Atlantis Online
November 25, 2017, 03:32:44 am
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Login with username, password and session length
News: Did Humans Colonize the World by Boat?
Research suggests our ancestors traveled the oceans 70,000 years ago
http://discovermagazine.com/2008/jun/20-did-humans-colonize-the-world-by-boat
 
  Home Help Arcade Gallery Links Staff List Calendar Login Register  

Roman aqueducts

Pages: [1] 2 3 4 5 6   Go Down
  Print  
Author Topic: Roman aqueducts  (Read 1564 times)
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« on: February 27, 2008, 01:24:46 pm »

The ancient Romans constructed numerous aqueducts (Latin aquaeductūs, sing. aquaeductus) to supply water to cities and industrial sites. These aqueducts were amongst the greatest engineering feats of the ancient world, and set a standard not equaled for over a thousand years after the fall of Rome. Many cities still maintain and use the ancient aqueducts for their water supply even today.

The Romans typically built aqueducts to serve any large city in their empire. The city of Rome itself, being the largest city, had the largest concentration of aqueducts, with water being supplied by eleven aqueducts constructed over a period of 500 years.

Report Spam   Logged

Social Buttons

Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #1 on: February 27, 2008, 01:25:37 pm »



Pont du Gard, Francesss, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC. It is one of France's top tourist attractions at over 1.4 million visitors per year, and a World Heritage Site.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #2 on: February 27, 2008, 01:26:06 pm »

The combined length of the aqueducts in the city of Rome is estimated between 420 and a little over 500km. However, only 29 miles (47 km) were above ground, as most Roman aqueducts ran beneath the surface of the ground. Building underground helped to keep the water free from disease (the carcasses of animals would not be able to get into the aqueduct) and helped protect the aqueducts from enemy attack. The longest Roman aqueduct was that of Constantinople (Mango 1995). "The known system is at least two and half times the length of the longest recorded Roman aqueducts at Carthage and Cologne, but perhaps more significantly it represents one of the most outstanding surveying achievements of any pre-industrial society". Perhaps the second longest, the Zaghouan Aqueduct, is 57.5 miles (92.5 km) in length. It was built in the 2nd century to supply Carthage (in modern Tunisia).

The arcades, a series of arches, popularly shown to depict an aqueduct, should not be confused with the aqueduct itself. These arches, sometimes on several tiers, together with tunnels, were constructed to maintain the pitch of the aqueduct, and the flow of water, over irregular terrain, for the long course to its destination.

Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #3 on: February 27, 2008, 01:26:48 pm »



Valens Aqueduct in Istanbul
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #4 on: February 27, 2008, 01:27:10 pm »

Roman aqueducts were extremely sophisticated constructions. They were built to remarkably fine tolerances, and of a technological standard that had a gradient (for example, at the Pont du Gard) of only 34 cm per km (3.4:10,000), descending only 17 m vertically in its entire length of 50 km (31 miles). Powered entirely by gravity, they could carry large amounts of water very efficiently. The Pont du Gard could transport up to 20,000 cubic meters — nearly 6 million gallons — a day, and the combined aqueducts of the city of Rome supplied around 1 million cubbic meters (300 million gallons) a day. These figures were however functions of the catchment hydrology and aqueduct regulation technique as shown by recent studies. (For comparison the maximum value represents a value 25% larger than the present water supply of the city of Bangalore, with a population of 6 million). Sometimes, where depressions deeper than 50 m had to be crossed, gravity pressurized pipelines called inverted siphons were used to force water uphill (although they almost always used venter bridges as well). Modern hydraulic engineers use similar techniques to enable sewers and water pipes to cross depressions.

Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #5 on: February 27, 2008, 01:27:49 pm »



The water-carrying channel of the Tarragona Aqueduct
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #6 on: February 27, 2008, 01:28:16 pm »

In addition to the expertise needed to build them, Roman aqueducts required a comprehensive system of regular maintenance to repair accidental breaches, to clear the lines of debris, and to remove buildup of chemicals such as calcium carbonate that naturally occur in the water.


Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #7 on: February 27, 2008, 01:28:54 pm »



A portion of the Eifel aqueduct, Germany, built in AD 80, showing the calcium carbonate that accretes on the sides of the channel without regular maintenance.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #8 on: February 27, 2008, 01:29:11 pm »

Many tools were used in the construction of Roman aqueducts, one example being the chorobates. The chorobates was used to level terrain before construction. It was a wooden object supported by four legs with a flat board on top in which was engraved a half circle. When used the half circle was filled with water and the angle at which there was no water was measured. Another tool used in the construction of the aqueduct was the groma. Gromas were used to measure right angles. A groma consisted of stones hanging off four sticks perpendicular to one another. Distant objects could be marked out against the station of the stones in a horizontal plane.

Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #9 on: February 27, 2008, 01:29:37 pm »

Decline of the aqueducts

With the fall of the Roman Empire, although some of the aqueducts were deliberately cut by enemies, many more fell into disuse from the lack of an organized maintenance system. The decline of functioning aqueducts to deliver water had a large practical impact in reducing the population of the city of Rome from its high of over 1 million in ancient times to considerably less in the medieval era, reaching as low as 30,000.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_aqueduct
« Last Edit: February 27, 2008, 01:30:12 pm by Krystal Coenen » Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #10 on: February 29, 2008, 01:38:52 pm »

The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the south of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located in Vers-Pont-du-Gard near Remoulins, in the Gard département.



The Pont du Gard in the south of France. Taken in August 2006.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #11 on: March 02, 2008, 02:45:53 am »



Roman aqueduct at en:Segovia, en:Spain.
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #12 on: March 02, 2008, 02:49:24 am »



Aqueduct of Valens, Istanbul, Turkey

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_aqueducts_in_the_Roman_Empire

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_aqueducts
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #13 on: March 02, 2008, 02:57:10 am »

Caesarea Maritima

Caesarea Maritima (Greek: παράλιος Καισάρεια), called Caesarea Palaestina from 133 CE onwards [1]), was a city built by Herod the Great about 25–13 BC. Today, the city lies on the Mediterranean coast of Israel about halfway between the modern cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of Pyrgos Stratonos ("Strato" or "Straton's Tower", in Latin Turris Stratonis). Caesarea Maritima should not be confused with other cities named to flatter the Caesar: Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights or Caesarea Mazaca in Anatolian Cappadocia. The city was described in detail by the 1st century Roman Jewish historian Josephus (Jewish Antiquities XV.331ff; Jewish War I.408ff).
Report Spam   Logged
Krystal Coenen
Superhero Member
******
Posts: 4745



« Reply #14 on: March 02, 2008, 02:58:04 am »



The harbor at Caesarea Palaestina, Israel
Report Spam   Logged
Pages: [1] 2 3 4 5 6   Go Up
  Print  
 
Jump to:  

Powered by EzPortal
Bookmark this site! | Upgrade This Forum
SMF For Free - Create your own Forum | Buy traffic for your forum/website
Powered by SMF | SMF © 2016, Simple Machines