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Author Topic: AKHENATEN/TUTANKHAMUN  (Read 76484 times)
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« Reply #120 on: June 10, 2007, 08:11:19 am »


                                                H Y M N   T O   T H E   A T E N



The first lines of the text contain the title and names of Aten, Akhenaten and Nefertiti.  The actual
hymn begins with the words "he says" (referring to Akhenaten).

"Beautiful, you appear
in the horizon of the sky, oh living sun, who determines life!
You have appeared on the eastern horizon
and filled every land with your beauty.
You are beautiful, great and shining,
high over all the land.

Your rays embrace the lands
to the limit of all you have created.
You are Re when you reach their borders
and bow them down to your beloved son.
You are distant, though your rays are on earth;
you are in their face, though your course is inscrutable.

When you set in the western horizon,
the world is in darkness,
in  a state of death.
Sleepers are in their rooms,
heads covered, no eye sees the other.
Were all the possessions under their heads robbed,
they would not notice.
Every beast of prey emerges from its den,
and all the serpents bite.
The darkness is a tomb,
the earth lies numb,
its creator has indeed set in his horizon.

In the morning, you rise on the horizon
and are radiant as the sun in the daytime;
you drive off the darkness and cast your rays.
The Two Lands are in festival daily,
the people awaken
and stand on their feet, for you have roused them.
Clean is their body, they have clothed themselves,
and their arms are (raised) in prayer when you appear,
the whole land does its work.

All cattle are satisfied with their fodder,
trees and foliage bloom.
The birds have flown from their nests,
their wings praise your KA.
All the game animals frisk on their hooves,
all that fly and flutter live
when you have risen for them.
Freighters fare downstream
and back upstream,
every road is open through your rising.
The fish in the river leap before your face,
your rays are within the sea.

Oh you who cause semen to develop in women,
who make "liquid" into people,
who keep a son alive in his mother's womb
and quiet him so that his tears dry up-
you nurse in the womb!-
who give breath
to keep all creation alive.
When (the child) emerges from the womb
to breathe on the day of his birth,
you open wide his mouth
and provide for his needs.

The chick in the egg,
which speaks already in the shell-
you give it breath therin to bring it to life.
You have set its due time
to break (the shell) in the egg;
it emerges from the egg
to speak at its due time,
it is already running about on its feet when it
emerges from it.

How manifold are your works
which are hidden from sight,
you sole god without equal!
You have created the earth as you desired, quite alone,
with people, cattle and all creatures,
with everything upon earth
that walks about on feet
and all that is on high and flies with its wings.
The foreign lands of Syria and Nubia,
and the land of Egypt-
you set all in their place and care for their needs,
they all have their nourishment, their lifetimes
are determined.
Tongues differ in speech,
their characters as well,
their skin colors differ, for you distinguish the peoples.

You create the Nile in the netherworld
and bring it up according to your will
to keep humankind alive, for you have created them.
You are lord of them all, who toils for them,
oh lord of all lands, who rises for them,
oh sun of the daytime, great of majesty!
All the distant foreign lands, you yourself keep them alive,
you have placed a Nile in the sky,
that it might descend to them,
with waves beating on the muntains like the sea,
to water their fields with what they need.
How effective are your plans, oh lord of eternity!
The Nile in the sky, which you give to foreign peoples
and all the creatures of the desert that go on legs;
but the true Nile comes from the netherworld to Egypt.

Your rays nurse all the fields-
when you rise, they live and grow for you.
You create the seasons to make all creation develop-
the winter to cool them,
the heat of summer that they might sense you.
You made the sky far in order to ascend to it
and gaze upon what you have created.

You are unique when you have risen
in all your manifestations as the living Aten
who shines and gleams,
distances himself and comes near;
you create millions of forms from yourself alone-
cities, towns, and fields,
roads and river.
All eyes find themselves facing you,
when you are above the land as the sun of the daytime.

