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ATLANTIS & the Atlantic Ocean

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dhill757
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« Reply #360 on: March 30, 2009, 12:11:52 am »



Tenerife 


Teide volcano, the highest point on the island of Tenerife, towers above the scarp of the massive 600,000-year-old Orotava landslide. The light-colored area on the eastern foot of the volcano is covered by plinian tephra deposits from the Mount Blanca eruption about 2000 years ago. Tiede was constructed within the dramatic 10 x 17 km wide Las Cañadas caldera on the SW side of Tenerife. The large triangular island is composed of a complex of overlapping stratovolcanoes that have remained active into historical time.

Photo by Alexander Belousov (Institute of Volcanology, Kliuchi).



Country: Spain
Subregion Name: Canary Islands
Volcano Number: 1803-03-
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1909   
Summit Elevation: 3715 m 12,188 feet
Latitude: 28.271°N  28°16'17"N
Longitude: 16.641°W 16°38'27"W

The large triangular island of Tenerife is composed of a complex of overlapping Miocene-to-Quaternary stratovolcanoes that have remained active into historical time. The NE-trending Cordillera Dorsal volcanic massif joins the Las Cañadas volcano on the SW side of Tenerife with older volcanoes, creating the largest volcanic complex of the Canary Islands. Controversy surrounds the formation of the dramatic 10 x 17 km Las Cañadas caldera, which is partially filled by 3715-m-high Teide stratovolcano, the highest peak in the Atlantic Ocean. The origin of the caldera has been considered to be due entirely or in part to either a massive landslide (in a manner similar to the earlier formation of the massive La Orotava and Guimar valleys in the Cordillera Dorsal) or due to major explosive eruptions. The most recent stage of activity beginning in the late Pleistocene included the construction of the Pico Viejo and Teide edifices. Tenerife was perhaps observed in eruption by Christopher Columbus, and several flank vents on the Canary Island's most active volcano have been active during historical time.

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« Reply #361 on: March 30, 2009, 12:12:28 am »



   Gran Canaria


Marteles Maar in the foreground and several cinder cones in the background are part of a group of Quaternary monogenetic volcanoes in northern Gran Canaria. The largely Miocene-to-Pliocene island in the middle of the Canary archipelago contains three major volcanic structures, which have been modified by caldera collapse, gravitational edifice failure, and extensive erosion. Very young basaltic cones and lava flows of Holocene age are situated within the island and at Las Isletas, a peninsula on the NE coast.

Photo by Alexander Belousov (Institute of Volcanology, Kliuchi).


Country: Spain
Subregion Name: Canary Islands
Volcano Number: 1803-04-
Volcano Type: Fissure vents
Volcano Status: Radiocarbon
Last Known Eruption: 20 BC ± 75 years 
Summit Elevation: 1950 m 6,398 feet
Latitude: 28.00°N  28°0'0"N
Longitude: 15.58°W 15°35'0"W

The largely Miocene-to-Pliocene island of Gran Canaria in the middle of the Canary archipelago has been strongly eroded into steep-walled radial gorges called barrancos. Three major volcanic structures form the circular 60-km-wide island, which has been modified by caldera collapse, gravitational edifice failure, and extensive erosion. Middle Quaternary scoria cones and lava flows are found in the northern and eastern parts of the massive shield volcano, which is cut by a major NW-SE-trending rift zone that extends across the island and fed flows primarily to the NE. Very young basaltic cones and lava flows of Holocene age are situated within a NW-trending zone from Berrazales to Bandama and at Las Isletas, a peninsula on the NE coast. One cinder cone was radiocarbon dated at about 3000 years before present, and other cones and flows may be less than 1000 years old.


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« Reply #362 on: March 30, 2009, 12:13:19 am »



   Fuerteventura

Pleistocene and Holocene cinder cones and lava flows cover large portions of elongated Fuerteventura Island at the SE end of the Canary Islands. As seen in this Space Shuttle image, the youngest lavas form the darker colored areas at the northern tip of the island (including the small Lobos Island opposite the light-colored area on the NE tip of Fuerteventura) as well as in the south-central part of the arid island. Linear weather clouds extend from the SW tip of the island. No historical eruptions have occurred on Fuerteventura.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS002-732-26, 2001 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).




