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the Bosnian Pyramid

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Cassandra
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« on: April 04, 2007, 09:55:07 pm »

The following will be an investigation into the Bosnian Pyramid, where excavations have been ongoing since April. 



Visočica overlooking Visoko, photo taken in 1973

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Cassandra
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« Reply #1 on: April 04, 2007, 09:57:56 pm »

Is Bosnian hill actually an ancient pyramid?

Archaeologists study mound — but hold off from conclusions



Bosnian archaeologist Semir Osmanagic and other experts are studying Visocica hill, the promontory in the background, to determine whether it could be the top of an ancient pyramid

By Aida Cerkez-Robinson

Updated: 10:58 a.m. CT Dec 5, 2005
VISOKO, Bosnia-Herzegovina - With eyes trained to recognize pyramids hidden in the hills of El Salvador, Mexico and Peru, Semir Osmanagic has been drawn to the mound overlooking this central Bosnian town.

"It has all the elements: four perfectly shaped slopes pointing toward the cardinal points, a flat top and an entrance complex," he said, gazing at the hill and wondering what lies beneath.

No pyramids are known in Europe, and there is no evidence any ancient civilization there ever attempted to build one.

But Osmanagic, a Bosnian archaeologist who has spent the last 15 years studying the pyramids of Latin America, suspects there is one here in his Balkan homeland.

"We have already dug out stone blocks which I believe are covering the pyramid," he said. "We found a paved entrance plateau and discovered underground tunnels. You don't have to be an expert to realize what this is."

Osmanagic, 45, who now lives in Houston, is personally financing excavations at the Visocica hill, a 2,120-foot (646-meter) hump outside Visoko, a town about 20 miles (32 kilometers) northwest of the capital, Sarajevo.

He learned about the hill in April from Senad Hodovic, director of a museum devoted to the history of Visoko, which is rich in Bronze Age and medieval artifacts. Hodovic had attended a promotion of an Osmanagic book about ancient civilizations and thought he would like to see Visoko's pyramid-shaped hill.

When the pair climbed the hill, the sweeping view revealed a second, smaller pyramid-shaped hill. It reminded Osmanagic of pairs of pyramids he has seen in Latin America that together create a gateway into a valley.

15 anomalies found
After obtaining a permit to research the site, which is protected by the state as a national monument, the first probes of the main hill were carried out this summer at six points. Nadja Nukic, a geologist involved in the research, said she found 15 anomalies suggesting that some layers of the hill were human-made.

"We found layers of what we call 'bad concrete,' a definitely unnatural mixture of gravel once used to form blocks with which this hill was covered," Osmanagic said.

"The hill was already there," he added. "Some ancient civilization just shaped it and then coated it with this primitive concrete — and there you have a pyramid."

Small-scale excavations continued until early November, when winter set in, with the work focusing on what Osmanagic theorizes may have been the entrance to a pyramid-shaped temple.

Built by Illyrians?
Osmanagic believes the hill was shaped by the Illyrian people, who inhabited the Balkan peninsula long before Slavic tribes conquered it around A.D. 600. Little is known about the Illyrians, but Osmanagic thinks they were more sophisticated than many experts have suggested.

Nukic, who has walked up and down the hill several times, said she noticed symmetrical platforms in the slopes — indentations that Osmanagic believes are steps built into the pyramid.

A local businessman who bought a lot at the foot of the hill and brought in a bulldozer to dig the foundation for a house, meanwhile, unearthed manmade sandstone plates that the archaeologists think may have been paving stones.

Anthropologists say the Visoko valley already offers ample evidence of organized human settlements dating back 7,000 years. The town was Bosnia's capital during the Middle Ages, and German archaeologists working the valley recently found 24,000 Neolithic artifacts just three feet below the surface.

‘No fast conclusions, please’
Osmanagic is taking a cautious approach about the hill.

"No fast conclusions, please. The evidence has to be firm, at least beyond a reasonable doubt," he said.

"Not that I don't believe in a pyramid here," he added. "This place was always called 'Pyramid' by the local population. But we have to prove that this is not a natural shape."

He thinks, however, that the shape of the hill speaks for itself.

"God can make many things, but such perfectly geometrically formed slopes, pointing exactly toward the north, south, east and west — if he did that, well, that's phenomenal itself."

