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AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN

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Bianca
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« Reply #15 on: May 20, 2007, 04:57:44 pm »




                                               H Y M N   T O   T H E   A T E N



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« Reply #16 on: May 20, 2007, 05:02:01 pm »

                                             





 " A T E N "    C A R T O U C H E













" A T E N "   H I R O G L Y P H



               
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« Reply #17 on: May 20, 2007, 05:31:48 pm »


A talat of Nefertiti worshipping the Aten, from the Ancient Egyptian wing of the Royal Ontario Museum.

TORONTO, CANADA








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« Reply #18 on: May 24, 2007, 06:20:13 pm »









Amarna at Penn   
by Tracy Spurrier 

A new exhibition tells the story of the pharaoh Akhenaten and his attempt to transform ancient Egypt.

 This monumental quartzite wall relief depicts the solar deity Aten as a disk hovering above the pharaoh Akhenaten (ruled 1353-1336 B.C.) and a female member of the royal family. Some time after the restoration of the traditional religion, this relief was cut down, placed face down on the ground, re-inscribed, and reused, probably as a base for a statue in the shape of a sphinx for the later pharaoh Merenptah (ruled 1213-1204 B.C.). Ironically, this recycling unintentionally preserved the decorated front of the relief from complete destruction. (Courtesy University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology



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« Reply #19 on: May 25, 2007, 07:16:51 am »




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« Reply #20 on: May 25, 2007, 07:44:03 am »

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« Reply #21 on: May 25, 2007, 03:13:51 pm »



Hand of Akhenaten making an offering to the Aten


Sandstone - H 0.235
From Ashmunein

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
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« Reply #22 on: May 27, 2007, 07:40:43 am »

FROM


AKHENATON AND THE RELIGION OF LIGHT

Erik Hornung - Translated by David Lorton




                               



                                    T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D



THE NEW SOLAR THEOLOGY



The religious ideas with which Akhenaten grew up were those of the "New Solar
Theology," which Jan Assman, in particular, has investigated.  It is to be encountered
in hymns and rituals and in the Books of the Netherworld of Dynasty 18.

At its core is the daily course of the sun, which guarantees the continued existence
of the Cosmos. 

The Sun god renews his creation every morning, but he also descends nightly into
the netherworld, where his revivifying light wakes the dead to new life in the depth
of the earth.

The entire Cosmos is dependent upon light and the sight of the God, but this light
must be continually regenerated into the darkness; it must overcome dangers and
hostile forces whose most powerful embodiment is the enormous serpent Apopis.

These menacing forces are defeated, and the New Solar Theology reflects deep
trust in the reliability of the sun.  This god, whose visible cult image was the sun and
whom the Egyptians worshipped under several names, was the creator of the other
gods; he was thus the unique God of the Gods, hidden and inscrutable in his essence,
and therefore especially worshipped as Amun, whose name means "Hidden One."

The remoteness of the god is constantly stressed, though he was also immanent in
his rays.  The visible light on which all creation depended shone upon a world filled
with mythic concepts, which Akhenaten would eliminate in their entirety.

The Creator renewed his work each night in the depths of the netherworld, where he
effected his own regeneration and, at the same time, wakened the dead to new life.

Setting each evening, he had a share in the fate of death; in the course of the New
Kingdom, it became customary to view Osiris, god of the dead, as a form of the Sun
god, so that he ruled not only this world, but the next one as well.

Next to this potent luminary, the other divine powers ran the risk of fading into insigni-
ficance.
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« Reply #23 on: May 27, 2007, 07:48:30 am »

     



                                                  A M E N O P H I S   I I I



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« Reply #24 on: May 27, 2007, 08:06:26 am »

       


                                                                                                                  continued





                                      T H E   R E L I G I O U S   B A C K G R O U N D




HIS FATHER'S POLICIES



It appears that Amenophis III tried to prevent this single god from gaining the
upper hand by stressing the multiplicity of deities in Egypt, especially in connec-
tion with his festival of renewal.

In addition to the series of Sekhmet statues, he commissioned a further series of
statues, on whose bases he was designated as "beloved" of a very great variety
of deities, among them less important and specifically local ones.

Similar epithets occur on an extensive series of large scarabs connecting the king
with numerous deities. 