When you have gone, there no longer remains your eye,
which you have created for their sake,
so that you do not behold yourself as the sole one
of what you have created-
even then you remain in my heart,
and there is no one else who knows you,
except for your son, Neferkheperure Waenre,
whom you have taught your nature and your might.

The world comes into being from your gesture, as
you have created it.
When you rise, they live,
when you set, they die;
you are lifetime itself, one lives through you.
Eyes rest on beauty until you set,
all work is laid down when you set in the west.
The rising one strengthens all arms for the king,
and speed is in every foot.

Since you founded the world, you rouse them
for your son, who emerged from your body,
the king of the two Egypts, who lives on Maat,
Neferkheperure Waenre,
the son of Re, who lives on Maat,
the lord of diadems, Akhenaten, great in his lifetime,
and the great king's wife, whom he loves,
the mistress of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten Nefertiti,
who lives and is rejuvenated
for ever and ever.
« Last Edit: June 10, 2007, 09:57:39 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #121 on: June 11, 2007, 09:28:45 am »


THE PURE TEACHING                                                                                      continued

Comparing the "Great Hymn to the Aten" with traditional solar hymns, it is striking how the plenitude of mythic images that characterizes the latter has been replaced by the pure contemplation of nature.  The
hymn of Suti and Hor from the reign of Amenophis III anticipates this to some extent, but now there is no longer an interest in the primeval creation of the cosmos - Aten, "who built himself with his own hands", continually creates the world by means of his light, which is pure presence and thus is no need of mythical past or a distant primeval time.  In contrast to earlier hymns, there is also a lack of any comparisons, for this god can be compared with nothing and no one.

Before and after the Amarna Period, Pharaoh was wished the lifetime of Re, the years of Atum, or the jubilees of Tatenen.  Now the wish was for jubilees like "the sand on the shore, the scales of fish and the hairs of cattle" (in his tomb, Aye also adds "the feathers of birds and the leaves of the trees") and the king was supposed to remain "here", in his new Residence of Akhetaten, "until the swan turns black and the raven turns white, until the mountains get up and walk, and until water runs upstream."  Undesirable associations were eliminated even in designating the boundaries of the king's sovereignity. 

Previously, his northern boundary had extended "as far as the darkness", but now it reached "as far as the sun (Aten) shines", for darkness would have been too reminiscent of older mythological concepts.
« Last Edit: June 11, 2007, 09:44:58 am by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #122 on: June 11, 2007, 09:49:18 am »



As depicted in the "Great Hymn to the Aten", the god's care extends to distant lands beyond Egypt - "each one has his nourishment, his lifetime is determined".  This sentiment was a product of the times, for in the "Book of Gates", which might have been composed in the reign of Amenophis III and is first attested under Haremhab, we have the famed representation of the four races of humankind in the afterlife and there, too, they are all accorded their lifetimes and their provisions.

Ramesses II would later take up the theme when, after concluding a treaty with the Hittites, he spoke of the friendship of the two previously inimical great powers; on his "marriage stela" it is said, "They ate and they drank together and were of ONE accord, like brothers, ....peace reigned among them".

Akhenaten's Aten, who shone on ALL humankind, was especially suited to be a universal god, whom all lands could worship.

The omnipresence and the effect of light has also inspired some to a belief in the divine in more modern times.  In their last conversation on March 11, 1832, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe confided to his assistant Johannn Peter Eckermann that he was prepared to "revere the Sun....for he is likewise a manifestation of the highest Being and, indeed, the most powerful which we, the children of the earth, are allowed to behold.  I adore in him the light and the productive power of God; by which we all live, move and have our being - we, and all the plants and animals with us".  And in his MEMORIES, DREAMS, RE-FLECTIONS, after depicting the rejoicing of African baboons at sunrise, Carl Gustav Jung states, " The MOMENT in which it become light IS  God.  That moment brings redemption, release.  To say that the SUN is God, is to blur and forget the archetypal experience of that moment".
« Last Edit: June 11, 2007, 12:49:00 pm by Bianca2001 » Report Spam   Logged

