of Caesarea in the apostolic period follow the acts of Peter who established the church there when he baptized Cornelius the Centurion (Acts, 10, 11). The Apostle Paul often sojourned there (9:30; 18:22; 21:Cool, and was imprisoned at Caesarea for two years before being taken to Rome (23:23, 25:1-13).

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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #16 on: March 02, 2008, 03:00:15 am »



sarcophagus found at Caesarea
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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #17 on: March 02, 2008, 03:01:34 am »



Remains of the ancient Roman aqueduct
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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #18 on: March 02, 2008, 03:03:14 am »



The amphitheatre at Caesarea
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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #19 on: March 02, 2008, 03:03:58 am »

After the revolt of Simon bar Kokhba, which ended with the destruction of Jerusalem, Caesarea became the center of Christianity in Palestine; however, there is no record of any bishop of Caesarea until the end of the 2nd century, when a council was held there to regulate the celebration of Easter. In the 3rd century Origen wrote his Hexapla and other exegetic and theological works while living there. Eusebius was one of its archbishops (315 - 318).

The main church, a martyrion (martyr's shrine) to an as yet unknown saint, was built in the 6th century and sited directly upon the podium that had supported the Roman temple, as was a widespread Christian practice. Throughout the Empire, prominently-sited pagan temples were rarely left unconsecrated to the new rites: in time the Martyrion's site was re-occupied, this time by a mosque. The Martyrion was an octagon, richly re-paved and surrounded by small radiating enclosures. Archaeologists have recovered some foliate capitals that included representations of the Cross.

Through Origen and especially the scholarly prespyter Pamphilus of Caesarea, an avid collector of books of Scripture, the theological school of Caesarea won a reputation for having the most extensive ecclesiastical library of the time, containing more than 30,000 manuscripts: Gregory Nazianzus, Basil the Great, Jerome and others came to study there.

An elaborate government structure contained a basilica with an apse, where magistrates would have sat, for the structure was used as a hall of justice, as fragments of inscriptions detailing the fees that court clerks might claim attest.

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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #20 on: March 02, 2008, 03:04:34 am »

In the 7th century, the city was captured first by the Persians, then in 638 by the Muslims, and in one or the other upheaval the great library was destroyed. 20,000 Jews and 30,000 Samaritans who lived in the city prior to the Muslim occupation (according to the Arab historian al-Baladhuri) vanished altogether from the historical record.

The walls remained, but within them the population dwindled and agriculture crept in among the ruins. When Baldwin I took the city in 1101/2, during the First Crusade, it was still very rich, nevertheless. A legend grew up that in this city was discovered the Holy Grail around which so much lore accrued in the next two centuries.

Perhaps the Holy Grail was recovered more than once, for the Genoese found a green glass goblet that they identified as the Chalice and expatriated to Genoa, where it was placed in the church of San Lorenzo.

The city was strongly refortified and rebuilt by the Crusaders. A lordship was created there, as was one of the four archbishoprics in the kingdom (see Archbishop of Caesarea).

A list of thirty-six Latin bishops, from 1101 to 1496 has been reassembled by 19th century papal historians; the most famous of these is probably Heraclius. After that the Latin "Bishop of Caesarea" became an empty title.

The bishops did not govern: Saladin retook the city in 1187; it was recaptured by the Crusaders in 1191, and finally lost by them in 1265 this time to the Mamluks, who ensured that there would be no more battling over the siteŚ where the harbor has silted in anywayŚ by razing the fortifications - in line with their practice in other formerly-Crusader coastal cities.

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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #21 on: March 02, 2008, 03:06:01 am »



Caesarea lay in ruins until its resettlement by the Ottomans as Kaisariyeh in 1884, after which the ruins were much damaged. In the 1950s and 60s, modern archaeology uncovered details of Crusader ramparts and the theater of the Roman city. More recent work has filled out the picture [4].

Caesarea has recently become the site of what bills itself as the world's first underwater museum, where 36 points of interest on four marked underwater trails through the ancient harbor can be explored by divers equipped with waterproof maps.

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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #22 on: March 02, 2008, 03:07:33 am »



Caesarea, the promontory as seen from the seashore, 1935
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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #23 on: March 02, 2008, 03:10:28 am »



Caesarea, the ruins of the Crusader wall, 1935

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_aqueducts_in_the_Roman_Empire

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_aqueducts
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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #24 on: March 02, 2008, 03:12:27 am »



Palm tree growing on city walls - Ceasaria, Israel
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« Reply #25 on: March 03, 2008, 03:13:16 pm »

The Aqua Augusta or Serino Aqueduct was a Roman aqueduct which supplied water to eight cities in the Bay of Naples, including Pompeii, Stabiae and Nola. It started near the modern town of Serino and terminated, after 96 km, in the Piscina Mirabilis at the naval port, Portus Julius, of Misenum. The Emperor Augustus built the Aqua Augusta between 30 and 20 BC. Little remains of the aqueduct today; however, remains may be found at a number of sites, including several in and around Naples.

It features heavily in the novel "Pompeii" by Robert Harris, whose protagonist is an engineer sent from Rome to maintain the aqueduct in AD 79.

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« Reply #26 on: March 03, 2008, 03:14:27 pm »



Skopje's Aqueduct
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« Reply #27 on: March 03, 2008, 03:14:46 pm »

The Skopje Aqueduct is an archaeological site located 2 km north-west of Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. It was most likely built by the Romans hundreds of years ago. The Skopje Aqueduct is the only aqueduct in Macedonia, and one of three in the former Yugoslavia. Under the Ottoman Empire it provided water for public baths. Today, 55 stone arches of the Skopje Aqueduct remain standing.

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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #28 on: March 03, 2008, 03:15:50 pm »



Acueducto de Segovia, Spain
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Krystal Coenen
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« Reply #29 on: March 03, 2008, 03:16:19 pm »

The Aqueduct of Segovia (or more precisely, the aqueduct bridge) is one of the most significant and best-preserved monuments left by the Romans on the Iberian Peninsula. It is among the most important symbols of Segovia, as is evidenced by its presence on the city's coat of arms.
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