 Country: Spain
Subregion Name: Canary Islands
Volcano Number: 1803-05-
Volcano Type: Fissure vents
Volcano Status: Holocene
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 529 m 1,736 feet
Latitude: 28.358°N  28°21'30"N
Longitude: 14.02°W 14°1'0"W

Pleistocene and Holocene cinder cones and lava flows cover large portions of elongated Fuerteventura Island at the SE end of the Canary Islands. The youngest lavas are found at the northern and central portions of the arid, sparsely vegetated island. Malpais de la Arena, the Northern Malpais, and the Lobos Island areas at the northern tip of Fuerteventura are the sites of broad fields of youthful cinder cones and lava flows. The Malpais Chico, Malpais Grande, and Malpais de Jacomar areas on the south-central part of the island represent smaller zones of youthful volcanism, as do the volcanoes of Pajara, which were constructed on the older plutonic massif west of the axis of the island. No historical eruptions have occurred on Fuerteventura. 
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« Reply #363 on: March 30, 2009, 12:14:02 am »



   Lanzarote


Circular Caldera del Corazoncillo (center), also known as Caldera de Fuencaliente, was active during a two-week period in September 1730, at the beginning of the 1730-36 Montañas del Fuego eruption on Lanzarote. The lava flows were erupted from NE-SW-trending fissures, and most reached the coast along a broad 20-km-wide front on the western side of the island. The 60-km-long island of Lanzarote at the NE end of the Canary Islands contains the largest concentration of youthful volcanism in the Canaries.

Photo by Nicolau Wallenstein (Center of Volcanology, Azores University).



 Country: Spain
Subregion Name: Canary Islands
Volcano Number: 1803-06-
Volcano Type: Fissure vents
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1824   
Summit Elevation: 670 m 2,198 feet
Latitude: 29.03°N  29°2'0"N
Longitude: 13.63°W 13°38'0"W

The 60-km-long island of Lanzarote at the NE end of the Canary Islands contains the largest concentration of youthful volcanism in the Canaries. Pleistocene-and-Holocene cinder cones and lava flows erupted along NE-SW-trending fissures are found throughout the low-altitude arid island and on smaller islands to the north. The largest historical eruption of the Canary Islands took place during 1730-36, when long-term eruptions from a NE-SW-trending fissure formed the Montañas del Fuego and produced voluminous lava flows that covered about 200 sq km. The lava flows reached the western coast along a broad, 20-km-wide front. The villages of Maretas and Santa Catalina were destroyed, along with the most fertile valleys and estates of the arid island. An eruption during 1824 produced a much smaller lava flow that reached the SW coast.
 

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/region.cfm?rnum=1803
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« Reply #364 on: March 30, 2009, 12:15:57 am »

Chapter V: Can Lands Sink and Rise?



I. Destructions

We will deal here with cities, islands, civilizations lost because of calamities.

According to Roman history and tradition, Vesuvius had never erupted before August 79 AD. It only smoked a bit from time to time. The explosion was extremely violent; it covered the city of Pompeii  with ashes and killed 2000 people. Since that time, Vesuvius has had numerous minor eruptions and 18 major ones, the last one in 1944.

In the spring of 1902, Mont Pelee (Martinique)  in the Caribbean erupted and besides wiping out the biggest city of the country, Saint Pierre, it killed 30,000 people. The cone had been dormant for half a century. The only survivor was a prisoner in an underground dungeon.

In 1883, the violent explosion of Krakatao sent bits of pumice and dust up into the air 20 miles. Some of the dust was carried completely around the world by currents in the upper air. The entire mountain disappeared. The eruption cracked walls in Buitenzorg, Java, 100 miles away. The tidal wave that was created engulfed the neighboring shored and killed 36,000 people. The detonation was heard for 3,000 miles.