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« Reply #123 on: June 11, 2007, 10:10:04 am »


THE UNIVERSAL DEITY:  LIGHT                                                                  continued

Was Akhenaten planning a universal religion, as Breasted thought?  A universal picture of godhead perhaps
emerges from the Great Hymn and, at the beginning of his reign, the king in any case had a sanctuary with the name Gempaaten ("the Aten has been found") erected in Nubia and perhaps one in Syria as well.

Thus, at the beginning, he actually did wish to announce the glad tidings that the Aten had been "found" to all the world under Egyptian sovereignity; Jan Assmann has shown that at Amarna this "discovery" represented  the revelation of the god.  Alexandre Moret saw in Aten a god of all humankind, who corresponded to Egypt's international empire in the New Kingdom.  But the sources from later in the reign in no way point in this direction.

With the construction of Akhetaten, which also had a Gempaaten temple of its own and constituted a
"horizon" for the god, the area in which the new religion was valid became a highly restricted one, for all practical purposes circumscribed by the boundary stelae of the new Residence.  The king seems to have erected few buildings, such as those at Memphis and Helkopolis, outside this sacred precinct dedicated
to the Aten.  Not once is it stated that he had the intention of converting all of Egypt to belief in Aten
and, less still, is there talk of a mission beyond the borders of Egypt.

In the documentation from the archive of diplomatic correspondence, faith in the Aten remains a concern of Egypt alone.

We also see no indication that the existing temples of the gods were converted into sanctuaries of the Aten; the worship of the god had its unequivocal center in the new capital.  At the same time, only fifteen miles away in Neferusi, Khnum, Thoth and Osiris were still being worshipped!

It would certainly be interesting and instructive to know what was happening during Akhenaten's later years in, for example, the sanctuaries at Elephantine, whether a cult was being celebrated there and for whom; but our sources allow no anwer to such questions.

We must imagine that the suppression of the old cults was not altogether consistent in the distant provinces and that Thebes surely was a special case.
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« Reply #124 on: June 11, 2007, 12:52:38 pm »


                                 T H E   Q U E S T I O N   O F   M O N O T H E I S M


 At the time the god's name was changed, or just a little later, Akhenaten took the final and most
radical step in the development of his teaching.  Now there would be no gods but Aten, and the physical existence of the old deities would be obliterated by the erasure of their names and sometimes of their representations as well.  The persecution that now ensued was directed especially against Amun and his consort Mut, but it sporadically affected a number of other deities as well and even the writing of the plural noun "gods".

It appears that Thoth, the god of the moon, of wisdom and of the scribal arts was not affected and the persecution was otherwise not especially consistent.   But care was taken to erase the name of Amun, even from the letters in the diplomatic archive, commemorative scarabs and the tips of obelisks and pyramids; the distant regions of Nubia were also affected, as far as Gebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. 

In some instances Akhenaten even had his own original personal name Amenophis mutilated, in his effort to do harm to the hated Amun. 

This ferocity was surely aimed not only at the heretofore predominant state god, but at the "refuge
of the poor", which Amun had increasingly become - in the Ramesside Period, he would become a special focus of personal piety, thus occupying the very position claimed by Akhenaten.

The persecution also affected theriomorphic symbols of deities, such as the vulture of Mut and the goose of Amun.  Only the falcon and the uraeus-serpent were still allowed and we hear nothing more
of the Mnevis bull of the sun god, for which Akhenaten had made provisions in the text of the bounda-
ry stelae.

It is indicative that all representations of Akhenaten as a sphinx are connected with the earlier name of the Aten; later, this theriomorphic representation of the king was also abandoned.