Copyright 2005 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.


http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10335950/
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Cassandra
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« Reply #2 on: April 04, 2007, 09:59:16 pm »

Australian in Bosnia pyramid riddle
Email Print Normal font Large font January 20, 2006 - 7:39AM



Australian archaeologist Royce Richards is among a team preparing to look for the truth behind a theory that Bosnia-Herzegovina has an ancient pyramid.

Archaeologists from Australia, Scotland, Ireland, Austria, and Slovenia will begin excavation work in April on the Visocica hill, 32 kilometres north-west of Sarajevo.

The hill is quite symmetrical, and the theory that it was once a pyramid is supported by preliminary investigations.

If true, it would rewrite world history, putting Europe alongside South America and of course Egypt as homes of ancient pyramids.

Bosnian Semir Osmanagic put forward his theory last year that a 100 metre geometrically-shaped hill with evenly shaped sides and corners that point north, south, east and west is an ancient man-made edifice.

Osmanagic, who has spent 15 years studying the pyramids of the Americas is convinced the hill is a genuine man-made pyramid from an ancient civilization.

His preliminary excavations shows what he believes is evidence that the earth has been shaped to form a pyramid and covered in prehistoric concrete and stone blocks.

"We have already dug out stone blocks which I believe are covering the pyramid," Osmanagic said.

"We found a paved entrance plateau and discovered underground tunnels.

"You don't have to be an expert to realise what this is."

Osmanagic's assertions have been supported by experts studying aerial and satellite images.

Theorists believe the Illyrian people who inhabited the Balkan region before the conquering Slavic tribes overran them about 1,400 years ago had the sophistication to shape a hill into a pyramid.

Excavation work to test Osmanagic's theory will begin on April 14 in the Visoko region and is expected to continue until October and the rugged mountainous area has become an archaeological park.

© 2006 AAP

http://www.theage.com.au/news/World/Australian-in-Bosnia-pyramid-riddle/2006/01/20/1137553735882.html
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« Reply #3 on: April 04, 2007, 10:01:14 pm »



Visočica overlooking Visoko, today
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« Reply #4 on: April 04, 2007, 10:06:55 pm »



Bosnian pyrmid of sun



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« Reply #5 on: April 04, 2007, 10:07:48 pm »

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« Reply #6 on: April 04, 2007, 10:11:12 pm »



pyrmid tunnel




NASA satellite images
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« Reply #7 on: April 04, 2007, 10:12:33 pm »



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« Reply #8 on: April 04, 2007, 10:16:24 pm »

The 213 metre Visočica hill, which was occupied by Old town of Visoki, has a generally symmetrical pyramid-like shape when viewed from certain angles. The idea that it constitutes an ancient artificial edifice was publicised by Houston-based expatriate Bosnian author and metalworker Semir Osmanagić, whose subsequent excavations at the site have uncovered what he claims to be a paved entrance plateau and tunnels, as well as stone blocks and ancient mortar which he has suggested once covered the structure. Osmanagić has claimed that the dig involved an international team of archaeologists from Australia, Austria, Bosnia, Scotland and Slovenia, however many archaeologists named have stated they had not agreed to participate and were not at the site. The dig began in April 2006


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« Reply #9 on: April 04, 2007, 10:18:58 pm »



View from the air.
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« Reply #10 on: April 04, 2007, 10:20:32 pm »



Locations of the Pyramids of the Sun, Moon and (Bosnian) Dragon, according to the hypotheses of Semir Osmanagić
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« Reply #11 on: April 04, 2007, 10:21:58 pm »

Osmanagić's interpretation

Osmanagić has named Visočica hill the "Pyramid of the Sun", while two nearby hills, identified from satellite and aerial photography, have been dubbed the "Pyramid of the Moon" and the "Pyramid of the (Bosnian) Dragon" (and another two, one named the "Pyramid of the Earth", have been mentioned in reports). Newspaper reports have quoted Osmanagić as claiming that they were constructed by ancient Illyrian inhabitants of the Balkans as early as 12,000 BCE. But in an interview with Philip Coppens in Nexus (April-May 2006), Osmanagić attempted to clarify his previous statements, stating he was misquoted: he does claim that they were most likely constructed by the Illyrians, who he claims lived in the area from 12,000 BCE to 500 BCE, and that the pyramid was therefore most likely constructed between those two dates - not in 12,000 BCE. In an interview with Vesna Peric Zimonjic, appearing in the Belgian newspaper De Morgen, he refused to date the structures:

"We have not yet found organic remains, bones, wood or coal. Such analysis will help us to date the structures."
Nevertheless, on the Bosnian pyramid website, he is quoted as saying:[3]

"The following year, 2007, will be marked by the astonishment of the world public how such colossal monuments could have been made before the end of the last Ice age."
and also

"Regarding the age, there is more and more evidence that the main pyramid complex were built right before the end of the last Ice age, indicating that there was world wide plan for building these monuments."
However, a report by his team, made in November last year after some initial diggings - therefore six months before the statement that no bones have been found - says:

"However, in the second (II) sequence of sandstone plates at the right hand side of the probing well we found two plates one over another at the angle of approximately 25 degrees. Between those two plates there was clay marl and a human skeleton in it. The skeleton was not complete. It consisted of a left leg bones and fractions of a skull placed in the area of pelvis. All sandstone plates in the III sequence were paved one over another under the same angle as it was done in the II sequence. In the II sequence of plates remains of a human skeleton were found again. The remains of this skeleton were photographed by an archaeologist and its orientation was defined. Then they were packed and sent to analysis in order to determine how old they were."
Currently Osmanagić states the excavation has produced evidence of building blocks one metre below the surface of the hill, as well as tunnels [4]. Earlier geological work has also indicated that human activity had shaped the hill.[5] Additionally Osmanagić has found tunnels in the hillside which he interprets as ventilation shafts. He plans to date the tunnels by analysis of stalactites found within them.[6]

Osmanagić believes his discoveries around Visoko will have further implications for world prehistory. By comparing the varying heights of the tallest pyramids in Mexico and Egypt with Visočica hill, he concluded that the pyramids may all have been built by the same people(s), with the Bosnian Pyramid being the last to be built.[7] However, upon further thought he has decided that this dating mechanism may not be reliable and has now announced Visočica hill could be "The mother of all Pyramids", a claim he says would be corroborated by the existence of sacred geometry and further numerological study of messages left in the pyramid for future generations.[8]

Osmanagić estimates that the Sun pyramid stands 722 feet (220m) high (or, depending upon the report, either 230 feet (70m) high or 328 feet (100m) high). If it is 722 feet, it would be one third taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza, making it the largest pyramidal structure on Earth.

The current target of the project is to complete excavation by 2012. This is in order to "break a cloud of negative energy, allowing the Earth to receive cosmic energy from the centre of the galaxy" according to Osmanagić.[9] It is also hoped that it will be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site.
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« Reply #12 on: April 04, 2007, 10:23:24 pm »

Atlantean connections

Osmanagić, who has also published under the name Sam Osmanagich, is the author of a book entitled The World of the Maya that presents a global pseudohistory involving Atlantis and Lemuria, and concludes:

The Maya inherited knowledge from their ancestors at Atlantis and Lemuria (Mu). Cities were planned and built around the main square toward which the pyramids and temples were turned. They communicated with the movement of the Sun and the paths of other heavenly bodies... Many cultures around the world, from India, Sumeria, Egypt, Peru, the Indians of North and Central America, the Inca and the Maya, call themselves the 'Children of the Sun' or the 'children of light.' Their ancestors, the civilizations of Atlantis and Lemuria, erected the first temples on energy potent point of the Planet. Their most important function was to serve as a gateway to other worlds and dimensions.
Osmanagić's concept is similar to that popularized by William Perry and Grafton Elliot Smith in their book The Children of the Sun (1923). Smith and Perry suggested that all ancient civilizations could trace their history to ancient Egypt. Their work represented a school of thought known as diffusionism, also represented in the scholarship of Gustaf Kossinna. However, Osmanagić adds to this a belief in the lost continents of Atlantis and Lemuria. Smith and Perry's theories of hyperdiffusionism have been rejected on the basis of subsequent research and models concerning Atlantis and Lemuria are not taken seriously by the majority of professional archaeologists and historians.