In the same area, in 1815, the volcano Tomboro on the island of Sumbawa took 12,000 lives.

In October 1822, another earthquake occurred on the island of Java. Lyell, in his Principles of Geology, says "the earth shook, and immense columns of hot water and boiling mud, mixed with burning brimstone, ashes, and lapilli, of the size of nuts, were projected from the mountain like a water-spout, with such prodigious violence that large quantities fell beyond the river Tandoi, which is forty miles distant." Four days later a second volcano eruption occurred accompanied by a violent earthquake and the summit of the mountain broke down. Over 4,000 people were killed and 114 villages destroyed. And this happened back then, when population wasn't as dense as it is now.

In 1912, in Alaska, Katmai erupted and blanketed Kodiak, 100 miles away, under a 10- to 12-inch fall of ash.

These are a couple of examples from modern times.

However, 6500 years ago Mount Mazama erupted and created the Crater Lake, in America. The volcano displaced about 17 cubic miles of rock. The mountain was swallowed  up in its own crater.

Helike and Bora are ancient Greek islands that sank during Plato's time. You will find more information on the legendary city of Helike later on.

According to Pliny, in 186 BC, in the gulf of Santorini, near Greece, the island of Old Kaimeni (the Sacred Island) emerged from the sea. In 19 AD, Thera (the Divine, Santorini), home of the Mynoan civilization appeared. However, parts of this island had sunk around  1,600 BC after a powerful eruption. The volcano sent the rocks swirling in the sky and to the island of Crete. Stones from Santorini are found on Crete. I will debate over this when I mention Santorini as a possible location for Atlantis. Also, in 1573 AD, another island was created and it was called "the small sunburnt island". In 1848, another volcanic convulsion that lasted three months created a great shoal. Since Santorini had emerged, the island went on sinking until, by the end of the 19th century, it had submerged 1200 feet.

 

II. Lands that Rise and Sink
Let's start with some easy examples. Within 5,000 years the shores of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway have risen from 200 to 600 feet. The coast or Peru continues to sink. Professor Winchell (The Preadamites) says that in 70 years the Andes sank 220 feet. Also, "the coast of South America lifted up bodily ten or fifteen feet and let down again in an hour".

Most of the information above uses as a source Ignatius Donnelly's book, Atlantis, the Antediluvian World. Other data was gathered from the net, from reliable sources.

In 1783, Iceland was touched by tremendous earthquakes. According to Donnelly, "about a month previous to the eruption on the main-land a submarine volcano burst forth in the sea at a distance of thirty miles from the shore. It ejected so much pumice that the sea was covered with it for a distance of 150 miles, and ships were considerably embedded in their course". An island emerged, and the Danish Majesty claimed it. It was called the "New Island". A year later, the island sank again, at about 30 fathom under water. The earthquake killed 9,000 people out of a population of 50,000.

The most interesting account is that of the Mexican volcano of Paricutin, west of Mexico City. It belongs to the Sierra Madre range. For 15 days before its appearance the earth trembled. In February 1943, a farmer who was plowing his cornfield saw a spiral of steam rising from the ground. Explosions rocked the night and by morning, the volcano had built up a cone of 50 feet. The puffs ejected every six seconds cinders, ash, and bombs of solid rock estimated at 2,700 tons a minute. Within six months the cone had reached 1,000 feet, and in one year it had reached 1,500 feet. For a radius of 20 miles all vegetation was killed and more than 8,000 people had to be evacuated. The volcano ceased to erupt in 1952. Its neighbor, El Jorullo, was born in 1759 and was active for 19 years.

In 1819, the fort and village of Sindree (east side of Indus), was submerged by an earthquake, together with a tract of country 2000 miles in extent.

In 1831, in Sicily, as a result of an earthquake, a whole new island emerged. It was called "Graham's Island". It reached a height of 200 feet and a circumference of three miles, in a month. Soon, however, it sank again.

In 1737, as a result of an earthquake and hurricane in Calcutta, India, 300 000 people died.