Egypt had never experienced an iconoclasm of such dimensions, though the erasure of names had rather often served as a political means, for the name was an inseparable component of a personality,
in which and by means of which a person could suffer harm.  Erasure of a name meant consignment
to oblivion and, because depictions embodied reality in Egypt,erasures were entailed in any persecution.
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« Reply #125 on: June 12, 2007, 07:19:01 am »



The blow struck at the many deities of the traditional pantheon was a clear sign that Akhenaten was now
intent on the uncompromising realization of a more or less strict monotheism.  To this extent, the characteri-
zation of Egypt as the "cradle of monotheism" has its justification.

But there has been debate as to whether monotheism already existed in Egypt before Akhenaten.  To clarify this question, we must reach back in time a little.  And in this connection, it is helpful to speak in terms of a
"concept of the 'one' (as Jan Assmann called it, following Werner Beierwaltes), rather than the problematic
concept "monotheism" and to inquire into the role of the "one" in the history of Egyptian religion.

At the beginning of the modern era, there was a naive belief that God had revealed himself as the One to
Adam and thus to the first man, with the result that monotheism existed from the very beginning and that
polytheism appeared only later, as the result of a "break" with God.

In the early days of Egyptology there was a generally held opinion that at the idealized beginning of history, there was worship of a single deity in Egypt as well, a beneficent counterweight to the "jackal-headed" gods of the supposedly abtruse polytheism that represented a later degeneration.

Ancient Egypt could thus already count as "rational" in the eyes of the Enlightenment.
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« Reply #126 on: June 12, 2007, 07:35:15 am »


EGYPT AS THE "CRADLE OF MONOTHEISM"?                                                        continued

Later, however, the discovery and study of the Pyramid Texts, from 1881 on, made it clear that there was a plenitude of divine names and forms in these earliest religious texts and that a deity whom the Egyptians addressed and revered as the "one" over against the many was nowhere to be found.

Gaston Maspero, who discovered these texts, was thus the first to support the idea of an original poly-
theism in Egypt.  But the use of the absolute, singular noun "god" in personal names, in generalizing statements and in wisdom literature remained a source of confusion.  Statements like "(the) god punishes", "(the) god loves", "(the) god gives" and the like, made it seem as though, in these contexts at least, there were Egyptians who subscribed to a monotheism "for the initiated", while on a more superficial level, the people subscribed to an erroneous multiplicity of divine figures. 

In this, it was overlooked that the plural noun "gods" and actual divine names also occur in the very same sources.  There is thus no question of a monotheism in these texts, but rather of generally valid state-
ments that, for various reasons, were not to be restricted to any particular deity.
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« Reply #127 on: June 12, 2007, 07:57:32 am »


EGYPT AS THE "CRADLE OF MONOTHEISM"?                                                         continued

Nevertheless, the notion of an original monotheism gained respectability yet again, especially in the monumental work DER URSPRUNG DER GOTTESIDEE:EINE HISTORISCH-KRITISCHE UND POSITIVE STUDIE
[The Origin of the Idea of God: A Historical-Critical and Positive Study] by Father Wilhelm Schmidt, which appeared in twelve volumes from 1926 to 1949 and was supplemented by essays in the journal

In the field of Egyptology, Hermann Junker adopted Schmidt's ideas and attempted to establish the existence of an anonymous high god (called the "Great  One") in the Old Kingdom.  But he met with little assent and it was not until Etienne Drioton attempted in 1948 to demonstrate the existence of monotheism long before Akhenaten's reform in his LE MONOTHEISME DE L'ANCIENNE EGYPTE [Monotheism
in Ancient Egypt] that the hypothesis again became popular.

Thus, when Joachim Spiegel wrote in 1953 in his WERDEN DER ALTAGYPTISCHEN HOCHKULTUR [Develpment
of Egyptian Civilization] that "pure monotheism was thus the reigning form of Egyptian religiosity from the beginning of the historical period" he was expressing a notion that had been widespread prior to 1880, and which would once again determine characterizations of Egyptian beliefs regarding the divine until the appearance in 1971 of my book DER EINE UND DIE VIELEN [Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many, 1996), which attempted to investigate the question on a broader basis.