There were definitely tendencies - and not only at the royal court - that ran counter
to the New Solar Theology and its elevation of a single god over the entire pantheon,
in a manner that was altogether too one-sided and, in that respect, un-Egyptian.

But the plurality of deities was not replaced in principle by this unique and distant sun
god, and they remained in exestence along with the Aten in the early years of Akhen-
aten.

From a modern, strictly logical point of view, it would take only one small step to turn
this unique god, this God of All Gods, into a single one who tolerated no other deity be-
sides himself.

Akhenaten in fact took this step, though only as the final consequence of his reflec-
tions concerning the divine and the gods.  First, however, he made a RELIGION (as
Jan Assmann observes) out of the New Solar Theology with which he had grown up.




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« Reply #25 on: May 27, 2007, 08:11:19 am »





                               


                                 AMENOPHIS III'S   COMMEMORATIVE   SCARABS




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« Reply #26 on: May 27, 2007, 08:43:15 am »





                                                    S E K H M E T

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« Reply #27 on: May 27, 2007, 09:20:17 am »



HIS FATHER'S POLICIES                                                                              continued



Politically, the reign of Amenophis III was a period of stability and peace.

Akhenaten's grandfather Tuthmosis IV, had laid the foundations for it by bringing
an end to the decades of military conflict between the two great powers of that
era.

 A M E N O P H I S    I I I  


The other power was the kingdom of Mitanni, whose center lay in the border area bet-
ween Syria and Iraq, and whose struggles with Egypt concerned control over northern
Syria, which was a matter of exercising sovereignty over the princes there.

During the regn of Akhenaten, the Hittite kingdom in Anatolia would establish itself as
yet another great power and intervene in this area.
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« Reply #28 on: May 27, 2007, 09:49:29 am »




HIS FATHER'S POLICIES                                                                                     CONTINUED



Amenophis III had led only two rather symbolic campaigns into Nubia, while he
maintained Egyp's power in western Asia solely through diplomacy, marriage
alliances and rich consignment of gold and other products. 

Egypt perceived itself as a world power and Pharaoh's court became as an in-
ternational center where ambassadors of all lands came and went, where goods
from Asia and Crete were prized and where even Asiatic deities such as Reshef,
Baal, Astarte and Qudshu were worshipped. 

The geographical horizons of the Egyptians now also encompassed the more im-
portant cities of the Aegean, as shown by a list of place-names from the king's
mortuary temple.



The prevailing atmosphere was one of openness to the outside world and recep-
tiveness toward other religions.  a scene in the fifth hour of the night in the Book
of Gates, which originated at this time, places even the "wretched" Asiatics,
Nubians and Libyans under the protection of Egyptian deities in the afterlife, just
as the Great Hymn of the Aten would stress the care of Akhenaten's god for
foreign peoples.
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« Reply #29 on: May 27, 2007, 10:05:45 am »




HIS FATHER'S POLICIES                                                                                continued



Amenophis III was one of the greatest builders in the history of Egypt. 

Witness to this is borne especially by the temple of Luxor, by the double temple of
Soleb and Sedeinga in Nubia and by his mortuary temple on the west bank of Thebes;
the latter exceeded all its predecessors in size, but it was soon severely damaged by
an earthquake.  Where the monumental entrance to the temple once stood, now only
the two huge Colossi of Memnon (below), each more than 65feet in height and weigh-
ing 720tons, testify to the temple's original size, as well as to the king's tendency to
megalomania.






This latter stamped out not only his architecture and royal statuary, but other objects
as well; never had such large 'shawabtis' and scarabs been made.

The officials of the royal court followed the king in this tendency, as shown by the huge,
though uncompleted, tomb of the vizier Amenhotpe on the Asasif.

The tendency to the colossal was complemented by a turn to unusual building material.

In a dedicatory inscription at the temple of Montu in the Karnak complex, the king men-
tions precious materials such as gold, silver, lapis lazuli, jasper, turquoise, bronze and
copper, which he used in its construction and decoration, noting with pride the exact
weights of each.

He attempted thus to capture, quite literally, the "weight of this monument," as the capt-
ion to another list on the Third Pylon at Karnak puts it.
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