In November 1775, Lisbon (Portugal) an earthquake threw down the greater part of the city. In six minutes 60,000 people died. The area where the quay sank was at the end of the 19th century 600 feet deep.

In September 1730, in the Canaries, the earth opened near Year, in Lancerota Island. Several explosions created a hill of ejected matter. Eruptions continued and lava ran over villages and ten days later the lava had reached the sea. Putrid vapors condensed into drops killed the cattle around the country. The storms going on at that time were stronger than anything seen before by the people. The thing has lasted for five years, and the lava covered one-third of the island.

In 1963, a fishing boat off the south coast of Iceland radioed the base to report a cloud of smoke raising from the ocean. An explosion sent rocks flying out of the sea and a black land emerged from the depths. A weak later, the island was 200 feet above sea level and, since eruptions continued, by 1967 was 500 feet high and a mile long. The island was named Surtsey. Nowadays, the land is inhabited by birds and plants.

According to A. Tomas, Atlantis from Legend to Discovery, in 1780 a Spanish explorer, Maurelle found an island in South Pacific. The island was called Falcon. In 1892, the Government of Tonga planted 2000 coconut trees on the island, however, in 1894 the island was gone.

In 1135, in the Caspian Sea, the fortress of Caravan-Sarai rose from the waters, only to sink back again. In 1723, it rose again and it is still there nowadays.

In the Bay of Naples (Mediterranean), the sunk Temple of Jupiter-Serapis, built in 105 BC, rose again in 1742.

In Azores (has 12 volcanoes) a volcano rose suddenly in 1808 in San Jorge, at a height of 3500 feet. It burnt for 6 days and desolated the whole island. In 1811, near San Miguel, another volcano rose creating an island 300 feet high. The place was called Sambrina, but it soon sank again. Other similar eruptions took place in 1691 and 1720.

I will quote now from Donnelly's book, that uses Lyell's Principles of Geology:

"In the Nautical Magazine for 1835 [...], and in Compte Rendus, April, 1838, accounts are given of a series of volcanic phenomena, earthquakes, troubled water, floating scoria, and columns of smoke, which have been observed at intervals since the middle of the last century, in a space of open sea between longitudes 20 degrees and 22 mins W., about half a degree south of the equator. These facts, says Mr. Darwin, seem to show that an island or archipelago is in progress of formation in the middle of Atlantic."




The examples could go on and on, but I think I have made my point. It's not so hard to believe anymore that a continent can sink and rise in a single night, or, if you are still doubting that, in 1 matter of months.

http://atlantis.haktanir.org/ch5.html

http://forums.atlantisrising.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=1;t=000958;p=6
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« Reply #365 on: December 13, 2010, 12:16:50 pm »



Mt. Pico, the Azores highest mountain rises above the island of the same name. This picture was taken from Faial Island. Picture courtesy Wikipedia.org.
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« Reply #366 on: December 13, 2010, 12:19:01 pm »



Sao Miguel Island's Lagoa das Sete Cidades (Seven Cities) is a lake formed in a volcanic crater. Picture courtesy Wikipedia.org.
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« Reply #367 on: December 13, 2010, 12:21:20 pm »



Terceira Island's largest town, Angra do Herosmo a UNESCO World Heritage Site and longest-running, uninterrupted settlement in the islands. Picture courtesy Wikipedia.org.
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« Reply #368 on: December 13, 2010, 12:22:09 pm »



A hypothetical depiction of Atlantis based on the locations of the Africa-Eurasia tectonic plate boundary, the Azores underwater plateau, and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Adapted from a map courtesy cia.gov.
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« Reply #369 on: December 13, 2010, 12:54:53 pm »

Atlantic Island Theory

What are the effects a huge island like Atlantis could have on the geography of the Atlantic and on the climate of the northern hemisphere? Since there is no real scientific proof of the existence of Atlantis, one possible way to indicate that Plato’s story is true to some extent, is to find out the effects a huge island like Atlantis could have on the geography of the Atlantic and on the climate of the northern hemisphere. The following picture shows the present way the Gulf Stream runs:




If we look at the way the Gulf Stream is shaped, caused by northern and southern trade winds, it gets clear that it affects the climate of Northwest Europe a lot: Through the warm water and the humid air masses the climate is much warmer than it would be without the Gulf Stream. The isotherms develop from the way of the Gulf Stream: Because of its course it diverts the ten- and zero degree isotherm to the North, so that the ten degree isotherm is on the same height as Great Britain / Germany and the zero degree isotherm runs above Greenland to the North of Scandinavia. If the Gulf Stream did not exist, the isotherms would have their way nearly parallel to the latitudes which means that the zero degree isotherm would approximately take the way of the present ten degree isotherm. In that cage the climate of Northwest Europe would be much colder.

As research work showed, at the time of Quaternary the oceanographic circumstances at the place of the Gulf Stream’s origin were the same as today and also a northern and a southern trade wind existed. So effects of the Gulf Stream on the climate of Northwest Europe would have been the same, too, and that is the point!!! Warm tropical water rushed along the Brazilian and Middle - North - American coast, and we can be sure that the Gulf Stream also entered into the North - Atlantic ocean, like today. But it did not get into the direction of the European continent, otherwise the freezing of West Europe would not have happened! This might have been caused by a huge obstacle like an island, because after the “Würm Ice Age”, the climate in North - West - Europe radically changed (it became much warmer), which means that the Gulf Stream got to Europe for the first time. The Gulf Stream has a width of 600 - 800 kilometres, so the obstacle had to be, measured crossways to the current, ca. 800 - 1000 km long, otherwise it would not have been able to stop it. An island dimensioned in a way like this cannot disappear without leaving any traces of it. And if you have a look at the cross-section of the Atlantic seafloor it seems like a sunken land with high mountains. Sharp mountain tops loom above the surface of the sea - the Azores.
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« Reply #370 on: December 13, 2010, 12:55:44 pm »



If we imagined that the sea level would sink around 3000 metres, an enormous land-mass with high mountains and steep slopes would appear. It would be in the way of the Gulf Streams which flowed directly across the Atlantic Ridge. At the west coast of this island its waters became back-ups and in long stretched bow it would stream back to the West. So, Northwest Europe would be exposed to cold, rough climate and in a period of strong freezing tendency, it would led to a full ice again. Exactly this full freezing over occurred during the Quaternary - a proof of the fact that the following figure reconstructs the former real situation of the North - Atlantic!
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« Reply #371 on: December 13, 2010, 12:57:24 pm »



Why do make people contacts between Atlantis and this part of seafloor in the Atlantic ocean? Well, the question remains, how and when the disappearance of the island happened. The answer is situated in the fact that the sea level did not change, but the ocean bottom, together with the land-mass of the island put in it, descended. So, the only remaining things are today’s well-known Azores. At the end of the Quaternary, and also with the end of the “Würm Ice Age” the climate in Northwest Europe radically changed, caused by the arrival of the Gulf Stream. So we can assume that the island had sunken by that time, otherwise the Gulf Stream wouldn’t have had the chance to arrive there. Today we believe that this incident happened approximately 12000 years ago. That means that the island must have sunk about 10000 years B. C.

If we compare everything we know so far with the ideas presented by Plato, there are three points which are to be compared: Localisation, dimensions and the moment of the island’s disappearance. All three are results of the research corresponding with Plato’s descriptions about Atlantis, but we will deal more exactly with the comparison of the extent and moment of its fall.

Plato describes Atlantis in his dialogue “(...) as an island greater in extent than Libya and Asia (...)” (http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/critias.sum.html), but we have to bear in mind that in Plato’s time Asia was the today’s Middle East and Libya was the part of Africa well-known in the antiquity. But in spite of this fact, Atlantis had to be a really large island. According to Plato there was a plain in the south of the island 6000000 square stages big, corresponding to 200000 square kilometres. If we assume this level constituted approximately half of the island, we calculated a total volume of 400000 square kilometres. This extent was also calculated by the submarine contours of the Azores space. The time of Atlantis’ fall must have been according to Plato’s description approximately 9500 B. C.- the sinking of the “Gulf Stream Island” before 12000 years. With the comparison of these two descriptions one receives a difference from only 500 years, so the moment of Atlantis’ fall corresponds nearly exactly with that of the “Gulf Stream Island”.