Since that time, the hypothesis of an original monotheism has not reappeared; perhaps it now belongs definitively to the "history" of ideas, along with the idea of a "monotheism for the initiated".
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« Reply #128 on: June 12, 2007, 08:22:25 am »


THE QUESTION OF MONOTHEISM                                                                       continued

But discussion of Egyptian religious belief is ongoing and the concept of an "idea about the 'one' " has
opened up new avenues of approach.

With the "one", Egyptian thinking concerned itself above all with understanding creation and in this re-
spect we can speak with a certain justification of an "original monotheism", for the divine was supposed to have been originally one and then differentiated himself only in the process of creation: "the one who became millions", as it is stated in a formulation popular after the time of Akhenaten.

The Egyptians were always fascinated by the attempt to understand this derivation of multiplicity from an
original unity and they tended to describe this ultimately incomprehensible process by means of paradoxical statements regarding the unity.

A wealth of such statements is to be found as early as the Coffin Texts of the Middle Kingdom.  There, the god Khepri created his own parents ("I engendered my father and was pregnant with my mother") and Horus was born
 "when Isis (his mother!) did not yet exist";  similarly, Orion could state regarding the divine role of a deceased person, "He is my son, older than I." 

In the New Kingdom hymns to the sun god, statements of this sort were applied to Amun, Re or Ptah:
the creator god was "the one", who engendered his engenderers, who "bore his mother" or "the one who bears without having been born."  Along these lines, there is Akhenaten's address to the Aten:
                                          "You Are the One Who Created What Does Not Exist".

The solution to this paradox regarding the beginning of creation was that the original divine unity secreted
something of his substance, whether as spittle, sweat, tears, semen or even as the word that went forth
from his mouth.

The first divine pair and thus plurality resulted from this original emanation.  As early as the Coffin Texts,
this process was described with a "trinitarian' formula: "When He Was One, When He Became Three".
Multiplicity and the plurality of divine forms were thus derived from an original unity.
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« Reply #129 on: June 13, 2007, 07:12:44 am »


THE QUESTION OF MONOTHEISM                                                                continued


Akhenaten "found" (as he formulated it) the Aten by means of intellectual endeavor or intuition - that is, he discovered the world'd dependence on light and believed it could be understood as the central principle from which all could be understood as the central principle from which all could be derived, a cosmic formula that embraced everything in itself.

But, with light, he committed himself to the visible and was constrained to deny everything that did not be-
long to the visible world: darkness, the afterlife and the deities of the pantheon, especially Amun, the
"Hidden One".!

In the early years of Akhenaten, it was said of the sun god that "there is no other god like him", while in the tombs of the new Residence we read that "there is no other but him".  Therein lies the decisive step toward monotheism and its exclusivity.  Correspondingly, the king was now "unique like Aten, there being no other great one but him" (from the tomb of Aye), while in the "Great Hymn to the Aten", the king proclaims "There is no other who knows you" - in biblical language, "You shall have no other gods before me" and "No one comes to the Father but by me"! (Revised Standard Edition).
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« Reply #130 on: June 13, 2007, 07:33:43 am »


THE MONOTHEISTIC "COSMIC FORMULA"                                                     continued

There has been constant debate as to whether we have to do here with a "true", consistent monotheism
for, even the Aten formed a trinity with the royal couple, which relativizes the oneness of the god.

Like so many concepts, monotheism cannot be defined with absolute strictness or affectuated in reality.
But, with its relentless rigor, this religion of light was the simplest and clearest religion that had ever been

The Aten's monotheistic character is desplayed on three levels.  One is to be seen in formulations such as "no other but him", which lay claim to exclusivity; additionally, he had neither a female partner nor an
opponent, so that nothing existed besides him.