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« Reply #13 on: April 04, 2007, 10:24:57 pm »

Other interpretations

Semir Osmanagić's claims, widely reported in the mass media, have been challenged by a number of experts, who have accused him of promoting pseudo-scientific notions and damaging archaeological sites with his excavations. Penn State University Professor Garrett Fagan is quoted as saying "They should not be allowed to destroy genuine sites in the pursuit of these delusions[...] It’s as if someone were given permission to bulldoze Stonehenge to find secret chambers of lost ancient wisdom underneath." [11]

Boston University's Curtis Runnels, an expert in prehistoric Greece and the Balkans states that, "Between 27,000 and 12,000 years ago, the Balkans were locked in the last Glacial maximum, a period of very cold and dry climate with glaciers in some of the mountain ranges. The only occupants were Upper Paleolithic hunters and gatherers who left behind open-air camp sites and traces of occupation in caves. These remains consist of simple stone tools, hearths, and remains of animals and plants that were consumed for food. These people did not have the tools or skills to engage in the construction of monumental architecture." [12]

Enver Imamovic of the University of Sarajevo, a former director of the National Museum of Sarajevo, concerned that the excavations will damage historic sites such as the medieval royal capital Visoki, said that the excavations would "irreversibly destroy a national treasure". [13]

In a letter to the editor of The Times on 25 April 2006, Professor Anthony Harding, president of the European Association of Archaeologists, referred to Osmanagić's theories as "wacky" and "absurd" and expressed concern that insufficient safeguards were in place to protect Bosnia's "rich heritage" from "looting and unmonitored or unauthorised development". [14]

According to one source, on May 8, 2006, members of the Geological team investigating Visočica on behalf of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation held a press conference in Tuzla to present the results of their research. The academics, from the Faculty of Mining and Geology[15] at the University of Tuzla[16] and led by Professor Dr. Sejfudin Vrabac,[17] concluded that the hill is a natural geological formation, made of classic sediments of layered composition and varying thickness, and that its shape is a consequence of endodynamical and egsodynamical processes in post-Miocene era.

According to Professor Vrabac, who specializes in paleogeology, there are dozens of like morphological formations in the Sarajevo-Zenica mining basin alone. The Geological team report on Visocica, based on the data collected in six drill holes at 3 to 17 metre depths, is supported by the Research and Teaching Council of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, as well as the Association of Geologists of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[18]

In June 2006, Zahi Hawass's name became linked to the excavations[19] as recommending an expert, Aly Abd Alla Barakat, to investigate the hills. Upon being contacted Hawass denied any involvement, accusing Osmanagić of "giving out false information". [20].

The Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation has said that Barakat inspected the hills and stated, "My opinion is that this is a type of pyramid, probably a primitive pyramid."[21][22] So far no report has appeared from the foundation confirming this. Osmanagić also invited geologist and alternative archaeologist Robert Schoch to visit the site. In a preliminary report he concluded that there were natural geological explanations for all the features claimed to be artificial by Osmanagić. In the case of the tunnels he further added:

The much-touted “ancient inscriptions” seem not to be ancient at all. I was told by a reliable source that the inscriptions were not there when members of the “pyramid team” initially entered the tunnels less than two years ago. The “ancient inscriptions” had been added since, perhaps non-maliciously, or perhaps as a downright hoax.[23]

The foundation has described such comments as "ill-intentioned" referring to "irrelevant and completely incorrect facts" [24]. In return Dr Schoch's website documents "extreme damage being done by the way the excavations are being performed," and accuses Osmanagić of launching "a deliberate smear campaign"
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« Reply #14 on: April 04, 2007, 10:26:23 pm »

Research program

The Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation have published a research plan outlining a program of activity from 2006 to 2010. In 2006 the plan is to restore the top of the Pyramid of the Sun, though no attempt will be made to restore the medieval capital of Bosnia at the same time. There are also plans to upgrade transport links in the region and produce marketing material. In 2007 the plan is to continue digging and promote the hill of Pljesevica as the Pyramid of the Moon. Further research activity will consist of opening more areas of the Pyramid to tourists. The main research focus from 2008 onwards will be the provision of more tourist facilities until 2010, when it is planned to install a plaque declaring the site a UNESCO World Heritage site[26].

Additionally the Foundation has protected the names Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, Pyramid of the Bosnian Dagon (sic) and Bosnia's Valley of Pyramids[27]. This is unusual in academic practice. There have been at present no announcements regarding post-excavation analysis or scientific publication.

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