Since a lot of information of these two “Test Objects” corresponds, it is probable that the two islands were in reality the same. That would mean that today’s Azores were a remainder of Atlantis. The question of its former existence would no longer be asked. However, till today there is still no generally accepted proof that this theory is correct.

For additional evidence, click here.
The Legend | Archaeology | Atlantology | Resources
© ThinkQuest 1999 Team 25245

http://library.thinkquest.org/25245/atlantology/azores.html
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« Reply #372 on: December 13, 2010, 12:57:38 pm »



Why do make people contacts between Atlantis and this part of seafloor in the Atlantic ocean? Well, the question remains, how and when the disappearance of the island happened. The answer is situated in the fact that the sea level did not change, but the ocean bottom, together with the land-mass of the island put in it, descended. So, the only remaining things are today’s well-known Azores. At the end of the Quaternary, and also with the end of the “Würm Ice Age” the climate in Northwest Europe radically changed, caused by the arrival of the Gulf Stream. So we can assume that the island had sunken by that time, otherwise the Gulf Stream wouldn’t have had the chance to arrive there. Today we believe that this incident happened approximately 12000 years ago. That means that the island must have sunk about 10000 years B. C.

If we compare everything we know so far with the ideas presented by Plato, there are three points which are to be compared: Localisation, dimensions and the moment of the island’s disappearance. All three are results of the research corresponding with Plato’s descriptions about Atlantis, but we will deal more exactly with the comparison of the extent and moment of its fall.

Plato describes Atlantis in his dialogue “(...) as an island greater in extent than Libya and Asia (...)” (http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/critias.sum.html), but we have to bear in mind that in Plato’s time Asia was the today’s Middle East and Libya was the part of Africa well-known in the antiquity. But in spite of this fact, Atlantis had to be a really large island. According to Plato there was a plain in the south of the island 6000000 square stages big, corresponding to 200000 square kilometres. If we assume this level constituted approximately half of the island, we calculated a total volume of 400000 square kilometres. This extent was also calculated by the submarine contours of the Azores space. The time of Atlantis’ fall must have been according to Plato’s description approximately 9500 B. C.- the sinking of the “Gulf Stream Island” before 12000 years. With the comparison of these two descriptions one receives a difference from only 500 years, so the moment of Atlantis’ fall corresponds nearly exactly with that of the “Gulf Stream Island”.

Since a lot of information of these two “Test Objects” corresponds, it is probable that the two islands were in reality the same. That would mean that today’s Azores were a remainder of Atlantis. The question of its former existence would no longer be asked. However, till today there is still no generally accepted proof that this theory is correct.

For additional evidence, click here.
The Legend | Archaeology | Atlantology | Resources
© ThinkQuest 1999 Team 25245

http://library.thinkquest.org/25245/atlantology/azores.html
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« Reply #373 on: December 13, 2010, 01:00:46 pm »

We dont know if Atlantis was in Azores, but Neptune was there

 Neptune at Horta (village of Azores):





"On 15 February, 1986, a Saturday, between noon and 1600 hours, the Azores suffered the greatest storm of this century, with winds reaching velocities of nearly 250 Km/h. José Henrique Azevedo took photographs before and after the storm. Waves reached heights of between 15 and 20 metres and, when they broke, as high as 60 metres (from the MSL to the top of the breaking wave, the height is 60m in the above picture!). Two years later when José Henrique wished to show proof of this event to visiting yachtsmen, he printed two of the photographs. Having done so he discovered that at the moment when he had photographed a particular breaking wave it had taken on human form (hair, eyes, nose, mouth and beard) and thus became known as the "Neptune at Horta" "

Text and image source Peter Café Sport

http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread283926/pg1
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