Here, Akhenaten's thinking is more radical than that of Deutero-Isaiah ("Besides me there is no god", Isaiah
44.6) or that of Islam; in its rigor, it has been surpassed only by tendencies in Islamic mysticism, for which
existence itself is incompatible with the existence of God, for there can be nothing besides God.

The second, more tangible level consists of the persecution of the old deities, which clearly signaled that
there was to be no god but Aten.  Not until Christianity was there a renewed attempt to eliminate the plethora of deities in favour of the One!

And the third level is that of the "cult", which from the beginning of Akhenaten's reign was directed solely and exclusively to the Aten (also in his names of Re and Re-Harakhty) on all official monuments.
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« Reply #131 on: June 14, 2007, 11:57:59 am »


             B E L I E F   I N   A N    A F T E R L I F E   W I T H O U T   A   H E R E A F T E R


Amun, the state god who was later to suffer so much persecution, still appeared on early monuments of
Akhenaten; but from the very beginning there was a striking abstinence "vis-a`-vis" Osiris, the ruler of the dead and of the netherworld, the realm of the afterlife.

This points to  a profound change in beliefs regarding the afterlife, one in which there no longer was room
for Osiris.  At Amarna, even the title "Osiris" disappeared, which heretofore every deceased person had borne and would bear again later.

This system of thought, which made light its absolute reference point, had great difficulty with the dark side of the world.  Nighttime negated the Aten and signified death - :They sleep, as though dead", as it is formulated in the Great Hymn and, still more concisely, "When you rise, they live and when you set, they die!"

The total dependence of all existence on light, which is the Aten, was now a given.  Previously, the night
had also been filled with life and traditional solar belief had pictured the nightly journey of the sun through the netherworld in loving detail.

But now the nocturnal phase no longer meant the regeneration of light in the darkness, but merely its absence. When the sun tarries so long is never stated; the Aten is quite simply "gone", though his normal location is "in the sky".  The moment of his return is the critical one, which all creation jubilantly greets and which ends his nightly absence.

The wakening of the dead to new life was no longer accomplished nocturnally in the netherworld, but in the morning, in the light of the rising sun and at the same time as those still alive.  All was now oriented
toward the east and, indeed, even the tombs lay in the eastern mountain of Akhetaten - in the text of the earlier boundary stelae Akhenaten gave directions to prepare his tomb there, "where the sun rises"'.

The "West", previously the mortuary realm on whose "beautiful ways" the blessed dead had walked, disappeared from the concept of the world. 

Generally, insofar as hymns to the setting sun were written (an example is furnished by the tomb of the overseer of the harem, Meryre), the talk is not of the sun's stay in the netherworld, but only of Akhetaten
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« Reply #132 on: June 14, 2007, 01:19:07 pm »



Like the form of the mummy, the tombs were now mere shells for the body.  The dead did not live in
their tombs, but on earth.

Only very seldom is there mention of the DUAT, the traditional realm of the dead; thus, Suti expresses a wish to leave the Duat in the morning to gaze upon the sun as it rises daily, "without ceasing". Basi-
cally, there was no longer a "here-after" and, especially, no "netherwordly realm" of the dead.  The world of the dead was not distinct from that of the living and the Aten of the daytime shone over both.

The boundary between this life and the next was also blurred by the door frames of the dwellings.  From as early as the Old Kingdom, it was common to display the titles and name of the owner of a tomb on its entrance, so that he would be visible to all who passed by.

Now, such "calling cards" in stone also marked the entrances to living quarters, transferring the afterlife  into the "this-worldly" environment of Akhetaten.

When the Aten rose in the morning,, he filled the temple with his light and his presence, received the offerings made by the royal couple and cared for the needs of both the livind and the dead - for the
BA-souls of the deceased also drew near at that moment to receive their food, which they continued to need, in the form of offerings. 

In their tomb inscriptions, Huy and other officials describe how their BAS  are summoned to eat in the temple, where they receive bread, beer, roasted meats, cool water, wine and milk, while the Aten continues to supply them with the necessary breath of life.  This new role of the BA-soul, which enters the temple freely, able to receive all sorts of offerings "without being blocked from what it desires", is specific to the Amarna Period, but did have some influence thereafter.

One such effect was on the popular scene with the tree goddess, where the BA, in the form of a bird, would be given food and drink along with the deceased, a charming extension of the motif.  In the
tomb now one could do without the false door, which had heretofore been the actual cult place: it was
meaningless for the BA, with its freedom of movement and even the corpse had no need of it, for it no longer made the crossing between this world and the next.

Pure, corporeal continued existence or regeneration was entirely irrelevant at Amarna; what was crucial was existence as a "living BA".  Nevertheless, there remained the wish that the BA might
again unite witht the corpse, for only thus could the totality of a person be established.
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« Reply #133 on: June 14, 2007, 01:55:54 pm »


THE AFTER - LIFE BECOMES THIS - WORLDLY                                               continued

In his  tomb, Tutu makes an express reference to the analogy between life and death: You stand up in your tomb in the morning to see the Aten when he rises.  You wash yourself and clothe yourself as you did when you were on earth....You arise and forget weariness"; afterwards, freshly animated by the rays of the Aten, he would accompany the god "like the blessed in the hall of the House of the BenBen
(a temple)". 

The pricipal yearning of mortal beings was to gaze upon the Aten and follow him and to breathe the "sweet breath of the north wind (or of life)"; the decisive moment of existence was awakening in
the morning, which signified the renewal of life.

On the lintel of Hatiay in the Louvre, which probably stems from the early years of Akhenaten, when the old deities were still worshipped, the deceased prays before Osiris, Isis, Sokar and Hathor, expressing the wish that he might go out (from the tomb or the netherworld) as a living BA "to see the Aten on earth".  In a longer prayer, Osiris is invoked as the sun; his essence has merged fully with that of the sun god Re, for "his disk is you disk, his image is your image, his majesty (SHFYT) is your
majesty".  This solution builds on intimations in the Litany of Re and it would result in a total amalgamation of the two gods on the coffins of Dynasty 21,

In the Litany of Re, whose ancient Egyptian title was "Book of Adoring Re in the West" and which originated at the beginning of the New Kingdom, seventy-five invocations of the sun god in his night
netherworldy aspects are illustrated with figures that serve to depict the epithets and functions that are invoked.  These include depictions of Osiris, who was becoming ever more widely perceived as the sun at night and connected with Re as the "united" deity, as he is called in the title and text of the Litany.

In a next step, this "United One" received the ram's head of the nocturnal sun god - in a hymn from the Memphite tomb of Haremhab and, thus. shortly after Akhenaten, Osiris is already called "ram-headed" and , beginning with the tomb of Nefertary, he could also be represented as such.

But, despite this close affinity with the sun god, Akhenated preferred to banish Osiris entirely from his concept of the afterlife; he did not allow him to serve even as the nocturnal manifestation of the sun, for his popularity would easily have made him a competitor to the worship of Aten.
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il mio va Piano, sono Asino ?

« Reply #134 on: June 14, 2007, 04:53:35 pm »


During my observation of the Socalled SUN-Disc ATEN, I seemed to notice that this is not the SUN, but the Midnight Moon, or Night-Sun, by watching his ACHNATON is Squinting and nearsighted.
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( Blue's)THEORY, locating"original" Atlantis( in Aden-Yemen.)
1: ATLANTIS =Fake=Latin name, original Greek: ATHE(=a Region in Aden)
2: Atlantic-OCEAN=Greek: RIVER-of-Atlas+also" Known "World-OCEAN(=Red-Sea)
3: Greek-obsolete-Numeral 'X' caused Plato's Atlantisdate:9000=900
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